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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 106-: I-110, II, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363696

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los cambios en la rutina y en el entramado social que generó la pandemia por COVID-19 afectaron a los niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNyA). El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer el estado de ánimo, las emociones y las conductas de los NNyA durante el aislamiento por COVID-19. Población y métodos . Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo y transversal. Se preguntó a los padres y/o cuidadores de niños de 3 a 15 años de edad, de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, cómo percibían el estado de ánimo, las conductas y las emociones de los NNyA durante el período de aislamiento. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1080 cuestionarios. El 81 % de los padres y/o cuidadores advirtió algún cambio en la salud emocional de los NNyA. El 76 % refirió que los niños de 3-5 años se mostraban aburridos, enojados y angustiados. Además, observaron un aumento de los episodios de llanto (52 %) y regresión a comportamientos ya superados (29 %). En el grupo de 6-11 años, el 43 % presentó dificultad en mantener la concentración. En 3 de cada 10 adolescentes, de 12 a 15 años de edad, los adultos percibieron abandono de actividades que antes disfrutaban, preocupación y tristeza. Conclusión. La pandemia de COVID-19 impactó en el estado de ánimo, las conductas y las emociones de los NNyA. Predominaron los sentimientos negativos, como aburrimiento, tristeza, angustia y preocupación.


Introduction. Changes in daily routine and social fabric resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic had an effect on children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to know the mood, emotions, and behaviors of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown. Population and methods. This was a prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Parents and/or caregivers of children and adolescents aged 3-15 years in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires were asked about their perceptions of the mood, behaviors, and emotions of children and adolescents during the lockdown. Results. A total of 1080 questionnaires were included. Results showed that 81% of parents and/or caregivers observed changes in children and adolescents emotional health; 76% referred that children aged 3-5 years were bored, angry, and upset. They also observed an increase in crying spells (52%) and regression to behaviors that had been outgrown (29%). In the 6-11-year-old group, 43% showed difficulty focusing. Adults noticed that 3 out of 10 adolescents aged 12-15 years discontinued activities they used to enjoy and were sad and worried. Conclusion. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted on the mood, behaviors, and emotions of children and adolescents. Negative feelings prevailed, such as boredom, sadness, anxiety, and worry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Prospective Studies , Emotions , Pandemics
2.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(Suplemento): 10-13, 2022. graf.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367418

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el inicio de la pandemia inducida por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2-COVID-19 generó la acción más importante de salud pública y de economía en todo el mundo. Objetivo: mostrar el comportamiento de la curva epidémica por COVID-19 en los años 2020 y 2021 en Colombia. Metodología: estudio transversal cuya información se obtuvo de la página web del Instituto Nacional de Salud de los reportes diarios de contagio por COVID-19. Resultados: se encontró en 2020 un punto máximo o meseta que se ubicó en la semana 26 con 209.284 casos y para 2021 también en la semana 26 con 209.284 casos. Conclusión: el hecho de contar con elementos estadísticos suficientes y confiables para establecer la etapa en la que se localiza la curva epidémica, tiene implicaciones directas sobre la toma de decisiones. Es importante aprovechar las oportunidades de corrección técnica que exigen los métodos y modelos epidemiológicos a partir de la experiencia internacional.


Introduction: the initial surge of the SARS-CoV-2-COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic generated the most important public health and economic global action. Objective: to show the behavior of the COVID-19 epidemic curve for years 2020 and 2021 in Colombia. Methodology: a cross-sectional study based on daily reports of COVID-19 cases registered in the National Institute of Health web page. Results: in 2020 a peak or plateau pattern was evidenced at week 26 with 209.284 cases. In 2021 there was a similar peak at week 26 with 209.284 cases. Conclusion: having sufficient and reliable statistical elements to plot the epidemic curve portraying the data, directly contributes to decision making. It is important to employ the available technical correction tools required by epidemiological methods and models, based on international experience.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Public Health , Pandemics
3.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 13(2): e462, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357280

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En el control de enfermedades infecciosas resulta esencial usar modelos epidemiológicos, sin embargo, existen herramientas que permiten el monitoreo y control estadístico de la transmisión de este tipo de enfermedad en el tiempo. El objetivo de este trabajo de investigación fue proporcionar un análisis de la dinámica diaria de transmisión de la COVID-19 en Cuba mediante dos cartas de control, basadas en un modelo probabilístico fundamentado en las distribuciones binomial y Poisson. Los dos métodos se aplicaron, utilizando los reportes diarios publicados por el Ministerio de Salud Pública, a un proceso cuya variable en estudio es de atributos y con poca información sobre su estabilidad. Las cartas aplicadas fueron clave para mejorar la estabilidad del proceso, en la medida en que se detectaron, identificaron y sugirió la eliminación de causas especiales para reducir la variación; y en el monitoreo para asegurar que las mejoras a generarse se puedan conservar.


ABSTRACT In the control of infectious diseases it is essential to use epidemiological models; however, there are tools that allow monitoring and statistical control of the transmission of this type of disease over time. The objective of this research work was to provide an analysis of the daily dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in Cuba through two control charts, based on a probabilistic model based on the binomial and Poisson distributions. The two methods were applied, using the daily reports published by the Ministry of Public Health, to a process whose variable under study is attributes type and with little information on its stability. The applied charts were key to improve the stability of the process, insofar as they were detected, identified and suggested the elimination of special causes to reduce the variation; and in monitoring to ensure that the improvements to be generated can be preserved.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Epidemiologic Models , Models, Statistical , COVID-19/transmission , Cuba
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 688-694, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351039

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue revelar cómo el COVID-19 afectó el número de visitas a un servicio de urgencias de un hospital de alta complejidad ubicado en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, explorar las características y los motivos de consulta. Se analizó el número mensual entre enero 2019 y diciem bre 2020. Los datos mostraron una fuerte disminución en el número de visitas (176 370 en 2019 y 95 421 en 2020), con una caída abrupta luego de disposición aislamiento social, preventivo y obligatorio (el mes de abril arrojó el máximo valor de reducción: 77.1%), y se reflejan las diferentes etapas evolutivas (consecuencia de la cuarentena), arrojando una reducción global anual del 45.9%. Sin embargo, aumentó el número de pacientes que ingresaron en ambulancias (5.1% en 2019 a 10.4% en 2020; p < 0.05), y, en consecuencia, los pacientes del sector de mayor complejidad (área B 2019: 5.3%, 2020: 11.5%; p < 0.01), y las hospitalizaciones no progra madas de 6.8% (IC95% 6.7-6.9) a 12.1% en 2020 (IC95% 11.8-12.3), p < 0.01. Los cinco motivos de consulta más frecuentes durante 2020 resultaron: fiebre (5.1%), odinofagia (4.7%), dolor abdominal (2.6%), tos (1.8%) y cefalea (1.8%), probablemente todos relacionados a COVID-19. En conclusión, se redujo a la mitad el número de visitas a urgencias en comparación con el año previo.


Abstract The objective of this study was to reveal how the COVID-19 pandemic process affected the number of visits to an emergency department of a highly complex hospital located in the Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, to explore the char acteristics and reasons for consultation. The monthly number of visits between January 2019 and December 2020 was analyzed. The data showed a strong decrease in the number of visits (176 370 in 2019 and 95 421 in 2020), with an abrupt drop after the lockdown disposal (In aprilshowed the maximum reduction: 77.1%), and the different stages are reflected in the evolution (a consequence of quarantine), yielding a global annual reduc tion of 45.9%. The number of patients admitted by ambulances increased (5.1% in 2019 to 10.4% in 2020; p < 0.05), and consequently, the number of patients in the more complex sector (area B 2019: 5.3%, 2020: 11.5%; p < 0.01), as well as unscheduled hospitalizations from 6.8% (95% CI 6.7-6.9) to 12.1% in 2020 (95%CI11.8- 12.3), p < 0.01. The five most frequent reasons for consultation in 2020 were: fever (5.1%), odynophagia (4.7%), abdominal pain (2.6%), cough (1.8%) and headache (1.8%), probably all related to COVID-19. In conclusion, the number of emergency department visits decreased by half compared to the previous year.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Argentina/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(281): 6335-6346, out.-2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1344422

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o perfil epidemiológico dos casos confirmados de infecção por COVID-19 no Estado de Minas Gerais. Método: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, com abordagem quantitativa, realizada em um banco de dados público da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Minas Gerais. A amostra foi composta por 275 pacientes notificados durante o 1º trimestre de 2020, os quais foram confirmados com COVID-19 em Minas Gerais. Resultados: observou-se prevalência de infecção na cidade de Belo Horizonte (59,3%), seguido das cidades de Juiz de Fora (8,4%) e Nova Lima (7,3%). Com relação ao sexo e idade, foram acometidos em sua maioria adultos jovens com prevalência do sexo masculino (59,6%) e idade entre 20 e 59 anos (80,7%). Conclusão: o coronavírus apresentou alta transmissibilidade, bem como alta difusibilidade, em um curto espaço de tempo no território mineiro, sendo os adultos jovens os principais veículos carreadores para os idosos.(AU)


Objective: to identify the epidemiological profile of confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection in the state of Minas Gerais. Method: this is a descriptive, exploratory, retrospective study, with a quantitative approach, carried out in a public database of the Minas Gerais State Department of Health. The sample was composed of 275 patients notified during the 1st quarter of 2020, who were confirmed with COVID-19 in Minas Gerais. Results: prevalence of infection was observed in the city of Belo Horizonte (59.3%), followed by the cities of Juiz de Fora (8.4%) and Nova Lima (7.3%). Regarding sex and age, most young adults were affected, with a prevalence of males (59.6%) and ages between 20 and 59 years (80.7%). Conclusion: the coronavirus showed high transmissibility, as well as high diffusibility, in a short period of time in the territory of Minas Gerais, young adults being the main carriers for the elderly.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar el perfil epidemiológico de casos confirmados de infección por COVID-19 en Minas Gerais. Método: se trata de un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado en una base de datos pública de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Minas Gerais. La muestra se compone de 275 pacientes notificados durante el primer trimestre de 2020, que fueron confirmados con COVID-19 en Minas Gerais. Resultados: la prevalencia de infección se observó en la ciudad de Belo Horizonte (59,3%), seguida de Juiz de Fora (8,4%) y Nova Lima (7,3%). En cuanto al género y la edad, la mayoría de los adultos jóvenes estaban afectados, con una prevalencia de varones (59,6%) y con edades comprendidas entre los 20 y los 59 años (80,7%). Conclusión: el coronavirus presentó una alta transmisibilidad y difusibilidad, en un corto espacio de tiempo en el territorio minero, siendo los adultos jóvenes los principales vehículos para los ancianos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health , Pandemics
6.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210700. 33 p. tab.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1087618

ABSTRACT

El documento contiene los lineamientos y procedimientos para la vigilancia epidemiológica del COVID-19 en el país. Esta Directiva, deroga a la R.M. Nº 905-2020-MINSA.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Guidelines as Topic , Epidemiologic Surveillance Services , Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 415-420, jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346478

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia COVID-19 limitó el acceso de los pacientes post accidente cerebro vascular a los controles de seguimiento médico y a la rehabilitación, por lo cual decidimos incorporar herramientas tecnológicas gratuitas y accesibles para su continuación. Realizamos seguimiento remoto a 32 pacientes dados de alta en los primeros tres meses del período de aislamiento social preventivo obligatorio con el objetivo de continuar controles médicos, rehabilitación física y fonoaudiológica. El 100% adhirió al tratamiento médico y al auto-monitoreo de factores de riesgo; detectamos en forma temprana la interrupción de las terapias de rehabilita ción y mantuvimos la adherencia por medio de tele-rehabilitación. Los 32 pacientes mostraron disponibilidad para seguir con esta modalidad de atención, permitiendo continuar el seguimiento médico y supervisar la rehabilitación con la colaboración de las familias. Es una metodología accesible y de bajo costo que podría ser replicada y utilizada en instituciones de salud que traten enfermedades neurovasculares.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in limited access of post-stroke patients to their usual medical follow-up and rehabilitation. To continue these activities, we adopted a technology that is free and has universal access. We remotely followed 32 patients after discharge from the stroke unit during the mandatory lock-down. This allowed to continue with medical controls, physical therapy and speech pathology treatments. All patients fully complied with medical treatment and self-monitoring of vascular risk factors. Early discontinuation of rehabilitation therapies was identified and immediately compensated with tele-rehabilitation. All expressed their willingness to continue with this treatment modality. This strategy was successful to effectively continue medical follow-up and rehabilitation supervision with the collaboration of families, is an accessible and low-cost technology that could be replicated and used in health institutions that treat neurovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Telemedicine , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke Rehabilitation , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Secondary Prevention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Rev. ADM ; 78(3): 128-134, mayo-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254363

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de COVID-19 es causada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (síndrome respiratorio agudo severo), convertida hoy en día en una pandemia, emergencia sanitaria y crisis de salud pública. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el conocimiento, la percepción y actitudes frente a dicha pandemia de en los estudiantes y pasantes de odontología. Material y métodos: Investigación cuantitativa con diseño transversal, descriptivo y exploratorio. El tamaño de la muestra fue de 167 participantes a través de encuestas en línea, donde se describieron sus actitudes, conocimiento y percepción, por medio de un cuestionario de autorreporte el cual consistió de 24 ítems relacionados con la comprensión de la COVID-19. Resultados: La mayoría de los discípulos tiene un entendimiento moderado en relación con la normatividad, y su competencia, en su entorno con dicho trastorno viral, es adecuada. La mayoría (89.5%) respondieron tener actitudes adecuadas con el manejo del control de infecciones y prevenciones. En cuestión a la percepción, la mayoría (82.4%) sí tenía medidas de prevención a fin de evitar la transmisión y medicación adecuadas. Conclusión: Estos estudiantes están conscientes de la COVID-19 y sus medidas de prevención y precaución, requieren adquirir mayores saberes de normas sanitarias, así como llevar estrictos protocolos de control de infecciones para garantizar el ambiente seguro a los alumnos y pacientes que acuden a las clínicas odontológicas (AU)


The COVID-19 disease is caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which today has become a pandemic, health emergency, and public health crisis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards such pandemic in dental students and interns. Material and methods: Quantitative research with a crosssectional, descriptive and exploratory design. The sample size was 167 participants through online surveys, where attitudes, knowledge and perception were described, through a self-report questionnaire which consisted of 24 items related to their knowledge of this malaise. Results: The majority of study participants have a moderate knowledge in relation to the normativity, and the knowledge of the disease in their environment is adequate. The majority (89.5%) responded having adequate attitudes with the management of infection control and prevention. Regarding perception, the majority (82.4%) did have adequate medication and preventive measures to avoid transmission. Conclusion: These students are aware of the COVID-19 sickness and its prevention and precaution measures and they require acquiring greater knowledge of health regulations as well as carrying out strict infection control protocols to guarantee a safe environment for students and patients who attend dental clinics (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Coronavirus Infections , Schools, Dental , Training Support , Communicable Disease Control , Public Health Dentistry , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Infection Control, Dental , Dental Offices/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Mexico
10.
Rev. ADM ; 78(3): 142-148, mayo-jun. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254562

ABSTRACT

partir de la pandemia, los odontólogos han presentado una serie de complicaciones en su práctica diaria, la naturaleza misma de la profesión representa un alto riesgo de contagio y la posibilidad de generar una infección cruzada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, por lo que han tenido que limitar su labor a la atención de urgencias, adquiriendo insumos relacionados a incrementar los cuidados de su grupo de trabajo y del paciente. Objetivo: Conocer el impacto de esta plaga en la práctica de los profesionistas de la salud oral en México. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a través de redes sociales a odontólogos, los resultados se expresaron con tablas de frecuencias y porcentajes. Resultados: Se recibieron respuestas de 200 cirujanos dentistas con clínica privada, 71% comentó haber cerrado su consultorio al inicio de esta calamidad, en contraste, el 53.5% de profesionales afirmaron tener actualmente una consulta no restringida, refiriendo que se ha visto reducida entre 50 y 75%, la mayoría reconoce que han tenido que reforzar el uso de EPP y algunos protocolos de protección, 16.5% ha padecido COVID-19. Conclusiones: La pandemia ha generado un impacto económico importante en la práctica de los odontólogos, al combinarse la disminución del número de pacientes con el aumento de gastos. Se debe considerar a la odontología como una profesión de alto riesgo, por lo que este gremio debe ser tomado en cuenta para el plan de vacunación como parte importante del sector salud (AU)


Given the nature of their profession, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought complications in their daily practice to odontologists, who are at a high risk of contracting the disease, and the possibility of creating a cross infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. That is why odontologists have had to restrain their practice to attend to emergencies only and acquire consumables and equipment related to improve their patients' care and the safety of their work team. Objective: To know the COVID-19 pandemic impact in the oral health professionals' practice in Mexico. Material and methods: A transversal, descriptive study was conducted by using a survey through social networks to gather information from odontologists practicing in Mexico. Results were presented in frequency and percentage tables. Result: Responses of 200 dental surgeons in private practice were received. 71% said that they closed their office at the beginning of the pandemic. On the other hand, 53.5% of them currently have a non-restricted practice but it is reduced between 50 and 75%. Most of them recognized that they had to improve the use of PPE and add some protection protocols, 16.5% have suffered from COVID-19. Conclusions: This pandemic has generated an important economic impact in the odontological practice, combining the decrease in the number of patients with the increase in their office expenses. Odontology must be considered a high-risk profession and an important part of the health sector, consequently, these professionals must be included in the vaccination plan on a priority basis (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Clinical Protocols , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Care/standards , Vaccination , Social Networking , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mexico/epidemiology
11.
Rev. ADM ; 78(3): 162-166, mayo-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254811

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad COVID-19 fue declarada pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud el 11 de marzo de 2020. El síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) es un virus transmitido de animales a seres humanos, altamente contagioso, cuyo periodo de incubación es de uno a 14 días. Los momentos por los que atraviesan la mayoría de los países debido a la pandemia declarada del COVID-19 han llevado a la proclamación de órdenes gubernamentales y/o recomendaciones en relación a la atención dental que debe dispensarse. En el momento actual, no se dispone de protocolos específicos oficiales, ni nacionales ni internacionales, que aborden de manera clara cómo debe proceder el odontólogo en su práctica diaria en la etapa posterior al confinamiento para trabajar con las mejores garantías de protección para los pacientes y el equipo humano de la consulta odontológica. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar consideraciones para la atención de tratamientos endodóncicos en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19. Para lograr este objetivo se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en diferentes bases de datos, como: Google Scholar, Springer Link, Scopus, PubMed, para ello se emplearon estrategias de búsqueda, utilizando descriptores como: «endodontic¼, «recomendations¼, «odontology¼, «COVID-19¼, «pandemic¼ y operadores booleanos, con la finalidad de obtener información relevante y precisa. Contribuyendo a la práctica de la endodoncia con un protocolo general para el manejo de emergencias que muestre el fundamento del diagnóstico, los procedimientos clínicos y el uso de equipos de protección personal y barreras en el consultorio odontológico durante el brote de COVID-19 (AU)


The COVID-19 disease was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a virus transmitted from animals to humans, highly contagious, whose incubation period is one to 14 days. The times that most countries are going through due to the declared COVID-19 pandemic have led to the proclamation of government orders and/or recommendations regarding the dental care that should be provided. At the present time, there are no specific official national or international protocols that clearly address how the dentist should proceed, in their daily practice, in the post-confinement stage, to work with the best guarantees of protection for the patients and the human team of the dental practice. The objective of this study was to analyze considerations for the care of endodontic treatments in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve this objective, a bibliographic review was carried out in different databases, such as: Google Scholar, Springer Link, Scopus, PubMed, for this, search strategies were used, using descriptors such as: «endodontic¼, «recommendations¼, «odontology¼, «COVID-19¼, «pandemic¼ and Boolean operators, in order to obtain relevant and accurate information. Contributing to the practice of endodontics a general protocol for emergency management that shows the rationale for diagnosis, clinical procedures and the use of personal protective equipment and barriers in the dental office during the COVID-19 outbreak (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Therapy/standards , COVID-19 , Sterilization , Communicable Disease Control , Clinical Protocols , Disinfection , Databases, Bibliographic , Infection Control, Dental/methods , Dental Offices/standards
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 201-209, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252242

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes negative life changes brought about through lockdowns, in addition to severe complications and death. Among these changes, asplenism or hyposplenism has been reported in patients with celiac disease. It has been reported that the risk of pneumococcal sepsis is higher in celiac patients with hyposplenism. Moreover, celiac patients present high risk of admission to hospital due to influenza. OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of awareness of COVID-19 among parents of children with celiac disease and examine the measures that they take. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a university hospital in the Middle Anatolian region of Turkey. METHODS: The diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed through a survey conducted online among 73 parents between May and July 2020. RESULTS: The mean age was 37.57 ± 6.56 years for the mothers, 41.15 ± 5.56 years for the fathers and 11.36 ± 4.36 years for the children. 90.4% of the parents reported that COVID-19 was transmitted through "speaking, coughing, sneezing and infection of the face after contact with virus-infected surfaces". Moreover, 78.1% indicated that they did not have any difficulty in finding gluten-free foods. CONCLUSION: These parents of children with celiac disease believed that their children's risk of developing COVID-19 did not differ from that of healthy children. It was also observed that appetite and states of nervousness were higher among these children with celiac disease during lockdowns and that their sleep patterns were affected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adult , Celiac Disease , Telemedicine , COVID-19 , Parents , Turkey/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 310-316, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292014

ABSTRACT

Introducción. A fin de 2019 se identificó una nueva variedad de coronavirus causante de COVID-19 que alcanzó categoría de pandemia. En Argentina, el área metropolitana de Buenos Aires (AMBA) concentra alrededor del 37 % de la población total y el mayor número de casos diagnosticados. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de los pacientes con COVID-19 y describir el impacto en el funcionamiento del Servicio de Pediatría de una institución privada de la zona. Métodos. Diseño retrospectivo, observacional, desarrollado en una institución de la zona oeste del AMBA entre el 12 de marzo y el 31 de agosto de 2020. Se incluyeron todos los menores de 16 años con diagnóstico de COVID-19. Se registraron características demográficas, epidemiológicas, clínicas, indicación de internación/control ambulatorio, número de consultas externas, internación por infecciones virales estacionales, licenciamiento del personal, modificación del número de camas y de las actividades de los profesionales. Resultados. Hubo 5454 consultas ambulatorias pediátricas totales, sospecha de COVID-19 en 753/5 454 (13,8 %), se confirmaron 152/753 (20,2 %). Mediana de edad 82 meses (rango intercuartílico: 20,5-147 m), el 50 % fueron varones. La fiebre fue el síntoma más frecuente. Se internaron 22/152 (14,5 %). Las consultas disminuyeron el 87 %, no hubo internación por infecciones virales estacionales y el 52,9 % (91/172) del personal fue licenciado. Conclusiones. La mayoría de los casos fueron leves y la fiebre fue el principal síntoma. Observamos un notable impacto en el funcionamiento del servicio en cuanto al recurso humano. Destacamos la necesidad de la organización logística del servicio para enfrentar esta contingencia.


Introduction. Towards the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 was identified and became a pandemic. In Argentina, approximately 37 % of the total population lives in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (AMBA), where most cases have been diagnosed. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 patients and the impact on the operations of the Department of Pediatrics of a private facility located in the AMBA. Methods. Retrospective, observational study conducted at a facility in the west of AMBA between March 12th and August 31st, 2020. All patients younger than 16 years diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. Demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics; indication for hospitalization/outpatient follow-up; number of outpatient visits; hospitalization due to seasonal viral infections; staff on leave; changes in bed availability and health care providers' activities were recorded. Results. There were 5454 pediatric outpatient visits, COVID-19 was suspected in 753/5454 (13.8 %) and 152/753 (20.2 %) were confirmed cases. Their median age was 82 months (interquartile range: 20.5-147 months); 50 % were males. Fever was the most common symptom. In total, 22/152 (14.5 %) patients were hospitalized. Outpatients visits decreased by 87 %; there were no hospitalizations due to seasonal viral infections; and 52.9 % (91/172) of staff took a leave. Conclusions. Most cases were mild, and fever was the main symptom. The department operations were considerably affected in terms of human resources. It is worth noting the need for a logistic organization at the Department of Pediatrics to face such contingency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Private Facilities , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 317-324, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292029

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los trabajadores de la salud se encuentran sometidos a una gran tensión en el desarrollo de sus actividades, lo que genera alta frecuencia de estrés, desgaste laboral e impacto psicopatológico. La pandemia de COVID-19 podría provocar un incremento de estas entidades en los médicos. El objetivo fue describir la frecuencia de estrés, síndrome de desgaste profesional (burnout), ansiedad y depresión durante la pandemia, y analizar las asociaciones con distintas variables independientes. Métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, realizado dos meses después del inicio de la cuarentena en Argentina. Se encuestó a médicos de especialidades clínicas, quirúrgicas, solo de emergencias, y a aquellos sin contacto directo con pacientes, mediante un cuestionario sociodemográfico y tres inventarios autoadministrados: Health Professions Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory y la Escala de ansiedad y depresión hospitalaria. Resultados. La prevalencia de estrés fue del 93,7 % (IC95 %: 90,33-96,2), burnout 73,5 % (IC95 %: 68,2-78,4), ansiedad 44 % (IC95 %: 38,4-49,8) y depresión 21,9 % (IC95 %: 17,3-26,9). No se observó asociación entre la frecuencia y el tipo de especialidad realizada. La frecuencia de burnout, ansiedad y depresión fue significativamente mayor en los médicos residentes y en aquellos que trabajan en emergencias. Conclusiones. Los médicos residentes y quienes trabajan en emergencias en turnos de 24 horas mostraron porcentajes significativamente más altos de burnout, ansiedad y depresión, en comparación con médicos de planta y con aquellos en posiciones de liderazgo. Estos hallazgos pueden estar asociados con una mayor carga de trabajo y una menor experiencia. Es mandatorio tomar medidas preventivas y terapéuticas para preservar a quienes hacen frente a esta pandemia.


Introduction. Health care workers experience a tremendous strain while performing their activities, very frequently leading to stress, burnout syndrome, and psychopathological impact. The COVID-19 pandemic may cause physicians to suffer these effects even to a greater extent. Our objective was to describe the frequency of stress, burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression during the pandemic, and analyze the associations with different independent outcome measures. Methods. Observational, cross-sectional study conducted 2 months after the lockdown was established in Argentina. Clinical specialists, surgeons, emergency physicians, and those with no direct contact with patients were surveyed using a sociodemographic questionnaire and 3 self-administered inventories: Health Professions Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. The prevalence of stress was 93.7 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 90.33-96.2), burnout syndrome 73.5 % (95 % CI: 68.2-78.4), anxiety 44 % (95 % CI: 38.4-49.8), and depression 21.9 % (95 % CI: 17.3-26.9). No association was observed between the frequency and medical specialty. The frequency of burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression was significantly higher among residents and physicians working in the emergency department. Conclusions. Residents and emergency physicians working 24-hour shifts showed significantly higher percentages of burnout syndrome, anxiety, and depression compared to staff and head physicians. These findings may be associated with a higher workload and less experience. It is compulsory to take preventive and therapeutic measures to protect those in the pandemic front line.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Burnout, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, Teaching
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3167-3178, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251934

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este trabajo describe las principales intervenciones de prevención de la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, dirigidas a los hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres, los que constituyen un grupo de riesgo para adquirir la enfermedad. Para su elaboración, se seleccionó la literatura científica publicada en fuentes y documentos nacionales e internacionales considerada relevante para el tema. El análisis y las recomendaciones se centraron en el sector de la salud y en el grupo de hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con otros hombres. Las estrategias de abordaje del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana en Cuba están consideradas entre los programas de prevención de alto impacto, elaboradas tanto por la sociedad civil, a través de las subvenciones del Fondo Mundial de Lucha contra el SIDA, la Tuberculosis y la Malaria, como por los técnicos del Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de las ITS-VIH/sida. Incluyen paquetes de servicios personalizados, que contienen elementos estructurales, biomédicos y de comportamiento para grupos de población clave en los contextos sociales donde son más necesarias. Como es sabido, el riesgo para cada individuo depende de sus prácticas y no del grupo al que pertenezca. Estas ofrecen un fundamento común para el desarrollo y la promoción de programas de eficacia comprobada para la prevención, que permiten reorganizar los esfuerzos, tener mayor impacto y lograr reducir el número de nuevas infecciones en este grupo de población (AU).


ABSTRACT This paper describes the main interventions for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection, aimed at men who have sex with men, who constitute a risk group for acquiring the disease. For its preparation, the scientific literature published in national and international sources and documents considered relevant to the subject was selected. The analysis and recommendations focused on the health sector and the group of men who have sex with other men. The strategies to address the human immunodeficiency virus in Cuba are considered among the high-impact prevention programs, developed both by civil society, through grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and by the technicians of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of STI-HIV/AIDS. They include personalized service packages, containing structural, biomedical and behavioral elements for key population groups in the social contexts where they are most needed. As is known, the risk for each individual depends on their practices and not on the group to which they belong. These provide a common foundation for the development and promotion of proven prevention programs that allow reorganization of efforts, have greater impact, and reduce the number of new infections in this population group (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , HIV/pathogenicity , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Preventive Health Services , Communicable Disease Control , Public Health , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Cuba
17.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3440, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251802

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El consentimiento informado en Pediatría, es un proceso de toma de decisiones progresivo, consensuado y dialogado, centrado en una relación tripartita (pediatra, niño y padres), en virtud de la cual, estos últimos, aceptan o no las acciones de vacunación, las cuales han mejorado la prevención de distintas enfermedades infecciosas que afectan la salud de la población infantil y provocan gran morbilidad, mortalidad y secuelas. Objetivo: Exponer los principales aspectos bioéticos relacionados con el consentimiento informado en el uso de las vacunas en Pediatría. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en español e inglés acerca del tema utilizando motores de búsqueda como Google Académico, y se consultaron 42 artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos SciELO y Pubmed. Se analizó la bibliografía de los últimos 20 años, fundamentalmente de los últimos 5 años, desde 2000 hasta 2020. Desarrollo: Las vacunas son intervenciones preventivas que tienen una historia centenaria que demuestra su bondad y su eficacia, pero han planteado problemas éticos desde su comienzo. El consentimiento informado para su administración no se implementa con el mismo rigor en todas las regiones del mundo. Conclusiones: La vacunación en Pediatría constituye una práctica frecuente, por lo que es necesario el uso del consentimiento informado debidamente redactado y autorizado por los tutores legales o el paciente, que incluya la explicación de los propósitos, los procedimientos a que será sometido, los posibles daños y beneficios, y los posibles resultados de la misma(AU)


Introduction: Informed consent in Pediatrics is a progressive, consensual and dialogue-based decision-making process focused on a tripartite relationship (pediatrician-child-parents), under which the latter accept or do not accept the actions towards vaccination that have improved the prevention of different infectious diseases that affect the health of the child population and cause great morbidity, mortality and sequelae. Objective: To state the main bioethical aspects related to informed consent for the use of vaccines in Pediatrics. Material and Methods: A review of literature on the topic in Spanish and English was carried out using search engines such as Google Scholar. Also, 42 open access articles were consulted in the SciELO and Pubmed databases. The bibliography of the last 20 years was analyzed. It mainly included articles published during the last 5 years (from 2000 to 2020). Development: Vaccines are preventive interventions that have a centuries-old history that demonstrates their goodness and effectiveness, but have posed ethical problems since the very beginning. Informed consent for their administration is not implemented with the same rigor in all regions of the world. Conclusions: Vaccination in Pediatrics is a frequent practice, so a duly drafted informed consent authorized by the legal guardians or the patient is necessary. It should include the explanation of the aims, the procedures to which the patient will be submitted, the possible damages and benefits, and the possible results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Parents/education , Patients , Pediatrics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Vaccination/ethics , Informed Consent/ethics , Decision Making , Parental Consent/ethics
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1441-1456, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285912

ABSTRACT

Resumo Mesmo no período em que a pandemia de Covid-19 encontrava-se em crescimento no Nordeste do Brasil, iniciou-se a adoção de medidas de flexibilização do distanciamento social. O objetivo do estudo é o de avaliar a pertinência das propostas de flexibilização, tomando-se em conta a situação da pandemia em cada local e o momento em que foram adotadas. Tendo como referência as diretrizes da OMS, foram construídos e analisados indicadores operacionais para cada diretriz, no contexto da região Nordeste. Para análise do comportamento da epidemia, conforme indicadores selecionados, foram usadas técnicas de Joinpoint Trend Analysis, mapas de calor, razão de taxas e comparação da tendência temporal entre capitais e interior dos estados. O pico do crescimento semanal ocorreu em maio-julho/2020 (semanas epidemiológicas 19 a 31). Na maioria das capitais não se observou tendência decrescente simultânea do número de casos e óbitos nos 14 dias prévios à flexibilização. Em todos os estados o quantitativo de testes realizados foi insuficiente. Na semana epidemiológica 24 os percentuais estaduais de ocupação de leitos de UTI/Covid-19 foram próximos ou superiores 70%. A situação epidemiológica das nove capitais dos estados do Nordeste, no momento em que a decisão de flexibilização foi tomada, mostra que nenhuma delas atendia aos critérios e parâmetros recomendados pela OMS.


Abstract Even in the period when the Covid-19 pandemic was on the rise in the Northeast of Brazil, the relaxation of social distancing measures was introduced. The scope of the study is to assess, in the light of the epidemiological-sanitary situation in the region, the suitability of relaxation of social distancing measures. Based on the WHO guidelines for relaxation of social distancing, operational indicators were created and analyzed for each guideline in the context of the Northeast. To analyze the behavior of the epidemic, according to selected indicators, Joinpoint trend analysis techniques, heat maps, rate ratios and time trends between capitals and the state interior were compared. The weekly growth peak of the epidemic occurred in May-July 2020 (epidemiological weeks 19 to 31). In most capitals, there was no simultaneous downward trend in the number of cases and deaths in the 14 days prior to flexibilization. In all states the number of tests performed was insufficient. In epidemiological week 24, the state percentages of ICU/Covid-19 bed occupancy were close to or above 70%. The epidemiological situation of the nine Northeastern state capitals analyzed here did not meet criteria and parameters recommended by the World Health Organization for the relaxation of social distancing measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , World Health Organization , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/prevention & control
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