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1.
Aquichan ; 23(2): e2327, 10 abr. 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1436502

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the socio-demographic profile and caregiving situation of dependent older adults and their family caregivers in Brazil and Colombia. Method: This mixed comparative and exploratory study follows the comparative study stages proposed by Bereday, namely: Description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. A semi-structured interview was used. National and international ethical principles were followed in the study, with the ethics committee's approval in each country. Results: A total of 250 participants were interviewed: 52 dependent older adults in Brazil and 56 in Colombia, along with 70 family caregivers in Brazil and 72 in Colombia. A total of 68.5 % of the elderly and 83.8 % of the caregivers were women. Twelve categories were created based on the participants' statements, six in the dependent older people and six in the caregivers. Conclusion: Women and daughters were the primary family caregivers, and the Catholic religion was prevalent in both countries. Regarding the caregiving situation in both countries, it stands out that dependent older people and family caregivers feel the presence of a superior being assisting them in overcoming the challenges of caregiving activities.


Objetivo: analizar el perfil sociodemográfico y la situación de cuidado de los adultos mayores dependientes y sus cuidadores familiares en Brasil y Colombia. Método: investigación comparativa mixta y de tipo exploratorio, la cual sigue las fases de estudios comparativos propuestos por Bereday: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación. Se utilizó una entrevista semiestructurada. Se tuvieron en cuenta los principios éticos nacionales e internacionales dentro del estudio, con la aprobación de cada comité de ética en cada país. Resultados: fueron entrevistados 250 participantes: 52 adultos mayores dependientes en Brasil y 56 en Colombia, y 70 cuidadores familiares en Brasil y 72 en Colombia. El 68,5 % de los adultos mayores y el 83,8 % de los cuidadores eran mujeres. Se construyeron doce categorías a partir del discurso de los participantes, seis en los adultos mayores dependientes y seis en los cuidadores. Conclusión: hubo predominio de las mujeres e hijas como la mayoría de las cuidadoras familiares, así como la religión católica como la más prevalente en ambos países. Respecto a la situación de cuidado, en ambos países destaca que los adultos mayores dependientes y los cuidadores familiares sienten la presencia de un ser superior ayudándolos a superar los desafíos en las actividades de cuidado.


Objetivo: analisar o perfil sociodemográfico e a situação de cuidado dos idosos dependentes e seus cuidadores familiares no Brasil e na Colômbia. Materiais e método: pesquisa comparativa mista e de tipo exploratório, a qual segue as fases de estudos comparativos propostos por Bereday: descrição, interpretação, justaposição e comparação. Foi utilizada entrevista semiestrutura. Foram considerados os princípios éticos nacionais e internacionais para o estudo, com a aprovação de cada comitê de ética dos referidos países. Resultados: foram entrevistados 250 participantes, dos quais 52 idosos dependentes no Brasil e 56 na Colômbia, e 70 cuidadores familiares no Brasil e 72 na Colômbia. 68,5 % dos idosos e 83,8 % dos cuidadores eram mulheres. Foram construídas 12 categorias a partir do discurso dos participantes, seis nos idosos dependentes e seis nos cuidadores. Conclusões: houve predomínio das mulheres e filhas como cuidadoras familiares, bem como a religião católica como a mais prevalente em ambos os países. A respeito da situação de cuidado, nos dois países, destaca-se que os idosos dependentes e os cuidadores familiares sentem a presença de um ser superior que os ajuda a superar os desafios das atividades de cuidado.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Comparative Study , Caregivers , Geriatric Nursing
2.
Educ. med. super ; 37(1)mar. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1514073

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se ha reconocido la importancia de los aspectos socioculturales de los individuos en la atención en salud para brindar cuidados centrados en las personas. En este sentido, los profesionales de salud requieren el desarrollo de competencia interculturales. Objetivo: Diseñar una estrategia didáctica a través de un recurso audiovisual para contribuir a la formación de competencia intercultural en salud en estudiantes de enfermería en la asignatura Fundamentos Socioantropológicos. Métodos: Se tuvo en cuenta un diseño no experimental, descriptivo y comparativo. Se elaboró una intervención educativa sobre la base de videos, acompañada de trabajo reflexivo y feedback de profesores, con medición pre- y posintervención, mediante la Escala de Capacidad Cultural. Resultados: Se obtuvo un total de 77 respuestas válidas; 91,2 por ciento del género femenino. El 56,1 por ciento no presentaba formación previa en diversidad cultural. Al realizar la evaluación de la competencia intercultural pre- y posintervención, los estudiantes tuvieron un mayor puntaje posintervención (p< 0,05), lo que implicó un aumento en la competencia intercultural de estos. Conclusiones: Es posible contribuir a la formación de competencia intercultural en estudiantes de enfermería mediante videos (AU)


Introduction: The importance of sociocultural aspects of individuals in healthcare has been recognized with respect to providing person-centered care. In this sense, health professionals require the development of intercultural competences. Objective: To design a didactic strategy through an audiovisual resource to contribute to the development of intercultural competences in healthcare in Nursing students in the subject Socioanthropological Foundations. Methods: A nonexperimental, descriptive and comparative design was used. An educational intervention was elaborated upon the basis of videos, accompanied by reflective work and feedback from professors, with pre- and postintervention measurement using the Cultural Capacity Scale. Results: Seventy-seven valid responses were obtained; 91.2 percent belonged to the female gender. 56.1 percent had no previous training in cultural diversity. When performing the pre- and postintervention intercultural competence assessment, the students had a higher postintervention score (p< 0.05), which meant an increase in their intercultural competence. Conclusions: It is possible to contribute to the formation of intercultural competence in Nursing students through videos (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Comparative Study , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Health Personnel/education , Anthropology, Cultural/education
3.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, SES-GO, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1425650

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Enoxaparina comparada à profilaxia mecânica e/ou outros medicamentos disponíveis ou não no SUS. Indicação: Profilaxia de Tromboembolismo Venoso (TEV) em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de abdome, pelve e varizes. Pergunta: Há superioridade em eficácia e segurança da enoxaparina (heparina de baixo peso molecular - HBPM) comparada à profilaxia mecânica e a outros medicamentos disponíveis ou não no SUS para prevenção de TEV em pacientes acima de 18 anos, não gestantes, em pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas de abdome, pelve e varizes? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas quatro e incluídas duas revisões sistemáticas com metanálise. Conclusão: HBPM no pós-operatório de cirurgia abdominal e pelve reduziu a incidência de TEV geral e TEV sintomático, sem aumentar risco de sangramento e mortalidade. Nas cirurgias de veias varicosas, foi observado uma redução de todos os eventos trombóticos e risco de TVP, sem aumentar risco de sangramento


Technology: Enoxaparin compared to mechanical prophylaxis and/or other drugs available or not in the SUS. Indication: Prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing surgery of the abdomen, pelvis and varicose veins. Question: There is superiority in efficacy and safety of enoxaparin, compared to mechanical prophylaxis and other drugs available or not in the SUS, for the prevention of VTE for patients over 18 years old, non-pregnant in the postoperative period of elective surgeries of the abdomen, pelvis and varicose veins? Methods: Rapid review of evidence (overview) from systematic reviews, with a bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (Methodological Quality Assessment of Systematic Reviews). Results: Four were selected and two systematic reviews with meta-analysis were included. Conclusion: LMWH in the postoperative period of abdominal and pelvic surgery reduced the incidence of general VTE and symptomatic VTE, without increasing the risk of bleeding and mortality. In varicose vein surgeries, a reduction in all thrombotic events and risk of DVT was observed, without increasing the risk of bleeding


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Pelvis/surgery , Varicose Veins/surgery , Comparative Study , Efficacy , Abdomen/surgery
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 135 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437852

ABSTRACT

Proteins equipped with flavin adenine dinucleotides (FAD) or flavin mononucleotides (FMN) are named flavoproteins and constitute about 1% of all existing proteins. They catalyze redox, acid-base and photochemical reactions in a variety of biochemical phenomena that goes from energy metabolism to DNA repair and light sensing. The versatility observed in flavoproteins is ultimately a balance of flavin intrinsic properties modulated by a protein environment. This thesis aims to investigate how flavoproteins work by systematic evaluating flavin properties and reactivity. In particular, the mechanism of fumarate reduction by the flavoenzyme fumarate reductase Fcc3 was determined. Electronic-structure calculations were used for this task based on rigorous calibration with experimental data and error assessment. Flavin properties at chemical accuracy were obtained with single reference coupled-cluster CCSD(T) calculations at the complete basis set limit. Density functional theory was demonstrated an excellent alternative with lower computational costs and slightly less accuracy. Flavin protonation and tautomerism were shown to be important modulators of flavin properties and reactivity, with the possibility of various tautomers existing at neutral pH. Regarding flavin redox properties, an analysis based on multiconfigurational wave function weights was proposed for categorizing flavin redox reactions as hydride or hydrogen-atom transfers. This analysis is an upgrade over traditional partial charges methods and can be applied not only to flavin reactions but to any protoncoupled electron transfer. In the investigation of the enzymatic mechanism of fumarate reduction, the reaction was determined as a nucleophilic addition by hydride transfer with carbanion formation. Fumarate reductase employs electrostatic catalysis in contrast to previous proposals of substrate straining and general-acid catalysis. Also, hydride transfer was shown to be vibronically adiabatic with low tunneling contribution. These findings give new insights into the mechanisms of fumarate reductases and provide a framework for future computational studies of flavoproteins in general. The analyses and benchmark studies presented can be used to build better models of properties and reactivity of flavins and flavoproteins


Proteínas equipadas com dinucleotídeos de flavina-adenina (FAD) e mononucleotídeos de flavina (FMN) são chamadas flavoproteínas e constituem cerca de 1% de todas as proteínas existentes. Elas catalisam reações redox, ácido-base e fotoquímicas numa variedade de fenômenos bioquímicos que vão desde o metabolismo energético até reparo de DNA e captação de luz. A versatilidade observada em flavoproteínas é em última instância um balanço das propriedades intrínsecas de flavinas moduladas por um ambiente proteico. Esta tese busca investigar como flavoproteínas funcionam através de avaliações sistemáticas de propriedades e reatividade de flavinas. Em particular, o mecanismo de redução de fumarato pela flavoenzima fumarato redutase Fcc3 foi determinado. Cálculos de estrutura eletrônica foram usados para esta tarefa com base em rigorosa calibração com dados experimentais e avaliação de erros. As propriedades de flavinas foram determinadas com acurácia química com cálculos monoconfiguracionais de coupled-cluster CCSD(T) no limite de conjunto base completo. A teoria do funcional da densidade mostrou-se uma alternativa excelente com menor custo computacional e um pouco menos de acurácia. Protonação e tautomerismo de flavinas mostraram-se moduladores importantes de suas propriedades e reatividade, com a possibilidade de vários tautômeros existirem em pH neutro. Em relação às propriedades redox de flavinas, uma análise baseada nos pesos de funções de onda multiconfiguracionais foi proposta para categorizar as reações redox de flavinas como transferências de hidreto ou hidrogênio. Esta análise é uma melhoria em relação aos métodos tradicionais de cargas parciais e pode ser aplicada não apenas para reações de flavinas mas para qualquer transferência de próton acoplada a elétrons. Na investigação do mecanismo enzimático de redução de fumarato, a reação foi designada como uma adição nucleofílica por transferência de hidreto e formação de carbânion. A fumarato redutase usa catálise eletrostática diferentemente de prospostas anteriores envolvendo distorção do substrato e catálise ácida geral. Além disso, a transferência de hidreto mostrou-se vibronicamente adiabática com pouca contribuição de tunelamento. Estas descobertas abrem novas perspectivas sobre os mecanismos de fumarato redutases e fornecem uma base para estudos computacionais futuros sobre flavoproteínas em geral. As análises e estudos comparativos apresentados podem ser usados para construir melhores modelos para propriedades e reatividade de flavinas e flavoproteínas


Subject(s)
Comparative Study , Flavins/analysis , Flavoproteins/analysis , Calculi/chemistry , Static Electricity/adverse effects , Fumarates
5.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1442515

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a incidência de neoplasias malignas em 2020. Métodos: estudo ecológico com análise comparativa entre as populações de Porto Alegre e Salvador. Foram extraídos dados do DATASUS, analisados em tabelas e apresentados em gráficos. Resultados: A incidência de neoplasias malignas em mulheres entre 30 a 34 anos é maior em Porto Alegre que em Salvador, sendo quase o dobro de casos de mulheres em relação aos homens. Entre 65 a 69 anos, mulheres representaram 20 casos a mais em Porto Alegre, e, em Salvador, o sexo masculino apresentou 28 casos a mais. As mulheres realizaram mais quimioterapias e os homens mais cirurgias. Conclusão: Houve diferença entre a incidência de neoplasias nas cidades podendo associar variáveis determinantes como sexo biológico feminino ao tipo de câncer e idade avançada. A maior incidência de casos na região sul pode estar associada aos hábitos de vida como alimentação e cultura desta região.


Objective: to analyze the incidence of malignant neoplasms in 2020 in two Brazilian cities. Methods: this is an ecological study with comparative analysis between the populations of the cities of Porto Alegre, and Salvador. Data were extracted from the DATASUS, analyzed in tables and presented in descriptive. Results: The incidence of malignant neoplasms in women aged 30 to 34 years is higher of Porto Alegre than in Salvador, with almost double the number of cases in women compared to men in both cities. In the age 65 to 69, women accounted for 20 more cases in Porto Alegre, and in Salvador, males had 28 more cases. Women underwent more chemotherapy and men more surgical in both cities. Conclusion: Differences were observed between the incidence of neoplasms for the cities compared, which could associate determinant variables such as female biological sex with the type of cancer and advanced age. In addition, there is evidence that the southern region of Brazil has a higher incidence than the northeast region, which may be associated with lifestyle habits such as food and culture in the region.


Objetivo: analizar la incidencia de neoplasias malignas en 2020 en dos ciudades brasileñas. Métodos: se trata de un estudio ecológico con análisis comparativo entre las poblaciones de Porto Alegre y Salvador. Los datos fueron extraídos del DATASUS, analizados en tablas y presentados en gráficos. Resultados: La incidencia de neoplasias malignas en mujeres de 30 a 34 años es mayor en Porto Alegre que en Salvador, con casi el doble de casos en mujeres que en hombres. Entre 65 a 69 años, las mujeres representaron 20 casos más en Porto Alegre, y en Salvador, los hombres tuvieron 28 casos más. Las mujeres se sometieron más a quimioterapia y los hombres más a quirúrgias. Conclusión: Se observaron diferencias entre la incidencia de neoplasias, que podrían asociar variables determinantes como el sexo biológico femenino con el tipo de cáncer y la edad avanzada. Existe evidencia de que la región sur de Brasil tiene una mayor incidencia que la región noreste, lo que puede estar asociado con hábitos de estilo de vida como la alimentación y la cultura en la región.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Health Information Systems , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Comparative Study , Routinely Collected Health Data
6.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 13(3): 1-13, 20220831.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402468

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El apoyo social percibido durante la gestación es importante para la salud mental perinatal. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre estas variables en la población colombiana.Objetivo: Comparar el apoyo social percibido según variables sociodemográficas, ginecobstétricas y afecto positivo en mujeres gestantes de Santa Marta, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Participaron 40 mujeres entre 19 y 41 años (M=26.48; DE=5.03), que se encontraban en su tercer trimestre de embarazo, beneficiarias de un programa de promoción de la lactancia materna exclusiva. Las participantes diligenciaron una ficha de información sociodemográfica y ginecobstétrica, la Escala Multidimensional de Apoyo Social Percibido (α=0.88) y una subescala de la Escala de Afectos Positivos y Negativos (α=0.82). Se aplicó la prueba U de Mann-Whitney para los análisis estadísticos comparativos y se siguieron los lineamientos éticos en investigación con humanos. Resultados: 67% de las participantes fueron de estrato socioeconómico bajo, 87.5% tenía pareja, 67.5% contaba con estudios superiores, 42.5% tenía trabajo y 47.5% eran madres primerizas. Las mujeres de estrato socioeconómico alto percibieron mayor apoyo social por parte de sus amigos (p=0.01). El apoyo social familiar fue significativamente más alto en las madres primerizas (p=0.01) y en las que reportaron mayor afecto positivo (p=0.03). Por último, el apoyo social por parte de personas significativas fue mayor cuando era el primer embarazo de la mujer (p=0.02). Conclusión: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en algunas dimensiones del apoyo social percibido según el estrato socioeconómico, ser madre primeriza y el afecto positivo. Se recomienda realizar otros estudios con mayor tamaño muestral.


Introduction: Perceived social support during gestation is important for perinatal mental health. However, little is known about these variables in the Colombian population. Objetive: To compare perceived social support with sociodemographic and gynaeco-obstetric variables and positive affect in pregnant women in Santa Marta, Colombia. Materials and Methods: Forty women between 19 and 41 years of age (M=26.48; SD=5.03), in their third trimester of pregnancy and beneficiaries of a program to promote exclusive breastfeeding, participated. The participants filled out a sociodemographic and gynaeco-obstetric form, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (α=0.88), and a subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) (α=0.82). The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparative statistical analyses. Ethical guidelines for human research were followed. Results: 67% of the participants belonged to a low socioeconomic status, 87.5% had a partner, 67.5% had a higher education, 42.5% were employed, and 47.5% were new mothers. Women of higher socioeconomic status perceived greater social support from their friends (p = 0.01). Family social support was significantly higher in first-time mothers (p=0.01) and mothers who reported higher positive affect (p = 0.03). Finally, social support from significant others was higher when it was the woman's first pregnancy (p=0.02). Conclusions: Significant differences were found in some dimensions of perceived social support according to socioeconomic status, being a first-time mother, and positive affect. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.


Introdução: O apoio social percebido durante a gravidez é importante para a saúde mental perinatal. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre essas variáveis na população colombiana. Objetivo: Comparar o apoio social percebido segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, ginecológicas e de afeto positivo em gestantes de Santa Marta, Colômbia. Materiais e Métodos: Participaram 40 mulheres entre 19 e 41 anos (M=26,48; DP=5,03), que estavam no terceiro trimestre de gestação, beneficiárias de um programa de promoção do aleitamento materno exclusivo. As participantes preencheram uma ficha sociodemográfica e ginecológica, a Escala Multidimensional de Suporte Social Percebido (α=0,88) e uma subescala da Escala de Afetos Positivos e Negativos (α=0,82). O teste U de Mann-Whitney foi aplicado para análise estatística comparativa e foram seguidas as diretrizes éticas para pesquisa em humanos. Resultados: 67% das participantes eram de baixo nível socioeconômico, 87,5% tinham companheiro, 67,5% tinham ensino superior, 42,5% trabalhavam e 47,5% eram mães de primeira viagem. As mulheres de nível socioeconômico alto perceberam maior apoio social dos amigos (p=0,01). O apoio social familiar foi significativamente maior nas novas mães (p=0,01) e naquelas que relataram maior afeto positivo (p=0,03). Por fim, o apoio social de pessoas significativas foi maior quando se tratava da primeira gravidez da mulher (p=0,02). Conclusões: Foram encontradas diferenças significativas em algumas dimensões do suporte social percebido de acordo com o nível socioeconômico, ser mãe de primeira viagem e afeto positivo. Outros estudos com tamanho amostral maior são recomendados.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Trimesters , Social Support , Comparative Study , Colombia , Affect
7.
Med. infant ; 29(1): 23-29, Marzo 2022. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366940

ABSTRACT

Introducción: existen dos rutas para realizar el reemplazo de esófago (RE), la retroesternal (RRE) y la mediastinal posterior (RMP). El objetivo del estudio es comparar los pacientes que recibieron un ascenso gástrico parcial empleando estas dos rutas. Material y métodos: Se revisaron las historias clínicas de 51 pacientes con ascenso gástrico parcial, en 27 años en el Hospital Garrahan. Se utilizó la vía RRE en 25 casos y la RMP en 26. Fueron comparados los datos epidemiológicos de los grupos y las variables para valorar la dificultad del acto quirúrgico, evolución inmediata y alejada. El estudio es comparativo, retro-prospectivo y longitudinal. Resultados: las características generales de los pacientes fueron similares. Los que recibieron el ascenso gástrico por vía RMP presentaron una menor incidencia de dehiscencia (p=0,017), de enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE) (p=0,001) y de dumping (p=0,0001). No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos al comparar la duración del procedimiento, días de internación total y en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), días de permanencia en asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM), inicio de alimentación oral y estenosis de la anastomosis. Se observó una tendencia clínicamente relevante, que no alcanzó significancia estadística en las complicaciones intraquirúrgicas y número de dilataciones postoperatorias. No hubo necrosis del ascenso. Fallecieron 2 pacientes. Conclusiones: considerando la menor incidencia de dehiscencia, ERGE y dumping reemplazados por RMP, elegimos a ésta como nuestra primera opción para el reemplazo esofágico en la infancia (AU)


Introduction: The two routes for esophageal replacement (ER) are retrosternal (RRE) and posterior mediastinal (PMR). The aim of the study was to compare patients who received a partial gastric pull-up using either of these two routes. Material and methods: The clinical records of 51 patients who underwent partial gastric pull-up over 27 years at the Garrahan Hospital were reviewed. The RRE route was used in 25 and the RMP in 26 cases. The epidemiological data of the groups and the variables to evaluate the complexity of the surgical procedure, and shortand long-term outcome were compared. A comparative, retroprospective, and longitudinal study was conducted. Results: the general characteristics of the patients were similar. Those who underwent gastric pull-up via PMR had a lower incidence of dehiscence (p=0.017), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (p=0.001), and dumping (p=0.0001). No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups when comparing the duration of the procedure, days of total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, days on mechanical ventilation (MV), initiation of oral feeding and stenosis of the anastomosis. A clinically relevant trend, which did not reach statistical significance, was observed in intraoperative complications and number of postoperative dilatations. There was no necrosis of the pull-up. Two patients died. Conclusions: considering the lower incidence of dehiscence, GERD, and dumping associated with PMR, this was our first choice for esophageal replacement in infancy (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Esophagectomy/methods , Esophageal Atresia/surgery , Esophageal Atresia/chemically induced , Esophagoplasty/methods , Postoperative Complications , Comparative Study , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408671

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se ha reportado baja satisfacción con la atención recibida en el primer y el segundo nivel de atención de instituciones públicas. Existe incremento del uso de la medicina tradicional. Objetivo: Comparar el nivel de satisfacción percibida por los pacientes que acuden a los servicios de medicina alópata y medicina tradicional. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y comparativo. La población estuvo constituida por pacientes que acudieron al Centro de Salud Urbano y curandero de medicina tradicional de la misma comunidad. El tamaño de la muestra fue de 344 personas, seleccionados por muestreo sistemático. Resultados: La media de edad fue de 40,6 años (DE=16,1), predominó el sexo femenino, los casados, con educación primaria y de religión católica. El padecimiento por el cual acudieron a los servicios de medicina alópata fue por consulta familiar y en la medicina tradicional por espanto. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entra la satisfacción medicina tradicional y alópata. Los pacientes reportan mayor satisfacción en los servicios de medicina tradicional. Conclusiones: Los pacientes perciben mayor satisfacción en la explicación, trato y tratamiento médico en la medicina tradicional(AU)


Introduction: Low satisfaction with the care received at the first and second levels in public institutions has been reported. There is an increase in the use of traditional medicine. Objective: To compare the level of satisfaction perceived by patients attending allopathic and traditional medicine services. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional and comparative study. The population consisted of patients attending the Urban Health Center and traditional medicine healer in the community of Oaxaca. The sample size was 344 people, selected by systematic sampling. Results: The mean age was 40.6 years (SD=16.1). There was a predominance of the female sex, married persons, with primary education and Catholic religion. The condition for which they sought allopathic medicine services was that they received family advice and, in traditional medicine, for fear. Significant differences were found between satisfaction with traditional and allopathic medicine. Patients report greater satisfaction in traditional medicine services. Conclusions: Patients perceive greater satisfaction in the explanation, treatment and medical treatment in traditional medicine(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patient Satisfaction , Community Health Services , Patient Care , Comparative Study , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico
9.
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-12, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1390654

ABSTRACT

Studies in the Benin Republic have identified contextual factors that determine health facility delivery among women of reproductive age. However, it is not certain if the same set of factors predicts facility delivery for women who enrolled in health insurance and those who did not. The study seeks to compare the determinants of health facility delivery for mothers under health insurance and those that are not in the Benin Republic. The study used data for 33,078 women of reproductive age, drawn from the most recent Benin demographic and health survey (2017-18). The characteristics of the women were described using simple proportions and frequency. Binary Logistic regression was used to examine determinants of health facility delivery for both groups of women. The result showed that only 0.7% of the women were under health insurance coverage. The prevalence of health facility delivery was high in the enrolled group but not in the unenrolled group (98.3% vs. 87.8%). The uniform determinants of health facility delivery across the two groups were household wealth, education, employment, land/house ownership, media exposure, a minimum of four antenatal contacts, and place of residence. To improve the coverage of health facility delivery, a multi-pronged approach should be used to improve household socioeconomic status, encourage media use among women, expand education opportunities for women, and specifically target rural women in Benin. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:104-115).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Comparative Study , Insurance, Health , Women , Health Management , Genitalia, Female , Health Facilities
10.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 855-559, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399206

ABSTRACT

The growing burden of diabetes has long been under the radar in developing countries such as South Africa (SA). In recent years, there has been an unprecedented and exponential increase in recorded and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) cases. Unreliable data collection, overburdened health systems and poor infrastructure have all proved to be barriers to achieving optimum disease management. The District Health Information System (DHIS) serves as the data collection tool for the SA public healthcare sector. It is used in all nine SA provinces to gather data without individual patient identifiers. Objective. To analyse and compare the DM data collected by the DHIS in the Western Cape (WC), Eastern Cape (EC), KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Gauteng provinces of SA. Methods. An audit of diabetes-related data from the DHIS for 2016 was conducted. The data were then analysed using Excel. Time-series and cross-sectional analyses were made possible using pivot tables. Graphics were designed using Thinkcell software. Results. Of the four provinces surveyed, Gauteng recorded the highest incidence of DM, 67% higher than the reported global DM incidence estimate, while the WC had the lowest incidence. A similar pattern was also noted regarding the incidence of DM in people aged <18 years, with Gauteng having the highest and WC the lowest prevalence results. When comparing the number of DM-related consultations conducted in each province, the metropolitan districts were highlighted as hotspots of activity for DM care. This study found a moderate inversely proportional relationship between the incidence of DM in all provinces and education deprivation (p<0.05). Among the provinces that collected data on screening (excluding EC), KZN recorded the highest number of diabetic screenings. Conclusion. Metropolitan areas were highlighted as areas to be targeted, further reinforcing the current connection observed between urbanisation and DM in SA. The presence and recording of screening efforts is an excellent step in the right direction for the SA public healthcare sector and the DHIS. With improved interprovincial co-ordination regarding standardisation of the criteria and specifications of data collection fields, and enhanced training for data officers and primary collection agents, good quality and rich data is a very close possibility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Comparative Study , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Care Sector , Public Reporting of Healthcare Data
11.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 879-881, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399384

ABSTRACT

The anatomical pathology autopsy serves several purposes, notably as a quality management tool for evaluation of accuracy in clinical diagnosis. Despite its value, for various reasons there has been an international decline in autopsies conducted. In the modern medical era, with all its advances in technology, diagnostic techniques and interventions, there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings.Objectives. To establish the discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings in anatomical pathology autopsies.Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted over the 4-year-period 2014 - 2017. The clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings of cases referred to the Department of Anatomical Pathology at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, were evaluated and compared using the modified Goldman criteria.Results. A total of 288 cases qualified for the study and were evaluated. The gender distribution was 155 (53.8%) male and 133 (48.2%) female, with the majority of cases in the age group 19 - 60 years (mean 36.4). The majority of the cases were referred by internal medicine, followed by paediatrics. The most common cause of death in major missed diagnoses was pulmonary conditions. Of the cases, 115 (39.3%) had a major discrepancy and 62 (21.5%) a minor discrepancy.Conclusion. This study showed that there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings, similar to studies conducted globally. The current COVID-19 pandemic may be a driver for revival of the anatomical pathology autopsy, and future studies are recommended to evaluate whether the decline can be reversed


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pathology , Autopsy , Comparative Study
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20637, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420454

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neuropathic pain (NP) affects more than 8% of the global population. The proposed action of the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) as a mechanosensor and the characterization of the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) as a cold thermosensor raises the question of whether these receptors are implicated in NP. Our study aimed to evaluate the involvement of TRPA1 and TRPM8 in cold and mechanical signal transduction to obtain a comparative view in rat models of streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ) and chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI). The electronic von Frey test showed that STZ rats presented mechanical allodynia that was first evidenced on the 14th day after diabetes confirmation, and four days after CCI. This phenomenon was reduced by the intraplantar (ipl) administration of a TRPA1 receptor antagonist (HC-030031; 40 µL/300 µg/paw) in both NP models. Only CCI rats displayed cold hyperalgesia based on the cold plate test. The pharmacological blocking of TRPA1 through the injection of the antagonist attenuated cold hyperalgesia in this NP model. STZ animals showed a reduction in the number of flinches induced by the intraplantar injection of mustard oil (MO; TRPA1 agonist; 0.1%/50 µL/paw), or intraplantar injection of menthol (MT; TRPM8 agonist; 0.5% and 1%/50 µL/paw). The response induced by the ipl administration of MT (1%/50 µL/paw) was significantly different between the CCI and SHAM groups. Together, these data suggest a different pattern in nociceptive behavior associated with different models of NP, suggesting a variant involvement of TRPA1 and TRPM8 in both conditions


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Comparative Study , Hyperalgesia/pathology , Sciatic Nerve/abnormalities , Ankyrins/agonists , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology
13.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 33: e3350, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study compared the frequency, number of goals and attack efficiency in temporal numerical superiority among winning and losing teams and among balanced and unbalanced matches in a junior men's water polo competition. Another analysed relationship was that between a balanced or unbalanced final score and the efficiency at scoring goals in numerical superiority in the winning teams' games. A total of 56 matches from the Pan-American Junior Men's Water Polo championship was analysed. The teams were categorised as losers or winners and the match results were classified as balanced or unbalanced. The chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical treatment. There is no significant difference in the occurrence of numerical superiority between winners and losers (p = 0.25) despite the winners scoring more goals (p = 0.002) and being more efficient (p < 0.001). There is no significant difference in the occurrence of numerical superiority (p = 0.81) and goals (p = 0.03) in balanced and unbalanced matches. However, there tends to be a higher shot efficiency (p = 0.01) in unbalanced matches. A significant relationship exists (p = 0.04) between the winning teams' efficiency at scoring goals in a situation of numerical superiority and an unbalanced score.


RESUMO Esse estudo teve por objetivo comparar a frequência, a quantidade de gols e a eficiência do ataque em superioridade numérica temporal entre equipes vencedoras e perdedoras e entre partidas equilibradas e desequilibradas em competição júnior de polo aquático masculino. Também foi testada a relação entre a ocorrência do placar equilibrado ou desequilibrado com a eficiência em realizar gols em superioridade numérica nos jogos das equipes vencedoras. Foram analisadas 56 partidas do Campeonato Pan Americano Júnior de Polo Aquático Masculino. As equipes foram classificadas como perdedoras ou vencedoras e o resultado da partida como equilibrado ou desequilibrado. Teste Mann-Whitney e o qui-quadrado foram utilizados. Não há diferença significativa na ocorrência de superioridade numérica entre vencedores e perdedores (p = 0,25) apesar dos vencedores fazerem mais gols (p = 0,002) e serem mais eficientes (p < 0,001). Não há diferença significativa na ocorrência de superioridade numérica (p = 0,81) e de gols (p = 0,03) nas partidas equilibradas e desequilibradas. Entretanto, nas partidas desequilibradas encontrou-se maior eficiência no arremesso (p = 0,01). Foi encontrado relação significativa (p = 0,04) entre a eficácia das equipes vencedoras em realizar gol em superioridade numérica com o placar desequilibrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Comparative Study , Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Water Sports , Play and Playthings , Efficiency/physiology , Athletic Performance/statistics & numerical data
14.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 33: e3349, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421881

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This article aims to map and analyze the main sports laws and official government bodies that regulate and manage sports in Latin America, comprising the nature of the documents and their central constitutive elements, namely: title, year of creation, and general objectives. This is an exploratory and documentary study using critical-documentary analysis, the comparative method and the evidential paradigm as a theoretical-methodological approach. The sources are composed of the official sports laws of 19 countries in Latin America. The analyses allowed us to establish the following categories: a) countries whose sports laws are specific and contain only the term sports in their name; b) countries whose sports laws are identified with numbers; c) countries whose sports laws have mixed nomenclature. Twelve countries conceptualize sports in full in their documents. We perceive that the way sports are presented in the laws shows the signs and traces of how they are thought, seen and materialized. We understand that the laws are an important milestone for the development of Latin sports. Beyond the laws, we point out that it is of paramount importance that a medium- and long-term sports policy be thought out in each specific context.


RESUMO Este artigo objetiva mapear e analisar as principais leis esportivas e órgãos governamentais oficiais que regulamentam e gerem o esporte na América Latina, compreendendo a natureza dos documentos e seus elementos centrais constitutivos, a saber: título, ano de criação e objetivos gerais. Trata-se de um estudo do tipo exploratório e documental, utiliza a crítica-documental, o método comparativo e o paradigma indiciário como abordagem teórico-metodológica. As fontes são compostas pelas Leis esportivas oficiais de 19 países da América Latina. As análises nos permitiram estabelecer as seguintes categorias: a) países cujas leis esportivas são específicas e que contém apenas o termo esporte em seu nome; b) países cujas leis esportivas são identificadas com números; c) países cujas leis esportivas possuem nomenclatura mista. Doze países conceituam o esporte na íntegra em seus documentos. Percebemos que a maneira como o esporte é apresentado nas leis demonstra os sinais e rastros de como ele é pensado, visto e materializado. Entendemos que as leis se configuram como um importante marco para o desenvolvimento do esporte latino. Além delas, apontamos que é fundamental que seja pensada uma política esportiva a médio e longo prazo em cada contexto específico.


Subject(s)
Sports/legislation & jurisprudence , Jurisprudence , Public Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Comparative Study , Document Analysis
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191086, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fluoroquinolones are an important class of antimicrobial agents to manage infectious diseases. However, knowledge about how host bile acids are modified by fluoroquinolones is limited. We investigated and compared the impact of fluoroquinolones on circulating bile acid profiles and gut microbiota from in vivo studies. We administered ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg/day) or moxifloxacin (40 mg/kg/day) orally to male Wistar rats for seven days. Fifteen bile acids (BAs) from the serum and large intestine were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The diversity of gut microbiota after ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin treatment was analyzed using high-throughput, next-generation sequencing technology. The two fluoroquinolone-treated groups had different BA profiles. Ciprofloxacin significantly reduced the hydrophobicity index of the BA pool, reduced secondary BAs, and increased taurine-conjugated primary BAs in both the serum and large intestine as compared with moxifloxacin. Besides, ciprofloxacin treatment altered intestinal microbiota with a remarkable increase in Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, while moxifloxacin exerted no effect. What we found suggests that different fluoroquinolones have a distinct effect on the host BAs metabolism and intestinal bacteria, and therefore provide guidance on the selection of fluoroquinolones to treat infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bile Acids and Salts , Comparative Study , Ciprofloxacin/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Moxifloxacin/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Intestine, Large/abnormalities , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
16.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20220016, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386125

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Contexto A doença arterial obstrutiva periférica apresenta alta prevalência, sendo associada a elevado risco de eventos cardiovasculares. A intervenção cirúrgica ou endovascular faz-se necessária na isquemia crítica do membro. Objetivos Avaliar a distribuição de realização de revascularizações abertas e endovasculares nas diferentes regiões do Brasil, analisando os custos para o sistema de saúde e a mortalidade relacionada a esses procedimentos. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico observacional transversal descritivo para avaliar as cirurgias abertas e endovasculares realizadas no sistema público de saúde do Brasil entre 2010 e 2020. Os dados foram coletados através do Departamento de Informática do SUS (Datasus). Resultados No período analisado, foram registradas 83.218 internações para realização de cirurgias abertas e endovasculares, com um custo total de R$ 333.989.523,17. Houve predominância das internações para os procedimentos percutâneos (56.132) em relação aos cirúrgicos convencionais (27.086). As Regiões Sudeste e Sul concentraram a maior parte do total de procedimentos realizados no país (83%), enquanto a Região Norte foi a que apresentou a menor taxa de internação. Observou-se uma tendência decrescente para os procedimentos abertos, e uma tendência crescente para os endovasculares. A média de permanência hospitalar foi menor nos procedimentos endovasculares (5,3 dias) em relação aos abertos (10,2 dias). Além disso, notou-se uma maior taxa de mortalidade hospitalar relacionada à revascularização aberta em relação à endovascular (5,24% versus 1,56%). Conclusões As técnicas endovasculares consistiram em uma abordagem dominante no tratamento cirúrgico da isquemia crítica, apresentando menor taxa de mortalidade hospitalar e menor tempo de internação quando comparada às cirurgias abertas.


ABSTRACT Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has high prevalence and is associated with high risk of cardiovascular events. Surgical or endovascular intervention is necessary in chronic limb-threatening ischemia. Objectives To evaluate the distribution of open and endovascular revascularizations in different regions of Brazil, analyzing the health system costs and mortality related to these procedures. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological study was carried out to evaluate open and endovascular surgeries performed on the SUS public healthcare system in Brazil, from 2010 to 2020. Data were collected from the SUS Department of Informatics (Datasus). Results Over the period analyzed, 83,218 admissions for open and endovascular surgeries were registered, with a total cost of R$ 333,989,523.17. There were more hospital admissions for percutaneous procedures (56,132) than for conventional surgery (27,086). Most of the procedures (83%) were performed in the country's Southeast and South regions, while the North region had the lowest number of procedures. Over the period evaluated, there was a decreasing trend for open procedures and an increasing trend for endovascular procedures. The average hospital stay was shorter for endovascular procedures (5.3 days) than for open surgery (10.2 days). The analysis of mortality related to these procedures revealed a higher rate of in-hospital mortality associated with open revascularization than with endovascular (5.24% vs. 1.56%). Conclusions Endovascular techniques constituted the primary approach for revascularization treatment in critical limb-threatening ischemia, with a lower in-hospital mortality rate and shorter hospital stay when compared to open surgeries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Comparative Study , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Costs , Limb Salvage , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Length of Stay
18.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210200, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360439

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar o conhecimento dos profissionais de Enfermagem sobre a avaliação, prevenção e classificação das lesões por pressão na terapia intensiva antes e após a realização de um treinamento. Método trata-se de um estudo comparativo, tipo antes e depois, transversal, com delineamento prospectivo, que utilizou o instrumento Teste de Conhecimento sobre Lesão por Pressão de Caliri-Pieper (TCLP CALIRI-PIEPER) aplicado antes e após a realização de um treinamento com 55 e 50 profissionais da Enfermagem, respectivamente. A média de acerto aceitável foi de acima de 90%. Resultados do total de 41 itens do instrumento, 14 (34%) não obtiveram pontuação média acima de 90% de acerto, sendo os técnicos de Enfermagem inseridos neste contingente. Evidenciou-se que o efeito do treinamento na amostra total obteve, em média, um acréscimo de 3,5 pontos no nível de conhecimento. A diferença média entre a pontuação obtida no pré e pós-teste foi estatisticamente significativa (p<0,001). Conclusões e implicações para a prática os participantes avaliados demonstraram níveis de conhecimento eficaz e baixa divergência entre as categorias, evidenciando que os profissionais estão capacitados e preparados, possuindo domínio nos fatores relacionados à avaliação, prevenção e classificação das lesões por pressão na terapia intensiva após a realização de um treinamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo analizar los conocimientos de los profesionales de Enfermería sobre la evaluación, prevención y clasificación de las lesiones por presión en cuidados intensivos antes y después de la realización de una formación. Método se trata de un estudio comparativo, antes y después, transversal con un diseño prospectivo que utilizó el instrumento Caliri-Pieper Pressure Injury Knowledge Test (CALIRI-PIEPER TCLP) aplicado antes y después del entrenamiento con 55 y 50 profesionales de Enfermería, respectivamente. La media aceptable de derecho a golpe fue superior al 90%. Resultados del total de 41 ítems del instrumento, 14 (34%) no obtuvieron un puntaje promedio superior al 90% de acierto, con los técnicos de Enfermería incluidos en este contingente. Se evidenció que el efecto formación en la muestra total obtuvo, en promedio, un incremento de 3,5 puntos en el nivel de conocimientos. La diferencia promedio entre las puntuaciones previas y posteriores a la prueba fue estadísticamente significativa (p <0,001). Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica los participantes evaluados demostraron niveles de conocimiento efectivo y baja divergencia entre las categorías, evidenciando que los profesionales están capacitados y preparados, teniendo dominio de los factores relacionados con la evaluación, prevención y clasificación de lesiones por presión en cuidados intensivos después del entrenamiento.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze the knowledge of Nursing professionals on the assessment, prevention and classification of pressure ulcers in intensive care before and after a training course. Method this is a comparative, before-and-after, cross-sectional, prospective study that used the Caliri-Pieper Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Test (CALIRI-PIEPER PUKT) applied before and after training with 55 and 50 nursing professionals, respectively. The acceptable mean score was above 90%. Results of the total of 41 items of the instrument, 14 (34%) did not obtain an average score above 90% of correct answers, and the nursing technicians were included in this contingent. It was evident that the effect of the training on the total sample obtained, on average, a 3.5 point increase in the level of knowledge. The mean difference between the scores obtained in the pre- and post-test was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions and implications for the practice the participants evaluated demonstrated effective levels of knowledge and low divergence between the categories, showing that the professionals are trained and prepared, having domain in the factors related to the evaluation, prevention and classification of pressure ulcers in intensive care after training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Inservice Training , Nurse Practitioners/education , Comparative Study , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Pressure Ulcer/nursing , Intensive Care Units
19.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409255

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La mortalidad materna constituye un problema de salud pública a nivel internacional. Su comportamiento es expresión del funcionamiento integral de los sistemas de salud, así como, del avance de los derechos sexuales y reproductivos de las mujeres. Objetivo: Comparar los indicadores de mortalidad materna de Brasil y Cuba en el periodo 2005-2017. Métodos: La metodología implementada responde a un análisis de tipo documental. Se utilizaron como fuentes de información las principales bases de datos del Departamento de Informática del Sistema Único de Salud de Brasil, y los anuarios estadísticos publicados por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba y la Oficina Nacional de Estadística e Información. Resultados: La meta sobre mortalidad materna dentro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sustentable es un requisito actualmente cumplido por los dos países. En Cuba, las cifras de la Razón de Mortalidad Materna se mantienen con valores siempre inferiores a los del propio país en el año 2005; no obstante, a partir de 2013 muestran un comportamiento creciente. En Brasil, por su parte, son superiores a las de Cuba y nunca disminuyen en relación con el año 2005, y presentan una marcada tendencia creciente. Conclusiones: Los programas de salud materna analizados para Brasil y Cuba muestran avances y desafíos diferenciados. El comportamiento de los indicadores analizados reafirma la necesidad de intensificar las acciones para la reducción de los óbitos maternos en los dos países, con más urgencia para Brasil(AU)


Introduction: Maternal mortality is a public health problem at the international level. Its behavior is an expression of the comprehensive functioning of health systems, as well as the advancement of women's sexual and reproductive rights. Objective: Compare the maternal mortality indicators of Brazil and Cuba in the period 2005-2017. Methods: The implemented methodology responds to a documentary analysis. The main databases of the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System of Brazil, and the statistical yearbooks published by the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba and the National Office of Statistics and Information were used as sources of information. Results: The target on maternal mortality within the Sustainable Development Goals is a requirement currently met by both countries. In Cuba, the figures for the Maternal Mortality Ratio remain at values always lower than those of the country itself in 2005; however, as of 2013 they show an increasing behavior. In Brazil, on the other hand, they are higher than those of Cuba and never decrease in relation to 2005, and present a marked growing trend. Conclusions: The maternal health programs analyzed for Brazil and Cuba show differentiated progress and challenges. The behavior of the indicators analyzed reaffirms the need to intensify actions to reduce maternal deaths in both countries, with more urgency for Brazil(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Maternal Mortality , Public Health , Maternal Health Services , Brazil , Comparative Study , Cuba
20.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 387-393, dez 20, 2021. tab, fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354203

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a fibrose cística, também conhecida como mucoviscidose, é uma doença genética cujas manifestações resultam da disfunção do gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductorance regulator. Cerca de 85% dos indivíduos com essa doença desenvolvem insuficiência pancreática exógena. Objetivo: comparar os custos da terapia de reposição enzimática empírica com a terapia de reposição enzimática empírica guiada pelo teste da elastase fecal, em indivíduos com fibrose cística, acompanhados em um centro de referência para assistência à doença. Metodologia: realizou-se um estudo descritivo e comparativo, que incluiu indivíduos de 0 a 21 anos, com fibrose cística. Coletaram-se dados referentes ao período de janeiro de 2016 a fevereiro de 2020, com registros clínicos, demográficos e laboratoriais. Inicialmente, com base em critérios clínicos, os participantes foram classificados como suficientes pancreáticos ou insuficientes pancreáticos. Após o resultado da dosagem da elastase fecal, o diagnóstico do status pancreático foi reavaliado. Realizouse a estimativa dos custos do teste da elas tase fecal por participante e da terapia por reposição enzimática empírica da insuficiência pancreática em indivíduos que, posteriormente, foram diagnostica dos como suficientes pancreáticos. Resultados: incluíram-se 50 participantes, com média de idade de 9,4 anos, sendo 52% do sexo masculino. Após o resultado da dosagem da elastase fecal, 7 participantes considerados insuficientes pancreáticos e foram reclassificados como suficientes pancreáticos. No período estudado, a economia média estimada, por participante suficiente pancreático, com a suspensão das enzimas, após resultado da elastase fecal, foi de R$ 6.770,13. Conclusão: a terapia de reposição enzimática empírica no tratamento da insuficiência pancreática pode levar a custos desnecessários. A medida de dosagem da elastase fecal contribui para decisão mais objetiva da avaliação da função pancreática.


Introduction: Cystic fibrosis, also known as mucoviscidosis, is a genetic disorder whose manifestations result from dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. About 85% of individuals with this disease develop exogenous pancreatic insufficiency. Objetivo: to compare the costs of empirical enzyme replacement therapy with fecal elastase test-guided empirical enzyme replacement therapy in individuals with cystic fibrosis followed up at a referral center for disease care. Methodology: a descriptive and comparative study was carried out, which included individuals aged 0 to 21 years, with cystic fibrosis. Data for the period from January 2016 to February 2020 were collected, with clinical, demographic and laboratory records. Initially, based on clinical criteria, participants were classified as pancreatic sufficient or pancreatic insufficient. After the result of the fecal elastase measurement, the diagnosis of pancreatic status was reassessed. Estimates were made of the costs of the fecal elastase test per participant and of the empiric enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic insufficiency in individuals who were later diagnosed as pancreatic sufficient. Results: fifty participants were included, with a mean age of 9.4 years, 52% male. After the result of the fecal elastase measurement, 7 participants considered as pancreatic insufficient were reclassified as pancreatic sufficient. In the period studied, the estimated mean savings, per sufficient pancreatic participant, with the suspension of enzymes, after the result of fecal elastase, was R$ 6,770.13. Conclusion: empirical enzyme replacement therapy in the treatment of pancreatic insufficiency can lead to unnecessary costs. The measurement of fecal elastase dosage contributes to a more objective decision on the assessment of pancreatic function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency , Costs and Cost Analysis , Cystic Fibrosis , Comparative Study , Epidemiology, Descriptive
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