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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 111-126, jul. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131250

ABSTRACT

Resumo A pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19) trouxe grandes desafios para o sistema de saúde devido ao aumento exponencial do número de pacientes acometidos. A racionalização de recursos e a indicação correta e criteriosa de exames de imagem e procedimentos intervencionistas tornaram-se necessárias, priorizando a segurança do paciente, do ambiente e dos profissionais da saúde. Esta revisão visa auxiliar e orientar os profissionais envolvidos na realização desses exames e procedimentos a fazê-los de forma eficaz e segura.


Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a huge challenge to the health system because of the exponential increase in the number of individuals affected. The rational use of resources and correct and judicious indication for imaging exams and interventional procedures are necessary, prioritizing patient, healthcare personnel, and environmental safety. This review was aimed at guiding health professionals in safely and effectively performing imaging exams and interventional procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200013, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136810

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fusarium spp. has been associated with a broad spectrum of emerging infections collectively termed fusariosis. This review includes articles published between 2005 and 2018 that describe the characteristics, clinical management, incidence, and emergence of these fungal infections. Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum are globally distributed and represent the most common complexes. Few therapeutic options exist due to intrinsic resistance, especially for the treatment of invasive fusariosis. Therefore, the use of drug combinations could be an important alternative for systemic antifungal resistance. Increase in the number of case reports on invasive fusariosis between 2005 and 2018 is evidence of the emergence of this fungal infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/parasitology , Fusariosis/parasitology , Fusarium/classification , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fusariosis/drug therapy , Fusariosis/epidemiology
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180226, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041509

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This paper analyzed sociodemographic and epidemiological data of individuals with syphilis as well as the compulsory reporting of the disease, for being a reemerging disease in Brazil. METHODS: General information and sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were verified in compulsory reporting. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2016, 157 reporting forms were explored. Acquired and gestational syphilis occurred predominantly in those 20 to 29 years of age and those who did not complete secondary education. Compulsory reporting forms were not complete. CONCLUSIONS: The number of syphilis cases has varied over the years in the city. Incomplete compulsory reporting was noted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Syphilis/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190089, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika viruses, are a major threat to public health in countries like Brazil where biodiversity is high and medical care is sometimes precarious. West Nile fever is a disease caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes to numerous animals like birds, reptiles and mammals, including human and non-human primates. In the last decade, the number of reported cases of WNV infection in humans and animals has increased in the Americas. Circulation of WNV in forests and rural areas in Brazil has been detected based on serological surveys and, in 2014, the first case of West Nile fever was confirmed in a patient from Piauí State. In 2018, the virus was isolated for the first time from a horse from a rural area in the state of Espírito Santo presenting with a neurological disorder; this raises the possibility that other cases of WNV encephalitis may have occurred without clinical recognition and without laboratory diagnosis by specific assays. The imminent WNV outbreak poses a challenge for Brazilian clinicians and researchers. In this review, we summarize the basic biological and ecological characteristics of this virus and the clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses caused by WNV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects, prophylaxis of WNV infections, and monitoring strategies that could be applied in the possibility of a WNV outbreak in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , West Nile Fever/transmission , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Epidemics
6.
Rev. salud pública ; 20(6): 785-790, nov.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020860

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La reciente ocurrencia de infecciones por el virus vaccinia en animales y humanos en distintos lugares de la geografía colombiana, sumadas a otras por éste y por otros virus pertenecientes al género Orthopoxvirus (familia Poxviridae), ocurridas en algunos países de Suramérica, África, Asia y Europa se convierten en evidencia de la inminente emergencia y re-emergencia de este género, con características biológicas y epidemiológicas que le confieren gran interés para la salud pública del mundo, como lo fue en el pasado una de sus especies representativas: el virus de la viruela. Esta emergencia y re-emergencia parecen estar relacionadas con la suspensión en las décadas de los 70s y 80s de las campañas de vacunación contra la viruela, las cuales; insospechadamente estuvieron protegiendo a la población, no únicamente contra este virus, sino contra otros del mismo género. En el presente artículo se hace una revisión de la biología y epidemiología de los principales miembros del género Orthopoxvirus, su presentación clínica, antecedentes históricos, contexto social, e impacto en la salud pública mundial en el pasado, presente y a futuro.(AU)


ABSTRACT The recent occurrence of vaccinia virus infections in humans and animals in Colombia, together with that reported for this and other species of the genus Orthopoxvirus in some South American, African, Asian and European countries, is supporting evidence of the emergence and re-emergence of the genus. This fact has become of great interest for public health around the world due to its biological and an epidemiological features, as was in the past the variola virus, one of its representatives. The emergence and re-emergence of the genus Orthopoxvirus may be a consequence of stopping vaccination against the variola virus in the 1970s and 1980s. This vaccination unsuspectedly induced cross-protective immunity to other species of that genus. This is a review of the history, biology and epidemiology of the main species of the genus Orthopoxvirus, together with its clinical presentation, social context and public health impact in the past, present and future.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Poxviridae , Variola virus , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology
7.
Medisan ; 22(8)set.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976154

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí de La Habana, donde estuvieron ingresados 485 pacientes desde enero hasta diciembre de 2012 con diagnóstico de infección por dengue, de los cuales se escogió una muestra de 247. Entre los signos de alarma más comunes sobresalieron la cifra ascendente del hematocrito (54,6 por ciento y el dolor abdominal intenso o mantenido o de ambos tipos (46,1 por ciento . Las señales de alarma aparecieron por lo general al ceder la fiebre; del total de pacientes que las presentaron en algún momento de su evolución, 81,2 por ciento fueron tratados con hidratación intravenosa precoz y ninguno evolucionó hacia la forma grave de la enfermedad. La terapia hidratante parenteral se inició tardíamente en 18,8 por ciento de los afectados, incluidos todos aquellos en estado grave.


An observational, descriptive and cross sectional study was carried out in Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute from Havana, where 485 patients were admitted from January to December, 2012 with diagnosis of infection due to dengue fever, from whom a sample of 247 was chosen. Among the most common warning signs there were the increasing values of hematocrit (54.6 percent), and the intense or sustained abdominal pain or both types (46.1 percent). The warning signs generally appeared when fever ceased, and of the total of patients that presented it, 81.2 percent at some moment of their clinical course were treated with early intravenous hydration, and none developed the serious form of the disease. The parenteral hydration therapy began belatedly in 18.8 percent of the affected, including all those in severe state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus , Clinical Alarms , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Organism Hydration Status/immunology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 347-351, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041465

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Dengue has affected Rio de Janeiro City since the 1980s. The sequential Zika and chikungunya virus introductions during 2015 aggravated the health scenario, with 97,241 cases of arboviral diseases reported in 2015-2016, some with neurological disorders. METHODS Arbovirus-related neurologic cases were descriptively analyzed, including neurological syndromes and laboratory results. RESULTS In total, 112 cases with non-congenital neurologic manifestations (Guillain-Barré syndrome, 64.3%; meningoencephalitis, 24.1%; acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, 8%) were arbovirus-related; 43.7% were laboratory-confirmed, of which 57.1% were chikungunya-positive. CONCLUSIONS Emerging arbovirus infections brought opportunities to study atypical, severe manifestations. Surveillance responses optimized case identification and better clinical approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Dengue/complications , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Dengue/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology
9.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 27(1): 35-41, ene.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-960274

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo : Analizar la epidemiología descriptiva del Dengue para determinar si actualmente cumple con criterios de enfermedad reemergente en Costa Rica. Metodología : Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de una serie cronológica del periodo 1993-2016. La información se obtuvo de fuentes secundarias. Los datos se analizaron mediante la aplicación de hojas de cálculo Microsoft Excel 2016 (v16.0). Resultados : La tasa de incidencia de casos de Dengue muestra una tendencia hacia el alta de 1993 a 2016 (0,14% a 0,48% respectivamente). La tasa de letalidad muestra una tendencia hacia la disminución en defunciones durante el mismo periodo. Esta tendencia en la incidencia significa que el Dengue se mantiene como una enfermedad reemergente.


Abstract Study objective : Analyze Dengue descriptive epidemiology to determine if it currently meets the criteria for a reemerging disease in Costa Rica. Methods : A descriptive study was conducted on a time-series for the period of 1993-2016. The information was obtained from secondary sources. The data were analyzed using the Microsoft Excel 2016 application spreadsheet software (v16.0). Results : The incidence rate of Dengue cases shows a tendency towards the increase, for the period from 1993 to 2016 (from 0.14% to 0.48% respectively), while fatality rate shows a tendency towards decrease in deaths registered during the same period. This incidence rate tendency means that Dengue remains as a re-emerging disease.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Costa Rica
10.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 25(1): 51-55, 23/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046653

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A inserção das crianças em creches e pré-escolas tem constituído um importante dispositivo na atual configuração social. No entanto, o convívio permanente na creche/escola propicia o adoecimento das crianças com maior frequência quando comparadas com outras que permanecem em espaços familiares mais restritos, especialmente por enteroparasitos. Objetivos: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., considerados enteroparasitos oportunistas emergentes e reemergentes, e outros enteroparasitos em amostras de fezes de crianças de 2 a 6 anos de uma escola de educação infantil filantrópica. Casuística e Métodos: Participaram do estudo 32 crianças e a detecção de enteroparasitos foi feita pelo Método de Hoffmann, Pons e Janer. A identificação de Cryptosporidiumspp. foi realizada pela centrífugo-sedimentação formalina-éter seguido da coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Para confirmação de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi utilizado o teste de ELISA (RIDASCREEN®). Resultados: A prevalência de enteroparasitos foi de 62,5%, com elevada frequência de Cryptosporidiumspp. (31%) e Giardia spp. (25%). A idade mais acometida por esses microrganismos emergentes e reemergentes foi de 3 e 4 anos. Conclusão: A partir do exposto, é de suma importância realizar processos de educação em saúde para famílias e funcionários das instituições escolares a respeito das principais formas de transmissão e medidas de prevenção de enteroparasitoses, a fim de evitar a disseminação de microrganismos patogênicos no ambiente escolar.


Introduction:The insertion of children in daycare center and pre-schools has been an important device in the current social configuration. However, t he p ermanent living in the daycare center makes the children sickness more frequently when compared to others who remain in more restricted family spaces, especially for enteroparasites. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia spp., emerging and re-emerging opportunistic enteroparasites, and other enteroparasites in faeces samples from children aged 2 to 6 years old of a philanthropic daycare center. Patients andMethods:Thirty-two children participated in the study and the detection of enteroparasites was carried out by the method of Hoffmann, Pons and Janer. Identification of Cryptosporidium spp. was c arried out by centrifugal-sedimentation formalin-ether followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. For confirmation of Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia spp. the ELISA test (RIDASCREEN®) was used. Results:The prevalence of enteroparasites was 62.5%, with a high frequency of Cryptosporidium spp. (31%) and Giardiaspp. (25%). The age most affected by these emerging and re-emerging microorganisms was 3 and 4 years old. Conclusion:From the above, health education processes for families and staff of scholar institutions on the main forms of transmission and prevention of enteroparasitoses are of paramount importance in order to avoid the spread of pathogenic microorganisms in the school environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child , Cryptosporidium , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Giardia
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 696-699, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990853

ABSTRACT

Resumen El tifus de los matorrales, causado por Orientia tsutsugamushi y transmitido por larvas de ácaros trombicúlideos de roedores silvestres es una rickettsiosis endémica en el Asia Pacífico. Luego del primer caso identificado en Chile en el año 2006, nuestro grupo ha identificado más de 30 casos a partir del año 2015. Los casos se han presentado con un marcado predominio en meses de verano, y su presentación clínica incluye fiebre, exantema y una mancha negra en el sitio de inoculación. Otros hallazgos frecuentes han sido cefalea intensa, sudoración nocturna, aumento de PCR, VHS y transaminasas hepáticas. La gran mayoría de los pacientes se han diagnosticado en el sur de Chile (principalmente la isla de Chiloé), pero recientemente también se han presentado casos en la Región Metropolitana, en personas volviendo de viajes al sur de Chile. Los médicos clínicos deben estar informados de esta enfermedad emergente en el país, de modo de sospecharla e iniciar terapia empírica con doxiciclina. La confirmación de estos casos con los métodos diagnósticos disponibles en Chile contribuirá a una mejor comprensión del rango epidemiológico y la relevancia clínica de esta infección nueva en el país.


Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by larvae of trombiculid mites, is an endemic rickettsiosis in the Asia Pacific region. After the first identification of a case in Chile in 2006, more than 30 cases have been diagnosed by our group since 2015. Cases were detected predominantly during the Chilean summer months. Patients presented with fever, rash, and a typical eschar at the inoculation site; other frequent findings were intense headache, night sweats, increased laboratory markers of inflammation and transaminases. The vast majority of cases have been diagnosed in southern Chile (mainly Chiloé Island), although recently some cases were also identified in the central Metropolitan Region in patients returning from trips to southern Chile. Physicians attending Chilean patients should be aware of this emerging infection to be able to initiate empirical therapy with doxycycline. The confirmation of cases by the diagnostic methods available in Chile will contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiological and clinical relevance of this emerging infection in South America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Scrub Typhus/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Seasons , Chile/epidemiology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 535-538, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041418

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neglected infectious diseases like mumps may be opportunistic in controlled areas with low vaccine coverage, particularly in developed and emerging countries. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of mumps-related data from 2001 to 2016 for São Paulo State, Brazil was conducted. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2015, there was an increase of 82% in reported mumps cases in São Paulo, with prevalence of n=49 and 297, respectively in young adults aged 15-29 years. CONCLUSIONS: A booster-shot campaign on MMR vaccination is recommended to prevent the spread of mumps in unvaccinated children and recipients of only the first dose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Mumps/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Mumps/prevention & control
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(3): 227-233, jun. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887317

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Haemophilus influenzae b era la principal causa de meningitis bacteriana en menores de 5 años. Después de la introducción de la vacuna al calendario (1998), se observó un descenso significativo de la incidencia, pero, en los últimos años, hubo un aumento. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron describir las características y analizar la curva epidémica de los casos de meningitis por Haemophilus influenzae b (MHib) comparando los períodos pre- y posvacunación. Material y métodos. Estudio de series temporales. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes internados por MHib en el Hospital de Niños "R. Gutiérrez" (enero de 1992-mayo de 2016). Se compararon las tasas de hospitalización antes (prevacunación) y después (posvacunación) de la introducción de la vacuna. Se dividió la etapa posvacunación en tres períodos similares. Resultados. Fueron admitidos 85 pacientes con MHib (73,3% prevacunación). Las características clínicas y sociodemográficas de los casos en ambos períodos no mostraron diferencias. Prevacunación: 10,5 casos/año; y posvacunación: 0,7 casos/año. A partir de 2014, se observó un aumento. Tasa de letalidad: 4,8% (todos prevacunación). Datos posvacunación (n= 15): 40% del esquema primario completo, 40% del esquema atrasado para la edad. Reducción global de la tasa hospitalaria de MHib de 89,8% (IC 95%: -82,79-93,96%; p < 0,001) en el período posvacunación. Al analizar los diferentes períodos posvacunación, se observa una caída en la reducción a lo largo del tiempo. Conclusiones. Se observó una disminución muy importante de las hospitalizaciones por MHib pos introducción de la vacuna, pero, en los últimos años, se evidenció un aumento de estos casos sin modificaciones en las características de los pacientes.


Introduction. Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) used to be the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children younger than 5 years old. Following the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the immunization schedule (1998), its incidence reduced significantly but it has increased over the last years. The objectives of this study included describing the characteristics and analyzing the epidemic curve of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) meningitis by comparing the pre- and postimmunization periods. Material and methods. Time-series study. All patients hospitalized with Hib meningitis at Hospital de Niños "R. Gutiérrez" (January 1992-May 2016). Hospitalization rates were compared before (pre-immunization) and after (post-immunization) the introduction of the Hib vaccine. The post-immunization period was divided into three similar periods. Results. Eighty-five patients with Hib meningitis were admitted (73.3% in the pre-immunization period). No differences were observed in relation to the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of cases in both periods. Pre-immunization: 10.5 cases/year; postimmunization: 0.7 cases/year. As of 2014, the rate has increased. Lethality rate: 4.8% (all preimmunization). Post-immunization data (n= 15): 40% had completed their primary immunization schedule, 40% were delayed on the immunization schedule for their age. Overall reduction in the hospital rate of Hib meningitis by 89.8% (95% confidence interval: -82.79-93.96%, p < 0.001) in the post-immunization period. The analysis of the different post-immunization periods shows a decline in reduction over time. Conclusions. A very significant reduction in hospitalizations due to Hib meningitis was observed after the Hib vaccine was introduced; however, over the past years, the number of cases has increased although no changes have been observed in patient characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Meningitis, Haemophilus/epidemiology , Time Factors , Haemophilus Vaccines , Hospitals, Pediatric , Meningitis, Haemophilus/prevention & control
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(2): 108-115, abr. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844453

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Whooping cough is a re-emerging infection in the world and Latin America. Objective: It was considered relevant to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of Bordetella spp. and Bordetella pertussis infection in Córdoba province, Argentina; evaluating, at the same time, the co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections that may be confused with whooping cough. Material and Methods: All whooping cough suspected cases were studied by Polimerase Chain Reaction, amplifying the repeated insertion sequence (IS) 481 and the promoter gene encoding pertussis toxin, between 2011 and 2013. The data were obtained from the clinical and epidemiological records. Results: From 2,588 whooping cough suspected cases, 11.59% was infected by Bordetella spp. and 9.16% was confirmed as Bordetella pertussis infection. The rate of infection was 7.22 and 1.84 per 100,000 for 2011 and 2012, respectively. The infection presented a seasonal tendency and it was mainly found on the group of children between 13 and 24 months old. The co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections, were uncommon. Paroxysmal cough, cyanosis and/or vomiting were predictors of the infection for Bordetella pertussis. Discussion and Conclusions: To deal with the re-emergence of whooping cough is important the knowledge of the regional epidemiological situation. This paper shows the situation of these infections in the regional clinical and epidemiological context, and makes the information available for health decision-making.


Introducción: Coqueluche es una enfermedad reemergente en el mundo y en Latinoamérica. Objetivo: Resultó de interés caracterizar el perfil clínico-epidemiológico de la infección por Bordetella spp. y Bordetella pertussis en Córdoba, Argentina; evaluando además, la frecuencia de infecciones de etiología viral que, por cursar con un síndrome coqueluchoide (SC), pueden ser confundidas con cuadros de coqueluche. Material y Métodos: Los casos sospechosos de coqueluche, se estudiaron por reacción de polimerasa en cadena; amplificando la secuencia repetida de inserción (IS) 481 y la región promotora del gen de la toxina pertussis; entre 2011 y 2013. Los datos de los pacientes se obtuvieron de las fichas clínicoepidemiológicas. Resultados: De 2.588 pacientes, 11,59% presentó una infección por Bordetella spp. y en 9,16% se confirmó una infección por Bordetella pertussis. La tasa de infección fue 7,22 y 1,84 por 100.000 habitantes en 2011 y 2012, respectivamente. La infección presentó una tendencia estacional y se concentró principalmente en niños entre 13 y 24 meses. La tos paroxística, cianosis y/o vómitos fueron predictores de la infección por B. pertussis. La coinfección con virus productores de infecciones respiratorias fue poco frecuente. Discusión y Conclusiones: Es fundamental el conocimiento de la situación epidemiológica regional. Este trabajo presenta la situación de Córdoba y pone a disposición de la comunidad sanitaria la información para la toma de decisiones en el contexto clínico-epidemiológico regional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Bordetella/genetics , Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Bordetella/classification , Bordetella pertussis/genetics , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Diagnosis, Differential
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 256-259, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041403

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a public health problem in Haiti. Thus, the emigration of Haitians to Brazil is worrisome because of the risk for LF re-emergence. METHODS: Blood samples of Haitian immigrants, aged ≥18 years, who emigrated to Manaus (Brazilian Amazon), were examined using thick blood smears, membrane blood filtration, and immunochromatography. RESULTS: Of the 244 immigrants evaluated, 1 (0.4%) tested positive for W. bancrofti; 11.5% reported as having received LF treatment in Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: The re-emergence of LF in Manaus is unlikely, due to its low prevalence and low density of microfilaremia among the assessed Haitian immigrants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Wuchereria bancrofti/immunology , Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis , Antigens, Helminth/blood , Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chromatography, Affinity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Haiti/ethnology , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 30, 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845887

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses’ capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The impact on morbidity and mortality intensifies as extensive epidemics lead to a high number of affected individuals, severe cases, and implications for health services, mainly due to the absence of treatment, vaccines, and effective prevention and control measures.


RESUMO Notifica-se a emergência de arboviroses em diferentes regiões do planeta em decorrência de mudanças genéticas no vírus, alteração da dinâmica populacional de hospedeiros e vetores ou por fatores ambientais de origem antropogênica. É notável a capacidade de adaptação desses vírus e a possibilidade de emergirem e se estabelecerem em novas áreas geográficas. No contexto epidemiológico brasileiro, os arbovírus de maior circulação são DENV, CHIKV e ZIKV, embora existam outros com potencial de disseminação no País. O impacto da cocirculação viral ainda é pouco conhecido, a qual teoricamente resultaria em viremias mais intensas ou outras alterações imunológicas que poderiam ser o gatilho para doenças autoimunes, como a síndrome de Guillain-Barré. O impacto na morbidade e mortalidade se intensifica à medida que extensas epidemias pressupõem grande número de indivíduos acometidos, casos graves e implicações sobre os serviços de saúde, principalmente diante da ausência de tratamento, vacinas e medidas efetivas de prevenção e controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Aedes , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Insect Vectors , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e61, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report describes the outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Sint Maarten, a constituent country of Kingdom of the Netherlands comprising the southern part of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, from 22 December 2013 (first reported case) through 5 December 2014. The outbreak was first reported by the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin in the northern part of the island—the first site in the Americas to report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. By 5 December 2014, Sint Maarten had reported a total of 658 cases—an overall attack rate of 1.76%. Actual prevalence may have been higher, as some cases may have been misdiagnosed as dengue. Fever and arthralgia affected 71% and 69% of reported cases respectively. Of the 390 laboratory-confirmed cases, 61% were female and the majority were 20-59 years old (mean: 42; range: 4-92). The spread of CHIKV to Sint Maarten was inevitable given the ease of movement of people, and the vector, island-wide. Continuing their history of collaboration, the French and Dutch parts of the island coordinated efforts for prevention and control of the disease. These included a formal agreement to exchange epidemiological information on a regular basis and provide alerts in a timely manner; collaboration among personnel through joint island-wide planning of mosquito control activities, especially along borders; notification of all island visitors, upon their arrival at airports and seaports, of preventative measures to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes; dissemination of educational materials to the public; and island-wide public awareness campaigns, particularly in densely populated areas, for both residents and visitors. The information provided in this report could help increase understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of CHIKV and guide other countries dealing with vector-borne epidemics.(AU)


RESUMEN En el presente artículo se describe el brote del virus del chikungunya (CHIKV) que tuvo lugar entre el 22 de diciembre del 2013 (primer caso notificado) y el 5 de diciembre del 2014 en Sint Maarten, uno de los países integrantes del Reino de los Países Bajos, que comprende la parte sur de la isla caribeña de San Martín. El brote fue notificado primero por la colectividad de ultramar francesa de Saint-Martin, que ocupa la parte norte de la isla, convirtiéndose en la primera zona de las Américas en describir la transmisión autóctona del CHIKV. El 5 de diciembre del 2014, Sint Maarten había notificado 658 casos, equivalentes a una tasa de ataque del 1,76%, si bien la prevalencia real quizá haya sido mayor, puesto que algunos casos pueden haberse confundido por dengue. El 71% y el 69% de los casos notificados cursaron con fiebre y artralgias, respectivamente. De los 390 casos confirmados por laboratorio, el 61% eran mujeres y la mayoría tenían entre 20 y 59 años de edad (media: 42; intervalo: 4-92). Era inevitable que el CHIKV pasara a Sint Maarten, dadas la facilidad de movimiento de las personas y la extensión del vector por toda la isla. Siguiendo la tradición de cooperación mutua, las partes francesa y holandesa de la isla coordinaron las actuaciones de prevención y control, que consistieron en: la formalización de un convenio para intercambiar datos epidemiológicos de forma regular y emitir alertas puntualmente; la colaboración del personal de uno y otro lado para planificar, en todo el territorio insular, las actividades de control de mosquitos, sobre todo a lo largo de las fronteras; la notificación a todos los viajeros en arribo, a su llegada a los puertos y aeropuertos, de las medidas preventivas para evitar la picadura de los mosquitos; la difusión de materiales didácticos; y la realización de campañas públicas de concientización por toda la isla, en particular en las áreas de mayor densidad demográfica, dirigidas tanto a residentes como a turistas. La información expuesta en este informe puede ayudar a conocer mejor las características epidemiológicas del CHIKV y servir de orientación para otros países que hagan frente a epidemias transmitidas por vectores.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology
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