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1.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(1): 95-101, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846050

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To estimate cigarette demand and to simulate a tax policy targeted to reduce tobacco consumption. Materials and methods: Demand was estimated using a vector error correction model. Simulation exercises present the impact of a tax increase on consumption and revenues. Results: Changes in real income and the real price of cigarettes affect the demand for cigarettes in Argentina. The long term price elasticity is 0.279 (a 10% increase in real prices reduces cigarette consumption by 2.79% per quarter) and the long term income elasticity is 0.411 (a 10% increase in real income raises consumption by 4.11% per quarter). Even in a conservative scenario, simulations show that increasing the price of cigarettes by 100% using excise taxes would maximize revenues and reduce cigarette consumption. Conclusion: There is sufficient room to increase taxes, reducing cigarette consumption, while still increasing tax revenues.


Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar la demanda de cigarrillos y simular una política fiscal dirigida a reducir el consumo de tabaco. Material y métodos: Se estima la demanda mediante el modelo de corrección de errores. Se simula el impacto del incremento de los impuestos en el consumo y la recaudación. Resultados: Las variaciones en ingreso y precio real de los cigarrillos afectan la demanda. La elasticidad precio de la demanda de largo plazo es de 0.279 (10% de aumento en los precios reales reduce el consumo de cigarrillos en 2.79% en un trimestre) y la elasticidad ingreso de largo plazo es 0.411 (10% de aumento en el ingreso real aumenta el consumo en 4.11% en un trimestre). Aun en un escenario conservador, un incremento del precio de los cigarrillos de 100% vía impuestos maximizaría la recaudación y reduciría el consumo de cigarrillos. Conclusión: Es posible incrementar los impuestos reduciendo el consumo de cigarrillos e incrementando la recaudación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Taxes/economics , Commerce/economics , Tobacco Products/economics , Tobacco Products/supply & distribution , Government , Argentina
2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(4): e170033, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895113

ABSTRACT

Informal sales of large-bodied non-native aquarium fishes (known as "tankbusters") is increasing among Brazilian hobbyists. In this study, we surveyed this non-regulated trade on Facebook® from May 2012 to September 2016, systematically collecting information about the fishes available for trading: species, family, common/scientific names, native range, juvenile length, behavior, number of specimens available in five geographical regions from Brazil. We also assessed the invasion risk of the most frequently sold species using the Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST). We found 93 taxa belonging to 35 families. Cichlidae was the dominant family, and most species were native to South America. All species are sold at very small sizes (< 10.0 cm), and most display aggressive behavior. The hybrid Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis and Cichla kelberi were the main species available. The southeast region showed the greatest trading activity. Based on biological traits, the FIST indicated that Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi and C. temensis are high-risk species in terms of biological invasions via aquarium dumping. We suggest management strategies such as trade regulations, monitoring, euthanasia and educational programs to prevent further introductions via aquarium dumping.(AU)


A venda de juvenis de peixes não-nativos de grandes dimensões, chamados de "peixes jumbo", está aumentando entre aquaristas no Brasil. Neste trabalho, pesquisou-se este comércio informal pelo Facebook® de maio/2012 a setembro/2016, coletando-se informações sobre espécies, família, nomes vulgares/científicos, origem, tamanho juvenil, comportamento e número/frequência de exemplares disponíveis nas cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil. Também avaliou-se o risco de invasão das espécies mais vendidas usando o protocolo Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST). Foram encontradas 93 espécies pertencentes a 35 famílias. Cichlidae foi a família dominante, e a maioria das espécies é nativa da América do Sul. Todas as espécies foram vendidas como juvenis (< 10.0 cm), e a maioria exibe comportamento agressivo. O híbrido Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis e Cichla kelberi foram as espécies mais comercializadas. A região sudeste apresentou a maior porcentagem de vendas, e o FIST mostrou que Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi e C. temensis foram consideradas de alto risco para desencadear invasões biológicas mediadas por descarte de aquários. Recomendações como a regulação do comércio, monitoramento, sacrifício das espécies e campanhas educacionais para os aquaristas são sugeridas para evitar futuras introduções de peixes via descarte de aquários.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Commerce/economics , Fishes/anatomy & histology
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(9): e00087916, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889747

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este artigo analisa a relação entre a demanda por importações de produtos farmoquímicos e farmacêuticos e variáveis econômicas (taxa de câmbio, preço das importações e renda agregada), no Brasil, fazendo uso de dados mensais do período 1997-2014. Os principais resultados mostraram que aumentos na renda agregada e reduções nos preços das importações têm impacto positivo e significativo, respectivamente de forma elástica e inelástica, sobre as importações. A taxa de câmbio foi significativa apenas no modelo mais agregado. Portanto, a renda agregada se mostrou uma variável bastante robusta e com forte impacto sobre as importações dos produtos farmoquímicos e farmacêuticos. Considerando os argumentos explicitados na literatura de que o déficit no comércio internacional dessa indústria se relaciona com déficit em conhecimento e tecnologia, somando aos resultados encontrados neste trabalho, há indícios de que conforme o nível de atividade econômica cresce, ocorre maior demanda por esse tipo de produto, e, não havendo produção nacional suficiente, existe necessidade de importações, o que pode gerar pressões no déficit comercial desse segmento, representando dependência do Brasil a outros países.


Abstract: This article analyzes the relationship between the demand for importation of pharmacochemical and pharmaceutical products and economic variables (exchange rate, import prices, and aggregate income) in Brazil, using monthly data from 1997-2014. The main results showed that increases in aggregate income and price reductions in imports have a positive and significant impact (elastic and inelastic, respectively) on imports. Exchange rate was only significant in the more aggregate model. Thus, aggregate income was a robust variable with strong impact on the importation of pharmacochemical and pharmaceutical products. The arguments in the literature that this industry's international trade deficit is related to a deficit in knowledge and technology and the current study's results provide evidence that as economic activity grows, there is a greater demand for this type of product. Additionally, if domestic production is insufficient, there is a need for imports, which can generate pressure on the trade deficit in the industry and contribute to Brazil's dependence on other countries.


Resumen: Este artículo analiza la relación entre la demanda de importaciones de productos farmoquímicos y farmacéuticos y las variables económicas (tasa de cambio, precio de las importaciones y renta agregada), en Brasil, utilizando datos mensuales del período 1997-2014. Los principales resultados mostraron que los aumentos en la renta agregada y las reducciones en los precios de las importaciones tienen un impacto positivo y significativo, respectivamente, de forma elástica e inelástica sobre las importaciones. La tasa de cambio fue significativa sólo en el modelo más agregado. Por tanto, la renta agregada se mostró una variable bastante robusta y con un fuerte impacto sobre las importaciones de los productos farmoquímicos y farmacéuticos. Considerando los argumentos explicitados en la literatura, acerca de que el déficit en el comercio internacional de esa industria se relaciona con el déficit en conocimiento y tecnología, sumado a los resultados hallados en este trabajo, hay indicios de que conforme el nivel de actividad económica crece, se produce una mayor demanda por ese tipo de productos, y, sin existir producción nacional suficiente, hay una necesidad de importaciones, lo que puede generar presiones en el déficit comercial de este segmento, representando la dependencia de Brasil de otros países.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations/economics , Commerce/economics , Drug Industry/economics , Brazil , Commerce/trends , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Drug Industry/statistics & numerical data
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 40(4): 250-255, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830731

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess how raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru might impact cigarette consumption, and to determine if higher taxes would be regressive. Methods Total demand price elasticity was estimated by income groups using two datasets: quarterly time-series data from 1993 – 2012 and data from a cross-sectional survey of income and expenses conducted in 2008 – 2009 . A functional form of the cigarette demand in Peru was specified using the quarterly data set, and the demand price elasticity was estimated for the short and long run. Using the second data set and Deaton methodology, the implementation of elasticity estimation and by groups’ elasticity was done in a two-step procedure. Results Demand price elasticity was −0.7, implying that a 10% price increase via a new tax would reduce consumption by 7%. Demand price elasticity estimations by income group suggested that poorer families are not more price sensitive than richer ones, which implies that increasing cigarette taxes could be regressive. Conclusions Increasing cigarette taxes is the most efficient policy for inducing a reduction in smoking. However, in the case of Peru, an increase in cigarette taxes could be regressive.


RESUMEN Objetivo Examinar los efectos que podría tener un aumento de los impuestos indirectos sobre el tabaco en el Perú sobre el consumo de cigarrillos y determinar si el alza de los impuestos tendría un efecto regresivo. Métodos La elasticidad de la demanda total en función del precio se determinó, por grupos de ingreso, a partir de dos conjuntos de datos: datos trimestrales de series cronológicas para el período de 1993 al 2012 y datos obtenidos en una encuesta transversal de ingresos y gastos para el período del 2008 al 2009. El tipo de función matemática que capta la demanda de cigarrillos en el Perú se determinó a partir de los datos trimestrales; la elasticidad de la demanda en función del precio se calculó tanto para el corto como para el largo plazo. El segundo conjunto de datos y el método de Deaton se usaron para calcular en dos pasos la elasticidad y la elasticidad por grupos. Resultados La elasticidad de la demanda en función del precio fue de -0,7. Esto implica que un aumento de precio de 10% por efecto de un impuesto nuevo reduciría el consumo en 7%. Los cálculos de la elasticidad de la demanda en función del precio por grupos de ingreso revelaron que las familias más pobres no reaccionan más a los cambios de precio que las familias más prósperas, o sea, que un aumento de los impuestos sobre el tabaco podría tener un efecto regresivo. Conclusiones El aumento de los impuestos sobre el tabaco es la política más eficiente para reducir el tabaquismo. Sin embargo, en el caso del Perú dicho aumento podría tener consecuencias regresivas.


Subject(s)
Taxes/economics , Serial Cross-Sectional Studies , Commerce/economics , Tobacco-Derived Products Commerce , Tobacco Products/economics , Smoking Prevention , Peru
6.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 49: 86, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar as estratégias governamentais para redução de preço de medicamentos antirretrovirais para aids no Brasil. MÉTODOS Realizada análise das compras de medicamentos antirretrovirais pelo Ministério da Saúde, de 2005 a 2013. Foram analisados o gasto e o custo do tratamento por ano e comparados com os preços internacionais para o atazanavir. Foram estimadas as reduções com base no contrato da Parceria para Desenvolvimento Produtivo para obtenção de licença voluntária de patente e transferência de tecnologia do atazanavir. RESULTADOS O atazanavir teve peso expressivo nos gastos com antirretrovirais adquiridos no setor privado. Os preços praticados no Brasil foram mais altos que aqueles de referência internacional e não houve evidências da relação entre volume de compra e preço pago pelo Ministério da Saúde, por ser medicamento patenteado. Em relação à estratégia mais recente para reduzir preços, envolvendo produção local da cápsula de 200 mg, as reduções foram menores do que as estimadas. Quanto à cápsula de 300 mg, os valores pagos nos dois primeiros anos após a Parceria para Desenvolvimento Produtivo foram próximos aos estimados. Os preços em valores nominais mantiveram-se praticamente constantes entre 2011 (assinatura da Parceria para Desenvolvimento Produtivo), 2012 e 2013 (após estabelecida a Parceria). CONCLUSÕES A redução do preço de medicamentos é complexa em ambiente de concorrência limitada. O uso da Parceria para Desenvolvimento Produtivo como método para aumentar a capacidade de produção local e reduzir preços levanta questões em relação à redução efetiva dos preços e ao enfrentamento da barreira patentária. Investimentos em pesquisa e desenvolvimento que possam estimular a acumulação tecnológica devem ser considerados pelo governo para fortalecer seu poder de barganha ao negociar preços de medicamentos em situação de monopólio.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Retroviral Agents/economics , Atazanavir Sulfate/economics , Brazil , HIV Infections/economics , Drug Costs , Commerce/economics , Cost Control , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , Health Services Accessibility/economics
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(3): 289-292, mayo-jun. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide a brief history of the illicit tobacco trade between Mexico and the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research included a previously published study: "Cigarette taxes and smuggling: A statistical analysis and historical review", published by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy; US Customs and Border Protection data; various US court documents; General Accountability Office reporting; media reports; other historical material, and a personal interview. RESULTS: The research revealed that there is no credible evidence of organized criminal activity related to the illicit trade in tobacco products from Mexico into the United States. However, there is clear and convincing evidence of organized criminal activity in smuggling tobacco products from the United States into Mexico for at least 167 years. CONCLUSION: Historical records from 1845 into the 21st century clearly demonstrate that the United States was usually the source country for tobacco products moving illegally between the two countries.


OBJETIVO: Describir brevemente la historia del comercio ilícito de tabaco entre Estados Unidos y México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La investigación incluye publicaciones previas, como "Impuestos sobre los cigarrillos y el contrabando: Un análisis histórico y estadístico"; datos de la Agencia de Aduanas y Protección Fronteriza; varios documentos de la Corte; los informes de la Oficina General de Rendición de Cuentas de EU; notas de prensa; materiales históricos, y una entrevista personal. RESULTADOS: La investigación reveló que no hay pruebas creíbles de actividad delictiva organizada relacionada con el comercio ilícito de productos de tabaco de México a EU. Sin embargo, hay pruebas claras y convincentes de que esta actividad se ha realizado de EU a México por lo menos durante 167 años. CONCLUSIÓN: Los registros históricos desde el año 1845 claramente demuestran que EU solía ser el país de origen del tabaco ilegal entre los dos países.


Subject(s)
Humans , Commerce , Crime/trends , Tobacco , Commerce/economics , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Crime/economics , Crime/legislation & jurisprudence , Crime/statistics & numerical data , Emigration and Immigration/legislation & jurisprudence , Mexico , Smoke/analysis , Smoking/economics , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Tars/analysis , Taxes/economics , Taxes/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Industry/economics , Tobacco Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Travel/legislation & jurisprudence , United States
9.
Cad. saúde pública ; 28(3): 527-536, mar. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-616966

ABSTRACT

Em caráter exploratório, o objetivo deste artigo é investigar se há indícios de especialização regressiva no padrão de comércio exterior da indústria farmacêutica brasileira, a partir da liberalização comercial dos anos 1990. Para tanto, foi realizada uma análise estatística descritiva valendo-se de dados de comércio exterior de produtos farmacêuticos e químicos orgânicos, disponíveis no sistema ALICEweb, do Ministério do Desenvolvimento, Indústria e Comércio Exterior, abrangendo os períodos 1989-1995 e 1996-2008. Os resultados, sobretudo a evolução do padrão de comércio com países desenvolvidos, sugerem indícios de especialização regressiva.


Based on an exploratory discussion, the aim of this article is to investigate whether there is evidence of regressive specialization in the foreign trade pattern of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry since trade liberalization in the 1990s. A descriptive statistical analysis drew on data for foreign trade in pharmaceutical and organic chemical products, available in the Aliceweb system of the Ministry of Development, Industry, and Foreign Trade, covering the periods 1989-1995 and 1996-2008. The results, especially concerning trends in Brazil's trade with developed countries, suggest evidence of regressive specialization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Commerce/economics , Drug Industry/economics , International Cooperation , Pharmaceutical Trade , Pharmaceutical Preparations/economics , Brazil , Drug Industry/trends , Internationality , Latin America , Time Factors
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 31(1): 17-24, ene. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-618463

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Validar el Índice de Paridad Poder de Compra Nutricional (Nut3-CiO) como un instrumento que permite comparar los precios calóricos de una dieta saludable versus una dieta no saludable entre regiones o ciudades de un país a través del tiempo. MÉTODOS: Se construyeron índices de precios calóricos y se empleó la "ley de un solo precio" para derivar el índice Nut3-CiO. Se obtuvieron tasas de inflación calóricas sobre las que se realizó estadística descriptiva básica. El Nut3-CiO se aplicó a las principales ciudades de México durante el período enero de 1996 a diciembre 2010. RESULTADOS: El comportamiento estadístico del Nut3-CiO reveló que en las ciudades de México los productos de la dieta habitual son más baratos que los productos de la dieta saludable. Se observó un comportamiento cíclico del índice, una correlación alta entre la inflación de la dieta habitual y la inflación de la canasta básica, y una alta persistencia de los precios. CONCLUSIONES: El índice Nut3-CiO permite comparar periódicamente el diferencial de precios de dos tipos de dietas -habituales y saludables- entre las ciudades de un mismo país. Este instrumento podría ayudar a las autoridades de salud a identificar las ciudades en donde resulta más -o menos- fácil para los consumidores acceder a una dieta habitual o saludable en términos de costo. Asimismo, hace posible estimar el porcentaje de ajuste que deberían tener los precios relativos en cada ciudad para alcanzar los niveles de paridad poder de compra nutricional.


OBJECTIVE: Develop the Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity (Nut3-CiO) as an instrument to compare the caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet between regions or cities in a country over time. METHODS: Indices of caloric prices were constructed and the "law of one price" was used to derive the Nut3-CiO index. Caloric inflation rates were obtained using basic descriptive statistics. The Nut3-CiO was applied in the major cities of Mexico during the period from January 1996 to December 2010. RESULTS: The statistical behavior of the Nut3-CiO revealed that, in Mexican cities, products for a typical diet are less expensive than products for a healthy diet. The findings showed a cyclical behavior to the index, a high correlation between inflation for the typical diet and inflation for the market basket, and a high persistence of prices. CONCLUSIONS: The Nut3-CiO index makes it possible to periodically compare the price differential of two types of diets-typical and healthy-between cities in a single country. This instrument could help health authorities identify the cities where it is easier or more difficult for consumers to access a typical or healthy diet in terms of cost. Furthermore, it makes it possible to estimate the percentage adjustment necessary in each city to attain levels of nutritional purchasing power parity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet/economics , Food/economics , Commerce/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Energy Intake , Mexico , Nutritive Value , Urban Health/economics
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(2): 167-176, agosto 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-608302

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar la forma en que los países del Mercosur acceden, regulan y financian los medicamentos de alto costo (MAC) y proponer estrategias de selección y financiación conjunta a nivel sub-regional. MÉTODOS: Diseño cualitativo, utilizando análisis de contenido de fuentes primarias y secundarias, revisiones documentales, entrevistas, grupos focales y análisis de casos Las variables seleccionadas incluyeron: criterios de selección, acceso, financiación y regulación en los distintos países. Los MAC se clasificaron en aquellos que no modifican el curso natural de la enfermedad y aquellos que tiene eficacia demostrada, utilizando la dosis diaria definida para comparar los costos entre tratamientos clásicos y los realizados con MAC. RESULTADOS: Los países del Mercosur carecen en su gran mayoría de estrategias formales para enfrentar las demandas de MAC, y gobiernos y aseguradoras terminan por financiarlos por vía judicial. Los análisis de casos muestran que existen MAC sin eficacia comprobada que igualmente generan demanda. Las compras atomizadas, los compromisos internacionales respecto a propiedad intelectual y el bajo poder de negociación incrementan los precios de MAC exponencialmente, poniendo en riesgo la economía de los sistemas sanitarios. CONCLUSIONES: Los MAC deben ser regulados y seleccionados racionalmente permitiendo que solo aquellos que beneficien sustantivamente a la población sean aceptados. Para financiar los MAC así seleccionados se requieren estrategias comunes entre países que incluyan opciones tales como flexibilidades de acuerdos comerciales, creación de fondos nacionales de recursos o compra conjunta entre países para potenciar su poder de negociación.


OBJECTIVE: Determine how the Mercosur countries access, regulate, and finance costly drugs and propose joint selection and financing strategies at the subregional level. METHODS: Qualitative design, using content analyses of primary and secondary sources, document reviews, interviews, focus groups, and case studies. The variables selected included: selection criteria, access, financing, and regulations in the various countries. Costly drugs were divided into those that do not alter the natural course of the disease and those with demonstrated efficacy, using the defined daily dose to compare the costs of classical treatments and those involving costly drugs. RESULTS: The Mercosur countries generally lack formal strategies for dealing with the demand for costly drugs, and governments and insurers wind up financing them by court order. The case studies show that there are costly drugs whose efficacy has not been established but that nonetheless generate demand. The fragmentation of procurement, international commitments with regard to intellectual property, and low negotiating power exponentially increase the price of costly drugs, putting health system finances in jeopardy. CONCLUSIONS: Costly drugs must be regulated and rationally selected so that only those that substantively benefit people are accepted. To finance the drugs so selected, common country strategies are needed that include such options as flexible in trade agreements, the creation of national resource funds, or joint procurement by countries to enhance their negotiating power.


Subject(s)
Drug Costs , Health Services Accessibility , International Cooperation , International Agencies/organization & administration , Pharmaceutical Preparations/economics , Global Health/economics , Algorithms , Argentina , Brazil , Cost Savings , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Commerce/economics , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Developing Countries/economics , Drug Costs/legislation & jurisprudence , Financing, Organized , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Services Accessibility/economics , International Agencies/economics , International Cooperation/legislation & jurisprudence , Paraguay , Poverty , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Therapies, Investigational/economics , Uruguay
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(3): 1079-1088, Sept. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637982

ABSTRACT

In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 1079-1088. Epub 2010 September 01.


En los bosques tropicales, el consumo de carne silvestre representa una opción o la única fuente de proteínas para algunas poblaciones humanas. Este estudio analizó el comercio ilegal de carne de animales silvestres con fines alimenticios en un mercado de la Amazonia brasileña. El comercio de carne fue observado todo el año (2005), a través de entrevistas a los vendedores y consumidores, para la valoración del perfil socioeconómico de los comerciantes, determinar las principales especies y los subproductos vendidos, el origen geográfico, valor comercial, frecuencia de venta y demanda de los productos. Los datos indicaron que los comerciantes tenían una alta dependencia financiera de la actividad, obteniendo una renta mensual de US$ 271.49. Se observó la comercialización de 5 970kg de carne silvestre y su consumo fue confirmado por 94% de los entrevistados, que reportaron 27 etnoespecies: 19 mamíferos, seis reptiles y dos aves. El mismo porcentaje de los entrevistados (94%) han comprado carne de 18 especies silvestres: 12 mamíferos y seis reptiles. La mayoría del comercio ilegal de animales silvestres y la importante demanda de productos en la población local apuntan a la necesidad de políticas de desarrollo sostenible para las especies de caza, que garanticen la conservación del medio ambiente, una mejoría en la calidad de vida y la manutención cultural local.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Animals, Wild , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Meat/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Commerce/economics , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Meat/economics , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 34(1): 175-184, abr. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-517522

ABSTRACT

The organic agriculture is a production system that aims the social, economic and environmental sustainability, seeks the production of foodthrough natural means, without the use of pesticides, and results in theproduction of healthier food. The production of food free from chemicacontaminants may be considered one of the main advantages of this system.The market of organic food is growing all over the world, mainly motivatedby the concern of consumers with health. This article is a review about theorganic agriculture in Brazil, approaching its conceptual aspects, foodsafety and marketing. This study shows a revision in specialized literatureabout the organic production system. The survey was performed from 1996to 2008.


La agricultura orgánica es un sistema de producción que tiene como objetivo la sostenibilidad ambiental, social y económica, y busca la producción de alimentos a través de medios naturales, sin el uso de plaguicidas, lo que resulta en la producción de alimentos más saludables. La producción de alimentos libres de contaminantes químicos es considerada una de las principales ventajas del sistema. El mercado de alimentos saludables está creciendo en todo el mundo, estimulado principalmente por la preocupación de los consumidores con la salud. Este ar tículo es una revisión de la agricultura orgánica en Brasil, incluye aspectos conceptuales de seguridad alimentaria y comercialización. Es una revisión de la literatura sobre el sistema orgánico de producción de alimentos. El levantamiento comprende el período entre 1996 y 2008.


A agricultura orgânica é um sistema de produção que visa à sustentabilidade ambiental, social e econômica, e busca a produção de alimentos através de meios naturais, sem a utilização de agrotóxicos, resultando na produção de alimentos mais saudáveis. A produção de alimentos livres de contaminantes químicos pode ser considerada uma das principais vantagens deste sistema. O mercado de alimentos orgânicos está crescendo em todo o mundo, motivado principalmente pela preocupação do consumidor com a saúde. Este artigo faz uma revisão sobre a agricultura orgânica no Brasil, abordando aspectos conceituais, de segurança dos alimentos e comercialização. Trata-se de um estudo de revisão, em literatura especializada, sobre sistema orgânico de produção de alimentos. O levantamento abrangeu o período de 1996 a 2008.


Subject(s)
Environment , Eating , Food, Organic , Organic Agriculture/policies , Commerce/economics
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44558

ABSTRACT

This thesis examines a crisis of ginseng capital and the source of crisis during Daehan empire. After the China-Japan war of 1894, the Japanese merchants actively engaged in taking over the ginseng fields, so that ginseng-cultivating Koreans suffered substantial economic losses. After the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese imperialists undertook the 'Currency Arranging Business'(CAB) in order to set a cornerstone for their invasion of Korea. The CAB eventually provoked a wide depression which in turn produced massive number of Korean merchants going bankrupt. The Kaesong merchants were no exception, since CAB stroke a severe blow on the ginseng industry, which relied heavily on the commercial capitals of the Kaesong merchants. Moreover, the Japanese imperialists broke the previous promise and bought ginseng at a dirt-cheap price, which put ginseng-cultivating Koreans in serious trouble. In order to combat such crisis, ginseng field-owners protested against such injustice by petitioning or stirring up Kaesong popular riot in vain, and consequently the number of ginseng field-owners decreased sharply. A few of the ginseng field-owners survived, and managed to maintain and even flourish more than before. These successful owners were characterized with their strong link with the official circle, utilizing their influence in ginseng industry. Their original background was not identical as some came from the influential families of Kaesong area for generations, while others made their own fortunes and continue to prosper through the difficult times of the late of the Daehan empire period.


Subject(s)
Agriculture/economics , Commerce/economics , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Japan , Korea , Panax , Riots/history
18.
São Paulo; Editora da Universidade de São Paulo; 2 ed; 2008. 433 p. tab, graf.(Milton Santos, 4).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601706

ABSTRACT

Apresenta a contribuição de Milton Santos à busca de uma teoria do espaço e da urbanização no Terceiro Mundo. O geógrafo considera que o fenômeno do subdesenvolvimento carece de um esforço de compreensão global, sem o qual a solução de problemas particulares é impossível. É um esforço original de interpretação sistemática e interdisciplinar da evolução econômica social, política e ao mesmo tempo geográfica do conjunto dos países do Terceiro Mundo. Partindo da análise de inúmeras variáveis, e apoiado num vasto elenco de exemplos baseados na África, América Latina e na Ásia, o autor chega a interpretações próprias sobre o fenômeno complexo que é o subdesenvolvimento e suas repercussões na vida das populações a ele submetidas, sobretudo nos comportamentos espaciais e suas leis em uma situação de dependência.


Subject(s)
Economics , Developing Countries/economics , Urbanization , Commerce/economics , Industry/economics , Job Market , Poverty
19.
Rev. cient. (Maracaibo) ; 17(6): 606-613, nov.-dic. 2007. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-548561

ABSTRACT

Considerando la importancia de la producción y el consumo de carne bovina en Chile, se estudió el comportamiento de los márgenes de comercialización y su efecto en el precio pagado al productor y el impacto que los cambios en los precios pagados al productor y en la magnitud de la demanda ejercen sobrela dinámica temporal de los márgenes comerciales de la carne bovina en Chile, entre 1990 y 2005. Se determinó un aumento de los márgenes comerciales de la carne bovina junto a una disminución de la participación del productor en el precio final del producto. La mayor proporción del margen comercial total corresponde a los agentes minoristas, pero son los mayoristas quienes han aumentado relativamente más su participación. Utilizando series mensuales de precios y márgenes de comercialización, entre 1990 y 2005, se estimó la ecuación de regresión múltiple que relaciona los precios pagados al productor como variable dependiente y los márgenes mayorista y minorista, como variables explicativas. Se obtuvo un efecto negativo de ambos márgenes, expresados en valor absoluto y relativo, en los precios pagados al productor de carne bovina. Mediante la estimación de un modelo dinámico de márgenes comerciales, utilizando series mensuales de precios y cantidades producidas de carne en vara entre 1998 y 2005, se comprobó la relación inversa entre los cambios en los precios pagados al productor y la evolución de los márgenes comerciales en los canales de distribución de carne bovina. No se encontró evidencia que respalde que incrementos temporales en lascantidades demandadas de carne provoquen reducciones en los márgenes comerciales de este producto alimenticio.


Considering the importance of the production and the consumption of cattle meat in Chile, there was studied the behavior of the margins of marketing and its effect in the price paid to the producer and, the impact that the changes in the prices paid to the producer and in the magnitude of the demand exercise on the temporary dynamics of the commercial margins of cattle meat in Chile between 1990 and 2005. There decided an increase of the commercial margins of the cattle meat close to a decrease of the participation of the producer in the final price of the product. The major proportion of the commercial total margin corresponds to the agents retailers, but they are the wholesalers whom have increased relatively more its participation. Using monthly series of prices and margins of marketing between 1990 and 2005, there was thought the equation of multiple regression that relates the prices paid to the producer as dependent variable and the margins wholesaler and retailer as explanatory variables. There was obtained a negative effect of both margins, expressed in absolute and relative value, in the prices paid to the producer of bovine meat. By means of the estimation of a dynamical model of commercial margins using monthly series of prices and quantities produced of meat in rod between 1998 and 2005, there was verified the inverse relationship between the changes in the prices paid to the producer and the evolution of the commercial margins in the distributions channels of bovine meat. There is not evidence that endorses that temporary increases in the quantities demanded of meat provoke reductions in the commercial margins of this food product.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Animals , Commerce/economics , Food Production , Livestock Industry/statistics & numerical data , Meat Industry
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