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Rev. invest. clín ; 72(3): 144-150, May.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251848


ABSTRACT The emergence of coronavirus disease 19 pandemic and novel research on the high transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised controversies over the use of face masks to prevent community transmission. Specific regulations need to be fulfilled to use a face mask as part of the personal protective equipment and high quality of evidence supporting its use to prevent respiratory viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, is lacking. However, its widespread use is becoming a standard practice in some countries and discrepancies between health authorities on their policy have led to controversy. The aim of this review is to provide an outlook on recent research in this matter and areas of opportunity.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Protective Devices , Program Evaluation , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Aerosols , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Air Microbiology , Equipment Design , Equipment Failure , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 583-586, dic. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899763


Resumen A pesar del enorme impacto de las vacunas en la salud de la población, éstas han sido y son objeto de cuestionamientos por grupos que las consideran innecesarias o inseguras y argumentan que las personas tienen el derecho a decidir sobre si éstas deben ser administradas o no. Sin embargo, el uso de vacunas tiene connotaciones distintas a otras decisiones en salud, ya que no vacunar impacta no sólo al individuo, sino también a la comunidad que lo rodea. El inmunizar a un alto porcentaje de la población permite limitar la circulación de los agentes infecciosos, logrando la llamada inmunidad comunitaria que protege a los no vacunados por razones médicas o porque son muy pequeños. Por esta razón muchos países han definido las vacunas como obligatorias. Como Comité Consultivo de Inmunizaciones nos parece que esta estrategia es correcta; sin embargo, debe ser acompañada por una política de educación de la población y personal de salud sobre los beneficios y riesgos reales de las vacunas. Así mismo es necesario introducir mejoras en el sistema de notificación de reacciones adversas a vacunas haciéndolo más accesible. Adicionalmente, se debe dar respuesta oportuna a los afectados por supuestas o reales reacciones a vacunas, y en los casos de eventos adversos graves efectivamente asociados a vacunas. entregar cobertura económica y acompañamiento. Finalmente, es esencial la coordinación entre los diferentes actores y comunicadores para transmitir mensajes que generen confianza y respondan a las inquietudes de la población de hoy en día.

Although vaccines have had a tremendous impact in public health they are questioned by certain groups that consider them unnecessary or unsafe and argue in favor of the right to decide to be vaccinated or not. However vaccines must have special considerations because unlike other medical decisions, not vaccinating has consequences not only for the individual but also for other members of the community. Immunizing a high proportion of the population limits the circulation of an infectious agent attaining what is called herd immunity that protects the susceptible members of the group. For this reason many countries consider vaccination mandatory as a responsibility of every citizen. This committee agrees with this view but thinks other strategies should be implemented as well, such as special educational efforts for the public and parents addressing benefits and real risks of vaccinating. Also health care professionals should be trained in vaccines. The notification system for adverse events currently available should be improved and be more accessible. Persons truly affected by adverse events due to vaccination should receive on time responses and be offered psychological and financial support. Finally all stakeholders should make coordinated efforts to work together to deliver messages that answer concerns on vaccines and bring confidence back to the public.

Humans , Societies, Medical , Vaccination/standards , Immunization Programs/standards , Mandatory Programs/standards , Vaccination Refusal/legislation & jurisprudence , Chile , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Risk Factors , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Immunization Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Mandatory Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2009; 02 (12): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-132169


This month, the government of the Republic of Yemen signed a new national public health law. This is the first formal public health law in the Country's history. The draft National Public Health Law was discussed at the Health Committee of the Parliament since 2005. The national assembly passed the draft early this year. The new PH law considered all relevant stakeholder/ministries. Chapter 4 of the proposed National PH Law addresses Surveillance and Control of Diseases [Articles 10-19], and the new law made reference to IHR 2005 [Chapter 4; Article 18]. The law also covers chemicals [Chapter 10, Articles:33-37], environment pollution, occupational health and Events [chapter 11; Art 38-43]

Humans , Population Surveillance , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence
Salud pública Méx ; 33(4): 378-91, jul.-ago. 1991. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-175159


En el presente artículo se describen las condiciones que obligan a los países de América Latina y el Caribe a asumir el diseño y la producción de vacunas para las enfermedades susceptibles de revención por vacunación como tareas regionales. Los autores discuten los objetivos y estrategias del Sistema Regional de Vacunas para América Latina, su posible estructura y su factibilidad económica

Humans , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Vaccines/pharmacology , Vaccines/supply & distribution , /statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Latin America , Regional Health Strategies
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113039


The introduction of different types of pollutants like those from industrial effluence, bye-products from petro-chemical industries, pesticidal application, wastages of nuclear power industries, etc. is viewed seriously by the society. For the control of vectors of disease the adoption of environmental management is, therefore, imperative. The physical methods like drainage of excess and waste water, making water unsuitable for vector breeding by adopting various indigenous methods in vogue, the intra and inter-sectrol coordination and community based activities are identified as the basic approaches for achieving this goal. Minimising the potentiality of vector breeding through source reduction and water management is thought to be the simplest, cheapest and most permanent method. For the society having varying types of habitation and varying degree of habitational facilities like planned housing, water supply and disposal, sanitation and organized anti-vector measures, the adoption of environmental management to exercise check over vector population is a promising proposition. The suitability of such an approach has already been demonstrated by MRC, (ICMR), Delhi and V.C.R.C., Pondicherry. The implementation of these methods is to be initiated right from Primary Health Centre and district level onwards and community is to be motivated to the extent that the various methods of environmental management for vector control are adopted in the routine way of life. In the present article these ideas have been touched upon and various methods of environmental management described in brief. In addition what other Governmental agencies are required to do in order to effectively implement environmental management methods are briefly enlisted.

Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Reservoirs , Environmental Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Government Agencies/organization & administration , Humans , Mosquito Control/legislation & jurisprudence