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1.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(4): 319-325, ago. 31, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179153

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the influence of dentin conditioning with polyacrylic acid on the shear bond strength of the nano-filled resin-modified glass ionomer cement Ketac N100 (3MESPE). Material and methods: Eighteen bovine incisors were randomly divided into two groups (n=18): group 1, without dentin surface treatment, and group 2, with dentin surface treated with 10% polyacrylic acid for 15 seconds. In both groups the primer was applied before the application of the nano-filled resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Ketac N100) and light-cured for 20 seconds. After 24 hours, the specimens were submitted to thermocycling for 350 cycles, and the teeth were immersed in distilled water at room temperature. After 24 hours, specimens were tested for shear bond strength at 1mm/minute crosshead speed. The collected data were analyzed using the non-parametric test of Mann Whitney (p<0.05). Results: There was a significant difference in shear bond strength values between the treatment and control groups, the group with dentin conditioning with 10% polyacrylic acid showed higher shear strength values than the group without dentin treatment. Conclusion: Application of 10% polyacrylic acid on dentin increases the shear bond strength values of nano-filled resin-modified glass ionomer cement.


Este estudio in vitrotuvo como objetivo evaluar la influencia del acondicionamiento de la dentina con ácido poliacrílico sobre la resistencia al cizallamiento del cemento de ionómero de vidrio modificado con resina con tecnología de nano relleno Ketac N100 (3MESPE). Material y Métodos: Dieciocho incisivos bovinos se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos (n = 18): el grupo 1, sin tratamiento de la superficie dentinaria, y el grupo 2, con la superficie dentinaria tratada con ácido poliacrílico al 10% durante 15 segundos. En ambos grupos, el Primer se aplicó antes de la aplicación del cemento de ionómero devidrio modificado con resina con tecnología de nano relleno (Ketac N100) y se fotopolimerizó durante 20 segundos. Después de 24 horas, las muestras se sometieron a 350 ciclos de termociclado y los dientes se sumergieron en agua destilada a temperatura ambiente. Después de 24 horas, las muestras se evaluaron para determinar la resistencia al cizallamiento a una velocidad constante de 1 mm / minuto. Los datos recolectados fueron analizados mediante la prueba no paramétrica de Mann Whitney (p<0.05). Resultados: Hubo una diferencia significativa en los valores de resistencia al cizallamiento entre los grupos de tratamiento y control, el grupo con acondicionamiento de dentina con ácido poliacrílico al 10% mostró valores de resistencia al cizallamiento más altos que el grupo sin tratamiento de la dentina. Conclusión: La aplicación de ácido poliacrílico al 10% sobre la dentina aumenta los valores de resistencia al cizallamiento del cemento de ionómero de vidrio modificado con resina con tecnología de nano relleno.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Composite Resins/chemistry , Shear Strength , Dentin/radiation effects , Temperature , In Vitro Techniques , Dental Cements , Dental Stress Analysis , Glass Ionomer Cements
2.
Int. j interdiscip. dent. (Print) ; 13(1): 17-20, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114887

ABSTRACT

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: The literature still lacks evidence regarding which polishing techniques have the ideal clinical outcomes for bulk-fill resin composites. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the surface gloss of two commercially available bulk-fill resin composites after different polishing procedures and characterized their micromorphology via scanning electron microscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 80 bulk-fill compactable composite resin discs were created. The control group was left untreated, and remaining samples were subjected to different polishing techniques. Gloss units were measured and surface morphology of disc samples was assessed. The Tukey post-hoc test was used to identify any differences. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between the different polishing systems applied to Filtek BulkFill Posterior and Tetric N Bulk-Fill. No differences were found when the same polishing system was applied for both resins. The highest gloss values were obtained in the control group and the ENA Shiny system; the lowest were obtained with SofLex XT and Soflex Spiral Wheels for the bulk-fill composite resins studied. CONCLUSIONS. Diamond pastes have the highest gloss behavior, followed by diamond rubber points. The systems with aluminum oxide discs present the lower gloss behavior. SEM images provided useful evidence, and future studies should include an evaluation over time.


Subject(s)
Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Polishing/methods , Surface Properties , Materials Testing
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135554

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of a resin coating material on the microleakage of Class V composite resin restorations with and without post-operative bleaching. Material and Methods: Eighty class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm) were prepared and filled with Z250 XT composite resin in the buccal and lingual surfaces of 40 sound human molars. Then the samples were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=20) and treated as follows: Group A: applying a resin coating (G-Coat Plus) on the restoration, then bleaching with 40% hydrogen peroxide; Group B: Post-Operative bleaching without prior use of resin coating; Group C: applying resin coating agent, and no further bleaching; and Group D: no resin coating, no bleaching. The specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 1% methylene blue for 24 hours, then cut into sections bucco-lingually. The samples were scored regarding the amount of dye penetration under a stereomicroscope (x20). Data were analyzed with Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests (p<0.05). Results: The maximum gingival and occlusal microleakage was detected in group B, while the minimum was seen in group C. In all the groups, microleakage at gingival margins was higher than occlusal margins (p<0.001). Conclusion: Application of a resin coating is an effective method in reducing microleakage of the restorations before and after bleaching.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Materials , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Molar , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chi-Square Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Iran/epidemiology
4.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135517

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of pre-polymerization heating of nanocomposite filling materials on their strength properties within one manufacture group. Material and Methods: Two nanocomposite filling materials Enamel Plus HRi Universal Dentin® and Universal Enamel® were used. The linear thermal expansion coefficient (LTEC), Young's modulus and penetration depth were determined during the tests. Changes in the structure of materials were evaluated using electron scanning microscopy. Results: Dentin nanocomposite samples after pre-heating and polymerization have higher LTEC after 30°C compared to dentine nanocomposite untreated samples with statistically significance started at 62°C (p<0.05) and higher temperature. Pre-polymerization heated samples had a statistically higher LTEC (p<0.05) at 57°С. It was revealed that Young's modulus of the dentin nanocomposite samples after thermal processing at 55°C was higher in total after the first heating cycle by 15% compared to the untreated dentin nanocomposite samples (p<0.05). The volume of total porosity after pre-heating decreased to 5-7% (p<0.05). Conclusion: The material that has undergone preliminary heat processing is significantly less deformed under load than the material that does not have thermal processing during the research was established and also has a denser structure.


Subject(s)
Materials Testing , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Materials/chemistry , Nanocomposites , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Analysis of Variance , Russia/epidemiology , Dental Enamel , Dentin
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of cavosurface vestibular bevel (CSVB) application on the clinical success (CS) of class IV restorations of traumatized permanent teeth, the influence of the number of fracture angles and dental trauma recurrence (DTR) on the restorations retention rate (RRR) and incidence of pulp necrosis (PN). Material and Methods: Fifty-seven children and adolescents with enamel and dentin fractures requiring C-IV restorations were randomly allocated in groups with CSVB and without CSVB. The primary outcomes were the CS of restorations, evaluated using modified USPHS criteria, and the incidence of PN after a 6-months follow-up. As secondary outcomes, the influence of the number of fractured angles and the DTR on the RRR and on the incidence of PN were evaluated (p>0.05). Results: Of 57 children and adolescents, 74 teeth were restored, and 71 completed the six-month follow-up analysis. Teeth restored with and without CSVB displayed similar CS as well as the same incidence of PN (p>0.05). The number of fractured angles did not influence the RRR and DTR was not associated with PN (p>0.05). DTR was associated with a lower RRR (p<0.001). Conclusion: Cavosurface vestibular bevel did not influence the clinical success of Class IV restorations or incidence of PN after 6-months follow-up. DTR did not influence the incidence of pulp necrosis, but did negatively influence the restorations retention rate. The number of fracture angles did not influenced in the restorations retention rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Tooth Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Randomized Controlled Trial , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Dental Enamel
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e005, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055521

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation from high energy X-ray on fluoride release, surface roughness, flexural strength, and surface chemical composition of the materials. The study groups comprised five different restorative materials: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer, and Fuji IX GP. Twenty disk-shaped specimens (8x2 mm) for fluoride release and 20 bar-shaped specimens (25 x 2x 2 mm) for flexural strength were prepared from each material. Each material group was divided into two subgroups: irradiated (IR) and non-irradiated (Non-IR). The specimens from IR groups were irradiated with 1.8 Gy/day for 39 days (total IR = 70.2 Gy). The amount of fluoride released into deionized water was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and ion analyzer after 24 hours and on days 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 39 (n = 10). The flexural strength was evaluated using the three-point bending test (n = 10). After the period of measurement of fluoride release, seven specimens (n = 7) from each group were randomly selected to evaluate surface roughness using AFM and one specimen was randomly selected for the SEM and EDS analyses. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05). The irradiation significantly increased fluoride release and surface roughness for Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer groups (p < 0.05). No significant change in flexural strength of the materials was observed after irradiation (p > 0.05). The ionizing radiation altered the amount of fluoride release and surface roughness of only Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer. The effect could be related to the chemical compositions of materials.


Subject(s)
Apatites/radiation effects , Radiation, Ionizing , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/radiation effects , Composite Resins/radiation effects , Fluorides/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/radiation effects , Apatites/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Time Factors , Zirconium/radiation effects , Zirconium/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Flexural Strength , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e001, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055529

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study analyzed the effect of prior application of copaiba oil (CO) emulsions as a dentin cleaning substance on microleakage and microtensile adhesive strength. Twenty-five premolars and sixty-four molars were used for microleakage and microtensile assays. For the microleakage assays, specimens with standard class V cavities were divided (n = 5), according to the tested CO emulsions: CO10%X, CO10%Y, and CO10%Z, as well as chlorhexidine 2% (CHX) and distilled water (DW), as positive and negative controls, respectively. Restorations were performed using the Adper Single Bond® and/or Clearfil SE Bond® systems. Cervical, occlusal, distal and mesial sections were assessed for tracer penetration degree at the composite/tooth interface. For the microtensile assay, healthy molars were divided into sixteen groups, in which artificial caries were induced in half of the groups. Dentin surfaces were treated with CO10%X and CO10%Y, CHX and DW. Microtensile bond strength was measured by fixing each sample to the plate of a universal testing machine operated at a speed of 0.5 mm/minute until failure. Dentin treated with CO10%X showed a lower infiltration rate than dentin treated with the other CO emulsions, CHX2% and DW. According to the microtensile assay, both healthy and affected dentin treated with CO10%X and Adper Single Bond® adhesive system presented higher adhesive strength. CO emulsion, used as a dentin biomodifier, interfered positively in microleakage and improved adhesive strength after acid etching in the Adper Single Bond® adhesive system, or before applying the Clearfil SE Bond® self-etching system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Oils/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Fabaceae/chemistry , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Materials Testing , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Leakage , Dentin/chemistry , Emulsions/chemistry
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e035, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100934

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although fiber-reinforced composites are commonly used in dental practice, whether fiber-reinforced crowns and fixed partial dentures can be used as definitive prostheses remains to be determined. This study used scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the load-bearing capacity of non-reinforced and fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) molar crowns prepared by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The crowns were fabricated from three empirical FRC blocks, one empirical composite block, and one commercial ceramic block. The FRC resin was prepared by mixing BaO silicate particles, E-glass fiber, and dimethacrylate resin. Specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10), differing in the amounts of filler, resin, and fiber. Crowns were statically loaded until fracture. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison tests were used for statistical analyses. The groups showed significant differences in load-bearing capacity; empirical bidirectional FRC resin blocks had the highest capacity, while commercial ceramic blocks had the lowest capacity. Molar crowns formed from FRC resin blocks had higher load-bearing capacity compared to non-reinforced composite resin and ceramic blocks. These results show that fiber reinforcement increased the load-bearing capacity of molar crowns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Weight-Bearing , Computer-Aided Design , Composite Resins/chemistry , Crowns , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ceramics/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Prosthesis Design , Evaluation Study , Molar
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e045, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132712

ABSTRACT

Abstract This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of a silane-containing universal adhesive used with or without a silane agent on the repair bond strength between aged and new composites. Forty nanohybrid composite resin blocks were stored in distilled water for 14 d and thermo-cycled. Sandpaper ground, etched, and rinsed speciments were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: silane + two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system, two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system, silane + silane-containing universal adhesive system, and silane-containing universal adhesive system. Blocks were repaired using the same composite. After 24 h of water storage, the blocks were sectioned and bonded sticks were submitted to microtensile testing. Ten unaged, non-repaired composite blocks were used as a reference group to evaluate the cohesive strength of the composite. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests were used to analyze average µTBS. One-way ANOVA and Dunnet post-hoc tests were used to compare the cohesive strength values and bond strength obtained in the repaired groups (α = 0.05). The µTBS values were higher for the silane-containing universal adhesive compared to the two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system (p = 0.002). Silane application improved the repair bond strength (p = 0.03). The repair bond strength ranged from 39.3 to 65.8% of the cohesive strength of the reference group. Using universal silane-containing adhesive improved the repair bond strength of composite resin compared to two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. However, it still required prior application of a silane agent for best direct composite resin repair outcomes.


Subject(s)
Silanes/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dental Bonding/methods
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e001, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089393

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study analyzed the effect of prior application of copaiba oil (CO) emulsions as a dentin cleaning substance on microleakage and microtensile adhesive strength. Twenty-five premolars and sixty-four molars were used for microleakage and microtensile assays. For the microleakage assays, specimens with standard class V cavities were divided (n = 5), according to the tested CO emulsions: CO10%X, CO10%Y, and CO10%Z, as well as chlorhexidine 2% (CHX) and distilled water (DW), as positive and negative controls, respectively. Restorations were performed using the Adper Single Bond® and/or Clearfil SE Bond® systems. Cervical, occlusal, distal and mesial sections were assessed for tracer penetration degree at the composite/tooth interface. For the microtensile assay, healthy molars were divided into sixteen groups, in which artificial caries were induced in half of the groups. Dentin surfaces were treated with CO10%X and CO10%Y, CHX and DW. Microtensile bond strength was measured by fixing each sample to the plate of a universal testing machine operated at a speed of 0.5 mm/minute until failure. Dentin treated with CO10%X showed a lower infiltration rate than dentin treated with the other CO emulsions, CHX2% and DW. According to the microtensile assay, both healthy and affected dentin treated with CO10%X and Adper Single Bond® adhesive system presented higher adhesive strength. CO emulsion, used as a dentin biomodifier, interfered positively in microleakage and improved adhesive strength after acid etching in the Adper Single Bond® adhesive system, or before applying the Clearfil SE Bond® self-etching system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Oils/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Fabaceae/chemistry , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Materials Testing , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Leakage , Dentin/chemistry , Emulsions/chemistry
11.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2020. 42 p. il., graf., tab..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1146886

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivos: (1) analisar, in silico, o efeito de diferentes técnicas restauradoras sobre a concentração de tensão em lesões cervicais não cariosas (LCNCs); (2) avaliar in silico e in vitro a influência do ângulo cavo-superficial sobre a concentração de tensão em LCNCs simuladas; (3) avaliar, in silico e in vitro, a influência da extensão da cavidade e do material restaurador na formação de fendas marginais, e na concentração de tensão em restaurações de resina composta; (4) avaliar, in vivo, a influência da geometria de LCNCs e material restaurador no desempenho clínico das restaurações e (5) analisar, por revisão sistemática e metanálise, a influência dos aspectos relacionados ao dente e cavidade de LCNCs sobre a retenção de restaurações de resina composta. Material e métodos: (1) Um pré-molar superior foi modelado em software CAD, e uma LCNC do tipo cunha foi simulada. Cinco técnicas restauradoras foram reproduzidas com as resinas Filtek™ Z350 XT (N) ou Filtek™ Bulk Fill (BF) e analisadas pelo software Ansys 17.0; (2) Cavidades cilíndricas com mesmo volume (17,67 mm³) foram preparadas em 45 incisivos bovinos. As amostras foram divididas de acordo com o ângulo cavo-superficial, em três grupos: 90º, 120º, 135º, e restauradas com o adesivo Futurabond U e resina GrandioSO. As fendas marginais foram medidas em estereomicroscópio, e análise por elementos finitos (FEA); (3) Cavidades simulando LCNCs com 2 mm (profundidade) C 4 mm (distância cérvico-incisal) foram preparadas em 60 incisivos bovinos em duas dimensões mésio-distais (2,9 mm ou 1,4 mm) e restauradas com N ou BF (n=30). A fenda marginal foi avaliada em estereomicroscópio antes e após da termociclagem, e realizada análise por FEA em cavidades iguais; (4) Cento e quarenta LCNCs foram restauradas em 77 pacientes. As lesões foram previamente classificadas quanto à extensão gengivooclusal (1,5 mm ± 10% e 3 mm ± 10%). Em seguida, as lesões foram alocadas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=35). Após a aplicação de um adesivo autocondicionante, as restaurações foram realizadas com N ou BF. As restaurações foram avaliadas após 7 dias, 6 e 12 meses pelos critérios USPHS modificados; (5) Buscas nas principais bases de dados eletrônicas foram realizadas. Estudos clínicos em pacientes com LCNCs restauradas com resina composta foram incluídos. A retenção da restauração foi o desfecho primário. A qualidade metodológica e risco de viés dos artigos incluídos foi avaliada utilizando a ferramenta Cochrane para ensaios clínicos randomizados e o sistema GRADE. Resultados: (1) A menor concentração de tensão ocorreu no grupo restaurado com resina BF; (2) O ângulo cavo-superficial de 90º promoveu maiores tensões na interface da restauração, com maior fenda marginal; (3) Ocorreu maior concentração de tensão na margem do esmalte, com maior pico de tensão (17,0 MPa) para cavidade pequena restaurada com resina N; (4) A taxa de retenção das restaurações após 12 meses foi de 100% para as LCNCs restauradas com N e de 97% para as LCNCs restauradas com BF; (5) A localização do dente e a presença de facetas de desgaste podem afetar a retenção de resinas compostas em LCNCs(AU)


The aim of the present study was (1) to analyze in silico the effect of different restorative techniques on the stress concentration in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs);(2) to evaluate in silico and in vitro the influence of cavosurface margin angle on stress concentration in simulated NCCLs; (3) to evaluate in silico and in vitro the influence of cavity extension and restorative material on the marginal gap formation, and on the stress concentration in resin restoration; (4) to evaluate in vivo the influence of the geometry of NCCLs and restorative material on the clinical performance of restoration and (5) to analyze, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the influence of tooth- and cavity-related of NCCLs on the retention of resin composite restorations. Materials and Methods: (1) A superior premolar was modeled in CAD software, and a NCCLs of the wedge type was simulated. Five restorative techniques were designed with Filtek™ Z350 XT (N) or Filtek™ Bulk Fill (BF) and analyzed by Ansys 17.0 software; (2) Cylindrical cavities with the same volume (17.67 mm³) were prepared in 45 bovine incisors. The samples were divided according to the cavo-superficial angle in three groups: 90º, 120º, 135º, and restored with Futurabond U adhesive and GrandioSO resin. The marginal gaps were analyzed in stereomicroscope and FEA; (3) Cavities simulating NCCLs with 2 mm (depth) C 4 mm (cervical-incisal distance) were prepared in 60 bovine incisors in two mesiodistal dimensions (2.9 mm or 1.4 mm) and restored with N or BF (n=30. The marginal gap was evaluated using a stereomicroscope before and after thermocycling, and FEA analysis was performed in equal cavities; (4) One hundred and forty NCCLs were restored in 77 patients. The lesions were previously classified for occlusogingival distance (1.5 mm ± 10% and 3 mm ± 10%). Thereafter, the lesions were randomly allocated into four groups (n=35). After applying a self-etching adhesive, the restorations were performed using N or BF. The restorations were evaluated after 7 days, 6 and 12 months using the modified USPHS criteria; (5) Searches in major electronic databases were performed. Clinical studies in patients with NCCLs restored with resin composite were included. Restoration retention was the primary outcome. The quality of the evidence and risk of bias of the included articles was evaluated using the Cochrane tool for randomized clinical trials and the GRADE. Results: (1) The lowest concentration of stress occurred in the group restored with BF resin; (2) The cavosuperficial angle of 90º promoted higher stresses at the interface of the restoration, with a larger marginal gap; (3) Higher stress concentration occurred at the enamel margin, with highest stress peak (17.0 MPa) for small cavity restored with N; (4) The retention rate of the restorations after 12 months was 100% for the NCCLs restored with N and 97% for the NCCLs restored with BF; (5) The tooth location and the presence of wear facets can affect the retention of composite resins in NCCLs(AU)


Subject(s)
Randomized Controlled Trial , Meta-Analysis , Composite Resins/chemistry , Finite Element Analysis/classification , Tooth Wear/complications
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190042, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gap formation of composite resin restorations is a serious shortcoming in clinical practice. Polymerization shrinkage stress exceeds the tooth-restoration bond strength, and it causes bacterial infiltration within gaps between cavity walls and the restorative material. Thus, an intermediate liner application with a low elastic modulus has been advised to minimize polymerization shrinkage as well as gap formation. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess gap formation volume in premolars restored with different bulk-fill composites, with and without a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) liner, using x-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methodology: Sixty extracted human maxillary premolars were divided into six groups according to bucco-palatal dimensions (n=10). Standardized Class II mesio-occluso-distal cavities were prepared. G-Premio Bond (GC Corp., Japan) was applied in the selective-etch mode. Teeth were restored with high-viscosity (Filtek Bulk Fill, 3M ESPE, USA)-FB, sonic-activated (SonicFill 2, Kerr, USA)-SF and low viscosity (Estelite Bulk Fill Flow, Tokuyama, Japan)-EB bulk-fill composites, with and without a liner (Ionoseal, Voco GmbH, Germany)-L. The specimens were subjected to 10,000 thermocycles (5-55°C) and 50,000 simulated chewing cycles (100 N). Gap formation based on the volume of black spaces at the tooth-restoration interface was quantified in mm3 using micro-computed tomography (SkyScan, Belgium), and analyses were performed. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and the Bonferroni correction test (p < 0.05). Results: The gap volume of all tested bulk-fill composites demonstrated that Group SF (1.581±0.773) had significantly higher values than Group EB (0.717±0.679). Regarding the use of a liner, a significant reduction in gap formation volume was observed only in Group SFL (0.927±0.630) compared with Group SF (1.581±0.773). Conclusion: It can be concluded that different types of bulk-fill composite resins affected gap formation volume. Low-viscosity bulk-fill composites exhibited better adaptation to cavity walls and less gap formation than did sonic-activated bulk-fill composites. The use of an RMGIC liner produced a significant reduction in gap formation volume for sonic-activated bulk-fill composites.


Subject(s)
Humans , Composite Resins/chemistry , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Dental Cavity Preparation/methods , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Polymerization , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Resin Cements , Dental Stress Analysis , X-Ray Microtomography
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190544, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101250

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the influence of three levels of dental structure loss on stress distribution and bite load in root canal-treated young molar teeth that were filled with bulk-fill resin composite, using finite element analysis (FEA) to predict clinical failure. Methodology Three first mandibular molars with extensive caries lesions were selected in teenager patients. The habitual occlusion bite force was measured using gnathodynamometer before and after endodontic/restoration procedures. The recorded bite forces were used as input for patient-specific FEA models, generated from cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans of the teeth before and after treatment. Loads were simulated using the contact loading of the antagonist molars selected based on the CT scans and clinical evaluation. Pre and post treatment bite forces (N) in the 3 patients were 30.1/136.6, 34.3/133.4, and 47.9/124.1. Results Bite force increased 260% (from 36.7±11.6 to 131.9±17.8 N) after endodontic and direct restoration. Before endodontic intervention, the stress concentration was located in coronal tooth structure; after rehabilitation, the stresses were located in root dentin, regardless of the level of tooth structure loss. The bite force used on molar teeth after pulp removal during endodontic treatment resulted in high stress concentrations in weakened tooth areas and at the furcation. Conclusion Extensive caries negatively affected the bite force. After pulp removal and endodontic treatment, stress and strain concentrations were higher in the weakened dental structure. Root canal treatment associated with direct resin composite restorative procedure could restore the stress-strain conditions in permanent young molar teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bite Force , Composite Resins/chemistry , Tooth, Nonvital/therapy , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Molar , Reference Values , Tensile Strength , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Composite Resins/therapeutic use , Tooth, Nonvital/diagnostic imaging , Compressive Strength , Finite Element Analysis , Dental Stress Analysis , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Elastic Modulus , Patient-Specific Modeling
14.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 337-342, nov. 5, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145363

ABSTRACT

Aims: Residual peroxide on the enamel surface and in the interprismatic spaces decreases the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to bleached enamel. Evidence shows that 10% sodium ascorbate can efficiently neutralize the singlet oxygen generated by the bleaching agents. This study aimed to assess the effect of duration of application of sodium ascorbate on SBS of composite to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 30 sound human third molars, which were randomly divided into three groups (n=10). In group 1, the teeth were bleached for 45 minutes and were then subjected to immediate bonding and restoration with composite resin. In groups 2 and 3, the teeth were bleached, immersed in 10% sodium ascorbate solution for 5 (group 2) and 10 (group 3) minutes and were then bonded and restored with composite, and the SBS was then measured. Results: The highest SBS (14.02±8.6MPa) was noted in group 3 (immersion in 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes before bonding). The lowest SBS was noted in group 1 (immediate bonding after bleaching) (p<0.05). The difference in SBS of groups 1 and 2 was not significant (p=0.4). Conclusion: Application of 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes increases the SBS of composite to bleached enamel.


Objetivos: el peróxido residual en la superficie del esmalte dental y en los espacios interprismáticos disminuye la resistencia al cizallamiento (R AC) de la resina compuesta al esmalte dental blanqueado. La evidencia muestra que el 10% de ascorbato de sodio puede neutralizar eficientemente el oxígeno singlete generado por los agentes blanqueadores. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la duración de la aplicación de ascorbato de sodio en la R AC de la resina compuesta al esmalte dental blanqueado. Materiales y Metodos: Este estudio experimental in vitro se realizó en 30 terceros molares humanos sanos, que se dividieron aleatoriamente en tres grupos (n=10). En el grupo 1, los dientes se blanquearon durante 45 minutos y luego se sometieron a una unión y restauración inmediata con resina compuesta. En los grupos 2 y 3, los dientes se blanquearon, se sumergieron en una solución de ascorbato de sodio al 10% durante 5 (grupo 2) y 10 (grupo 3) minutos y luego se unieron y restauraron con resina compuesta; luego se midió la R AC. Resultados: La R AC más alta (14,02 ± 8,6 MPa) se observó en el grupo 3 (inmersión en ascorbato de sodio al 10% durante 10 minutos antes de la unión). El valor de R AC más bajo se observó en el grupo 1 (unión inmediata después del blanqueo) (p<0,05). La diferencia en R AC de los grupos 1 y 2 no fue significativa (p=0,40). Conclusión: la aplicación de ascorbato de sodio al 10% durante 10 minutos aumenta la R AC de la resina compuesta al esmalte dental blanqueado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Bleaching , Dental Bonding , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid , In Vitro Techniques , Water/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Enamel , Molar, Third , Antioxidants/chemistry
15.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 351-354, nov. 5, 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145371

ABSTRACT

Ceramic veneers have evolved in the last few years as an aesthetic restoration in the field of aesthetic dentistry. It is a conservative option as compared to full coverage crowns for improving the patients smile. Ceramic veneers are widely used for smile designing in patients with fluorosis, midline diastema, hypoplastic teeth, and peg shape laterals. Clinical relevance: This article highlights the smile designing of a young patient with fluorosis using ceramic veneers, which not only improves the smile of the patient but has positive psychological benefits.


Las carillas de cerámica han evolucionado en los últimos años como una restauración estética en el campo de la odontología estética. Es una opción conservadora para mejorar la sonrisa de los pacientes en comparación con las coronas de cobertura total. Las carillas de cerámica se usan ampliamente para el diseño de sonrisas en pacientes con f luorosis, diastema de la línea media, dientes hipoplásicos, o laterales en forma de clavija. Relevancia clínica: este artículo destaca el diseño de la sonrisa en un paciente joven con f luorosis utilizando carillas de cerámica, que no solo mejora la sonrisa del paciente sino que entrega beneficios psicológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Veneers , Esthetics, Dental , Smiling , Tooth Discoloration , Dental Enamel/anatomy & histology , Fluorosis, Dental
16.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(3): 279-286, set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012423

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare the polymerization shrinkage of Eclipse photopolymerization resin for prosthesis based on urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) with that of three heat-cured acrylic resins based on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) after the polymerization process and immersion in water. A total of 40 prostheses were fabricated on a standard metallic upper edentulous model: group 1, Eclipse; group 2, Triplex hot; group 3, Veracril; and group 4, Lucitone 199. Subsequently, the polymerization contraction was tested using a microscope in which measurements were made in micrometres at 3 points located in the middle parts of the right and left sides and the middle part of the palate at three time points once the prosthesis was completed, after 30 days of immersion in water for 8 hours a day at a temperature of 37 °C, and after cutting the prosthesis at the level of the second premolar. ANOVA revealed that the contraction of the polymerization no statistically significant differences between the groups, (P> 0.05). The type of resin and its interaction with the processing method behaves similarly for all test resins. The Veracril heat-cured resin obtained the lowest contraction value in the three measurements (mm) and the highest value was obtained with the Eclipse photopolymerization resin. The Eclipse resin exhibited no lower polymerization shrinkage compared to conventional acrylic resins based on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), however it was not significantly affected by immersion in water.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la contracción de polimerización de la resina de fotopolimerización Eclipse para prótesis basadas en dimetacrilato de uretano (UDMA) con la de tres resinas acrílicas curadas con calor a base de polimetacrilato de metilo (PMMA) después del proceso de polimerización e inmersión en agua. Se fabricaron un total de 40 prótesis en un modelo edéntulo superior metálico estándar: grupo 1, Eclipse; grupo 2, triplex caliente; grupo 3, veracril; y grupo 4, Lucitone 199. Posteriormente, la contracción de la polimerización se probó utilizando un microscopio en el que se realizaron mediciones en micrometros en 3 puntos ubicados en las partes medias de los lados derecho e izquierdo y la parte media del paladar en tres puntos de tiempo una vez la prótesis se completó, después de 30 días de inmersión en agua durante 8 horas al día a una temperatura de 37 °C, y después de cortar la prótesis a nivel del segundo premolar. ANOVA reveló que la contracción de la polimerización no presenta diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos, (P> 0,05). El tipo de resina y su interacción con el método de procesamiento se comportan de manera similar para todas las resinas de prueba. La resina curada con calor Veracril obtuvo el valor de contracción más bajo en las tres mediciones (mm) y el valor más alto se obtuvo con la resina de fotopolimerización Eclipse. La resina Eclipse no mostró una contracción de polimerización menor en comparación con las resinas acrílicas convencionales basadas en polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA), sin embargo, no se vio afectada significativamente por la inmersión en agua.


Subject(s)
Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis/methods , Denture Bases , Polymerization , Acrylic Resins , In Vitro Techniques , Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation
17.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 6(3): 101-104, sept. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247414

ABSTRACT

In restorative dentistry, the use of composite resins with direct technique for the replacement of missing tooth structure is very common. One drawback is that surface roughness allows the adherence of microorganisms and the formation of dental plaque, being the polishing technique a key stage in the restoration process. The aim of this paper is to review the process of bacterial colonization of composite resins used with direct technique. According to in vitro studies, bac-terial adhesion on microhybrid composite resins is 3.91 ± 0.52 UFC and on nanohybrid is 3.34 ± 0.74 UFC. Resins with particle size of 2.5 micrometers contained a greater volume of biofilms and enabled adhesion of S. mutans; in turn, resins with particle size of 0.1 to 0.4 micrometers showed lower bacterial adherence. As summary, the degree of bacterial colonization depends on hygiene, polishing technique and composition of restorative material: the bigger the particle size, the greater the adhesion of bacterial plaque.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Adhesion , Composite Resins/chemistry
18.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(3): 210-219, jul. 31, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145338

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the six-month clinical outcome of restorations of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) with two composite resins: Bulk-Fill and nanohybrid resin. Materials and methods: Fifty-one patients, with three NCCLs each, were randomly allocated into three restoration groups: Tetric-N-Ceram Bulk-Fill (TB); Filtek Bulk-Fill (FB); y Filtek Z350XT (Z350). Adhesive techniques and restorative procedures were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions for the different materials. A 4mm increment was applied in TB and FB, and increments of ≤2mm depth were applied in Z350. Restorations were assessed by two calibrated examiners at baseline and at six months according to the FDI World Dental Federation guidelines (1: excellent, 2: acceptable, 3: sufficient, 4: unsatisfactory, 5: unacceptable) in Marginal Staining (MS), Fracture-Retention (FR), Marginal Adaptation (MA), Postoperative Sensitivity (S) and Caries (C). Wilcoxon test was used for the comparison between baseline and 6 months, and Kruskal-Wallis for the comparison of the three groups at six months (95% significance). Results: Forty-six patients with a total of 138 restorations attended a check-up at six months and were evaluated with excellent clinical outcome. In MS, 91.2% for Z350 and 97.8% for FB and TB; in FR, 97.8% for Z350 and 100% for FB and TB; in MA, 95.6% for Z350, 97.8% for FB and 100% for TN; in S, 95.6% for all three groups; and 100% for C. No statistically significant differences were found between the three groups nor in the comparison between the baseline and 6 months (p>0.05) Conclusion: No significant differences are observed between the three groups of resins in the parameters of MS, MA, S, FR and C regarding clinical outcome at six months.


Objetivo: Evaluar el comportamiento clínico a 6 meses en restauraciones de lesiones cervicales no cariosas (LCNC) con dos resinas compuestas Bulk-Fill y una resina nanohíbrida. Materiales y métodos: En 51 pacientes se restauraron 3 LCNC distribuidas aleatoriamente en 3 grupos, TB: Tetric-N-Ceram Bulk-Fill, FB: Filtek Bulk-Fill y Z350: Filtek Z350XT. Las técnicas adhesivas y procedimientos restauradores fueron realizados según las instrucciones de los fabricantes para los diferentes materiales. En TB y FB se aplicó un incremento de 4mm y en Z350 se aplicó incrementos ≤2mm de profundidad. Dos operadores calibrados evaluaron las restauraciones al baseline y 6 meses mediante los criterios clínicos FDI (1: excelente, 2: aceptable, 3: suficiente, 4: insatisfactorio, 5: inaceptable) en Tinción Marginal (TM), Fractura-Retención (FR), Adaptación Marginal (AM), Sensibilidad Postoperatoria (S) y Caries (C). Se utilizó Wilcoxon para la comparación entre baseline ­ 6 meses y Kruskal-Wallis para la comparación de los 3 grupos a 6 meses (significancia de 95%). Resultados: A los 6 meses asistieron 46 pacientes con un total de 138 restauraciones siendo evaluados con comportamiento clínico excelente; en TM 91,2% para Z350 y 97,8% para FB y TB; en FR, Z350 presentó 97,8% y en FB y TB el 100%; en AM, 95,6% para Z350, 97,8% para FB y 100% para TN; en S presentó 95,6% para los tres grupos; en C se presentó el 100%. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los 3 grupos y en la comparación de baseline - 6 meses (p>0.05). Conclusión: No existen diferencias significativas en el comportamiento clínico a 6 meses entre los 3 grupos de resinas en los parámetros TM, AM, S, FR Y C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tooth Demineralization/therapy , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Chile , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Tooth Cervix , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Materials
19.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(3): 228-235, jul. 31, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145340

ABSTRACT

Objective. To evaluate the degree of marginal sealing and adhesive strength in Bulk-Fill resin by applying 18% EDTA gel compared to 37% phosphoric acid gel in dental conditioning. Materials and methods. The study was transversal, experimental comparative, and applied. The sample group consisted of 60 teeth with Class I cavities, which were later subjected to conditioning. This was carried out separately with phosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds, and 18% EDTA gel within two different time frames: 60 and 90 seconds. All samples were incubated at 37ºC for a period of 24 hours and thermocycled between 5 to 55ºC for 500 cycles. To assess microfiltration, they were immersed in methylene blue at 37ºC for 4 hours, and were later sectioned and observed through a stereomicroscope. In order to perform the traction, the conventional testing machine was used at a speed of 0.75mm/min until the screw with the resin detached. Results: Samples conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid showed a greater degree 1 microfiltration and a mean adhesive resistance of 7.97 MPa. The same number of microfiltration grades 1 and 2 was found when using EDTA gel for 60 seconds, with a mean tensile strength of 8.8 MPa. On the other hand, applying EDTA gel for 90 seconds showed mostly grade 1 microfiltrations, and to a lesser extent, grade 0 and 2, with a mean resistance of 9.2 MPa. Conclusion: There are no statistically significant differences regarding adhesive strength between the two gels; however, better marginal filling was observed when samples were conditioned with 18% EDTA gel for 90 seconds.


Objetivo. Evaluar el grado de sellado marginal y resistencia adhesiva en resina Bulk ­ Fill aplicando gel de EDTA al 18% en comparación al gel de ácido fosfórico al 37% en el acondicionamiento dental. Materiales y métodos. El tipo de estudio fue transversal, comparativo, de nivel aplicativo y diseño experimental. La muestra estuvo conformada por 60 dientes con cavidades clase I; se realizó el acondicionamiento con gel de ácido fosfórico, gel del EDTA al 18% en 60 segundos y 90 segundos. El total de las muestras fueron incubados a 37°C por 24 horas, se termocicló con 500 ciclos entre 5 a 55ºC. Para evaluar microfiltración, fueron sumergidos en azul de metileno a 37ºC por 4 horas, fueron seccionadas y observados al estereomicroscopio, para realizar la tracción se empleó la máquina de ensayos universales a una velocidad de 0.75mm/min hasta que se desprendiera el tornillo con la resina. Resultados. Las muestras acondicionadas con ácido fosfórico al 37% presenta mayor microfiltración grado 1 y el promedio de su resistencia adhesiva es de 7.97Mpa, la microfiltración obtenida con EDTA en 60 segundos presenta equidad entre grado 1 y 2; promedio de resistencia a la tracción de 8.8 Mpa y el EDTA 90 segundos presentó mayor microfiltración grado 1 y el resto 0 y 2; el promedio de resistencia fue 9.2 Mpa. Conclusión. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar los acondicionantes para la prueba de resistencia adhesiva, sin embargo se observó mejor sellado marginal cuando se acondicionó con gel de EDTA al 18 % por 90 segundos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Bonding , Dental Marginal Adaptation , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Temperature , Acid Etching, Dental , Microstraining , Double-Blind Method , Cross-Sectional Studies , Edetic Acid , Dental Materials
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(1): 58-65, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989434

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate different conditioning protocols and sonic/ultrasonic application of an infiltrant resin (IR) in artificial white spot lesions (AWSL). the V/L surfaces of 48 molars were induced to an AWSL and divided in 6 groups, according to the conditioning protocols and application technique: 15% hydrochloric acid (HA) + manual application of the IR; HA + 37% phosphoric acid (PA) + manual application of the IR; HA + ultrasonic application (U) of the IR; HA + sonic application (S) of the IR; PA+HA+S; and PA+HA+U. For the Penetration Depth (PD), the crowns were etched with HA for 120s. The IR Icon® (DMG) was applied according to the manufacturer`s instructions. The crowns were dye penetrated (0.1% red fluorophore rhodamine B isothiocyanate for 12h) and bleached with 30% hydrogen peroxide for 12 h. The discs were immersed in a 50% ethanol solution, containing 100 µM of sodium fluorescein. The PD (in µm) was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy (20x). The bond strength (BS) was performed by michoshear test (0.5 mm/min). Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey (α=0.05). For BS, the interaction was not significant (p>0.05). For PD, the main factors were significant (application - p<0.001; conditioning technique - p=0.003). The ultrasonic application showed the highest PD values. PA+HA presented higher results than HA. The sonic/ultrasonic applications and the use of phosphoric acid prior to hydrochloric acid improved PD of the infiltrant resin. Conditioning protocols or application techniques did not influence BS values.


Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar diferentes protocolos de condicionamento e a aplicação sônica/ultrassônica de uma resina infiltrante (RI) em lesões de mancha branca produzidas artificialmente (LMBA). As superfícies vestibulares/linguais de 48 molares foram induzidas à formação de LMBA e divididas em 6 grupos, de acordo com os protocolos de condicionamento e técnica de aplicação da resina infiltrante: ácido hidroclorídrico 15% (AH) + aplicação manual da RI; AH + ácido fosfórico 37% (AF) + aplicação manual da RI; AH + aplicação ultrassônica da RI (U); AH + aplicação sônica da RI (S); AF + AH + S; e AF + AH + U. para o grau de penetração (GP), condicionou-se as coroas com AH por 120 s. A RI Icon® (DMG) foi aplicada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. As coroas foram coradas (rodamina B 0,1% por 12 h) e clareadas com peróxido de hidrogênio 30% por 12 h. os discos foram imersos em solução de etanol 50%, contendo 100 µM de fluoresceína sódica. O GP (em µm) foi mensurado por meio de microscopia confocal a laser (20´). A resistência de união (RU) foi calculada pelo teste de microcisalhamento (0,5 mm/min). Os dados foram submetidos ao teste ANOVA 2 fatores e Tukey (α=0,05). Para RU, a interação não foi significante (p>0,05). Para GP, os fatores principais foram significantes (técnica de aplicação - p<0,001; protocolos de condicionamento - p=0,003). A aplicação U mostrou os maiores valores de GP. AF+AH demonstrou resultados superiores ao grupo AH. As aplicações sônica/ultrassônica e o uso do ácido fosfórico antes do ácido hidroclorídrico aumentaram o GP da resina infiltrante. Os protocolos de condicionamento ou as técnicas de aplicação não influenciaram os valores de RU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhodamines/chemistry , Color , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Enamel , Esthetics, Dental , Ultrasonic Waves , Microscopy, Confocal
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