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1.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(3): 569-582, ago.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A craniotomia torna mais fácil a compreensão e abordagem do cérebro, mas acompanha as doenças. As unidades de terapia intensiva são equipadas com fisioterapeutas profissionais treinados para lidar com esses efeitos deletérios após este programa cirúrgico, mas falta um protocolo progressivo, definido e apoiado por evidências para esses pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade do protocolo de neuro-reabilitação elaborado para pacientes pós-craniotomia durante sua internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) para melhorar seus resultados funcionais e reduzir seu tempo de internação (LOS). MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Será um ensaio de quase viabilidade pós-teste de pré-teste de grupo único. Quinze pacientes submetidos à craniotomia serão recrutados para o estudo e serão processados com protocolo de Neuro-reabilitação por 60 minutos do primeiro dia da cirurgia até o 15º dia da cirurgia. O resultado primário será a Escala de Habilidades Funcionais Precoces (EFA) para medição de resultados funcionais como nível de consciência, habilidades sensório-motoras, habilidades cognitivo-perceptuais e habilidades oromotoras de pacientes que serão avaliadas no primeiro dia após a craniotomia. Os resultados secundários incluirão Escala de Coma de Glasgow (GCS), Escala de Recuperação de Coma - Revisada (CRS-R), Técnica de Reabilitação de Avaliação de Modalidade Sensorial (SMART), Escala de Ashworth modificada modificada (mMAS), Pontuação de Avaliação Cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA) e Conselho de Pesquisa Médica Escala (MRC). As avaliações serão feitas no primeiro e no décimo quinto dia pós-operatório. PERSPECTIVAS: Espera-se que este protocolo melhore os resultados funcionais e reduza a incidência de ocorrência de comorbidades em pacientes após craniotomia em UTI.


INTRODUCTION: Craniotomy makes insight and approach towards the brain easier but accompanies ailments. Intensive care units are equipped with trained professional physical therapists working over these deleterious after-effects of this surgical program, but a progressive, defined, and evidence-supported protocol for such patients is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a Neurorehabilitation protocol devised for post-craniotomy patients within their stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to improve their functional outcomes and reduce their length of stay (LOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: It will be a single group pre-test post-test quasi feasibility trial. Fifteen patients undergoing craniotomy will be recruited for the trial and will be rendered with Neuro-rehabilitation protocol for 60 minutes from the first day of surgery up to 15 days of surgery. The primary outcome will be the Early Functional Abilities (EFA) Scale to measure functional outcomes like conscious level, sensorimotor abilities, cognitive-perceptual abilities, and oro-motor abilities of patients, which will be assessed first-day post craniotomy. Secondary outcomes will include Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R), Sensory Modality Assessment Rehabilitation Technique (SMART), Modified Ashworth Scale (mMAS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Score (MoCA), and Medical Research Council Scale (MRC). Assessments will be taken on the first and fifteenth days post-surgery. PERSPECTIVES: It is expected that this protocol might improve functional outcomes and may reduce the occurrence of comorbidities in patients after Craniotomy in ICUs.


Subject(s)
Craniotomy , Coma , Intensive Care Units
2.
Iatreia ; 34(1): 78-83, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154361

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El coma mixedematoso es la complicación más grave de un hipotiroidismo. Ocurre, por lo general, en mujeres ancianas con hipotiroidismo conocido sin un adecuado manejo y en presencia de un evento desencadenante. El diagnóstico es difícil y debe realizarse en forma oportuna para disminuir el riesgo de muerte. El coma es una de las presentaciones neurológicas de esta urgencia endocrinológica y no es necesario su presencia para el diagnóstico. En este reporte de caso se presentan varías manifestaciones inusuales en un paciente masculino con hipotiroidismo profundo que, al diagnóstico, debutó con coma mixedematoso con predictores de mal pronóstico durante la hospitalización, pero debido al abordaje temprano y el manejo integral, se dio una resolución satisfactoria a esta urgencia endocrinológica infrecuente.


SUMMARY Myxedema coma is the most serious complication of hypothyroidism. It usually occurs in the context of elderly women, with known hypothyroidism without proper management and in the presence of a triggering event. The diagnosis is challenging and must be made in a timely manner to prevent the development of adverse outcomes. Coma is one of the neurological manifestations of the entity, not being necessary for its diagnosis. This case report presents a constellation of unusual manifestations of a male patient with myxedema coma at the debut of severe hypothyroidism with predictors of poor prognosis during hospitalization, but due to the early approach and comprehensive management, this uncommon endocrinological emergency was satisfactorily resolved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pericardial Effusion , Myxedema , Seizures , Coma
3.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20210017, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341731

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective to map the production of knowledge about the different techniques of gastrointestinal tube insertion in critically ill and/or coma patients. Method scope review carried out in December 2020 in ten data sources, following the assumptions established by the Joanna Briggs Institute (2020) and the PRISMA-ScR protocol. Results 25 studies were selected and analyzed, identifying as the main techniques for insertion of gastrointestinal tube in critically ill and/or coma patients: techniques without the aid of instrumentals, such as head flexion, lateral neck pressure, tube freezing, measurement with corrected formula of the tip of the ear-lobe tip-xiphoid process, Sellick´s maneuver, cricoid cartilage compression, SORT maneuver and gastric insufflation. In addition to techniques with the aid of instruments, such as the use of laryngoscopes and video laryngoscopes. It is noteworthy that, in order to facilitate insertion, the use of ultrasound examination, radiological, endoscopic and fluoroscopy were also identified. Conclusions the evidence analyzed reveals that there is no specific gastrointestinal tube insertion technique for universally accepted critically ill patients.


RESUMEN Objetivo mapear la producción de conocimiento sobre las diferentes técnicas de inserción de tubo gastrointestinal en pacientes críticos y/o comatosos. Método revisión de alcance realizada en diciembre de 2020 en diez fuentes de datos, siguiendo las suposiciones establecidas por el Instituto Joanna Briggs (2020) y el protocolo PRISMA-ScR. Resultados se seleccionaron y analizaron 25 estudios, identificando las principales técnicas para la inserción de una sonda gastrointestinal en pacientes críticos y/o comatosos: técnicas sin ayuda de instrumentos, como flexión de la cabeza, presión lateral del cuello, congelación de la sonda, medición con punta nasal -Fórmula corregida del lóbulo auricular-apófisis xiphoides, maniobra de Sellick, compresión del cartílago cricoides, maniobra SORT e insuflación gástrica. Además de técnicas con ayuda de instrumental, como el uso de laringoscopios y videolaringoscopios. Es de destacar que, para facilitar la inserción, también se identificó el uso de ecografías, técnicas radiológicas, endoscópicas y fluoroscópicas. Conclusiones la evidencia analizada revela que no existe una técnica universalmente aceptada para insertar una sonda gastrointestinal específica para pacientes críticamente enfermos.


RESUMO Objetivo mapear a produção de conhecimento sobre as diferentes técnicas de inserção de sonda gastrointestinal em pacientes críticos e/ou em coma. Método revisão de escopo realizada em dezembro de 2020 em dez fontes de dados, seguindo os pressupostos estabelecidos pelo Joanna Briggs Institute (2020) e do protocolo PRISMA-ScR. Resultados foram selecionados e analisados 25 estudos, identificando-se como principais técnicas para inserção de sonda gastrointestinal em pacientes críticos e/ou em coma: técnicas sem o auxílio de instrumentais, como flexão de cabeça, pressão lateral do pescoço, congelamento da sonda, medição com fórmula corrigida da ponta do nariz-lóbulo da orelha-processo xifoide, manobra de Sellick, compressão na cartilagem cricoide, manobra SORT e insuflação gástrica. Além de técnicas com o auxílio de instrumentais, como a utilização de laringoscópios e videolaringoscópios. Destaca-se que, para facilitar a inserção, identificaram-se, ainda, a utilização de exame ultrassonográfico, a técnica radiológica, endoscópica e fluoroscopia. Conclusões as evidências analisadas revelam que não há uma técnica para inserção de sonda gastrointestinal específica para pacientes críticos universalmente aceita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nursing , Enteral Nutrition , Coma , Critical Care , Intubation, Gastrointestinal
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876130

ABSTRACT

@#Myxedema coma is associated with decreased mental status and hyponatremia among patients with diagnosed or undiagnosed hypothyroidism. The diagnosis is challenging in the absence of universally accepted diagnostic criteria, but should be considered as a differential even in cases with competing established diagnoses. All patients should receive intensive care level treatment. Even with optimal treatment, mortality is very high.


Subject(s)
Myxedema , Coma
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886416

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. Several reports have shown that coexistence of diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 is one of the risk factors for poor outcome and increased mortality. Rapid metabolic deterioration with development of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) may result due to the acute insulin secretory capacity loss, stress condition and the cytokine storm. In this review, we aim to describe the prevalence of hyperglycemic crises(DKA/HHS) in patients with COVID-19 infection as well as their clinical outcomes. METHODS. An intensive search was done using the WebMD, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases for articles published between December 2019 to October 2020 that identified the number of patients who developed DKA and/or HHS among those who were admitted for COVID-19. Their clinical outcomes were likewise described. RESULTS. This review included 4 articles in which individual quality was assessed. A total of 1282 patients were admitted for COVID-19 and the prevalence of DKA was 1.32%. HHS was not reported in any of the studies. Five (29.4%) of the patients with DKA and COVID-19 died and 12 (70.6%) recovered. CONCLUSIONS. A significant number of COVID-19 patients developed DKA and it is associated with a high mortality rate. This reimposes the need for an appropriate algorithm for the optimal management of concomitant COVID 19 and hyperglycemic crises to avoid morbidity and mortality. Additionally, there is paucity of large-scale studies describing the prevalence of DKA/HHS in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19 , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Acid-Base Imbalance , Coma
7.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(4): 242-246, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252765

ABSTRACT

Encefalopatia de Wernicke (EW) e síndrome de realimentação (SR) são duas condições frequentemente coexistentes, subdiagnosticadas e que podem implicar prognóstico reservado após sua instalação. Sua identificação precoce representa um desafio para os intensivistas, haja vista a falta de sensibilidade e especificidade das manifestações clínicas. Apresenta-se um relato de caso de uma paciente portadora de esquizofrenia paranoide, sem histórico de abuso de álcool, que desenvolveu quadro de coma irreversível após greve de fome, sendo feito diagnóstico tardio de EW associada a SR. Descreve-se a evolução clínica e neuropsiquiátrica com o intuito de enfatizar a necessidade crucial de alta suspeição diagnóstica, com reposição vitamínica imediata, vigilância de distúrbios eletrolíticos e progressão parcimoniosa do aporte nutricional. (AU)


Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and refeeding syndrome (RFS) are two often coexisting, underdiagnosed conditions that may involve a poor prognosis after their onset. Early identification represents a challenge for intensivists, given the lack of sensitivity and specificity of clinical manifestations. We report a case of a patient with paranoid schizophrenia, without a history of alcohol abuse, who developed irreversible coma after a hunger strike, with a late diagnosis of WE associated with RFS. The clinical and neuropsychiatric outcomes are described herein in order to emphasize the crucial need for a high diagnostic suspicion, with immediate vitamin replacement, monitoring of electrolyte disorders, and gradual progression of nutritional support. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Wernicke Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Coma/etiology , Refeeding Syndrome/diagnosis , Starvation/complications , Delayed Diagnosis
8.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 57(4): 387-393, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092735

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Para analizar cuál es la mejor alternativa para la recuperación del paciente comatoso tras la lesión cerebral traumática grave en su contexto agudo, entre 1-6 semanas tras el evento traumático, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sistemática. Metodología: La búsqueda empleó las principales bases de datos (Pubmed, Embase, Ovid y Cochrane) con la finalidad de discernir qué terapias son las más propicias para una correcta mejora neurocognitiva del enfermo. Se profundizará en la estimulación sensorial, las diversas instrucciones que se han recopilado sobre su aplicación clínica, el por qué de su efectividad, cuáles son los mejores tipos de estimulación y el fenómeno de habituación. Resultados: Este campo será el de la estimulación sensorial multimodal: por un lado, el uso de la estimulación sensorial que surge de los familiares y que se muestra ciertamente efectiva; y por otro lado, la realización de sesiones en las que intervenga personal del hospital y que estimule los diferentes sentidos. A partir de ciertos estudios se deducirá y comprobará que habrá un efecto positivo significativo al combinar ambas terapias. Esta unión sinérgica terapéutica será la que se pueda protocolizar y llevar a cabo en cualquier hospital. Conclusiones: Por tanto, se presenta el tratamiento terapéutico definitivo para pacientes clínicamente estables que han sufrido una LCT grave en un contexto agudo. Se debe destacar que el principal objetivo de la propuesta es aportar indicaciones a partir de la experiencia clínica sobre cómo se tienen que hacer los diferentes tipos de estimulación para obtener un resultado favorable.


Introduction: To analyze which is the best alternative for the recovery of the comatose patient after severe traumatic brain injury in its acute context, between 1-6 weeks after the traumatic event, a systematic bibliographic search was carried out. Methodology: The search used the main databases (Pubmed, Embase, Ovid and Cochrane) in order to discern which therapies are most conducive to a correct neurocognitive improvement of the patient. The sensory stimulation will be deepened, the various instructions that have been compiled about its clinical application, the why of its effectiveness, which are the best types of stimulation and the habituation phenomenon. Results: This field will be that of multimodal sensory stimulation: on the one hand, the use of sensory stimulation that emerges from the relatives and that is certainly effective; and on the other hand, the realization of sessions in which hospital personnel intervene and stimulate the different senses. From certain studies it will be deduced and verified that there will be a significant positive effect when combining both therapies. This synergistic therapeutic union will be the one that can be protocolized and carried out in any hospital. Conclusions: Therefore, definitive therapeutic treatment is presented for clinically stable patients who have suffered a severe TBI in an acute context. It should be noted that the main objective of the proposal is to provide indications based on clinical experience on how different types of stimulation have to be done in order to obtain a favorable result.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients , Coma , Protocols , Official Instructions , Brain Injuries, Traumatic
9.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(4): 187-189, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054730

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta un caso de una paciente de 69 años de edad y sin antecedentes personales o familiares de patología tiroidea alguna, que asiste con un estado convulsivo de aparición súbita, de hemicuerpo derecho y relajación esfinteriana, asociado, además, a trastornos del estado de conciencia, bradicardia, bradipnea y edema de difícil Godet en miembros inferiores. Los exámenes complementarios mostraron acidosis respiratoria, hiposecreción de T4 y elevación de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides por retroalimentación negativa. Estos resultados corroboraron el diagnóstico presuntivo de coma mixedematoso. Se emprendió el tratamiento hormonal correspondiente con levotiroxina, al cual respondió satisfactoriamente y fue egresada a los 24 días de su ingreso, pendiente de valoración por el especialista de endocrinología.


Abstract We present the case of a 69-year-old female patient with no personal or family history of any thyroid disease, who attends with a convulsive state of sudden onset, right hemibody and sphincter relaxation, also associated with disorders of the state of consciousness, bradycardia, bradypnea and edema of difficult godet in lower limbs. Complementary analyses showed respiratory acidosis, hyposecretion of T4 and elevation of the thyroid stimulating hormone by negative feedback. These results corroborated the presumptive diagnosis of myxedema coma. The corresponding hormonal treatment with levothyroxine was undertaken, to which it responded satisfactorily and was discharged 24 days after admission, pending evaluation by the endocrinology specialist for an outpatient hormone replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Thyroid Hormones , Coma , Cuba , Hypothyroidism , Myxedema
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(9): 1210-1216, set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058666

ABSTRACT

We report a 39-year-old male with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage without hydrocephalus, in whom a right choroidal aneurysm was early excluded by endovascular coil insertion. Intracranial pressure (PIC) and cerebral oxygenation (PtiO2) sensors for neuromonitoring were installed due to a persistent comatose state. From the 3rd day, neuromonitoring became altered. CT angiography and cerebral angiography showed severe proximal and distal vasospasm (VE) of the middle (ACM) and anterior (ACA) right cerebral arteries. VE was treated with angioplasty and intravenous nimodipine. Forty eight hours later, despite hemodynamic maximization, neuromonitoring became altered again, mainly explained by a decrease in PtiO2 below 15 mmHg. A severe VE in ACM and right ACA was confirmed by angiography. Given the presence of an early and recurrent VE, which was associated with a decrease in cerebral oxygenation, internal carotid micro-catheters for continuous nimodipine infusion were installed. This therapy maintained a normal neuromonitoring for 15 days. During this period, attempts were done to decrease or discontinue the infusion, but the patient presented parallel falls of cerebral oxygenation or decreased cerebral perfusion observed with perfusion CT, interpreted as persistent VE. Finally, the infusion was stopped at day 15 without significant complication. We conclude that intra-arterial nimodipine continuous infusion in refractory VE can be useful and safe in selected patients. Multimodal neuromonitoring is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Nimodipine/therapeutic use , Cerebral Angiography , Coma , Computed Tomography Angiography
11.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(3): 818-824, May.-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1013540

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify, in the scientific literature, real and illusory perceptions of adult patients in induced coma. Methods: This is an integrative review of 15 primary studies from the Medline, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL and SCOPUS databases. Results: The main memories reported after induced coma were thirst, cold, and pain. In some studies, patients reported they were unable to tell whether they were awake or dreaming, whether it was real or unreal. Satisfactory memories were reported by patients related to the care received and the use of bedside journals. Conclusion: Evidence showed a number of studies aiming to identify delirium, but without a focus on analyzing real or illusory perceptions of patients after induced coma. Thus, this integrative review identified scientific evidence of memories related to perceptions of sedated patients in the intensive care unit.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar, a partir de la literatura científica, percepciones reales e ilusorias de pacientes adultos en coma inducido. Método: Revisión integrativa de 15 estudios primarios alojados en las bases de datos Medline, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL y SCOPUS. Resultados: Los recuerdos más reportados luego del coma inducido son sed, frío y dolor. Existen estudios en los que los pacientes afirmaron no distinguir si estaban despiertos o soñando, si era real o irreal. Se identificaron relatos de recuerdos satisfactorios relacionados al cuidado recibido y al uso diario de cabecera. Conclusión: Las evidencias mostraron un abanico de estudios cuyo objetivo era identificar el delirium, aunque con menor enfoque en la identificación real o ilusoria del paciente luego del coma inducido. Así, esta revisión integrativa consiguió identificar evidencias científicas acerca de los recuerdos relativos a la percepción del paciente sedado e internado en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar, a partir da literatura científica, percepções reais e ilusórias de pacientes adultos em coma induzido. Método: Revisão integrativa de 15 estudos primários localizados nas bases de dados Medline, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL e SCOPUS. Resultados: As principais memórias relatadas após o coma induzido são sede, frio e dor. Há estudos em que os pacientes afirmaram não distinguir se estavam acordados ou sonhando, se o que acontecia era real ou irreal. Identificaram-se relatos de memórias satisfatórias relacionadas ao cuidado recebido e ao uso de diários de cabeceira. Conclusão: As evidências mostraram um leque de estudos direcionados a identificar o delirium, porém com menor foco na identificação da percepção real ou ilusória do paciente após coma induzido. Desse modo, esta revisão integrativa proporcionou a identificação de evidências científicas sobre as memórias relativas à percepção do paciente sedado e em estadia na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients/psychology , Perception , Coma/complications , Memory , Pain/etiology , Pain/psychology , Thirst , Cold Temperature , Coma/psychology , Coma/therapy
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fentanyl for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of mechanically ventilated patients between 2 months and 18 years of age. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control group with midazolam alone, and the combination group with both fentanyl and midazolam. The sedation level was evaluated using the Comfort Behavior Scale (CBS), and the infusion rates were adjusted according to the difference between the measured and the target CBS score. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were recruited and randomly allocated, with 22 patients in both groups. The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score (measured CBS–target CBS) of ≥ 4 points (i.e., under-sedation) was lower in the combination group (median, 0.06; interquartile range [IQR], 0–0.2) than in the control group (median, 0.15; IQR, 0.04–0.29) (P < 0.001). The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score of ≥ 8 points (serious under-sedation) was also lower in the combination group (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of midazolam used in the control group (0.11 mg/kg/hr; 0.07–0.14 mg/kg/hr) was greater than in the combination group (0.07 mg/kg/hr; 0.06–0.11 mg/kg/hr) (P < 0.001). Two cases of hypotension in each group were detected but coma and ileus, the major known adverse reactions to fentanyl, did not occur. CONCLUSION: Fentanyl combined with midazolam is safe and more effective than midazolam alone for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02172014


Subject(s)
Child , Coma , Fentanyl , Humans , Hypotension , Ileus , Midazolam , Respiration, Artificial
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741368

ABSTRACT

Hyperammonemia can be caused by several genetic inborn errors of metabolism including urea cycle defects, organic acidemias, fatty acid oxidation defects, and certain disorders of amino acid metabolism. High levels of ammonia are extremely neurotoxic, leading to astrocyte swelling, brain edema, coma, severe disability, and even death. Thus, emergency treatment for hyperammonemia must be initiated before a precise diagnosis is established. In neonates with hyperammonemia caused by an inborn error of metabolism, a few studies have suggested that peritoneal dialysis, intermittent hemodialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) are effective modalities for decreasing the plasma level of ammonia. In this review, we discuss the current literature related to the use of RRT for treating neonates with hyperammonemia caused by an inborn error of metabolism, including optimal prescriptions, prognosis, and outcomes. We also review the literature on new technologies and instrumentation for RRT in neonates


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Astrocytes , Brain Edema , Coma , Diagnosis , Edema , Emergency Treatment , Humans , Hyperammonemia , Infant, Newborn , Metabolism , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Peritoneal Dialysis , Plasma , Prescriptions , Prognosis , Renal Dialysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Urea
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758485

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy of the white matter (WM) to gray matter (GM) signal intensity ratio (SIR) in predicting the clinical prognosis of cardiac arrest patients. METHODS: Thirty-one patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated retrospectively. Thirty one subjects with normal brain MRI findings served as the controls. The signal intensities (SI) were measured on T2-weighted image (T2WI). The circular regions of measurement (2–10 mm²) were placed over the regions of interest, and the average signals in GM and WM were recorded in the caudate nucleus (CN), putamen, anterior limb of the internal capsule, corpus callosum (CC), and in the cortex and WM of the frontal lobe. Cerebral performance category (CPC) 1–2 were classified as a good prognosis, and CPC 3–5 were classified as a poor prognosis. RESULTS: Most combinations of the SIR of WM to GM and most SIs of GM, except the frontal cortex, were significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, the SI of WM was insignificant between both groups. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the SIR of the CC to CN had an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.59 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%), the SIR of the CC to putamen had also an AUROC of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.43 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%). CONCLUSION: The SIR of WM to GM measured on a T2WI is related to the neurological outcome after a cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
Brain , Caudate Nucleus , Coma , Corpus Callosum , Extremities , Frontal Lobe , Gray Matter , Hand , Heart Arrest , Humans , Internal Capsule , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prognosis , Putamen , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , White Matter
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762621

ABSTRACT

Vanishing white matter (VWM) disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects the central nervous system of a patient, and is caused by the development of pathogenic mutations in any of the EIF2B1-5 genes. Any dysfunction of the EIF2B1-5 gene encoded eIF2B causes stress-provoked episodic rapid neurological deterioration in the patient, followed by a chronic progressive disease course. We present the case of a patient with an infantile-onset VWM with the pre-described specific clinical course, subsequent neurological aggravation induced by each viral infection, and the noted consequent progression into a comatose state. Although the initial brain magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal specific pathognomonic signs of VWM to distinguish it from other types of demyelinating leukodystrophy, the next-generation sequencing studies identified heterozygous missense variants in EIF2B3, including a novel variant in exon 7 (C706G), as well as a 0.008% frequency reported variant in exon 2 (T89C). Hence, the characteristic of unbiased genomic sequencing can clinically affect patient care and decisionmaking, especially in terms of the consideration of genetic disorders such as leukoencephalopathy in pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Coma , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B , Exome , Exons , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Patient Care , White Matter
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785624

ABSTRACT

Comatose cardiac arrest patients frequently experience cardiogenic shock or recurrent arrest. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to salvage patients with cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest refractory to conventional therapies. However, in comatose cardiac arrest patients whose neurologic recovery is uncertain, the use of ECMO is restricted because it requires considerable financial and human resources. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography is an easily applicable, real-time electroencephalography monitoring tool that has been increasingly used to monitor brain activity in comatose cardiac arrest patients. We describe our experience of using amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in decision-making to place ECMO for comatose cardiac arrest patients whose eventual neurologic recovery appeared uncertain at the time of ECMO placement.


Subject(s)
Brain , Coma , Electroencephalography , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Arrest , Humans , Prognosis , Shock, Cardiogenic
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813010

ABSTRACT

To study the protective effect of Xingnaojing Injection on early global brain ischemia-induced deep coma in rats.
 Methods: The deep coma model was induced by global brain ischemia by using four-vessel occlusion method in male SD rats. According to the body weight, the rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: a model control group, three different dose of Xingnaojing Injection (1.8, 3.6 and 5.4 mL.kg-1) groups, a Xingnaojing Injection (3.6 mL.kg-1) plus PI3K inhibitor group, a naloxone injection (0.04 mL.kg-1) group and a naloxone injection (0.04 mL.kg-1) plus Xingnaojing Injection (3.6 mL.kg-1) group (n=8 per group). In addition, eight animals served as the sham group were performed same operation with the model group excepting no blockage of the blood vessels. After the operation, three different doses of Xingnaojing Injection and/or naloxone injection were given intravenously once a day for three days. Ten μL PI3K inhibitor (LY294002, 10 mmol/L) was injected via anterior cerebral ventricle at once after global brain ischemia. The awakening time after the first drug treatment, the grasping power and the autonomous activity within 10 min after the last drug treatment were recorded. The levels of both dopamine (DA) and glutamate (Glu) in cerebrospinal fluid were detected by ELISA. The pathological changes were observed in brain tissue slices with HE staining and the protein levels of Akt/p-Akt and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)/p-CREB in hippocampus were detected by Western blotting.
 Results: Comparing with the model group, single administration of Xingnaojing Injection could significantly shorten the waking time (P<0.05) and continuous administration of Xingnaojing Injection for 3 d could increase grasping power, distance, frequency and duration of autonomous activities (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the deep coma rat. Also, Xingnaojing Injection could inhibit these increases in neurotransmitters DA and Glu contents (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and improve pathological changes of hippocampal tissue. Xingnaojing Injection significantly induced protein phosphorylation of both Akt and CREB (P<0.05 or P<0.01); this effect was inhibited by PI3K inhibitor (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the protective effects of naloxone on awakening time, grasping power, the autonomous activity and hippocampus damage in global brain ischemia-induced deep coma could be enhanced by joint use of Xingnaojing Injection (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
 Conclusion: Xingnaojing Injection could significantly improve deep coma induced by global brain ischemia in rat, which is related to inducing PI3K/Akt-dependent protein phosphorylation of CREB, and reducing hippocampal damage. The protective effect of Xingnaojing Injection is synergistically enhanced by naloxone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain Ischemia , Coma , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Male , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766841

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare corneal astigmatism, keratometry and corneal higher order aberrations between the light emitting diode corneal topography analyzer and Scheimpflug Imager. METHODS: This prospective study involved 45 patients (45 eyes) who visited Seoul St. Mary's hospital before cataract surgery from June 7, 2017, to August 2, 2017. For each eye, keratometry, astigmatism and its axis of cornea, higher-order aberrations were evaluated with a Scheimpflug Imager (Pentacam HR®, Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) and a color-LED corneal topographer (Cassini®, i-Optics, Den Haag, The Netherlands). RESULTS: Astigmatism magnitude measured using Cassini® and Pentacam® showed no statistically differences but anterior and total astigmatic axes were significantly different, as measured by the two devices (p < 0.05). Anterior and total mean keratometry were statistically significantly different, as measured by the two devices (p < 0.05). J0 and J45 vectors of anterior and total cornea were statistically different (p < 0.05). In addition, Cassini® and Pentacam® showed discrepancies between total corneal astigmatism, total J0 and J45 vectors. Corneal anterior spherical aberration, vertical and horizontal coma, and oblique and horizontal trefoil aberrations were not statistically different between the two devices. CONCLUSIONS: Astigmatic axes obtained from the two devices based on different principles showed statistically significant differences. Astigmatism magnitude was not statistically different but showed a discrepancy between the two devices.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Cataract , Coma , Cornea , Corneal Topography , Corneal Wavefront Aberration , Humans , Lotus , Prospective Studies , Seoul
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766768

ABSTRACT

In brain death state, bilateral pupil light reflexes are disappeared, and pupils are fixed with dilated. However, spontaneous movements such as ocular microtremor or bilateral cyclical constriction-dilatation of pupils have been rarely reported in brain death patients. We present a brain death patient whose right pupil displayed spontaneously repetitive constriction and dilatation regardless of external stimuli such as light and pain. Early recognition of this phenomenon may prohibit the delay in the diagnosis of brain death and organ transplantation.


Subject(s)
Brain Death , Brain , Coma , Constriction , Diagnosis , Dilatation , Humans , Organ Transplantation , Pupil , Reflex , Transplants
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