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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928589


Infectious diseases are commonly seen in clinical practice, and pathogen diagnosis is the key link in diagnosis and treatment; however, conventional pathogen detection methods cannot meet clinical needs due to time-consuming operation and low positive rate. As a new pathogen detection method, metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has a wide detection range and can detect bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, rare pathogens, and even unknown pathogens. The technique of mNGS is unbiased and can rapidly, efficiently, and accurately obtain all nucleic acid information in test samples, analyze pathogens, and guide clinical diagnosis and treatment, thereby playing an important role in complicated infectious diseases. This article reviews the diagnostic advantages and clinical value of mNGS in bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.

Bacteria , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927677


Infectious diseases are an enormous public health burden and a growing threat to human health worldwide. Emerging or classic recurrent pathogens, or pathogens with resistant traits, challenge our ability to diagnose and control infectious diseases. Nanopore sequencing technology has the potential to enhance our ability to diagnose, interrogate, and track infectious diseases due to the unrestricted read length and system portability. This review focuses on the application of nanopore sequencing technology in the clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases and includes the following: (i) a brief introduction to nanopore sequencing technology and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing platforms; (ii) strategies for nanopore-based sequencing technologies; and (iii) applications of nanopore sequencing technology in monitoring emerging pathogenic microorganisms, molecular detection of clinically relevant drug-resistance genes, and characterization of disease-related microbial communities. Finally, we discuss the current challenges, potential opportunities, and future outlook for applying nanopore sequencing technology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nanopore Sequencing , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Technology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10462, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153510


Infections caused by uncommon and resistant pathogens in unusual sites have been increasingly reported in medical literature. We describe four cases of rare cytological findings and clinical impact for patients. In the first case, Aspergillus sp and Pneumocystis jirovecii were observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage of a patient with severe systemic lupus. In the second and third cases, we describe the presence of Trichomonas sp and Strongyloides sp larvae in samples of pleural and peritoneal fluid, respectively. The fourth report is about a patient with a wrist subcutaneous nodule whose synovial aspiration and cytology revealed the presence of brown septate hyphae. The early identification of the infectious agent in the cytological examination was essential for the introduction and/or re-adaptation of therapy in the four cases described. Patients in this report were immunocompromised with severe comorbidities, conditions often associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Pleural Effusion/parasitology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Trichomonas/isolation & purification , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Ascitic Fluid/parasitology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Fatal Outcome , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(2): 84-90, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148444


Introdução: A hemoterapia consiste no tratamento terapêutico através da transfusão sanguínea. Considerando à vasta quantidade de doenças infecciosas que podem ser transmitidas pelo sangue, se faz necessária a realização de exames laboratoriais de alta sensibilidade para minimizar os riscos transfusionais aos doadores e receptores. Assim, no estudo foi avaliada a prevalência de marcadores sorológicos para Hepatite B e C em um banco de sangue de Porto Alegre- RS, bem como a correlação entre a sorologia e o teste de amplificação de ácido nucléico (NAT). Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, descritivo e retrospectivo que foi realizado através da análise das informações de todos os doadores de sangue contidas em um banco de dados de um Banco de Sangue de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, nos anos de 2017 e 2018, avaliando resultados da sorologia e o teste NAT para hepatite B e Hepatite C. Resultados: Das 17.181 doações de sangue, o total de bolsas sorologicamente reagentes foi 162 (0,94%) reagentes para o Anti-HBc, 20 (0,12%) amostras foram positivas para o HbsAg e 62 (0,36%) reagentes para o Anti-HCV. Apenas 4 (0,02%) amostras foram reagentes simultaneamente para o Anti-HBC e para o HbsAg, as quais foram também positivas no teste NAT. Já o teste NAT nas amostras reagente para Hepatite C, corresponderam a 18 (0,10%). Conclusões: A evolução da biotecnologia vem auxiliando a biossegurança nas transfusões de sangue. Considerando que a implementação do teste NAT é relativamente recente nos bancos de sangue, sugere-se mais estudos com períodos diferentes de tempo para a pesquisa de resultados satisfatórios, além disso, possibilitando elucidar ainda mais os resultados voltados à segurança transfusional e a associação dos testes sorológicos e o teste NAT nos bancos de sangue. (AU)

Introduction: Hemotherapy consists of therapeutic treatment using blood transfusion. Because of the vast amount of bloodborne infectious diseases, highly sensitive laboratory tests must be conducted to minimize the transfusion risks for donors and recipients. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C serological markers in samples from a blood bank in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, as well as the correlation between serology and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, retrospective study was conducted to analyze blood donor information obtained from a blood bank database in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, concerning 2017 and 2018. Serology and NAT results for hepatitis B and C were examined. Results: Of 17,181 blood donations, the total number of serologically reactive samples was 162 (0.94%) for anti-HBc, 20 (0.12%) for HbsAg, and 62 (0.36%) for anti-HCV. Only 4 (0.02%) samples were simultaneously reactive for anti-HBc and HbsAg, being also positive in NAT. The number of samples reactive to hepatitis C in NAT was 18 (0.10%). Conclusions: Biotechnological evolution has contributed to biosafety in blood transfusions. Considering that NAT is relatively recent in blood banks, further studies using different time periods are suggested for yielding satisfactory results for transfusion safety and elucidating the combination of serological testing and NAT at blood banks. (AU)

Humans , Serology , Blood Banks/methods , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 11(2)jul.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093330


El Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri (IPK) es una institución con un alto nivel científico, que desarrolla una formación docente de excelencia en doctorados, maestrías, residencias y otros entrenamientos relacionados con las enfermedades tropicales, su diagnóstico y tratamiento. La biblioteca, referencia en esta rama de la medicina, posee un fondo documental que se encuentra desactualizado, los documentos que forman parte de su colección son ediciones antiguas. Se hace necesario establecer una estrategia para la actualización y gestión de la información. Se realizó una búsqueda de información en internet para tener una visión sobre las herramientas y software utilizados para el desarrollo de bibliotecas digitales. Entre las herramientas consultadas y probadas se seleccionó el gestor de biblioteca de libros electrónicos Calibre por ser el software libre que más se adecuaba a nuestras necesidades. Se gestionó, reajustó y organizó la literatura en formato digital con el objetivo de establecer una estrategia para la actualización de la información, con la finalidad de satisfacer las necesidades de los usuarios(AU)

The IPK is an institution with a high scientific level, which develops teaching of excellence in doctorates, masters, residences and other trainings related to tropical diseases, their diagnosis and treatment. The library, a reference in this branch of medicine, has a documentary collection that is outdated, the documents that are part of its collection are old editions. It is necessary to establish a strategy for updating and managing information. An information search was carried out on the internet to have a vision on the tools and software used for the development of digital libraries. Among the tools consulted and tested, the Caliber e-book library manager was selected as the free software that best suited our needs. The literature was managed, readjusted and organized in digital format with the aim of establishing a strategy for updating information, in order to meet the needs of users(AU)

Humans , Software Design , Software , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Library Automation/standards , Library Services , Prospective Studies
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(3): 99-105, may 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025198


Introducción: El tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TARGA) ha desplazado a las infecciones oportunistas como principal causa de hospitalización en infectados por el HIV. Sin embargo, algunos autores hallaron que las causas de internación por HIV en Buenos Aires no cambiaron a pesar del acceso universal al TARGA desde 1996. Pacientes y Métodos. Para confirmar estos resultados revisamos todos los ingresos hospitalarios ocurridos durante tres años en un hospital general de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Resultados: 57 pacientes (34 hombres) tuvieron 79 hospitalizaciones: 43 ingresaron sólo una vez y los 14 restantes tuvieron dos o más ingresos hasta totalizar 36 internaciones. La edad fue de 44.46 ± 11.55 años (promedio ± desvío estándard), 43 pacientes (75.45%) se sabían HIV + y 28 de ellos (65.12%) recibían TARGA al ingreso, 31 hospitalizaciones (39.24%) fueron causadas por enfermedades marcadoras de SIDA; 35 (44.30%) por infecciones no marcadoras de SIDA (INMS) y 13 (13.46%) por enfermedades no infecciosas. Tuberculosis fue el diagnóstico más frecuente (11 casos, 13.92%), seguida por meningitis a Cryptococcus neoformans en 9 (11.39%) y toxoplasmosis cerebral en 6 (7.59%). Entre las INMS, la neumonía fue la principal causa de hospitalización (13 pacientes, 16.46%). Discusión: Estos resultados confirman resultados previos comunicando que las causas de hospitalización en infectados por el HIV no cambiaron en respuesta al TARGA en Buenos Aires, lo que puede estar reflejando problemas de detección o adherencia, o puede estar relacionado con resistencia viral, razones sociales o cualquier combinación de estos factores (AU)

Introduction. High Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) displaced opportunistic infections as the main cause of hospitalization in HIV infected patients. However, some authors found that causes for hospitalization in HiV infected patients did not changed at Buenos Aires although this country offers universal access to HAART since 1996. Patients and Methods. We analyzed all the HIV related admissions recorded during three years at a general hospital. Results. 57 patients (34 men) were hospitalized 79 times. 43 out of them were hospitalized only one time. The reaining 14 were hospitalized 36 times. Age was 44.46 ± 11.55 years (mean ± standard deviation). 43 patients (75.45%) had a previous diagnosis of HIV infection. 28 of them (65.12%) received HAART. 31 hospitalizations (39.24%) were caused by AIDS defining events. 35 (44.30%) related to non-AIDS-defining infections diseases (NADID), and 13 (13.46%) to non-infections diseases. Tuberculosis was the prevalent illness (11 cases, 13.92%), followed by cryptoccal meningitis in 9 (11.39%) and cerebral toxoplasmosis in 6 (7.59%). Among NADID, pneumonia was the main cause of admission (13 patientes, 16,46%). Discussion: These results confirm previous reports showing that causes of HIV related hospitalization remain unchanged in spite of HAART at Buenos Aires, which may be reflecting problems of detection and adherence, or may be related to local viral resistance, social reasons, or any combination of these factors (AU)

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Retrospective Studies , HIV/immunology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Drug Resistance, Viral/immunology , Noncommunicable Diseases , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(10): 500-504, dic 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046992


La presencia de adenopatías periféricas con rango adenomegálico es un hallazgo clínico frecuente, tanto en los pacientes con serología reactiva como en los no infectados por el VIH. En este estudio retrospectivo se analizaron 132 muestras de biopsias quirúrgicas ganglionares obtenidas de pacientes internados en un hospital de referencia en Enfermedades Infecciosas del GCABA, Argentina, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2015. La mayoría de los pacientes (100/132, 75,8%) tuvieron serología reactiva para VIH; en este subgrupok de sujetos, la mediana del recuento de linfocitos T CD-4 positivos fue de 141 cél/µL. El diagnóstico histopatológico más frecuente resultó la infiltración ganglionar por neoplasias linfoides primarias (linfomas) o metástasis de carcinomas (41%). Entre las patologías infecciosas predominaron las micobacteriosis, en especial la tuberculosis. Solo en 3 de 132 (2,3%) muestras de biopsias los hallazgos histológicos fueron normales. En conclusión, la biopsia quirúrgica de adenopatías periféricas resulta un método muy valioso y mínimamente invasivo para el diagnóstico de patologías infecciosas y tumorales. Una alta incidencia de enfermedades neoplásicas se detectaron en este estudio realizado en un hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas.

Peripheral lymphadenopathy is a common clinical condition in both HIV-infected and non-HIV patients and has a wide spectrum of differential diagnoses. In this retrospective study, we carried out a cross-sectional study of peripheral lymph node biopsies performed from January 2011 to December 2015 in a reference hospital of Infectious Diseases in Argentina. We include a 132 patients underwent excisional lymph node biopsies during the time of study. The majority of patients were HIV-seropositive (100/132; 75,8%); the median of CD4 T-cell count was 141 cell/µL. The most common histopathological diagnosis was primitive or secondary neoplasms (54/132; 40,9%). In 51/132 biopsies the diagnosis corresponded to infectious pathologies, especially mycobacterial diseases, including tuberculosis. Only 3 of 132 biopsies (2,3%) included in the evaluation had only with normal findings. Peripheral lymph node biopsy is a simple and useful tool to diagnose opportunistic diseases and neoplasms in HIV and non-HIV infected patients. A high incidence of neoplasm diseases (41%) were obtained in this retrospective study

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Neoplasms/physiopathology
Rev. medica electron ; 40(6): 1801-1818, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978704


RESUMEN Introducción: la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 ha mantenido un incremento en los últimos años convirtiéndose en una pandemia. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 hospitalizados en el Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Universitario Mártires de Mayarí en el período abril - julio de 2016. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo de tipo serie de casos. La muestra fueron 59 pacientes. Se determinaron variables asociadas con la diabetes. Se utilizó la entrevista, el análisis y la síntesis; el análisis documental y estadístico. Resultados: prevaleció el sexo femenino (69,5 %). La principal enfermedad aguda asociada fue la infección (42,3 %). Se reportó una alta prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (67,8 %). La cardiopatía isquémica fue la complicación crónica más frecuente (39 %). Los pacientes con los niveles de glicemia no deseables prevalecieron con respecto a aquellos con deseables niveles. Conclusiones: la diabetes mellitus es más frecuente en el sexo femenino. El principal motivo de admisión fue la infección, con una elevada prevalencia de comorbilidades y complicaciones, en correspondencia con el tiempo de evolución, siendo las de mayor incidencia la hipertensión arterial y la enfermedad coronaria, respectivamente (AU).

ABSTRACT Introduction: diabetes mellitus type 2 has maintained an increase in recent years becoming a pandemic. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Service of the Mártires de Mayarí University Hospital in the period April - July 2016. Materials and methods: an observational, descriptive, retrospective study of a series of cases was conducted. The sample consisted of 59 patients. Variables associated with diabetes were determined. The interview, the analysis and the synthesis were used; the documentary and statistical analysis. Results: female sex prevailed (69,5 %). The main associated acute illness was infection (42,3 %). A high prevalence of arterial hypertension was reported (67,8 %). Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent chronic complication (39 %). Patients with undesirable blood sugar levels prevailed over those with desirable levels. Conclusions: diabetes mellitus is more frequent in females. The main reason for admission was infection, with a high prevalence of comorbidities and complications, corresponding to the time of evolution, with the highest incidence being arterial hypertension and coronary disease, respectively (AU).

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Morbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Internal Medicine , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Cuba , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Observational Studies as Topic , Hypertension/diagnosis
Medisan ; 22(5)mayo 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-955034


Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 54 pacientes con infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria en el Hospital Infantil Sur Docente Dr Antonio María Béguez César de Santiago de Cuba, que abarcó desde enero de 2015 hasta diciembre de 2016. Las variables analizadas incluyeron edad, sexo, tipo de infección, resultado de los cultivos, microorganismo aislado y servicio de procedencia. Todas las muestras de los cultivos efectuados fueron procesadas en el Departamento de Microbiología de la mencionada institución. En la casuística predominaron el grupo etario de 5-17 años, el sexo masculino, la infección en la herida quirúrgica, la positividad de los cultivos, el aislamiento de la Escherichia coli y la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Solo fallecieron 2 de los lactantes de 0-11 meses, para 3,7 por ciento.

A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 54 patients with infections associated with the health care in Dr Antonio María Béguez César Southern Teaching Pediatric Hospital was carried out in Santiago from Cuba, from January, 2015 to December, 2016. The analyzed variables included age, sex, infection type, result of the cultures, isolated organism and origin service. All the culture samples were processed in the Microbiology Department of the institution. The age group 5-17 years, male sex, infection in the surgical wound, the positivity of the cultures, isolation of Escherichia coli and the Intensive Care Unit prevailed in the case material. Only 2 of the infants with 0-11 months died, for 3,7 percent.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross Infection , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Secondary Care , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 49(1): 6-23, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1096122


Buscando en los registros de las principales actividades de la Gerencia de Diagnóstico y Vigilancia Epidemiológica ha sido difícil elegir entre tantas vivencias, aquellos elementos que marcaron pauta durante la década 2008 ­ 2018. No obstante, es de resaltar que los desafíos afrontados ante la aparición de brotes, epidemias y la primera pandemia del siglo XXI, trajeron consigo un cúmulo de experiencias que se presentan en este artículo. Como centro nacional de referencia en las áreas de Bacteriología, Micología y Virología, continuamos aportando soluciones a la salud pública nacional mediante la actualización profesional de nuestro personal y la formación de la generación de relevo, en la que participan profesionales de excelencia, altamente especializados y sensibilizados con la problemática y los requerimientos de nuestra población. Asimismo, a través de la coordinación, supervisión y evaluación de la Red de laboratorios de salud pública, se contribuye con el fortalecimiento del diagnóstico de enfermedades transmisibles y vigilancia epidemiológica en el país. El trabajo realizado en estos diez años ha sido excelente, crucial y prioritario para enfrentar las emergencias. Debemos seguir trabajando en dos aspectos claves: 1. Mayor integración del laboratorio con el componente epidemiológico y clínico del país para ser más útiles al sistema de salud, y 2. Consolidar la creación del edificio sede del Centro de Diagnóstico de Enfermedades Transmisibles del Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" (INHRR), proyecto en el que estamos trabajando con la asesoría de la OPS/OMS.

Looking at the records of the main activities of the Diagnostic and Epidemiological Surveillance Management, it has been difficult to choose between many experiences, those elements that set the standard during the 2008 ­ 2018 decade. However, it is noteworthy that the challenges faced with the emergence of outbreaks, epidemics and the first pandemic of the 21st century, brought with it a wealth of experiences that are presented in this article. As a national reference center in Bacteriology, Mycology and Virology areas, we continue to provide solutions to public health through the professional updating of our staff and formation of the relief generation, in which participate professionals of excellence, highly specialized and sensitized with the problems and requirements of our population. Likewise, through the coordination, supervision and evaluation of the public health laboratories network, it contributes to the strengthening of the communicable diseases diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance in the country. The work done in these ten years has been excellent, crucial and priority to face emergencies. We must continue working on two key aspects: 1. Greater laboratory integration with the epidemiological and clinical component of the country to be more useful to the health system, and 2. Consolidate headquarters building creation of the National Institute of Hygiene "Rafael Rangel" (INHRR) Diagnostic Center for Communicable Diseases, project in which we are working with the PAHO / WHO advice.

Humans , Male , Female , Bacteriology , Virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Health Facilities , Mycology , Public Health , Public Health Laboratory Services , History of Medicine , Laboratories
Rev. medica electron ; 39(4): 947-956, jul.-ago. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902213


Se presenta un estudio de control de foco de un brote de cólera, mediante la técnica observacional del tipo serie de casos, en el mes de julio de 2014 en el Municipio Matanzas, donde se describe, según el método epidemiológico, la relación de los casos detectados con el caso índice; se analiza el problema detectado teniendo en cuenta el enfoque de riesgo del cólera. Se realiza una evolución clínico-epidemiológica de los casos detectados y se analizan las medidas de control de foco aplicadas. Se revisan tanto las historias clínicas individuales en el consultorio del médico de la familia, como las encuestas epidemiológicas y el expediente de control de foco en el departamento de Epidemiología (AU).

A study of control of focus of a bud of cholera is presented, by means of the observational technique of the type series of cases, in the month of July of 2014 in the Municipality Matanzas, where it is described, according to the epidemic method, the relationship of the cases detected with the index case; the detected problem is analyzed keeping in mind the focus of risk of the cholera. He/she is carried out a clinical-epidemic evolution of the detected cases and of the applied measures of focus control. They are revised the clinical histories so much in the clinic of the doctor of the family, as the epidemic surveys and the file of focus control in the department of epidemiology (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Cholera/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Vibrio cholerae/pathogenicity , Vibrio cholerae/virology , Medical Records , Cholera/complications , Cholera/diagnosis , Cholera/pathology , Cholera/therapy , Cholera/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis
Rev. medica electron ; 39(2): 304-312, mar.-abr. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-845419


La fiebre del Zika es una enfermedad viral transmitida por mosquitos causada por el virus del mismo nombre (ZIKV), y que consiste en fiebre leve, exantemas (principalmente maculo-papular), cefalalgia, artromialgias, malestar general y conjuntivitis no purulenta que acontece entre dos a siete días después de la picadura del mosquito vector(Aedes). Una de cada cuatro personas puede desarrollar síntomas y en quienes sí son afectados la enfermedad es usualmente leve, con síntomas que pueden durar dicho período. La apariencia clínica es muchas veces similar a la del dengue, que también se transmite por mosquitos. Esta afección se ha relacionado con brotes importantes en varias latitudes, pero, hasta el momento, no con la intensidad del actual y es que puede relacionarse con complicaciones neurológicas y autoinmunes a largo plazo incluyendo resultados perinatales desfavorables en embarazadas. Esto la convierte en un tema muy importante para la Salud Pública (AU).

Zika fever is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes where Zika virus is involved. Clinical manifestations include low fever, non-supurative conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash, headache, joints pain, malaise during the first two to seven days after mosquito vector Aëdes bites. One between four patients can develop those complaints although it is not usually severe. The differential diagnosis is match dengue and other arbovirosis. The symptoms could be present all this period. The illness is related with sprouts in many countries, but it looks a decrease nowadays. Zika complications can be neurological and autoimmune disorders and even perinatal malformations. That is a reason because it´s a very important problem for Public Health (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Public Health/methods , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Review Literature as Topic , Communicable Diseases/complications , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Mosquito Vectors
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e162, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961662


ABSTRACT Objectives To develop and demonstrate the use of a new method for epidemiological surveillance of dengue. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the Health Department of São José do Rio Preto (São Paulo, Brazil). The geographical coordinates were obtained using QGIS™ (Creative Commons Corporation, Mountain View, California, United States), based on patient addresses in the dengue notification system of the Government of Brazil. SaTScan™ (Martin Kulldorff, Boston, Massachusetts, United States) was then used to create a space-time scan analysis to find statistically significant clusters of dengue. These results were plotted and visualized using Google Earth™ mapping service (Google Incorporated, Mountain View, California, United States). Results More clusters were detected when the maximum number of households per cluster was set to 10% (11 statistically significant clusters) rather than 50% (8 statistically significant clusters). The cluster radius varied from 0.18 - 2.04 km and the period of time varied from 6 days - 6 months. The infection rate was more than 0.5 cases/household. Conclusions When using SaTScan for space-time analysis of dengue cases, the maximum number of households per cluster should be set to 10%. This methodology may be useful to optimizing dengue surveillance systems, especially in countries where resources are scarce and government programs have not had much success controlling the disease.

RESUMEN Objetivos Elaborar un método nuevo para la vigilancia epidemiológica del dengue y hacer una demostración sobre su uso. Métodos Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes usando datos del Departamento de Salud de São José do Rio Preto (São Paulo, Brasil). Partiendo de la dirección de los pacientes en el sistema de notificación del dengue del Gobierno de Brasil, se usó QGIS™ (Creative Commons Corporation, Mountain View, California, Estados Unidos) para obtener sus coordenadas geográficas. Luego se usó SaTScan™ (Martin Kulldorff, Boston, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos) para crear un análisis de exploración espacio-temporal a fin de detectar conglomerados de dengue estadísticamente significativos. Por último, se usó el servicio de mapas de Google Earth™ (Google Incorporated, Mountain View, California, Estados Unidos) para graficar y visualizar estos resultados. Resultados Se detectaron más conglomerados cuando el número máximo de viviendas por conglomerado se estableció en 10% (11 conglomerados estadísticamente significativos) en lugar de 50% (8 conglomerados estadísticamente significativos). El radio de los conglomerados se ubicó entre 0,18 y 2,04 km, y la duración entre 6 días y 6 meses. La tasa de infección fue de más de 0,5 casos por vivienda. Conclusiones Cuando se usa SaTScan, el número máximo de viviendas por conglomerado debe establecerse en 10% para el análisis de exploración. Este método puede ser útil para optimizar los sistemas de vigilancia del dengue, especialmente en aquellos países donde los recursos son escasos y los programas gubernamentales no han tenido mucho éxito para controlar la enfermedad.

RESUMO Objetivos Desenvolver um novo método de vigilância epidemiológica da dengue e demonstrar a sua aplicação. Métodos Estudo de coorte retrospectiva conduzido com dados obtidos da Secretaria de Saúde de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As coordenadas geográficas foram obtidas com o software QGIS™ (Creative Commons Corporation, Mountain View, Califórnia, EUA) segundo os endereços dos pacientes registrados no sistema de notificação do Programa Nacional de Controle da Dengue do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. Foi usado o software SaTScan™ (Martin Kulldorff, Boston, Massachusetts, EUA) com o método Scan espaçotemporal para a detecção de conglomerados espaciais de casos de dengue com significância estatística. Os resultados foram representados graficamente e visualizados com a ferramenta de geomapeamento Google Earth™ (Google Incorporated, Mountain View, Califórnia, EUA). Resultados Detectou-se um número maior de conglomerados espaciais ao se estabelecer o número máximo de domicílios por conglomerado em 10% em comparação a 50% (11 versus 8 conglomerados com significância estatística). O raio dos conglomerados espaciais detectados variou de 0,18 km a 2,04 km e o período de tempo oscilou entre 6 dias e 6 meses. A taxa de infecção foi superior a 0,5 caso por domicílio. Conclusões O número máximo de domicílios por conglomerado deve ser de 10% ao conduzir a análise da distribuição espacial com o SaTScan. Este método pode contribuir para melhorar o desempenho dos sistemas de vigilância da dengue, sobretudo nos países com recursos limitados e resultados insatisfatórios nos programas nacionais de controle da doença.

Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Dengue/prevention & control , Geographic Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(4): 261-265, out.-dez.2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831719


A doença de Chagas é considerada, atualmente, pela Organização Mundial da Saúde uma das doenças tropicais negligenciadas, com estimativa de mais de 8 milhões de pessoas infectadas em todo o mundo. Recentemente tem havido crescente interesse na doença de Chagas, importante etiologia de miocardiopatia na América Latina, devido, em grande parte, ao aumento da incidência dessa doença em países desenvolvidos. A despeito do amplo emprego de drogas antiparasitárias na forma aguda da doença de Chagas, o tratamento etiológico da miocardiopatia chagásica crônica permanece incerto, sendo o benefício para o prognóstico dos pacientes ainda indeterminado. No presente artigo realizamos revisão sistemática a respeito do emprego de terapia celular, anticorpos, vacinas e plasmaferese em pacientes com doença de Chagas. Os dados levantados indicam que, a despeito de a terapia baseada em células-tronco mostrar potencial benéfico em modelos experimentais, em seres humanos, a evidência até o momento disponível não nos autoriza a utilizar tal modalidade na rotina assistencial. Vacinas baseadas em antígenos genéticos têm potencial a ser explorado, mas sem aplicabilidade momentânea em seres humanos. Novos estudos são necessários para elucidar o uso real dessas modalidades alternativas no contexto da miocardiopatia chagásica.

ABSTRACT The World Health Organization, with an estimate of over 8 million people infected worldwide, currently considers the Chagas disease as one of the neglected tropical diseases. Recently there has been increasing interest in Chagas disease, an important etiology of cardiomyopathy in Latin America, due in large part to the increased incidence in developed countries. Despite the widespread use of antiparasitic drugs in the acute infected form of Chagas disease, etiological treatment of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy remains uncertain, and the benefit for the prognosis of patients still undetermined. In the present article, we present a systematic review on the use of cell therapy, antibodies, vaccines and plasmapheresis in patients with Chagas disease. The data collected indicate that, despite the stem cell-based therapy showing beneficial potential in experimental models, in humans, the evidence so far available does not allows us to use this modality as a routine treatment. Vaccines based on genetic antigens have potential to be explored, but without immediate applicability in humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate the actual use of these alternative methods in the context of Chagas cardiomyopathy.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Vaccines , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Chagas Disease/etiology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Review Literature as Topic , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Plasmapheresis/methods
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 39(2): 76-85, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783033


ABSTRACT Objective To describe the surveillance model used to develop the first national, population-based, multiple noncommunicable disease (NCD) registry in the Caribbean (one of the first of its kind worldwide); registry implementation; lessons learned; and incidence and mortality rates from the first years of operation. Methods Driven by limited national resources, this initiative of the Barbados Ministry of Health (MoH), in collaboration with The University of the West Indies, was designed to collect prospective data on incident stroke and acute myocardial infarction (MI) (heart attack) cases from all health care facilities in this small island developing state (SIDS) in the Eastern Caribbean. Emphasis is on tertiary and emergency health care data sources. Incident cancer cases are obtained retrospectively, primarily from laboratories. Deaths are collected from the national death register. Results Phased introduction of the Barbados National Registry for Chronic NCDs (“the BNR”) began with the stroke component (“BNR–Stroke,” 2008), followed by the acute MI component (“BNR–Heart,” 2009) and the cancer component (“BNR–Cancer,” 2010). Expected case numbers projected from prior studies estimated an average of 378 first-ever stroke, 900 stroke, and 372 acute MI patients annually, and registry data showed an annual average of about 238, 593, and 349 patients respectively. There were 1 204 tumors registered in 2008, versus the expected 1 395. Registry data were used to identify public health training themes. Success required building support from local health care professionals and creating island-wide registry awareness. With spending of approximately US$ 148 per event for 2 200 events per year, the program costs the MoH about US$ 1 per capita annually. Conclusions Given the limited absolute health resources available to SIDS, combined surveillance should be considered for building a national NCD evidence base. With prevalence expected to increase further worldwide, Barbados’ experiences are offered as a “road map” for other limited-resource countries considering national NCD surveillance.

RESUMEN Objetivo Describir el modelo de vigilancia que se utilizó para crear el primer registro poblacional nacional de múltiples enfermedades no transmisibles en el Caribe (uno de los primeros registros de esta clase en el mundo), la ejecución del registro, las lecciones aprendidas y las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad desde sus primeros años de funcionamiento. Métodos Esta iniciativa del Ministerio de Salud de Barbados, realizada en colaboración con la Universidad de las Indias Occidentales e impulsada por la limitación de los recursos nacionales, tuvo por finalidad recoger datos prospectivos sobre los casos nuevos de accidente cerebrovascular e infarto agudo de miocardio en todos los establecimientos de atención de salud de este pequeño estado insular en desarrollo del Caribe oriental. El análisis se centró en las fuentes de datos sobre la atención de salud terciaria y de urgencia. La información sobre los casos nuevos de cáncer se obtuvo de manera retrospectiva, principalmente de los laboratorios. Los datos sobre las defunciones se tomaron del registro nacional de mortalidad. Resultados La introducción progresiva del Registro Nacional de Enfermedades Crónicas no Transmisibles de Barbados se inició con el componente de los accidentes cerebrovasculares en 2008, seguido del componente de infarto agudo de miocardio en 2009 y el componente de cáncer en 2010. Las estimaciones previstas con base en los estudios anteriores fueron en promedio de 378 casos de un primer accidente cerebrovascular, 900 casos de accidente cerebrovascular y 372 pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio cada año; los datos del registro mostraron un promedio anual cercano a 238, 593 y 349 casos respectivamente. En el 2008, se registraron 1204 casos de cáncer, frente a los 1395 previstos. En función de los datos del registro se definieron los temas de capacitación en salud pública. El éxito de la iniciativa exigió fomentar el apoyo de los profesionales de salud a nivel local y dar a conocer la existencia del registro en toda la isla. Con un gasto cercano a 148 dólares por episodio y 2200 episodios por año, el programa cuesta al Ministerio de Salud alrededor de un dólar por habitante cada año. Conclusiones Dada la limitación de los recursos absolutos destinados a la salud en los pequeños estados insulares en desarrollo, es preciso analizar la posibilidad de realizar una vigilancia combinada, con el objeto de crear una base nacional de datos fidedignos sobre las enfermedades no transmisibles. Ante la perspectiva de un aumento continuo de la prevalencia mundial, la experiencia en Barbados se ofrece como una “hoja de ruta” destinada a otros países con recursos limitados que planean introducir la vigilancia nacional de las enfermedades no transmisibles.

Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Developing Countries
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(1): 88-96, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-784030


Knowledge of the main causes of death in dogs and cats provides grants for monitoring, planning and evaluation of measures to reduce the percentage of death of these animals. Therefore, the present paper was developed to analyze the diagnostic postmortem of dogs and cats in Animal Pathology Laboratory UFPI from August 2009 to August 2014, establishing the frequency of causes that led to the animal deaths. 361 dogs and 86 cats were necropsied in this period. Of the dogs, 56.7% were males and 43.3% females. Regarding age at death, in the group of dogs, 29.4% had less than 1 year; 27.7% between 1.1 to 5 years; 23.3% 5.1 to 10 years and 9.1% over 10.1 years. In the group of cats, 61.6% were male and 38.4% female, of which 29.1% were less than 1 year; 39.5% 1.1 to 5 years; 18.6% 5.1 to 10 years and 2.3% over 10.1 years. The main causes of death in dogs were infectious disorders (23.8%), degenerative diseases (14.4%), circulatory disorders (10.2%) and neoplasms 8.6%. In cats, infectious disorders (18.6%), urinary (15.1%), trauma (8.1%) and neoplasms (8.1%) were the leading causes of death. It is concluded that the main causes of death in both pet animal species, diagnosed in animal-UFPI Pathology sector, were infectious diseases. Local veterinary services should be made aware of these results, leading to measures for paying more attention to these diseases and the adoption of prophylactic measures to reduce the occurrence of such diseases in pets...

O conhecimento das principais causas de óbito em cães e gatos fornece subsídios para o monitoramento, planejamento e avaliação de medidas que visam reduzir o percentual de óbito desses animais em uma dada localidade. O presente trabalho compilou os diagnósticos post-mortem de cães e gatos necropsiados no Laboratório de Patologia Animal da Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), Estado do Piauí, Brasil, no período de agosto de 2009 a agosto de 2014, estabelecendo a frequência das doenças que culminaram com o óbito dos animais. Nesse período foram necropsiados 361 cães e 86 gatos. Dos cães, 56,7% eram machos e 43,3% fêmeas. Em relação à idade no momento do óbito, 29,4% tinham menos de um ano; 27,7% entre 1,1 a 5 anos; 23,3% de 5,1 a 10 anos e 9,1% acima de 10,1 anos. Em relação aos felinos, 61,6% eram machos e 38,4% eram fêmeas, dos quais 29,1% tinham menos de um ano; 39,5% de 1,1 a 5 anos; 18,6% de 5,1 a 10 anos e 2,3% acima de 10,1 anos. Nos cães as principais causas de óbito foram distúrbios infecciosos (23,8%), doenças degenerativas (14,4%), distúrbios circulatórios (10,2%) e neoplasias 8,6%. Em gatos, os distúrbios infecciosos (18,6%), urinários (15,1%), traumáticos (8,1%) e neoplasias (8,1%) foram as principais causas de morte. Conclui-se que a principal causa de morte, tanto em cães quanto gatos, diagnosticada no setor de Patologia Animal UFPI foram as doenças infecciosas, estes resultados contribuem para que o clínico dedique maior atenção a essas enfermidades, visando adoção de medidas profiláticas que reduzirão a sua ocorrência nos animais de companhia da região estudada...

Animals , Cats , Dogs , Cause of Death , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Autopsy/veterinary , Pathology, Veterinary
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(2): 129-136, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-748879


Mycobacterium sp. induz inflamação granuloma-tosa em diferentes espécies animais. Mycobacterium bovis e o complexo Mycobacterium avium são importantes patógenos de bovinos e suínos e podem causar infecção em humanos, principalmente imunossuprimidos. Perdas na produção, barreiras comerciais e prejuízos por condenação de carcaças em abatedouro/frigorífico estão atrelados à ocorrência dessas infecções, com prejuízos econômicos significativos. Foi realizado um estudo de casos diagnosticados como tuberculose em bovinos e linfadenite granulomatosa em suínos no Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS) no período de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2011. Dados referentes à raça, ao sexo, à idade e ao histórico clínico foram compilados dos livros de registro e analisados. As características histológicas das lesões em linfonodos e pulmões foram avaliadas em Hematoxilina-Eosina, com predomínio de células gigantes nas lesões de tuberculose bovina e de macrófagos epitelioides em suínos. As técnicas histoquímicas de Ziehl-Neelsen e Tricrômico de Masson foram utilizadas para evidenciar, respectivamente, bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes e tecido conjuntivo fibroso nas lesões. A técnica de imuno-histoquímica foi utilizada em aproximadamente 30% dos casos estudados de cada espécie, selecionados aleatoriamente, para a caracterização do infiltrado linfocítico. Foram utilizados os anticorpos anti-CD3 para a marcação de linfócitos T e anti-CD79cy para a marcação de linfócitos B. Linfócitos T predominaram nas lesões em ambas as espécies, com diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as médias dos linfócitos T e linfócitos B. Foi usado o teste t pareado, com t=5,501 (p<0,001) nas lesões dos bovinos e t=5,826 (p<0,001) para as lesões de linfadenite dos suínos...

Mycobacterium sp. induces granulomatous inflammation in different animal species. Mycobacterium bovis and the Mycobacterium avium complex are important cattle and swine pathogens that can also infect humans, especially those immunosuppressed. Losses in production, commercial barriers and carcasses condemnations in slaughtering are related to this infection, which implies in large economic losses. It was carried out a study on bovine tuberculosis lesions and granulomatous lymphadenitis in pigs, diagnosed by the Setor de Patologia Veterinária from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS), Brazil, between January 2007 and December 2011. Data concerning breed, sex, age and clinical history were retrieved from the files and analyzed. Histological features of the lesions in lymph nodes and lungs were evaluated in Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Multinucleated giant cells were predominant in bovine tuberculosis lesions and epithelioid macrophages were abundant in swine. Ziehl-Neelsen and Masson's trichrome techniques were used respectively to demonstrate the alcohol-acid resistant bacillus and fibrous connective tissue in the lesions. The immunohistochemistry technique was performed to characterize the lymphocytic infiltrate. Anti-CD3 antibodies were utilized to immunolabeling lymphocytes T, and anti-CD79cy to lymphocytes B. Lymphocytes T were predominant in both species lesions, confirmed statistically by paired t test, which showed significantly differ means of T and B lymphocytes, with t=5,501 (p<0.001) for the bovines tuberculosis lesions, and t=5.826 (p<0.001), for the cases of pigs lymphadenitis...

Animals , Cattle , Cattle/injuries , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Lymphadenitis/veterinary , Mycobacterium avium/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Swine/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis
Rio de Janeiro; Guanabara Koogan; 2. ed rev e atual; 2015. 1173 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-766462