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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 301-307, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346416

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, there has been a great interest in postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC). Its etiology is complex and multifactorial. Monitoring for PCCRC is even more complex. The strategies to decrease the incidence of PCCRC start by defining the problem, identifying the factors contributing to its development, followed by an attempt to define methods to decrease its incidence.We believe that the quality of the colonoscopy and the endoscopist's expertise are the key factors in decreasing the incidence of PCCRC. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/complications , Clinical Competence , Early Detection of Cancer
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 286-288, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287282

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos el caso de un varón de 86 años con un hematoma espontáneo en el músculo ilíaco izquierdo y diagnóstico previo de cáncer de colon en 1998 (estadio pT3N0M0), tratado quirúrgicamente mediante colectomía transversal, considerado en remisión completa. Tras realización de estudios complementarios se demostró la presencia de autoanticuerpos inhibidores del Factor VIII que confirmaron el diagnóstico de hemofilia adquirida. Durante el ingreso el paciente presentó un sangrado digestivo bajo que conllevó al descubrimiento de recidiva del adenocarcinoma colorrectal tratado previamente. Respondió de forma favorable a la terapia inicial con corticoides sistémicos y el complejo coagulante anti inhibidor que incluye el Factor VII activado [FEIBA].


Abstract We report the case of an 86-year-old man presenting with a spontaneous hematoma in the left iliac muscle and previous diagnosis of colon cancer in 1998 (stage pT3N0M0) treated with transverse colectomy and considered in complete remission. After a complete study, it was possible to identify the presence of Factor VIII inhibitors antibodies that confirmed the presence of acquired hemophilia. During hospitalization the patient presented a lower gastrointestinal bleeding leading to the diagnosis of recurrence of a previously treated colorectal adenocarcinoma. He responded to initial therapy with systemic corticoids and anti-inhibitory coagulant complex which includes activated VII Factor [FEIBA].


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hemophilia A/complications , Hemophilia A/diagnosis , Hemophilia A/drug therapy , Factor VIII , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e487-e498, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292280

ABSTRACT

Si bien el carcinoma colorrectal (CCR) es la tercera enfermedad oncológica más frecuente en adultos, solo el 1-4 % ocurre en menores de 25-30 años. Su presentación suele confundirse con otras patologías, lo cual lleva a significativas demoras diagnósticas. Dada su baja incidencia, pocos pediatras se enfrentarán con algún caso a lo largo de su carrera. Sin embargo, existen en la niñez múltiples síndromes hereditarios que predisponen al CCR. El objetivo de esta revisión es brindar una actualización sobre los síndromes predisponentes al CCR. Se revisarán las indicaciones de tamizaje, dado que el diagnóstico precoz en estadios localizados es el principal factor pronóstico. Además, se fortalecerán las herramientas de consejería genética para el paciente y su familia. A su vez, se discutirán las manifestaciones clínicas e histológicas y los factores pronósticos propios del CCR en la población pediátrica. Si bien las guías de tratamiento se extrapolan de la experiencia en adultos, se resumirán los lineamientos terapéuticos.


Although colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer in adults, only 1-4 % of cases are reported in individuals younger than 25-30 years. Its presentation is usually confused with other diseases, leading to significant delays in diagnosis. Given its low incidence, few pediatricians will see a case throughout their practice. However, multiple hereditary syndromes during childhood predispose to CRC.The objective of this review is to provide an update on syndromes predisposing to CRC. Screening indications will be reviewed because an early diagnosis during localized stages is the main prognostic factor. In addition, patient and family genetic counseling tools will be enhanced. In turn, the clinical and histological manifestations and prognostic factors typical of CRC in the pediatric population will be discussed. Although treatment guidelines are extrapolated from the adult experience, therapy guidelines will be summarized here.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Incidence
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 23-29, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286969

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer among men, and the second among women worldwide. In Brazil, the incidence andmortality of CRC continues to increase. In colonoscopies, adenoma detection rates (ADRs) higher than 25% are associated linearly with better outcomes and lower rates of interval cancer. Objective To assess the colonoscopy quality indexes. Methods This is a cross-sectional retrospective study in which anatomopathological data and data regarding the colonoscopies were collected from the patient records of Hospital Moinhos de Vento, in Southern Brazil. The exams were performed by doctors from the Colorectal Service from June to August 2015. Results A total of 430 exams were included. Most patients were women (60.9% [262]), with a mean age of 56.96 years. The cecal intubation rate was of 96.7% (416). The quality of the bowel preparation was excellent or good in 92.95% (396) of the cases. The average time of removal of the colonoscope in normal exams was of 6.15 minutes. Polyps were detected in 201 patients (46.7%), and adenomas, in 125 patients (29.1%); 12 patients (2.8%) had advanced adenomas, and 6 (2.3%) had malignant neoplasms. The proximal serrated lesion detection rate (PSLDR) was of 6.7% (29). The prevalence ratio (PR) of adenomas among men was 1.78 times greater than in women (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.16-2.75). The PR of adenomas among people aged 50 years or older was 2.41 times that of those under 50 years of age (95%CI: 1.43-4.06). Conclusion The data obtained are in line with international quality criteria in colonoscopy. More studies are needed to assess the ADR in the Brazilian population.


Resumo Introdução O câncer colorretal (CCR) é o terceiro mais comum em homens e o segundo mais comum em mulheres em todo o mundo. A incidência e mortalidade do CRC continuam a aumentar no Brasil. Taxas de detecção de adenoma superiores a 25% em colonoscopias estão associadas linearmente a melhores resultados emenores taxas de câncer de intervalo. Objetivo Avaliar a qualidade das colonoscopias analisadas. Métodos Este é um estudo transversal e retrospectivo no qual dados anatomopatológicos e relacionados às colonoscopias foram coletados de registros dos pacientes do Hospital Moinhos de Vento, no Sul do Brasil. Os exames foram realizados por médicos do Serviço de Coloproctologia de junho a agosto de 2015. Resultados Foram incluídos 430 exames. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (60,9% [262]), com idade média de 56,96 anos. A taxa de intubação cecal foi de 96,7% (416). A qualidade do preparo intestinal foi excelente ou boaem92,95% (396) dos casos.O tempomédio de retirada do colonoscópio emexames normais foi de 6,15 minutos. Pólipos foram detectados em 201 pacientes (46,7%), e adenomas, em 125 (29.1%); 12 pacientes (2,8%) tinhamadenomas avançados, e 6 (2,3%), neoplasias malignas. A taxa de detecção de lesões serrilhadas foi de 6,7% (29). A razão prevalência (RP) de adenomas emhomens foi de 1,78 vezes emrelação amulheres (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,16-2,75). A RP de adenomas entre pacientes com 50 anos ou mais foi 2,41 vezes maior do que a daqueles com mais de 50 anos (IC95%: 1,43-4,06). Conclusão Os dados obtidos estão de acordo com os critérios internacionais de qualidade em colonoscopia. Mais estudos são necessários para avaliar as taxas de detecção de adenoma na população brasileira.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Colonic Polyps/diagnosis , Colonoscopy/statistics & numerical data
5.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 87-95, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286967

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This metanalysis aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography colonography in colorectal polyp detection. Methods A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Web of Science databases. Results A total of 1,872 patients (males 57.2%, females 42.8%) aged 49 to 82 years old (mean age 59.7 ± 5.3 years) were included in this metanalysis. The estimated sensitivity of computed tomography colonography was 88.4% (46.3-95.7%, coefficient of variation [CV]=28.5%) and the estimated specificity was 73.6% (47.4-100.0%, CV=37.5%). For lesions up to 9mm, the sensitivity was 82.5% (62.0-99.9%, CV =25.1%) and the specificity was 79.2% (32.0-98.0%, CV=22.9%). For lesions>9mm, the sensitivity was 90.2% (64.0-100.0%, CV=7.4%) and the specificity was 94.7% (80.0-100.0%, CV=6.2%). No statistically significant differences in sensitivity according to the size of the lesion were found (p=0.0958); however, the specificity was higher for lesions>9mm (p<0.0001). Conclusions Most of the studies analyzed in the present work were conducted before 2010, which is about a decade after computed tomography colonography started being indicated as a screening method by European and American guidelines. Therefore, more studies aimed at analyzing the technique after further technological advancements are necessary, which could lead to the development of more modern devices.


Resumo Objetivo Esta meta-análise teve como objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade da colonografia por tomografia computadorizada na detecção de pólipos colorretais. Métodos Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados da PubMed e da Web of Science. Resultados Um total de 1.872 pacientes, 57,2% homens e 42,8% mulheres, com idades entre 49 a 82 anos de idade (média de 59,7 ± 5,3 anos) foram incluídos nesta meta análise. A sensibilidade da colonografia por tomografia computadorizada foi estimada em 88,4% (46,3-95,7%; coeficiente de variância [CV]=28,5%) e a especificidade em 73,6% (47,4%-100,0%; CV=37,5%). Para lesões de até 9mm, a sensibilidade foi de 82,5% (62,0-99,9%; CV=25,1%) e a especificidade de 79,2% (32,0-98,0%; CV=22,9%). Para lesõesmaiores que 9mm, a sensibilidade foi de 90,2% (64,0-100,0%; CV=7,4%) e a especificidade de 94,7% (80,0-100,0%; CV=6,2%). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as sensibilidades por tamanho da lesão (p=0,0958), porém a especificidade foi maior em lesões acima de 9mm (p<0,0001). Conclusão A maioria dos estudos analisados no presente trabalho foi realizada antes de 2010, cerca de uma década depois que a colonografia por tomografia computadorizada passou a ser indicada como método de triagem pelas diretrizes europeias e americanas. Portanto, são necessários mais estudos com o objetivo de analisar a técnica apósmaiores avanços tecnológicos, o que poderia levar ao desenvolvimento de dispositivos mais modernos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Colonography, Computed Tomographic/statistics & numerical data
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(2): e201, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1280502

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: el antígeno carcinoembrionario (CEA) es un marcador tumoral de seguimiento y no una prueba de tamizaje y diagnóstico en cáncer colorrectal (CCR). Sin embargo, en la práctica clínica habitual se continúa solicitando con fines de diagnóstico inicial. Objetivo: evaluar el rendimiento del CEA para el diagnóstico de CCR en el Hospital Maciel y en la Cooperativa Médica de Florida, en el período 2000-2019. Material y método: se trata de un estudio prospectivo de evaluación del CEA como prueba diagnóstica del CCR. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: 1) videocolonoscopía total en los usuarios sin CCR y videocolonoscopía total o parcial para aquellos con CCR y la confirmación histológica de adenocarcinoma; 2) contar con determinación de CEA dentro de los 30 días previos o posteriores a la videocolonoscopía, y 3) para la estadificación, el informe anatomopatológico de la pieza quirúrgica y la confirmación histológica de metástasis a distancia. El número de casos incluidos se determinó por un mínimo de diez casos en cada celda de la tabla de contingencia. Resultados: se analizaron 211 casos. El análisis general determinó una sensibilidad de 33,6%, especificidad 70,4%, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) 69,1%, valor predictivo negativo (VPN) 35%, exactitud 45,9%. Para el estadio II, sensibilidad 18,8%, especificidad 70,4%, VPP 30%, VPN 56,2%, exactitud 49,5%. Estadio III: sensibilidad 31,6%, especificidad 70,4%, VPP 36,4%, VPN 65,8%, exactitud 56,8%. Estadio IV: sensibilidad 65%, especificidad 70,4%, VPP 55,3%, VPN 78,1%, exactitud 68,4%. Conclusiones: el CEA como prueba de confirmación diagnóstica del CCR muestra un bajo rendimiento, siendo aun menor en estadios precoces de la enfermedad.


Summary: Introduction: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker used for follow up rather than a screening and diagnostic test for colorectal cancer (CCR). However, it continues to be requested in the regular clinical practice for initial diagnosis. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of CEA to diagnose colorectal cancer at Maciel Hospital and Cooperativa Medica de Florida Hospital from 2000 to 2019. Method: prospective study to evaluate CEA as a diagnostic test for colorectal cancer. The following inclusion criteria were used: 1) total videocolonoscopy in all users without CLC and total or partial videocolonoscopy for those with CRC and histologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma; 2) CEA determination within 30 days before or after videocolonoscopy and 3) for the purpose of staging, pathology report of the surgical piece and histological confirmation of distant metastases. The number of cases included was defined by a 10-case minimum in each cell of the contingency table. Results: 211 cases were analysed. The general analysis revealed 33.6% sensitivity, 70.4% specificity, VPP 69.1%, VPN 35%, accuracy 45.9%. In the case of staging II, sensitivity was 18.8%, specificity 70.4%, VPP 30%, VPN 56.2%, accuracy 49.5%. In the case of staging III, sensitivity 31.6%, specificity 70.4%, VPP 36.4%, VPN 65.8%, accuracy 56.8%. In the case of staging IV, sensitivity 65%, specificity 70.4%, VPP 55.3%, VPN 78.1%, accuracy 68.4%. Conclusions: CEA evidences low effectiveness to diagnose colorectal cancer, and it is still less effective in early stages of the disease.


Resumo: Introdução: o antígeno carcinogênico embrionário (CEA) é um marcador tumoral de acompanhamento e não um teste de rastreamento e diagnóstico em câncer colorretal (CRC). No entanto, na prática clínica de rotina, continua a ser solicitado nos diagnósticos iniciais. Objetivo: avaliar o desempenho do CEA no diagnóstico de câncer colorretal nos Hospitais Maciel de Montevidéu e da Cooperativa Médica de Florida, no período 2000-2019. Material e método: este é um estudo prospectivo avaliando o CEA como teste diagnóstico para câncer colorretal. Os critérios de inclusão foram: 1) videocolonoscopia total em usuários sem CCR e videocolonoscopia total ou parcial naqueles com CCR e confirmação histológica de adenocarcinoma; 2) determinação do CEA 30 dias antes ou após a videocolonoscopia e 3) estadiamento, laudo anatomopatológico da peça cirúrgica e confirmação histológica de metástases à distância. O número de casos incluídos foi determinado por um mínimo de 10 casos em cada célula da tabela de contingência. Resultados: foram analisados 211 casos. A análise geral determinou uma sensibilidade de 33,6%, especificidade 70,4%, VPP 69,1%, VPN 35%, precisão 45,9%. Para o estágio II, sensibilidade 18,8%, especificidade 70,4%, PPV 30%, NPV 56,2%, precisão 49,5%. Estágio III, sensibilidade 31,6%, especificidade 70,4%, PPV 36,4%, NPV 65,8%, precisão 56,8%. Estágio IV, sensibilidade 65%, especificidade 70,4%, PPV 55,3%, NPV 78,1%, precisão 68,4%. Conclusões: o CEA como teste de confirmação diagnóstica do câncer colorretal apresenta baixo desempenho, sendo ainda menor nos estágios iniciais da doença.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Mass Screening
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(11): e00313620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350403

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El ámbito laboral tiene un gran potencial para difundir información e implementar actividades de promoción de la salud, como la prevención y detección temprana del cáncer. Debido al desafío de implementar intervenciones sanitarias en este ámbito, se necesitan investigaciones formativas para adecuar el diseño y la implementación de las estrategias para que sean exitosas. Con el objetivo de informar el diseño e implementación de la intervención, para mejorar la tasa de adherencia al tamizaje con el test de sangre oculta en materia fecal, en un ámbito laboral en Argentina, se realizó una investigación formativa para identificar potenciales barreras y facilitadores. La investigación formativa siguió un diseño metodológico cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas con 10 responsables de áreas clave de la institución en que se desarrolló el estudio y 8 grupos focales con trabajadores mayores de 50 años. Se identificaron desafíos para la implementación de la intervención en el nivel institucional, como la dispersión geográfica de los trabajadores y la complejidad del organigrama de la institución, y en el nivel de la población objetivo, como el bajo conocimiento del cáncer colorrectal y de los test diagnósticos, así como la baja percepción de riesgo. Entre los facilitadores se destacaron la aceptabilidad de la intervención, además de la disponibilidad de recursos humanos y materiales para llevar adelante la intervención, como canales de comunicación institucional para la diseminación de información, así como la logística para la distribución de kits diagnósticos. La investigación formativa permitió relevar recursos e identificar potenciales barreras que informaron el diseño y la implementación de la intervención.


Abstract: The workplace has great potential to disseminate information and implement health promotion activities such as cancer prevention and early detection. Due to the challenges of deploying health interventions in this setting, formative studies are needed to adjust the design and implementation of successful strategies. To inform the intervention's design and implementation and improve the adherence rate to screening with fecal occult blood test in a workplace in Argentina, a formative study was conducted to identify potential barriers and facilitators. The formative study adopted a qualitative methodological design. Interviews were held with 10 individuals in charge of key areas in the institution where the main study was conducted, besides 8 focus groups with workers over 50 years of age. Challenges were identified at the institutional level for the intervention's implementation, such as workers' geographic dispersion and the complexity of the institution's flowchart, as well as at the population level, such as low knowledge about colorectal cancer and diagnostic tests and low risk perception. The facilitators featured the intervention's acceptability and the availability of human and material resources to proceed with the intervention, such as institutional communications channels for disseminating the information and logistics for distribution of diagnostic kits. The formative study allowed identifying resources and potential barriers that informed the intervention's design and implementation.


Resumo: O local de trabalho possui grande potencial para divulgar informação e implementar atividades de promoção da saúde, como a prevenção e detecção precoce do câncer. Frente ao desafio de implementar ações sanitárias naquele ambiente, são necessárias pesquisas formativas para adequar a estruturação e a implementação das estratégias para que sejam bem-sucedidas. Com o objetivo de subsidiar a concepção e a implementação da ação, visando melhorar a taxa de aderência ao screening com o teste de sangue oculto nas fezes no ambiente de trabalho na Argentina, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa formativa para identificar potenciais barreiras e facilitadores. A pesquisa formativa seguiu um formato metodológico qualitativo. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 10 gerentes de áreas chaves da entidade onde foi desenvolvido o estudo e 8 grupos focais, com trabalhadores acima de 50 anos de idade. Foram identificados alguns desafios para a implementação de uma ação em nível institucional, como a dispersão geográfica dos trabalhadores e a complexidade do organograma da entidade, e em termos de população objetiva, como o baixo conhecimento a respeito do câncer colorretal e dos testes diagnósticos, além da baixa percepção de risco. Entre os facilitadores, destacaram-se a aceitabilidade da ação e a disponibilidade de recursos humanos e materiais para levar a cabo a ação, como canais de comunicação institucional, para a divulgação da informação e a logística, para a distribuição dos kits diagnósticos. A pesquisa formativa revelou recursos e identificou potenciais barreiras, ajudando na estruturação e implementação da ação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Workplace , Argentina , Brazil , Early Detection of Cancer
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 16-38, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877496

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major malignancy threatening the health of people in China, which also leads to heavy social burden. A large number of researches and practices have demonstrated that screening and early detection are effective in reducing the mortality of CRC. It is therefore imperative to design guidelines for the screening, early detection and early treatment of CRC that are in line with national conditions of China based on international guideline development standard. In 2020, under the leadership of the National Cancer Center of China, a multidisciplinary guideline development group was established. The development of the guideline followed the principles and methods recommended by the World Health Organization. The guideline provides detailed recommendations for thirteen key clinical questions to which the professionals who are involved in screening, early detection and early treatment of colorectal cancer paid close attention. The guideline is intended to serve as a tool for professionals providing best decision-making on screening, early detection and early treatment of CRC and to enhance the effectiveness of CRC prevention and control in China.


Subject(s)
Beijing , China , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Mass Screening
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1335-1344, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are the most widely used non-invasive tests in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, evidence about the direct comparison of the test performance of the self-administered qualitative a laboratory-based quantitative FITs in a CRC screening setting is sparse.@*METHODS@#Based on a CRC screening trial (TARGET-C), we included 3144 pre-colonoscopy fecal samples, including 24 CRCs, 230 advanced adenomas, 622 non-advanced adenomas, and 2268 participants without significant findings at colonoscopy. Three self-administered qualitative FITs (Pupu tube) with positivity thresholds of 8.0, 14.4, or 20.8 μg hemoglobin (Hb)/g preset by the manufacturer and one laboratory-based quantitative FIT (OC-Sensor) with a positivity threshold of 20 μg Hb/g recommended by the manufacturer were tested by trained staff in the central laboratory. The diagnostic performance of the FITs for detecting colorectal neoplasms was compared in the different scenarios using the preset and adjusted thresholds (for the quantitative FIT).@*RESULTS@#At the thresholds preset by the manufacturers, apart from the qualitative FIT-3, significantly higher sensitivities for detecting advanced adenoma were observed for the qualitative FIT-1 (33.9% [95% CI: 28.7-39.4%]) and qualitative FIT-2 (22.2% [95% CI: 17.7-27.2%]) compared to the quantitative FIT (11.7% [95% CI: 8.4-15.8%]), while at a cost of significantly lower specificities. However, such difference was not observed for detecting CRC. For scenarios of adjusting the positivity thresholds of the quantitative FIT to yield comparable specificity or comparable positivity rate to the three qualitative FITs accordingly, there were no significant differences in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values and positive/negative likelihood ratios for detecting CRC or advanced adenoma between the two types of FITs, which was further evidenced in ROC analysis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although the self-administered qualitative and the laboratory-based quantitative FITs had varied test performance at the positivity thresholds preset by the manufacturer, such heterogeneity could be overcome by adjusting thresholds to yield comparable specificities or positivity rates. Future CRC screening programs should select appropriate types of FITs and define the thresholds based on the targeted specificities and manageable positivity rates.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Feces , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Laboratories , Occult Blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 466-470, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142346

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of colonoscopy for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening depends on quality indicators, which adenoma detection rate (ADR) being the most important. Proximal serrated polyp detection rate (pSPDR) has been studied as a potential quality indicator for colonoscopy. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to analyze and compare the difference in ADR and pSPDR between patients undergoing screening colonoscopy and an unselected population with other indications for colonoscopy, including surveillance and diagnosis. METHODS: This is a historical cohort of patients who underwent colonoscopy in the digestive endoscopy service of a tertiary hospital. Out of 1554 colonoscopies performed, 573 patients were excluded. The remaining 981 patients were divided into two groups: patients undergoing screening colonoscopy (n=428; 43.6%); patients with other indications including surveillance and diagnosis (n=553; 56.4%). RESULTS: Adenoma detection rate of the group with other indications (50.6%) was higher than that of the screening group (44.6%; P=0.03). In regarding pSPDR, there was no difference between pSPDR in both groups (screening 13.6%; other indications 13.7%; P=0.931). There was no significant difference in the mean age (P=0.259) or in the proportion of men and women (P=0.211) between both groups. CONCLUSION: Proximal serrated polyp detection rate showed an insignificant difference between groups with different indications and could be used as a complementary indicator to adenoma detection rate. This could benefit colonoscopists with low colonoscopy volume or low volume of screening colonoscopies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A efetividade da colonoscopia no rastreamento do câncer colorretal (CCR) depende de indicadores de qualidade, sendo a taxa de detecção de adenoma (TDA) a mais importante. A taxa de detecção de pólipos serrilhados proximais (TDPSp) tem sido estudada como um potencial indicador de qualidade para a colonoscopia. OBJETIVO: O objetivo é analisar e comparar a diferença de TDA e TDPSp entre pacientes submetidos à colonoscopia de rastreamento e uma população não selecionada com outras indicações para colonoscopia, incluindo vigilância e diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: Esta é uma coorte histórica de pacientes submetidos à colonoscopia no serviço de endoscopia digestiva de um hospital terciário. Das 1554 colonoscopias realizadas, 573 pacientes foram excluídos. Os 981 pacientes restantes foram divididos em dois grupos: pacientes submetidos à colonoscopia de rastreamento (n=428; 43,6%); pacientes com outras indicações, incluindo vigilância e diagnóstico (n=553; 56,4%). RESULTADOS: A taxa de detecção de adenoma do grupo com outras indicações (50,6%) foi superior à do grupo de rastreamento (44,6%; P=0,03). Em relação ao TDPSp, não houve diferença entre os dois grupos (triagem 13,6%; outras indicações 13,7%; P=0,931). Não houve diferença significativa na idade média (P=0,259) ou na proporção de homens e mulheres (P=0,211) entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de detecção proximal de pólipos serrilhados mostrou uma diferença insignificante entre os grupos com diferentes indicações para colonoscopia e poderia ser utilizada como um indicador complementar a TDA. Isso beneficiaria colonoscopistas com baixo volume de colonoscopias ou baixo volume de colonoscopias de rastreamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenoma/diagnosis , Colonic Polyps/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Colonoscopy , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Early Detection of Cancer
12.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 404-411, Oct.-Dec. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143186

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Colorectal cancer is one of the neoplasms with the greatest social impact. Given the great molecular heterogeneity and diversity of pathophysiological mechanisms, it is difficult to define prognostic factors that could guide therapy. Objectives: To identify the molecular prognostic factors that may be of interest in clinical practice and to synthesize the existing evidence. Material and methods: The search for the articles was carried out using the PubMed platform and the keywords "sporadic colorectal cancer and prognosis", for articles published between 2014 and 2019. We selected all articles published on studies in humans and written in English or Portuguese. Of the 215 articles found, 35 articles were selected to perform this review. Results: Current evidence supports the use of four molecular markers in clinical practice − KRAS, NRAS and BRAF (EGFR signalling pathway) and the mismatch repair status. Conclusion: The use of molecular biomarkers in clinical practice to define prognosis is still little supported by the existent evidence. The studies are slightly contradictory, so new projects and international collaborations must be carried out in this area to obtain more robust evidence.


RESUMO Introdução: O carcinoma colorretal é uma das neoplasias com maior impacto social. Dada a grande heterogeneidade molecular e diversidade de mecanismos fisiopatológicos, torna-se difícil definir fatores de prognóstico que orientem a terapêutica. Objetivos: Identificar os fatores de prognóstico moleculares que poderão vir a ter interesse na prática clínica e fazer uma síntese da evidência existente. Material e métodos: A pesquisa dos artigos foi realizada recorrendo à plataforma PubMed e utilizou-se as palavras-chave "sporadic colorectal cancer and prognosis", para artigos publicados entre 2014 e 2019. Foram selecionados todos os artigos publicados sobre estudos em humanos e escritos em inglês ou em português. Dos 215 artigos encontrados, foram selecionados 35 artigos para realizar esta revisão. Resultados: A evidência atual apoia a utilização de quatro marcadores moleculares na prática clínica - KRAS, NRAS e BRAF (via de sinalização do EGFR) e o estado mismatch repair. Conclusão: A utilização na prática clínica de biomarcadores moleculares para definir o prognóstico é ainda pouco apoiada pela evidência disponível. Os estudos são algo contraditórios, pelo que novos projetos e colaborações internacionais devem ser realizados neste âmbito para se obter evidência mais robusta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma , Biomarkers , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Chromosomal Instability , Microsatellite Instability , Prognosis
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 316-322, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131664

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Rectal bleeding is the most important symptom of intestinal neoplasia; thus, tests of occult blood detection in stools are widely used for pre neoplastic lesions and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the accuracy of OC-Sensor quantitative test (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) at cut-off 10 µg Hb/g feces (50 ng/mL) in a cohort of subjects that had to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy, and if more than one sample collected in consecutive days would improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test. METHODS: Patients (mean age 56.3±9.7 years) that underwent colonoscopy prospectively randomly received one (1-sample FIT, FIT 1) or two (2-sample FIT, FIT 2) collection tubes. They collected the stool sample before starting colonoscopy preparation. Samples were analyzed by the OC-Auto Micro 80 (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan). The performance of FIT 1 and FIT 2 were compared to the colonoscopy findings. RESULTS: Among 289 patients, CRC was diagnosed in 14 (4.8%), advanced adenoma in 37 (12.8%), early adenoma in 71 (24.6%) and no abnormalities in 141 (48.8%). For FIT 1, the sensitivity for CRC was 83.3% (95%CI 36.5-99.1%), for advanced adenoma was 24% (95%CI 10.1-45.5%), with specificity of 86.9% (95%CI 77.3-92.9%). For FIT 2, the sensitivity for CRC was 75% (95%CI 35.6-95.5%), for advanced adenoma was 50% (95%CI 22.3-77.7%), with specificity of 92.9% (95%CI 82.2-97.7%). The positive likelihood ratios were 1.8 (95%CI 0.7-4.4 for FIT 1) and 7.1 (95%CI 2.4-21.4 for FIT 2) for advanced adenoma, and 6.4 (95%CI 3.3-12.3, for FIT 1) and 10.7 (95%CI 3.8-29.8, for FIT 2) for CRC. The negative likelihood ratio were 0.9 (95%CI 0.7-1, for FIT 1) and 0.5 (95%CI 0.3-0.9, for FIT 2) for advanced adenoma, and 0.2 (0.03-1.1, for FIT 1) and 0.3 (0.08-0.9, for FIT 2) for CRC. The differences between FIT 1 and FIT 2 performances were not significant. However, the comparison of the levels of hemoglobin in feces of patients of FIT 1 and FIT 2 showed that the differences between no polyp group and advanced adenoma and CRC were significant. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of OCR Sensor with 10 µg Hb/g feces cut-off was comparable to other reports and two-sample collection improved the detection rate of advanced adenoma, a pre neoplastic condition to prevent CRC incidence.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Sangramento retal é o sintoma mais importante de neoplasia intestinal; portanto, testes para detecção de sangue oculto nas fezes são amplamente usados para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas e de câncer colorretal (CCR). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia do teste quantitativo OC-Sensor (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) com o valor de corte de 10 µg Hb/g fezes (50 ng/mL) numa coorte de indivíduos que se submeteram à colonoscopia diagnóstica, e se mais de uma amostra coletada em dias consecutivos melhoraria a acurácia diagnóstica do teste. MÉTODOS: Pacientes (idade média 56,3±9,7 anos) que se submeteram à colonoscopia prospectivamente, randomicamente, receberam tubos de coleta: um (1-amostra FIT, FIT 1), ou dois (2-amostra FIT, FIT 2). Eles coletaram as amostras de fezes antes de iniciar o preparo da colonoscopia. As amostras foram analisadas pelo OC-Auto Micro 80 (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan). As performances do FIT 1 e do FIT 2 foram comparadas com os achados da colonoscopia. RESULTADOS: Entre 289 pacientes, CCR foi diagnosticado em 14 (4,8%), adenoma avançado em 37 (12,8%), adenoma precoce em 71 (24,6%) e sem anormalidades em 141 (48,8%). Para FIT 1, a sensibilidade para CCR foi 83,3% (95%IC 36,5-99,1%), para adenoma avançado foi 24% (95%IC 10,1-45,5%), com especificidade de 86,9% (95%IC 77,3-92,9%). Para FIT 2, a sensibilidade para CCR foi 75% (95%IC 35,6-95,5%), para adenoma avançado foi 50% (95%IC 22,3-77,7%), com especificidade de 92,9% (95%IC 82,2-97,7%). A razão de verossimilhança positiva foi 1,8 (95%IC 0,7-4,4 para FIT 1) e 7,1 (95%IC 2,4-21,4 para FIT 2) para adenoma avançado, e 6,4 (95%IC 3,3-12,3, para FIT 1) e 10,7 (95%IC 3,8-29,8, para FIT 2) para CCR. A razão de verossimilhança negativa foi 0,9 (95%IC 0,7-1, para FIT 1) e 0,5 (95%IC 0,3-0,9, para FIT 2) para adenoma avançado, e 0,2 (0,03-1,1, para FIT 1) e 0,3 (0,08-0,9, para FIT 2) para CCR. As diferenças de performance entre FIT 1 e FIT 2 não foram significantes. Entretanto, a comparação dos níveis de hemoglobina nas fezes dos pacientes de FIT 1 e FIT 2 mostraram que as diferenças entre sem pólipo e adenoma avançado e CCR foram significantes. CONCLUSÃO: A acurácia do OCR Sensor com valor de corte de 10 µg Hb/g de fezes foi comparável a outras publicações e a coleta de duas amostras melhorou a taxa de detecção de adenoma avançado, lesão pré-neoplásica, para prevenir CCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenoma , Colonoscopy , Early Detection of Cancer , Feces , Middle Aged , Occult Blood
14.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(2): e935, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126414

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El cáncer avanzado es aquel que crece fuera del órgano en el cual se originó. La resección quirúrgica es el método más eficaz para lograr la curación de cáncer colorrectal en 50 por ciento de los casos. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados del tratamiento multidisciplinar, realizado a pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer colorrectal avanzado. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, ambispectivo y de corte transversal en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico "Hermanos Ameijeiras" entre enero de 2013 y diciembre de 2018. La muestra fue de 219 casos. Resultados: El 34,2 por ciento de los pacientes tenían entre 70 y 79 años. Hubo predominio de localización en colon ascendente (37,4 por ciento), en 57,1 por ciento fue moderadamente diferenciado y en 34,2 por ciento en estadio IIIA. El 7,8 por ciento de los pacientes tuvo recaída con metástasis, de ellos, 70,5 por ciento en hígado. En 72,6 por ciento la vía de acceso fue laparoscópica. En 50,7 por ciento se realizó hemicolectomía derecha. Las complicaciones se observaron en 25 pacientes (35,2 por ciento). El 91,3 por ciento de los casos recibió terapia adyuvante. En 27,4 por ciento hubo recurrencia. En el análisis del tiempo libre de enfermedad y de la supervivencia se obtuvieron buenos resultados. Conclusiones: El tratamiento combinado, secuencial y multidisciplinario en enfermedad maligna colorrectal avanzada ha demostrado beneficios clínicos y mayor supervivencia. Con una morbilidad y mortalidad relacionada con el proceder quirúrgico aceptable independientemente la vía de acceso empleada(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: advanced cancer is cancer that has grown outside the organ in which it originated. Surgical resection is the most effective method to achieve colorectal cancer cure in 50 % of cases. Objectives: the objective was to evaluate the results of the multidisciplinary treatment, carried out on patients diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer. Method: it is an observational, descriptive, ambispective and cross-sectional study at the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Surgical Clinical Hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. The sample was 219 cases. Results: 34.2 percent of the patients were between 70 and 79 years old. 56.2 percent were women. There was a predominance of localization in the ascending colon (37.4 percent), in 57.1 percent it was moderately differentiated and in 34.2 percent in stage IIIA. 7.8 percent of the patients had a metastatic relapse, 70.5 percent of them in the liver. In 72.6 percent, the access route was laparoscopic. Right hemicolectomy was performed in 50.7 percent. Complications were observed in 25 patients (35.2 percent). 91.3 percent of the cases received adjuvant therapy. In 27.4 percent there was recurrence. Good results were obtained in the analysis of disease-free time and survival. Conclusion: we conclude that combined, sequential, and multidisciplinary treatment in advanced colorectal malignancy has demonstrated clinical benefits and increased survival. With an acceptable morbidity and mortality related to the surgical procedure regardless of the access route used. Multivisceral and / or en bloc resections and maximum resection manage to increase the free interval of disease progression and alleviate symptoms(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colectomy/methods , Colon, Ascending/injuries , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 858-867, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139382

ABSTRACT

Colorectal (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Most tumors develop from an adenoma in a period of 10 to 15 years, but some may appear without previous adenomatous lesions. Seventy-five percent of colorectal cancers are sporadic, 20% have a family component (first or second-degree relatives with CRC) and 5% have a hereditary predisposition with a Mendelian pattern. The epidemiological evolution in the recent years in Chile has a worrisome evolution and the treatment costs of advanced stages are a burden for the healthcare system. We herein highlight the main Chilean medical and scientific contributions on the pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and treatment of CRC, which lead to its better understanding, and therefore better management, based on local evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adenoma , Chile/epidemiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
16.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(1): e915, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126405

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El cáncer colorrectal y anal es una enfermedad de elevada incidencia y mortalidad y la oclusión intestinal su complicación más frecuente. Objetivo: Identificar los factores predictores de mortalidad en la oclusión intestinal mecánica por cáncer colorrectal y anal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico que incluyó todos los pacientes con oclusión intestinal mecánica por cáncer colorrectal y anal ingresados consecutivamente en el Hospital "Camilo Cienfuegos" de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, en el período comprendido del 1ro de enero de 2016 al 31 de diciembre de 2018. Se registraron un total de 126 pacientes con este diagnóstico. Se incluyeron las variables demográficas y los factores de riesgo asociados. Se determinaron la glucemia, la creatinina y la gasometría arterial. Se evaluaron además el tiempo quirúrgico, el tiempo desde el ingreso a la cirugía, la estadía hospitalaria y la clasificación de la Sociedad Americana de Anestesia. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una regresión logística binaria y un árbol de clasificación. Resultados: La mortalidad de la serie estudiada fue de un 27 por ciento. La edad mayor o igual a 75 años, la clasificación de la Sociedad Americana de Anestesia mayor o igual III, las reintervenciones y las complicaciones aumentaron el riesgo de fallecer mediante la estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos sugieren evaluar las complicaciones, la edad avanzada, el riesgo anestésico y las reintervenciones como predictores de mortalidad en estos pacientes. La probabilidad de muerte es baja en pacientes no complicados con edad menor de 75 años(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Colorectal and anal cancer is a disease of high incidence and mortality, and intestinal occlusion is its most frequent complication. Objective: To identify the predictors of mortality in mechanical intestinal occlusion due to colorectal and anal cancer. Methods: An analytical observational study was carried out that included all patients with mechanical intestinal occlusion due to colorectal and anal cancer consecutively admitted to the "Camilo Cienfuegos" Hospital in Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, from January 1, 2016 to January 31, December 2018. A total of 126 patients with this diagnosis were registered. Demographic variables and associated risk factors were included. Glycemia, creatinine and arterial blood gas were determined. Surgical time, time from admission to surgery, hospital stay, and American Society of Anesthesia classification were also evaluated. For statistical analysis, a binary logistic regression and a classification tree were performed. Results: The mortality of the series studied was 27 percent. Age greater than or equal to 75 years, the American Society of Anesthesia classification greater than or equal to III, reoperations and complications increased the risk of dying using descriptive and inferential statistics. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest evaluating complications, advanced age, anesthetic risk and reoperations as predictors of mortality in these patients. The probability of death is low in uncomplicated patients under the age of 75 years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Anus Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Statistical Analysis , Observational Studies as Topic
17.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1534, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141907

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer in the world. Over time, intestinal epithelial cells undergo mutations that may lead to proliferative advantage and the emergence of cancer. Mutations in the beta-catenin pathway are amongst those described in the development of CRC. Aim: To verify the existence of a relation between the presence of Wnt3, beta-catenin and CDX2 in colorectal cancer samples and clinical outcomes such as disease progression or death. Method: Wnt3a, beta-catenin and CDX2 immunohistochemistry was performed on CRC tissue microarray samples (n=122), and analysis regarding the relation between biomarker expression and disease progression or death was performed. Results: No significant difference was found between the presence or absence of CDX2, beta-catenin or Wnt3a expression and clinical stage, tumor grade, disease progression or death. Conclusion: CDX2, beta-catenin and Wnt3a are not useful to predict prognosis in patients with CRC.


RESUMO Racional: O câncer colorretal (CCR) é um dos tipos mais comuns no mundo. As células epiteliais intestinais podem sofrer mutações que ocasionam vantagem proliferativa e culminam com o surgimento do câncer. Mutações da via da beta-catenina foram descritas entre as que podem ocasioná-lo. Objetivo: Verificar a existência de relação entre a expressão de Wnt3, beta-catenina e CDX2 em amostras de câncer colorretal com os eventos clínicos progressão de doença e óbito. Método: Foi realizada análise imunoistoquímica de Wnt3a, beta-catenina e CDX2 em blocos multiamostrais de CRC (n=122), e avaliada a relação entre a expressão dos biomarcadores e os desfechos progressão de doença e óbito. Resultados: Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre a expressão ou ausência de CDX2, beta-catenina ou Wnt3a e estádio clínico, grau de diferenciação tumoral, presença de progressão de doença ou evolução ao óbito. Conclusão: Os marcadores CDX2, beta-catenina e Wnt3a não são úteis para predizer prognóstico em pacientes com CCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , beta Catenin/genetics , Wnt3 Protein/genetics , CDX2 Transcription Factor/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Disease Progression
18.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095216

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer colorretal está entre os tipos de câncer mais comuns na população brasileira e mundial com altos índices de mortalidade. Alguns estudos mostram que há uma diferença de carga sintomatológica para esse tipo de câncer entre adultos jovens e idosos que, consequentemente, podem deteriorar a qualidade de vida nesses pacientes. Objetivo: Investigar a diferença no padrão de sintomas entre pacientes adultos e idosos com câncer de cólon e reto. Método: Estudo transversal que utilizou um conjunto de dados sobre a prevalência de sintomas entre pacientes com câncer colorretal atendidos no Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA), por meio de um inventário de sintomas recentemente adaptado para o Brasil. Resultados: Foram entrevistados 348 pacientes, destes, 101 pacientes eram adultos jovens (29,1%) e 247 idosos (70,9%). Obteve-se diferença entre os sintomas analisados para dor (p=0,033), nervosismo (p=0,013), sonolência (p=0,033), tristeza (p=0,003), problemas com desejo sexual ou atividade sexual (p=0,014), falta de apetite (p=0,028), irritação (p=0,013), mudança nos gostos dos alimentos (p=0,042), perda de cabelo (p=0,002) e "eu não pareço mais o mesmo" (p<0,001). Conclusão: A carga sintomatológica frente ao câncer colorretal pode apresentar distinção conforme a idade. Isso é relevante, pois reforça a ideia de individualizar o tratamento para melhorar a assistência e, consequentemente, a qualidade de vida desses doentes.


Introduction: Colorectal cancer is among the most common types of cancer in the Brazilian and world population, with high rates of mortality. Some studies show that there is a difference in the symptomatic burden for this cancer among young adults and elderly individuals, which can deteriorate the quality of life of these patients. Objective: To investigate the difference in the pattern of symptoms among young adults and elderly patients with colon and rectum cancer. Method: Cross-sectional study using dataset on the prevalence of symptoms among colorectal cancer patients attended at the National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA) through a recently adapted inventory of symptoms for Brazil. Results: A total of 348 patients were interviewed, of which 101 were young adults (29,1%) and 247 (70.9%) were elderly individuals. There was a difference between the symptoms analyzed for pain (p=0.033), nervousness (p=0.013), drowsiness (p=0.033), sadness (p=0.003), problem with sexual interest or activity (p=0.014), loss of appetite (p= 0.028), irritation (p=0.013), change of food taste (p=0.042), hair loss (p=0.002.) and "I don't look like myself " (p<0.001). Conclusion: The symptomatic burden of colorectal cancer may differ according to age. This is relevant because reinforces the idea of individualizing the treatment to improve the care and, consequently, the quality of life of these patients.


Introducción: El cáncer colorrectal se encuentra entre los tipos de cáncer más comunes em la población brasileña y mundial, con altas tasas de mortalidad. Algunos estudios muestran que existe una diferencia en la carga sintomática para este tipo de cáncer entre adultos jóvenes y viejos, lo que en consecuencia puede deteriorar la calidad de vida en estos pacientes. Objetivo: Investigar la diferencia en el patrón de síntomas entre pacientes adultos y ancianos con cáncer de colon y recto. Método: Estudio transversal que utiliza un conjunto de datos de prevalencia de síntomas entre pacientes con cáncer colorrectal tratados en el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA) a través de un inventario de síntomas recientemente adaptado para o Brasil. Resultados: Se entrevisto a 348 pacientes, de estos 101 pacientes eran adultos jóvenes (29,1%) y 247 en acianos (70,9%). Hubo una diferencia entre los síntomas analizados para el dolor (p=0,003), nerviosismo (p=0,013), somnolencia (p=0,033), tristeza (p=0,003), problemas con el deseo sexual o actividad sexual (p=0,014), falta de apetito (p=0,028), irritación (p=0,013), cambio en los gustos de los alimentos (p=0,042), pérdida de cabello (p=0,002) y "Ya no me veo igual"(p<0,001). Conclusión: La carga sintomática del cáncer colorrectal se puede distinguir según la edad. Esto es relevante porque refuerza la idea de individualizar el tratamiento para mejorar la atención y, en consecuencia, la calidad de vida de estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Quality of Life , Brazil , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Modalities, Symptomatic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Distribution
19.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1568, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152637

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: CD133 and AXL have been described as cancer stem cell markers, and c-MYC as a key regulatory cellular mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC). Aim: Evaluate the prognostic role of the biomarkers CD133, AXL and c-MYC and their association with clinicopathologic characteristics in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas. Methods: A total of 156 patients with UICC stage I-IV adenocarcinomas (n=122) and adenomas (n=34) were analyzed. Tissue microarrays (TMA) from primary tumors and polyps for CD133, c-MYC and AXL expression were performed and analyzed for their significance with clinicopathologic characteristics. Results: Poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and disease progression were independent risk factors for poor overall survival. The median overall survival time was 30 months. Positive CD133 expression (35.9% of all cases), particularly of right-sided CRCs (44.8% of the CD133+ cases), was negatively correlated with death in the univariate analysis, which did not reach significance in the multivariate analysis. c-MYC (15.4% of all cases) was predominantly expressed in advanced-stage patients with distant (non-pulmonary/non-hepatic) metastasis. AXL expression was found only occasionally, and predominantly dominated in adenomas, with less penetrance in high-grade dysplasia. Conclusions: CD133 expression was not associated with inferior overall survival in CRC. While AXL showed inconclusive results, c-MYC expression in primary CRCs was associated with distant metastasis.


RESUMO Racional: CD133 e AXL são descritos na literatura como marcadores de células-tronco tumorais, e c-MYC cumpre papel chave como mecanismo de regulação celular no câncer colorretal (CCR). Objetivo: Avaliar o papel prognóstico dos biomarcadores CD133, AXL e c-MYC e sua associação com características clinicopatológicas de adenocarcinomas e adenomas colorretais. Métodos: Um total de 156 pacientes com adenocarcinomas de estádio UICC I-IV (n=122) e adenomas (n=34) colorretais foram avaliados. Microarranjos teciduais (TMA) dos tumores primários e adenomas foram realizados em busca de expressão de CD133, c-MYC e AXL, com posterior análise de relação significativa com características clinicopatológicas. Resultados: Adenocarcinomas pobremente diferenciados e progressão de doença foram fatores de risco independentes para má sobrevida global. A taxa mediana de sobrevida global foi de 30 meses. Expressão positiva de CD133 (35,9% dos casos), particularmente em cânceres de cólon direito (44,8% dos casos CD133+), correlacionou-se negativamente com óbito na análise univariada, sem significância estatística na análise multivariada. c-MYC (15,4% dos casos) teve predomínio de expressão em pacientes com estádio avançado com metástases distantes (não-pulmonares/não-hepáticas). Expressão de AXL foi pouco encontrada, com predomínio em adenomas, com menor penetrância em displasia de alto grau. Conclusão: Expressão de CD133 não se associou com sobrevida global inferior em CCR. Enquanto AXL demonstrou resultados inconclusivos, expressão de c-MYC em tumores primários se associou-se à metástases à distância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , AC133 Antigen/analysis , Prognosis , Neoplastic Stem Cells/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Neoplasm Metastasis
20.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(4): 303-308, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056645

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Surveillance colonoscopy 1 year after resection of colorectal cancer is recommended by all major societies, including National Comprehensive Cancer Network and United States Multi Society Task Force. Study objectives: Our study assesses adherence to post colorectal cancer resection surveillance colonoscopy guidelines at a large tertiary care center and aims to identify reasons for non-adherence. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted for patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer between January 2016 and June 2017. Adherence to surveillance colonoscopy for non-obstructed or partially obstructed colon and rectal cancers was defined as performance of colonoscopy 11-14 months and 11-15 months after surgery, respectively. Results: A total of 80 patients were identified. Mean age was 66 ± 13 years and 58% (n = 46) were males. 60% (n = 48) had colon cancer and 40% (n = 32) had rectal cancer. 69% (n = 24) of patients with colon cancer and 42% (n = 8) of patients with rectal cancer adhered to surveillance colonoscopy guidelines and the mean time to colonoscopy was 315 ± 44 days and 369 ± 103 days, respectively. The most commonly identified reasons for non-adherence to surveillance colonoscopy included metastases (10.9%) and patients' refusal to undergo surveillance (6.5%). Conclusion: Overall, post colorectal cancer resection to follow up surveillance is inadequate. There is a need to identify barriers to surveillance post colorectal cancer resection and address them.


Resumo Introdução: A colonoscopia de rastreamento um ano após a ressecção do câncer colorretal é recomendada por todas as principais sociedades, incluindo a National Comprehensive Cancer Network e a Multi Society Task Force dos Estados Unidos. Objetivos do estudo: Avaliar a adesão às diretrizes de colonoscopia de rastreamento após ressecção de câncer colorretal em um grande centro de atendimento terciário e identificar razões para a não adesão. Métodos: Um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado em pacientes submetidos a ressecção curativa de câncer colorretal entre janeiro de 2016 a junho de 2017. Adesão à colonoscopia de rastreamento em cânceres de cólon e reto não obstruídos ou parcialmente obstruídos foi definida como a realização do procedimento entre 11 a 14 meses e 11 a 15 meses após a cirurgia, respectivamente. Resultados: Um total de 80 pacientes foram identificados. A média de idade foi de 66 ± 13 anos; 58% (n = 46) eram do sexo masculino, 60% (n = 48) tinham câncer de cólon e 40% (n = 32) tinham câncer de reto. Aderência às diretrizes de colonoscopia de rastreamento foi observada em 69% (n = 24) dos pacientes com câncer de cólon e 42% (n = 8) dos pacientes com câncer retal; o tempo médio até a realização da colonoscopia foi de 315 ± 44 dias e 369 ± 103 dias, respectivamente. Os motivos mais frequentemente identificados para a não adesão à colonoscopia de rastreamento incluíram metástases (10,9%) e recusa dos pacientes (6,5%). Conclusão: De forma geral, o rastreamento após a resecção de câncer colorretal é inadequado. É necessário identificar barreiras ao rastreamento após a ressecção do câncer colorretal e abordá-las.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy , Tertiary Care Centers , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Tertiary Healthcare , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy
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