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1.
Rev. arch. med. familiar gen. (En línea) ; 21(1): 11-19, mar. 2024. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553481

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la creciente preocupación por eventos epidémicos de origen zoonótico generó la necesidad de estrategias integrales que corrigiesen la baja adaptabilidad y tensiones que se generan al implementar acciones de orden jerárquico superior en el contexto comunitario. Con el objeto de explicar un Enfoque Rápido en Contexto Comunitario (ERCC), este trabajo se propone evaluar dentro del contexto de un programa de salud pública la participación comunitaria en la prevención del Hantavirus en la Comarca Andina del Paralelo 42. Metodología: El presente ERCC utilizó visitas y observaciones al sitio, entrevistas cara a cara y grupales, precedidas por una revisión documental de la literatura. La información se recopiló en un corto período de tiempo y el análisis se utilizó para desarrollar recomendaciones informadas para los tomadores de decisiones de salud pública. Resultados: Se observo que cada comunidad enfrenta desafíos más allá del hantavirus y es esencial que epidemiólogos, prestadores de servicios asistenciales y municipalidades trabajen más estrechamente con la población local para prevenir y manejar mejor cualquier brote de enfermedad. Se pudieron identificar 6 recomendaciones que le permitirían a las comunidades un mejor manejo de futuros brotes con un enfoque participativo. Conclusiones: El ERCC es una intervención rápida y discreta que puede ser llevada a cabo por un pequeño equipo con una interferencia mínima en la comunidad. El ERCC también podría ser adaptado por las autoridades de salud pública a muchos contextos diferentes, incluso con grupos vulnerables, para ayudar a que la promoción y la prevención sean más relevantes y efectivas a nivel local (AU)


Introduction: the growing concern for epidemic events of zoonotic origin generated the need for comprehensive strategies that correct the low adaptability and tensions generated when implementing actions of higher hierarchical order in the community context. In order to explain a Rapid Approach in Community Context (ERCC), this paper aims to evaluate within the context of a public health program community participation in the prevention of Hantavirus in the Andean Region of the 42nd Parallel. Methodology: The present ERCC used site visits and observations, face-to-face and group interviews, preceded by a documentary review of the literature. The information was collected over a short period of time and the analysis was used to develop informed recommendations for public health decision makers. Results: It was observed that each community faces challenges beyond hantavirus and it is essential that epidemiologists, care providers and municipalities work more closely with the local population to better prevent and manage any disease outbreak. We were able to identify 6 recommendations that would allow communities to better manage future outbreaks with a participatory approach. Conclusions: The ERCC is a rapid and discreet intervention that can be carried out by a small team with minimal interference in the community. The ERCC could also be adapted by public health authorities to many different contexts, including with vulnerable groups, to help make promotion and prevention more relevant and effective at the local level (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Preventive Health Services , Local Health Strategies , Orthohantavirus , Community Participation , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Intersectoral Collaboration
2.
REVISA (Online) ; 13(Especial 1): 284-294, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538190

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Inquérito coproscópico para reavaliar na população do estudo a frequência de parasitos intestinais identificados numa primeira etapa e investigar mudanças nos fatores de risco, adesão ao tratamento e às ações de prevenção e controle de enteroparasitoses. Método:Realização de exames coproscópicos e aplicação de um formulário estruturado para determinar a prevalência de enteroparasitoses e o perfil socioeconômico e sanitário da população de três microáreas do bairro Mangabeira na cidade de Feira de Santana, Bahia. Resultados:Em 2013 (primeiro período do estudo) a prevalência de enteroparasitos foi de 44,3% com maior frequência para Ascaris lumbricoides(32,3%), Trichuris trichiura(25,8%), Schistosoma mansoni(9,7%) e Giardia intestinalis(9,7%). No segundo período (2016) observou-se aumento da frequência do S. mansoni(19,3%) e G. intestinalis(16,1%), além do diagnóstico de Entamoeba histolytica/dispar(3,2%) não identificadas no inquérito anterior. Não foram observadas alterações das variáveis socioeconômicas e sanitárias na população reavaliada. Atividades educativas foram realizadas levando em consideração o perfil epidemiológico da população. Os portadores positivos foram encaminhados para tratamento, porém as taxas de curas foram baixas. Conclusão:Observou-se a necessidade de intensificação da promoção das ações de educação em saúde de forma continuada, associada à melhoria das condições sanitáriase ambientais da comunidade.


Objective: Coproscopic survey to reassess in study population the frequency of intestinal parasites identified in a first stage and investigate changes in risk factors, adherence to treatment and prevention and control for enteroparasitosis Method:Carrying out coproscopic exams and applying a structured form to determine the prevalence of enteroparasitosis and the socioeconomic and health profile of the population of three micro-areas of the Mangabeira neighborhood in city of Feira de Santana, Bahia. Results:In 2013 (first period) the prevalence of enteroparasites was 44.3%, with a higher frequency for Ascaris lumbricoides (32.3%), Trichuris trichiura (25.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (9.7%) and Giardia intestinalis (9.7%). In the second period (2016), an increase in the frequency of S. mansoni (19.3%) and G. intestinalis (16.1%) was observed, in addition to the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (3.2%) not identified in the previous survey. No changes were observed in socioeconomic and health variables in the reevaluated population. Educational activities were carried out considering the epidemiological profile of the population. Positive carriers were referred for treatment, but cure rates were low. Conclusion:There was a need to intensify the promotion of health education actions on an ongoing basis, associated with improving the sanitary and environmental conditions of the community.


Objetivo: Encuesta coproscópica para reevaluar la población de estudio la frecuencia de parásitos intestinales identificados en una primera etapa e investigar cambios en los factores de riesgo, adherencia al tratamiento y acciones de prevención y control de enteroparasitosis. Método:Realización de exámenes coproscópicos y aplicación de un formulario estructurado para determinar la prevalencia de enteroparasitosis y el perfil socioeconómico y de salud de la población de tres microáreas del barrio Mangabeira de la ciudad de Feira de Santana, Bahía. Resultados:En 2013 la prevalencia de enteroparásitos fue 44,3%, con mayor frecuencia para Ascaris lumbricoides (32,3%), Trichuris trichiura (25,8%), Schistosoma mansoni (9,7%) y Giardia intestinalis (9,7%). En el segundo período se observó un aumento en la frecuencia de S. mansoni (19,3%) y G. intestinalis (16,1%), además Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (3,2%) no identificado en la encuesta anterior. No se observaron cambios en las variables socioeconómicas y de salud en la población reevaluada. Las actividades educativas se realizaron teniendo en cuenta el perfil epidemiológico de la población. Los portadores positivos fueron remitidos para tratamiento, pero las tasas de curación fueron bajas. Conclusión:Necesario intensificar la promoción de acciones de educación en salud de manera continua, asociadas al mejoramiento de las condiciones sanitarias y ambientales de la comunidad.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control
3.
Vet. zootec ; 31: 1-10, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1552823

ABSTRACT

Diseases arising from the imbalance between the triad environment, humans, and animals affect individuals' health, as well as the social, and economic well-being of the world's population. Across the globe, health education activities are being conducted to prevent and control zoonoses. To guide future educational interventions, we reviewed scientific articles published in the last five years to characterize and verify the tools: target audience, duration, effectiveness, and gaps and difficulties. Four databases were searched, and 16 articles were selected for the meta-analysis, with 81.3% of the studies being conducted in underdeveloped or developing countries. Of these, 56.3% involved children under 14 years of age, and 62.5% involved activities in elementary and middle schools. The researchers are the professionals who are the most engaged in the activities, and 56.3% of the studies are conducted by veterinarians. Several new teaching tools have been proposed, demonstrating remarkable effectiveness. For systematic reviews to provide a guide for the design of new educational activities, it is necessary to better describe teaching methodologies and evaluation tools, as well as to evaluate in the long term, not only the impact of knowledge on the population but also the incidence of zoonoses.


As doenças decorrentes do desequilíbrio entre a tríade ambiente, humanos e animais afetam a saúde dos indivíduos, bem como o bem-estar social e econômico da população mundial. Em todo o mundo, atividades de educação em saúde estão sendo realizadas para prevenir e controlar zoonoses. Para orientar futuras intervenções educativas, revisamos artigos científicos publicados nos últimos cinco anos para caracterizar e verificar as ferramentas: público-alvo, duração, efetividade, lacunas e dificuldades. Quatro bases de dados foram pesquisadas e 16 artigos foram selecionados para a meta-análise, com 81,3% dos estudos sendo conduzidos em países subdesenvolvidos ou em desenvolvimento. Destes, 56,3% envolviam menores de 14 anos e 62,5% envolviam atividades no ensino fundamental e médio. Os pesquisadores são os profissionais mais engajados nas atividades, sendo que 56,3% dos estudos são conduzidos por veterinários. Várias novas ferramentas de ensino foram propostas, demonstrando notável eficácia. Para que as revisões sistemáticas orientem o desenho de novas ações educativas, é necessário descrever melhor as metodologias de ensino e os instrumentos de avaliação, bem como avaliar a longo prazo não só o impacto do conhecimento na população, mas também a incidência de zoonoses.


Las enfermedades derivadas del desequilibrio entre el medio ambiente, los seres humanos y los animales afectan la salud de las personas, así como el bienestar social y económico de la población mundial. En todo el mundo se están realizando actividades de educación sanitaria para prevenir y controlar las zoonosis. Para orientar futuras intervenciones educativas, revisamos artículos científicos publicados en los últimos cinco años para caracterizar y verificar las herramientas: público objetivo, duración, efectividad, vacíos y dificultades. Se realizaron búsquedas en cuatro bases de datos y se seleccionaron 16 artículos para el metanálisis, y el 81,3 % de los estudios se realizaron en países subdesarrollados o en vías de desarrollo. De estos, el 56,3% involucraba a niños menores de 14 años y el 62,5% involucraba actividades en educación primaria y secundaria. Los investigadores son los profesionales más comprometidos con las actividades, siendo el 56,3% de los estudios realizados por veterinarios. Se han propuesto varias herramientas didácticas nuevas que han demostrado una eficacia notable. Para que las revisiones sistemáticas orienten el diseño de nuevas acciones educativas, es necesario describir mejor las metodologías docentes y los instrumentos de evaluación, así como evaluar a largo plazo no solo el impacto del conocimiento en la población, sino también la incidencia de las zoonosis.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Education/methods , Zoonosis Surveillance , Health Promotion/statistics & numerical data
4.
J. nurs. health ; 13(3): 13322668, dez. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1537706

ABSTRACT

Objective:to identify the knowledge produced about the actions/interventions of education in health related to Spotted Fever. Method:integrative literature review, carried out in the following databases: US National Library of Medicine/Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences and the Nursing Database. The inclusion criteria was original scientific articles and/or theoretical scientific articles, in English, Spanish and Portuguese and without time restriction. The search was conducted in January 2022. Results:five studies from Brazil, United States of Americaand Mexico were included. Changes in epidemiological indicators were observed in the two intervention studies. Conclusion: this study showed that health education for Spotted Fever is still a little explored field, highlighting the importance of educational actions for the prevention of the disease.


Objetivo:identificar as evidências científicas sobre educação em saúde emFebre Maculosa. Método:revisão integrativa da literatura realizada nas bases de dados: US National Library of Medicine/Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e na Base de Dados em Enfermagem. Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos científicos originais e/ou artigos científicos teóricos, em inglês, espanhol e português e sem restrição de tempo. A análise dos resultados, ocorreu em janeiro de 2022. Resultados:foram incluídos cinco estudos provenientes do Brasil, Estados Unidos e México. Mudanças nos indicadores epidemiológicos foram observados nos dois estudos de intervenção. Conclusão:aeducação em saúde para Febre Maculosa ainda é um campo pouco explorado, evidenciando a importância das ações educativas para a prevenção da doença.


Objetivo: identificar la evidencia científica sobre educación para la salud en Fiebre Manchada. Método: revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada en: Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina de EE. UU./Sistema de análisis y recuperación de literatura médica en línea, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Biblioteca Científica Electrónica en Línea, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud y Base de Datos de Enfermería. Los criterios de inclusión fueron artículos científicos originales Y teóricos, en inglés, español y portugués. La búsquedase realizó en enero de 2022. Resultados: incluyeron cinco estudios, de Brasil, United States of America y México. Se observaron cambios en los indicadores epidemiológicos en dos estudios de intervención. Conclusión: la educación para la salud para la Fiebre Manchada es todavía un campo poco explorado, destacando la importancia de las acciones educativas para la prevención de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , Communicable Disease Control , Health Education , Tick-Borne Diseases , Health Promotion
5.
Rev. ADM ; 80(5): 255-258, sept.-oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531084

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se vive una crisis de confianza en la ciencia y una época de menosprecio a los conocimientos y evidencias. Las opiniones de los líderes políticos y otras figuras públicas ajenas a los problemas de salud tienen una mayor consideración y peso que los juicios emitidos por los expertos. Una evidencia que demuestra la debilidad de México en el campo de la salud son dos hechos en los cuales las autoridades del país son los culpables que son: la desaparición del Seguro Popular y la pobre respuesta a la pandemia de COVID-19. Conclusiones: la pandemia no termina por decreto, se logrará con cuidados y prevención realizada por el gobierno, instituciones y personal de salud y la sociedad (AU)


Introduction: we are living through a crisis of confidence in science and an era of disregard for knowledge and evidence. The opinions of political leaders and other public figures who are not involved in health problems are given greater consideration and weight than the judgments made by experts. Evidence that demonstrates Mexico's weakness in the field of health are two facts in which the country's authorities are to blame: the disappearance of Seguro Popular and the poor response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: the pandemic does not end by decree, it will be achieved with care and prevention carried out by the government, health institutions and personnel and society (AU)


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , World Health Organization , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Endemic Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Policy/trends , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(3): 360-373, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533947

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las tasas de éxito del tratamiento de la tuberculosis continúan siendo subóptimas. Objetivo. Identificar los factores asociados al tratamiento no exitoso para tuberculosis en pacientes con antecedentes de tratamiento para la tuberculosis. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo, analítico, de cohorte de pacientes que reingresaron a un programa de micobacterias en Cali, Colombia. Se incluyeron mayores de 15 años con tuberculosis pulmonar entre el 2015 y el 2019 con antecedentes de tratamiento para la tuberculosis. Se excluyeron los pacientes con tuberculosis resistente. Resultados. Ingresaron 605 pacientes con antecedentes de tratamiento, 60 % por tratamiento inconcluso y 40 % por recaída. En comparación con los pacientes que reingresaron por recaída (ORa= 2,34; IC=1,62-3,38), las variables que explicaron de manera independiente el no tener éxito con el tratamiento para la tuberculosis al egreso fueron: estar en situación de calle (ORa = 2,45; IC = 1,54-3,89), ser farmacodependiente (ORa = 1,95; IC=1,24-3,05), tener coinfección tuberculosis/VIH (ORa = 1,69; IC =1,00- 2,86) o diabetes (ORa =1,89; IC=1,29-2,77), y el incumplimiento de un tratamiento previo por pérdida de seguimiento, abandono u otras causas. Las variables programáticas que favorecieron el éxito del tratamiento fueron la asesoría de la prueba voluntaria de VIH (p < 0,001) y la realización de la prueba de VIH (p < 0,001). Conclusión. Estar en situación de calle, ser farmacodependiente, tener coinfección de tuberculosis y VIH, o diabetes, así como el incumplimiento del tratamiento previo por pérdida del seguimiento, abandono o fracaso del mismo, dificultaron el éxito del tratamiento antituberculoso. En la primera atención al reingreso de los pacientes con tuberculosis se deben identificar y abordar estas características.


Introduction. The success rates in the treatment of tuberculosis are suboptimal. Objective. To identify associated factors with the lack of success of antituberculosis treatment in patients with a tuberculosis treatment history. Materials and methods. We performed a retrospective, analytical, observational, and cohort study of patients reentering the Mycobacterium program in Cali, Colombia. We included patients over 15 years old with pulmonary tuberculosis between 2015 and 2019 and a history of tuberculosis treatment. Patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis were excluded. Results. A total of 605 patients with a treatment history were included, 60% due to unfinished treatment and 40% due to relapse. Compared to patients reentering due to relapse (ORa=2.34, CI=1.62-3.38), the independent variables associated with treatment failure at discharge were homelessness (ORa=2.45, CI=1.54-3.89), substance dependence (ORa=1.95, CI=1.24-3.05), tuberculosis/HIV coinfection (ORa=1.69, CI=1.00-2.86), diabetes (ORa=1.89, CI=1.29-2.77), and unfinished previous tuberculosis treatment due to follow-up loss, abandonment, or other causes. Programmatic variables favoring treatment success were voluntary HIV testing counseling (p<0.001) and HIV testing (p<0.001). Conclusion. Homelessness, substance dependence, tuberculosis/HIV coinfection, diabetes, and incomplete previous treatment due to loss to follow-up, abandonment, or treatment failure hindered the success of antituberculosis. These characteristics should be identified and addressed during the initial care of patients reentering treatment for tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Epidemiologic Factors , Communicable Disease Control , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Health Services Accessibility
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202767, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435635

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La pubertad se manifiesta inicialmente por la aparición de los caracteres sexuales secundarios, como consecuencia de cambios hormonales que progresivamente conducen a la madurez sexual completa. En Argentina y el mundo, la pandemia ocasionada por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 generó un confinamiento que pudo haber interferido en el inicio y tempo del desarrollo puberal. Objetivo. Describir la percepción de los endocrinólogos pediatras del país sobre las consultas por sospecha de pubertad precoz y/o pubertad de rápida progresión durante la pandemia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal. Encuesta anónima a endocrinólogos pediatras pertenecientes a la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría y/o a la Asociación de Endocrinología Pediátrica Argentina, en diciembre de 2021. Resultados. Respondieron la encuesta 83 de 144 endocrinólogos pediátricos (tasa de respuesta 58 %). Todos consideraron que aumentó la consulta por desarrollo precoz o temprano, ya sea en sus variantes telarca precoz (84 %), pubarca precoz (26 %) y/o pubertad precoz (95 %). El 99 % acuerda con que se ha dado en mayor medida en niñas. La totalidad de los encuestados también considera que aumentó el diagnóstico de pubertad precoz central. El 96,4 % considera que ha aumentado el número de pacientes tratados con análogos de GnRH. Conclusión. Nuestros resultados sobre la percepción de endocrinólogos pediatras coinciden con datos publicados en otras regiones sobre el aumento del diagnóstico de pubertad precoz durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Se reafirma la necesidad de generar registros nacionales de pubertad precoz central, difundir las evidencias para su detección y abordaje oportuno.


Introduction. Puberty is manifested initially by the onset of secondary sexual characteristics as a result of hormonal changes that progressively lead to complete sexual maturity. In Argentina and worldwide, the lockdown resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may have interfered in the onset and timing of pubertal development. Objective. To describe the perception of pediatric endocrinologists in Argentina regarding consultations for suspected precocious and/or rapidly progressive puberty during the pandemic. Materials and methods. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. Anonymous survey among pediatric endocrinologists members of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría and/or the Asociación de Endocrinología Pediátrica Argentina administered in December 2021. Results. Out of 144 pediatric endocrinologists, 83 completed the survey (rate of response: 58%). All of them considered that consultation for precocious or early puberty increased, either in terms of early thelarche (84%), early pubarche (26%), and/or precocious puberty (95%). Ninety-nine percent agreed that this has occurred to a greater extent in girls. All survey respondents also consider that the diagnosis of central precocious puberty has increased. In total, 96.4% of respondents consider that the number of patients treated with GnRH analogs has increased. Conclusion. Our results about the perception of pediatric endocrinologists are consistent with data published in other regions on the increase in the diagnosis of precocious puberty during the COVID-19 pandemic. We underscore the need to develop national registries of central precocious puberty, and to disseminate the evidence for a timely detection and management


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Endocrinologists , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202840, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435638

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Durante la pandemia por COVID-19, observamos un aumento de consultas por pubertad precoz (PP). Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia de PP y su progresión antes y durante la pandemia. Métodos. Estudio retrospectivo, observacional y analítico. Se evaluaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes que consultaron en Endocrinología Infantil entre abril de 2018 y marzo de 2021. Se analizaron las consultas por sospecha de PP durante la pandemia (período 3) y se compararon con 2 años previos (períodos 1 y 2). Se recolectaron datos clínicos y estudios complementarios de la evaluación inicial y su progresión. Resultados. Se analizaron 5151 consultas. Se observó un aumento de consultas por sospecha de PP durante el período 3 (21 % vs.10 % y 11 %, p <0,001). Los pacientes que consultaron por sospecha de PP durante el período 3 aumentaron 2,3 veces (80 vs. 29 y 31, p <0,001). El 95 % fueron niñas; esa población fue analizada. Se incluyeron 132 pacientes que fueron similares en edad, peso, talla, edad ósea y determinaciones hormonales en los 3 períodos. En el período 3, se observó un menor índice de masa corporal, mayor porcentaje de estadio mamario Tanner 3-4 y mayor longitud uterina. Se indicó tratamiento al diagnóstico en el 26 % de los casos. En el resto, se controló su evolución. Durante el seguimiento, se observó una evolución rápidamente progresiva con mayor frecuencia durante el período 3 (47 % vs. 8 % vs. 13 %; p: 0,02). Conclusiones. Evidenciamos un aumento de la PP y una evolución rápidamente progresiva en niñas durante la pandemia.


Introduction. During the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in consultations for precocious puberty (PP) was observed. Our objective was to determine the frequency of PP and its progression before and during the pandemic. Methods. Retrospective, observational, analytical study. The medical records of patients who consulted with the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology between April 2018 and March 2021 were assessed. Consultations for suspected PP during the pandemic (period 3) were analyzed and compared to the 2 previous years (periods 1 and 2). Clinical data and ancillary tests done in the initial assessment and PP progression information were collected. Results. Data from 5151 consultations were analyzed. An increase in consultations for suspected PP was observed during period 3 (21% versus 10% and 11%, p < 0.001). Patients who consulted for suspected PP during period 3 increased 2.3-fold (80 versus 29 and 31, p < 0.001). In total, 95% were female; this was the population analyzed. We included 132 patients with similar age, weight, height, bone age, and hormonal characteristics in the 3 periods. During period 3, a lower body mass index, a higher percentage of Tanner breast stage 3­4, and a greater uterine length were observed. Treatment was indicated upon diagnosis in 26% of the cases. In the rest, their evolution was monitored. During follow-up, a rapidly progressive course was observed more frequently in period 3 (47% versus 8% versus 13%, p: 0.02). Conclusions. We observed an increase in PP and a rapidly progressive evolution in girls during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/drug therapy , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202849, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435646

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Desde inicios de la pandemia por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), fue comunicado en varios países un incremento de las consultas de niñas con pubertad precoz central idiopática (PPCI), sin que contáramos con datos argentinos. Este aumento estaría vinculado con los cambios en el estilo de vida y los niveles de estrés resultantes del aislamiento que afectó particularmente a la población infantil. Objetivos. 1) Describir la evolución de la incidencia de PPCI con requerimiento de inhibición del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-gonadal (EHHG) en niñas entre 2010 y 2021 en una cohorte del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. 2) Comparar las características de las niñas, con dicho diagnóstico realizado durante la pandemia, con las de un grupo control. Métodos. Serie de tiempo interrumpida y estudio de casos y controles. Resultados. La incidencia anual fue estable entre 2010 y 2017. Desde 2017 hubo un ascenso anual que promedió el 59,9 % (IC95 % 18,6-115,5) y pareciera haberse acelerado durante la pandemia. Constatamos asociación entre haber desarrollado PPCI y haber requerido tratamiento inhibitorio entre el 01 de junio de 2020 y el 31 de mayo de 2021, y dos variables: edad de menarca materna (OR 0,46; IC95 % 0,28-0,77) y antecedente familiar de PPCI (OR 4,42; IC95 % 1,16-16,86). Conclusión. Evidenciamos desde 2017 un aumento significativo en la incidencia de PPCI con requerimiento de inhibición del EHHG. El incremento en la exposición a diversos desencadenantes ambientales durante la pandemia por COVID-19 podría haber ejercido mayor influencia en las niñas con alguna predisposición genética.


Introduction. Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, consultations of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) increased in several countries, but there were no data from Argentina. This increase may be related to changes in lifestyle and stress levels resulting from the lockdown, which particularly affected the child population. Objectives. 1) To describe the progression of the incidence of ICPP requiring inhibition of the hypothalamic- pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in girls between 2010 and 2021 in a cohort from the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. 2) To compare the characteristics of girls diagnosed with ICPP during the pandemic with those of a control group. Methods. Interrupted time-series and case-control study. Results. The annual incidence remained stable between 2010 and 2017. Since 2017, it increased to an average of 59.9% (95% CI: 18.6­115.5) and appears to have accelerated during the pandemic. We found an association between ICPP and requiring inhibitory treatment between June 1 st, 2020 andMay 31 st, 2021 and 2 variables: maternal age at menarche (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.28­0.77) and family history of ICPP (OR: 4.42, 95% CI: 1.16­16.86). Conclusion. We evidenced a significant increase in the incidence of ICPP with requirement of HPG axis inhibition since 2017. Increased exposure to various environmental triggers during the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a greater influence in girls with some genetic predisposition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Incidence , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pandemics
10.
Rev. ADM ; 80(2): 70-75, mar.-abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512937

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los tratamientos bucodentales son procedimientos que requieren de un diagnóstico visual y táctil; existe alto riesgo de contagio por productos biológicos. Objetivo: determinar los tipos de tratamientos y barreras de protección implementados antes y durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en tres entidades de México. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, analítico y longitudinal en odontólogos de atención clínica privada, instituciones educativas y/o de salud, mediante un muestreo no probabilístico por cuotas de 100 odontólogos por entidad. La información fue recopilada en un formulario de Google distribuido vía WhatsApp y correos electrónicos. Los datos se procesaron en el SPSS v. 22. Resultados: los tratamientos implementados antes del periodo pandémico fueron los programados con 87.2%, durante la pandemia de COVID-19, la atención principal continuó programada (90.9%), las barreras de protección que más aumentaron fueron la protección ocular como gafas protectoras (84.8%) y careta facial (83.1%), presentando la sustitución de la mascarilla tricapa por ser de alta filtración KN95 (78.0%) y el traje aislante (53.0%). Conclusión: los tratamientos realizados antes y durante la pandemia fueron programados, las barreras que incrementaron fueron gafas protectoras, careta, mascarilla KN95 y traje aislante (AU)


Introduction: oral treatments are procedures that require a visual and tactile diagnosis, there is a high risk of infection by biological products. Objective: determine the types of treatments and protection barriers implemented before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in three states in Mexico. Material and methods: it was an observational, analytical and longitudinal study in private clinical care dentists, educational and/or health institutions, through a non-probabilistic sampling by quotas of 100 dentists per entity. The information was collected in a Google form distributed via WhatsApp and emails. The data was processed in SPSS v. 22. Results: the treatments implemented before the pandemic period were those scheduled with 87.2%, during the COVID-19 pandemic the main care continued as scheduled (90.9%) where the protection barriers that increased the most were eye protection such as goggles (84.8%) and facial mask (83.1%). Presenting the substitution of the three-layer mask for high filtration KN95 (78.0%) and the disposable suit (53.0%). Conclusion: the treatments carried out before and during the pandemic were programmed, the barriers that increased were googles, face shield, KN95 mask and insulating suit (AU)


Subject(s)
Comprehensive Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dental Clinics/statistics & numerical data , Mexico/epidemiology
11.
Medisan ; 27(2)abr. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1440583

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 62 años de edad, quien fue atendido en la consulta de dermatología del Policlínico Aquiles Espinosa Salgado de Las Tunas, por presentar una lesión blanca, de aspecto perlado, de 0,5 cm, en la punta de la lengua. Teniendo en cuenta las características de dicha lesión, se estableció el diagnóstico de sospecha de sífilis secundaria. Se le indicó la prueba serológica para la detección de sífilis, cuyo resultado fue de 128 diluciones, por lo que se confirmó que se trataba de una sifílide opalina, como manifestación de la sífilis en estadio secundario. Se efectuó el control de foco y la fuente de contagio estaba aún sin precisar. Con el tratamiento indicado evolucionó favorablemente, pero se mantuvo el seguimiento clínico y serológico según lo establecido.


The case report of a 62 years patient who was assisted in the Dermatology Service of Aquiles Espinosa Salgado Polyclinic in Las Tunas is described, who presented a 0.5 cm white lesion, of pearly aspect, in the tip of the tongue. Taking into account the characteristics of this lesion the suspected diagnosis of secondary syphilis was established. The venereal disease research laboratory test was ordered and its result was 128 dilutions, reason why an opaline syphilid was confirmed, as a manifestation of syphilis in secondary stage. The focus control was carried out and the source of infection was still without specifying. With the suitable treatment, he had a favorable clinical course, but clinical and serologic follow up was maintained as established.


Subject(s)
Syphilis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Communicable Disease Control , Primary Health Care
12.
Rev. ADM ; 80(1): 33-35, ene.-feb. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511268

ABSTRACT

Introducción: desde la aparición del COVID-19 a principios de diciembre del año 2019, en la ciudad China de Wuhan, esta enfermedad respiratoria empezó a avanzar a nivel mundial. El 30 de enero de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró a esta enfermedad con carácter epidémico y como una situación de emergencia a nivel mundial. El propósito de este estudio es presentar información de la variante ómicron BW.1 o Xibalbá. Conclusión: México está en un proceso de transición de pandemia hacia endemia, pero no quiere decir que no seguirán apareciendo nuevas variantes como ocurrió en la quinta ola (ómicron BA.5) o con subvariantes que emergieron como BW.1 «Xibalbá¼, BQ.1 «perro del infierno¼ y XBB «pesadilla¼. La población y los gobiernos deberán continuar con las medidas preventivas establecidas desde el inicio de la pandemia como son el uso de cubrebocas, el correcto lavado de manos y de ropa, los hábitos de higiene, limpieza, desinfección personal y de nuestro entorno, el aislamiento precoz ante alguna sintomatología y la vacunación (ya sea la primera o sus refuerzos subsecuentes).(AU)


Introduction: since the appearance of COVID-19 in early December 2019 in the Chinese city of Wuhan, this respiratory disease began to spread worldwide. On the thirtieth of January of the year two thousand and twenty, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared this disease to be epidemic and with a worldwide emergency situation. The purpose of the study is to present information on the Omicron BW.1 or Xibalba variant. Conclusion: Mexico is in a process of transition from pandemic to endemic but this does not mean that new variants will not continue to appear as they did in the fifth wave (omicron BA.5) or subvariants that emerged such as: BW.1 or «Xibalbá¼, BQ.1 «hellhound¼ and XBB «nightmare¼. The population and governments should continue with the preventive measures established since the beginning of the pandemic, such as: use of masks, proper hand and clothing washing, hygiene habits, personal and environmental cleaning and disinfection, early isolation in case of any symptomatology, and vaccination, either first or subsequent boosters.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Mexico/epidemiology , World Health Organization , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Epidemics , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use
13.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 113(1): 17-23, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1412717

ABSTRACT

Background. In a previous article on the impact of COVID-19, the authors compared access to routine health services between 2019 and 2020. While differential by province, a number of services provided, as reflected in the District Health Information System (DHIS), were significantly affected by the pandemic. In this article we explore the extent to which the third and fourth waves affected routine services. Objectives. To assess the extent to which waves 3 and 4 of the COVID-19 pandemic affected routine health services in South Africa, and whether there was any recovery in 2021.Methods. Data routinely collected via the DHIS in 2019, 2020 and 2021 were analysed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and extent of recovery. Results. While there was recovery in some indicators, such as number of children immunised and HIV tests, in many other areas, including primary healthcare visits, the 2019 numbers have yet to be reached ­ suggesting a slow recovery and continuing impact of the pandemic. Conclusions. TheCOVID-19 pandemic continued to affect routine health services in 2021 in a number of areas. There are signs of recovery to 2019 levels in some of the health indicators. However, the impact indicators of maternal and neonatal mortality continued to worsen in 2021, and if interventions are not urgently implemented, the country is unlikely to meet the Sustainable Development Goals targets


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Primary Health Care , Infant, Newborn , Child , Public Sector , Pandemics
14.
West Afr. j. med ; 40(2): 143-147, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1428562

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cervicofacial infections (CFI) are life-threatening and constitute some of the common emergencies seen by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon on a regular basis. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced human activities for most of 2020 including the first worldwide lockdown. At the height of the pandemic, it was expected that the number of patients presenting with cervicofacial infections would drop as with most health conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the management and outcome of cervicofacial infections in a tertiary maxillofacial institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who presented at the Maxillofacial clinic with cervicofacial infections and were subsequently admitted into the ward during the lockdown (2020) was compared with those of the previous year (2019) and the year after (2021).RESULTS: The total number of patients seen and admitted with cervicofacial infections in 2020 was 39(31.2%) which was lower than that seen the preceding year 48(38.4%) but higher than 38(30.4%) of the year after. 116 patients were treated while nine patients left hospital without treatment. All patients presented with extensive cervicofacial infections, involving more than three fascial spaces and were treated using parenteral antibiotics with surgical incision and drainage under local anesthesia. There were more deaths in 2020 (n=10) than in the preceding year (n=8) and the year after (n=7).CONCLUSION: A high percentage of CFI was admitted duringCOVID-19 period compared to the previous and following years. Involvement of multiple fascial spaces was also noted


INTRODUCTION: Les infections cervico-faciales (ICF) mettent la vie en danger et constituent certaines des urgences les plus courantes que rencontre régulièrement le chirurgien buccal et maxillo-facial. La pandémie de COVID-19 a entraîné une réduction des activités humaines pendant la majeure partie de l'année 2020, y compris le premier verrouillage mondial. Au plus fort de la pandémie, on s'attendait à ce que le nombre de patients présentant des infections cervico-faciales diminue comme pour la plupart des problèmes de santé. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer l'impact de COVID19 sur la gestion et le résultat des infections cervicofaciales dans une institution tertiaire maxillo-faciale. PATIENTS ET MÉTHODES: Une analyse rétrospective des patients qui se sont présentés à la clinique maxillo-faciale avec des infections cervico-faciales et ont ensuite été admis dans le service pendant le lockdown (2020) a été comparée à celles de l'année précédente (2019) et de l'année suivante (2021). RÉSULTATS: Le nombre total de patients vus et admis pour des infections cervico-faciales en 2020 était de 39 (31,2 %), ce qui était inférieur à celui de l'année précédente (48 (38,4 %)) mais supérieur à celui de l'année suivante (38 (30,4 %)). 116 ont été traités tandis que neuf patients ont quitté l'hôpital sans traitement. Tous les patients présentaient des infections cervico-faciales étendues, impliquant plus de trois espaces fasciaux et ont été traités à l'aide d'antibiotiques parentéraux, avec incision chirurgicale et drainage sous anesthésie locale. Il y a eu plus de décès en 2020 (n=10) que l'année précédente (n=8) et l'année suivante (n=7). CONCLUSION: Bien qu'un pourcentage élevé de FCI ait été admis pendant la période COVI-19 par rapport aux années précédentes et suivantes, l'implication de multiples espaces fasciaux a également été constatée


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Management , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19
15.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30: e2023004, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430459

ABSTRACT

Resumen En México, la decidida y sistemática participación de la sociedad civil en la lucha contra la tuberculosis inició en 1939, al crearse el Comité Nacional de Lucha contra la Tuberculosis. Su plural conformación y las labores que desempeñó le distinguieron de las asociaciones y de ligas antituberculosas creadas en décadas previas en diferentes países de las Américas. En este artículo se presentará un primer acercamiento a la plural conformación de ese organismo y se estudiarán algunas de las acciones que impulsó durante su primera década de funcionamiento, un momento en el que también fue particularmente prolífica la coexistencia de diferentes terapéuticas para tratar a los individuos con esa enfermedad.


Abstract The determined and systematic participation of civil society in the fight against tuberculosis in Mexico began in 1939 when the National Committee for the Fight against Tuberculosis was created. Its plural conformation and tasks distinguished it from the anti-tuberculosis associations and leagues created in previous decades in different countries of the Americas. This article will present a first approach to the plural conformation of this organism and will study some of the actions that it promoted during its first decade of operation, in which the coexistence of different therapeutics to treat individuals was also particularly prolific with that disease.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Health Policy , History, 20th Century , Mexico
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255712, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529208

ABSTRACT

Com o advento da covid-19, foi declarado estado de emergência de saúde pública e decretadas medidas de isolamento e distanciamento social para conter a propagação da doença. O Conselho Federal de Psicologia, considerando a importância do acolhimento seguro durante a pandemia, publicou a Resolução CFP nº 4/2020, permitindo que serviços psicológicos aconteçam de maneira remota. O presente estudo visa, através do Método da Cartografia, apresentar a construção de um setting on-line para intervenções grupais e os desafios na oferta de acolhimento e atendimento remoto. Foram ofertados grupos terapêuticos, por meio da plataforma Google Meet, para estudantes da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Um diário de bordo foi produzido para acompanhar as forças que atravessavam e constituíam o território e a experiência grupal remota. Compreendemos que o território-espaço-grupal-on-line era composto pelo espaço virtual em que nos reuníamos, pelos espaços individuais de cada integrante e pelas forças que os atravessavam. Observamos que nem sempre os participantes dispunham de um lugar privado, mas estiveram presentes no encontro com câmeras e áudios abertos e/ou fechados e/ou através do chat da videochamada. A participação no grupo funcionou como alternativa no momento de distanciamento social, sendo uma possibilidade para o atendimento psicológico em situações de dificuldade de encontros presenciais; entretanto, se mostrou dificultada em diversos momentos, pela falta de equipamentos adequados e instabilidade na internet, fatores que interferiram nas reuniões e impactaram na possibilidade de falar e escutar o que era desejado.(AU)


With the advent of COVID-19, a state of public health was declared, and measures of isolation and social distance to contain the spread of the disease was decreed. The Federal Council of Psychology, considering the importance of safe reception during the pandemic, published CFP Resolution No. 4/2020, allowing psychological services to happen remotely. This study narrates, via the Cartography Method, the experience of inventing an Online Setting for group reception. Therapeutic groups were offered, via Google Meet Platform, to students at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. A logbook was produced to accompany the forces that crossed and constituted the territory and the remote group experience. We understand that the territoryspace-group-online was composed by the virtual-space that we gathered, by the individualspaces of each member and by the forces that crossed them. We observed that the participants did not always have a private place, but they were present at the meeting with open and/or closed cameras and audio and/or through the video call chat. Participation in the group worked as an alternative at the time of social distancing, being a possibility for psychological care in situations of difficulty in face-to-face meetings, however, it proved to be difficult at various times, due to the lack of adequate equipment and instability on the internet, factors that interfered in meetings and impacted the possibility of speaking and listening to what was desired.(AU)


La llegada de la COVID-19 produjo un estado de emergencia de salud pública, en el que se decretaron medidas de confinamiento y distanciamiento físico para contener la propagación de la enfermedad. El Consejo Federal de Psicología, considerando la importancia de la acogida segura durante la pandemia, publicó la Resolución CFP nº 4/2020, por la que se permite la atención psicológica remota. Este estudio tiene por objetivo presentar, mediante el método de la Cartografía, la elaboración de un escenario en línea para la intervención grupal y los desafíos en la oferta de acogida y atención remota. Grupos terapéuticos se ofrecieron, en la plataforma Google Meet, a estudiantes de la Universidad Federal Rural de Río de Janeiro. Se elaboró un diario para acompañar a las fuerzas que atravesaron y constituyeron el territorio y la experiencia remota del grupo. Entendemos que el territorio-espacio-grupo-en línea estaba compuesto por el espacio-virtual que reunimos, por los espacios individuales de cada integrante y por las fuerzas que los atravesaban. Observamos que los participantes no siempre tenían un lugar privado y que estaban presentes en la reunión con cámaras y audio abiertos y/o cerrados y/o por el chat de la videollamada. La participación en el grupo funcionó como una alternativa en el momento del distanciamiento físico y revela ser una posibilidad de atención psicológica en situaciones de dificultad en los encuentros presenciales, sin embargo, se mostró difícil en varios momentos, ya sea por la falta de medios adecuados o por inestabilidad en Internet, factores que interferían en las reuniones e impactaban en la posibilidad de hablar y escuchar lo que se deseaba.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Attitude , Answering Services , Internet-Based Intervention , Teleworking , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Personal Satisfaction , Preceptorship , Professional Practice Location , Psychoanalysis , Psychology, Social , Quality of Life , Safety , Social Identification , Social Values , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Speech , Students , Teaching , Unemployment , Universities , Work , Behavior , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Work Hours , Attitude to Computers , Medical Informatics Applications , Bereavement , Single Parent , Family , Catchment Area, Health , Cell Adhesion , Cell Communication , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Mental Health , Life Expectancy , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Employment, Supported , Communication , Mandatory Testing , Confidentiality , Privacy , Imagery, Psychotherapy , Psychotherapeutic Processes , Internet , Crisis Intervention , Personal Autonomy , Death , Trust , Codes of Ethics , Depression , Air Pollution , Educational Status , Disease Prevention , Centers of Connivance and Leisure , Professional Training , Faculty , Family Relations , Fear , Emotional Intelligence , Return to Work , Hope , Social Skills , Emotional Adjustment , Optimism , Healthy Lifestyle , Work-Life Balance , Mentoring , Sadness , Respect , Solidarity , Psychological Distress , Social Integration , Transtheoretical Model , Psychosocial Intervention , Listening Effort , Social Cohesion , Belonging , Cognitive Training , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Psychological Well-Being , Household Work , Humanities , Individuality , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Interpersonal Relations , Learning , Life Change Events , Motivation , Object Attachment
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e256659, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529213

ABSTRACT

Em 2020, o mundo enfrentou uma grave emergência de saúde pública devido à pandemia de COVID-19, que impactou significativamente a mobilidade humana e a vida cotidiana de milhares de imigrantes ao redor do mundo. Este artigo fez uso de entrevistas online e por telefone com imigrantes que chegaram ao Brasil a partir de 2016, para identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas durante a pandemia. Foi realizada uma análise transversal das entrevistas com o auxílio do software Atlas.ti 9, usando a técnica sistemática de categorização iterativa. Com base em uma perspectiva sociocultural em psicologia, o artigo introduz os impactos iniciais da pandemia em diferentes esferas da vida cotidiana desses imigrantes e apresenta as estratégias mobilizadas para restaurar continuidades funcionais e relacionais em um momento no qual as rupturas provocadas pela migração e pela pandemia se sobrepõem. Entre outros, podese identificar como os entrevistados ativaram rapidamente as redes sociais locais e transnacionais virtualmente, mobilizando competências e habilidades aprendidas durante a migração.(AU)


In 2020, the world faced a serious public health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has significantly impacted human mobility and the daily lives of thousands of immigrants around the world. This article uses online and telephone interviews conducted with migrants who arrived in Brazil in 2016, to identify coping strategies employed during the pandemic. A transversal analysis of all interviews was conducted with the aid of the software Atlas.ti 9, using a systematic approach of iterative categorization. From a sociocultural perspective in psychology, the article introduces the initial impacts of the pandemic in different spheres of everyday life of these immigrants. With this everyday context, we present the strategies mobilized by immigrants to restore functional and relational continuities at a moment in which the ruptures caused by migration and the pandemic overlap. In particular, we identify how interviewees rapidly activated local and transnational social networks virtually, mobilizing skills learnt during migration.(AU)


En 2020, el mundo se enfrentó a un grave estado de emergencia en salud pública debido a la pandemia del COVID-19, que impactó significativamente la movilidad humana y la vida cotidiana de miles de inmigrantes en todo el mundo. Este artículo realizó entrevistas en línea y por teléfono con inmigrantes quienes llegaron a Brasil a partir de 2016, con el fin de identificar sus estrategias de afrontamiento adoptadas durante la pandemia. Se realizó un análisis transversal de las entrevistas con la ayuda del software Atlas.ti 9, utilizando la técnica sistemática de categorización iterativa. Desde una perspectiva sociocultural en Psicología, este artículo expone los impactos iniciales de la pandemia en diferentes ámbitos de la vida cotidiana de estos inmigrantes y presenta las estrategias movilizadas para restaurar las continuidades funcionales y relacionales en un momento en que se superponen las rupturas causadas por la migración y la pandemia. Entre otros aspectos, se puede identificar cómo los entrevistados activaron virtualmente las redes sociales locales y transnacionales movilizando habilidades y destrezas aprendidas durante la migración.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adaptation, Psychological , Cultural Characteristics , Emigration and Immigration , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Aptitude , Politics , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Refugees , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Mobility , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment , Viruses , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Brazil , Career Mobility , Economic Development , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Family Characteristics , Adjustment Disorders , Hygiene , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Mortality , Immunization , Population Growth , Universal Precautions , Clinical Competence , Workplace , Interview , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Disease Notification , Refugee Camps , Endemic Diseases , Credentialing , Crisis Intervention , Affective Symptoms , Culture , Terrorism , Capitalism , Internationality , Disasters , Economics , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Job Market , Ethics , Products Distribution , Cultural Competency , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Economic Recession , Policy , Remuneration , Forecasting , Faith-Based Organizations , Expression of Concern , Right to seek Asylum , Respect , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Physical Distancing , Food Insecurity , Social Vulnerability , Disaster Operations , Human Development , Human Rights , Income , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Learning , Leisure Activities , Life Change Events , Loneliness
18.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 77, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522864

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Flattening the curve was the most promoted public health strategy worldwide, during the pandemic, to slow down the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and, consequently, to avoid overloading the healthcare systems. In Brazil, a relative success of public policies was evidenced. However, the association between public policies and the "flatten the curve" objectives remain unclear, as well as the association of different policies to reach this aim. This study aims to verify if the adoption of different public policies was associated with the flattening of the infection and death curves by covid-19 first wave in 2020. METHODS Data from the Sistema de Informação da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe (Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System - SIVEP-Gripe) and the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE) were used to compute standardized incidence and mortality rates. The Oxford Covid-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) was used to obtain information about governmental responses related to the mitigation of pandemic effects, and the Human Development Index (HDI) was used as a measure of socioeconomic status. A non-linear least-square method was used to estimate parameters of the five-parameter sigmoidal curve, obtaining the time to reach the peak and the incremental rate of the curves. Additionally, ordinary least-square linear models were used to assess the correlation between the curves and the public policies adopted. RESULTS Out of 51 municipalities, 261,326 patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Stringency Index was associated with reducing covid-19 incremental incidence and death rates,in addition to delaying the time to reach the peak of both pandemic curves. Considering both parameters, economic support policies did not affect the incidence nor the mortality rate curves. CONCLUSION The evidence highlighted the importance and effectiveness of social distancing policies during the first year of the pandemic in Brazil, flattening the curves of mortality and incidence rates. Other policies, such as those focused on economic support, were not effective in flattening the curves but met humanitarian and social outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Communicable Disease Control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Pandemics/prevention & control
19.
Arq. odontol ; 59: 14-29, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1433969

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Conhecer o perfil demográfico e comportamento sexual e conhecimento clínico no que se refere à prevenção de IST dos estudantes do 4º ao 10º período do Curso de Odontologia de uma universidade brasileira. Métodos: Tratou-se de um estudo transversal, realizado através da aplicação de um questionário com perguntas sobre aspectos sociais, demográficos, econômicos e relativos às formas de transmissão e expressão clínica de IST. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente (médias, medianas, desvio padrão), assim como também foi realizada a análise estatística inferencial, com nível de significância de 5%. O programa utilizado para executar as inferências foi o SPSS, versão 23. Resultados: Constatou-se, preliminarmente, predominância de brancos entre os entrevistados, baixo uso de preservativos nas relações sexuais, altos índices de realização de teste para detecção de HIV e falhas no conhecimento em identificar IST passíveis de transmissão durante o atendimento odontológico. Conclusão: Há falhas no aprendizado do público-alvo da pesquisa, refletindo em desconhecimento sobre a prevenção, transmissão, sinais e sintomas de IST que envolvam a boca e seus anexos.


Aim:To know the demographic profile, sexual behavior, and clinical knowledge regarding STI prevention of students from the 4th to 10th period of the Dentistry Course at a Brazilian university. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, carried out through the application of a questionnaire with questions about social, demographic, economic aspects and related to the transmission and clinical expression of STIs. Data were analyzed descriptively (means, medians, standard deviation), as well as inferential statistical analysis, with a significance level of 5%. The program used to perform the inferences was SPSS, version 23. Results: This study primarily found a predominance of whites among the interviewees, a low use of condoms in sexual relations, high rates of testing for HIV detection, and flaws in students' knowledge in identifying STIs capable of transmission during dental care. Conclusion: There are gaps in learning within the research target audience, reflecting a lack of knowledge about the prevention, transmission, signs, and symptoms of STIs involving the mouth and its attachments.


Subject(s)
Students, Dental , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Communicable Disease Control , Health Education
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e53, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424242

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. Systematize the experience and identify challenges and lessons learned in the implementation of an initiative for integrated serosurveillance of communicable diseases using a multiplex bead assay in countries of the Americas. Methods. Documents produced in the initiative were compiled and reviewed. These included concept notes, internal working papers, regional meetings reports, and survey protocols from the three participating countries (Mexico, Paraguay, and Brazil) and two additional countries (Guyana and Guatemala) where serology for several communicable diseases was included in neglected tropical diseases surveys. Information was extracted and summarized to describe the experience and the most relevant challenges and lessons learned. Results. Implementing integrated serosurveys requires interprogrammatic and interdisciplinary work teams for the design of survey protocols to respond to key programmatic questions aligned to the needs of the countries. Valid laboratory results are critical and rely on the standardized installment and roll-out of laboratory techniques. Field teams require adequate training and supervision to properly implement survey procedures. The analysis and interpretation of serosurveys results should be antigen-specific, contextualizing the responses for each disease, and triangulated with programmatic and epidemiological data for making decisions tailored to specific population socioeconomic and ecologic contexts. Conclusions. Integrated serosurveillance as a complementary tool for functional epidemiological surveillance systems is feasible to use and key components should be considered: political engagement, technical engagement, and integrated planning. Aspects such as designing the protocol, selecting target populations and diseases, laboratory capacities, anticipating the capacities to analyze and interpret complex data, and how to use it are key.


Resumen Objetivo. Sistematizar la experiencia y determinar los desafíos y las enseñanzas obtenidas durante la aplicación de una iniciativa de serovigilancia integrada de enfermedades transmisibles mediante un ensayo de perlas múltiples en países de la Región de las Américas. Métodos. Se recopilaron y revisaron los documentos generados en el marco de la iniciativa. Estos incluían notas conceptuales, documentos de trabajo internos, informes de reuniones regionales y protocolos de encuesta de los tres países participantes (Brasil, México y Paraguay) y otros dos países (Guatemala y Guyana) donde en las encuestas sobre enfermedades tropicales desatendidas también se incluía la serología para varias enfermedades transmisibles. Se recabó y resumió la información para describir tanto la experiencia como los desafíos y las enseñanzas de mayor relevancia. Resultados. La realización de encuestas serológicas integradas requiere equipos de trabajo interprogramáticos e interdisciplinarios para la elaboración de protocolos de encuesta que permitan responder a cuestiones programáticas fundamentales y ajustadas a las necesidades de los países. Es imprescindible contar con resultados de laboratorio válidos, para lo que es preciso que sus técnicas e instalaciones estén estandarizadas. Para que los equipos de campo puedan ejecutar correctamente los procedimientos de la encuesta, deben contar con una formación y supervisión adecuadas. El análisis y la interpretación de los resultados de las encuestas serológicas deben ser específicos para cada antígeno, situar las respuestas en el contexto de cada enfermedad y triangularse con los datos programáticos y epidemiológicos para tomar decisiones adaptadas a los contextos socioeconómicos y ecológicos específicos de la población. Conclusiones. Es uso de la vigilancia serológica integrada como una herramienta complementaria en los sistemas funcionales de vigilancia epidemiológica es algo posible; para esto deben tenerse en cuenta ciertos elementos fundamentales: el compromiso político, el compromiso técnico y la planificación integrada. A tal efecto, son fundamentales ciertos elementos como el diseño del protocolo, la selección de los grupos poblacionales y las enfermedades objetivo, la capacidad de los laboratorios, y la previsión de las capacidades de análisis e interpretación de datos complejos y la forma de utilizarlos.


RESUMO Objetivo. Sistematizar a experiência e identificar desafios e lições aprendidas na implementação de uma iniciativa de vigilância sorológica integrada de doenças transmissíveis, usando ensaio de micro-esferas multiplex em países das Américas. Métodos. Os documentos produzidos na iniciativa foram compilados e examinados, e incluíram notas conceituais, documentos internos de trabalho, relatórios de reuniões regionais e protocolos de pesquisa dos três países participantes (México, Paraguai e Brasil) e de dois países adicionais (Guiana e Guatemala), onde a vigilância sorológica de várias doenças transmissíveis foi incluída em pesquisas sobre doenças tropicais negligenciadas. As informações foram extraídas e resumidas para descrever a experiência e os desafios e as lições aprendidas mais relevantes. Resultados. A implementação de inquéritos sorológicos integrados requer equipes de trabalho interprogramáticas e interdisciplinares para o delineamento de protocolos que respondam a questões programáticas chave, alinhadas com as necessidades dos países. Resultados laboratoriais válidos são essenciais, e dependem da instalação e implantação padronizadas de técnicas laboratoriais. As equipes de campo precisam de treinamento e supervisão apropriados para implementar adequadamente os procedimentos de pesquisa. A análise e a interpretação dos resultados dos inquéritos sorológicos devem ser antígeno-específicas, contextualizando as respostas para cada doença, e trianguladas com dados programáticos e epidemiológicos para a tomada de decisões adaptadas aos contextos socioeconômicos e ecológicos específicos de cada população. Conclusões. A vigilância sorológica integrada como ferramenta complementar para sistemas de vigilância epidemiológica funcionais é viável. Os componentes-chave a seguir devem ser considerados: engajamento político, engajamento técnico e planejamento integrado. Aspectos como o delineamento do protocolo, a seleção de populações-alvo e doenças-alvo, a capacidade laboratorial, a previsão das capacidades para análise e interpretação de dados complexos e como usá-los são fundamentais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Americas/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies
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