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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 17-21, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551135

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los leiomiomas uterinos son un tipo de neoplasia benigna de frecuente aparición en mujeres de edad reproductiva, relacionados con enfermedad tromboem- bólica venosa. Este vínculo surge del efecto producido por la compresión de fibromas que genera estasis venosa en la región pelviana. Sin embargo, este pareciera no ser el único factor que lo relaciona con el desarrollo posterior de hipertensión pulmonar, sino que su presencia es gatillo de una serie de fenómenos que influyen sobre la vasculatu - ra pulmonar y también a nivel sistémico. Método: Revisión de una serie de casos (seis) atendidos en nuestra unidad, seguido de una revisión sobre la relación entre leiomio- mas y distintas formas de hipertensión pulmonar con una revisión desde la fisiopatología. Resultado y conclusiones: Encontramos sustento bibliográfico en los múltiples caminos fisiopatológicos que relacionan los mediadores vasculares comunes, que parecieran ser el punto clave en la relación entre estas dos patologías.


Introduction: Uterine leiomyomas are a type of benign neoplasm that frequently appears in women of reproductive age, related to venous thromboembolic disease. This link arises from the effect produced by the compression of fibroids, which generates venous stasis in the pelvic region. However, this seems not to be the only factor that re- lates it to the subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension, but rather its presence is a trigger for a series of phenomena that influence the pulmonary vasculature and also at a systemic level. Method: Review of a series of cases (six) cared for in our unit, followed by a review on the relationship between leiomyomas and different forms of pulmonary hypertension with a review from the pathophysiology. Result and conclusions: We found bibliographic support in the multiple pathophysiological paths that relate the common vascular mediators, which appear to be the key point in the relationship between these two pathologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Neoplasms/physiopathology , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Leiomyoma/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Biomarkers , Review , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 299-307, 20240220. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532686

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El aneurisma de la aorta abdominal (AAA) es la dilatación de la aorta abdominal mayor de 1,5 veces el diámetro esperado. Su prevalencia es variable, con tasas reportadas de hasta el 12,5 %. Se considera como causa de muerte de más de 10.000 personas al año en los Estados Unidos. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura fue describir los factores de riesgo y las herramientas de tamizaje de AAA. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura utilizando dos ecuaciones en bases de datos electrónicas, empleando términos seleccionados de "Medical Subject Heading" (MeSH) y "Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud" (DeCS). Se evaluó la calidad de los estudios con la herramienta STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology). Resultados. Se recolectaron 40 artículos y a partir de ellos se construyó el texto de revisión, identificando en estos, los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de AAA, tales como sexo masculino, tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial, antecedente familiar y obesidad, entre otros. La diabetes mellitus parece actuar como factor protector. Dentro de los instrumentos de tamizaje, el ultrasonido abdominal es uno de los más usados. Conclusión. El AAA es una patología multifactorial. En la actualidad la ultrasonografía de aorta es el método de elección para el tamizaje, permitiendo la detección precoz. El tamizaje de AAA con métodos no invasivos, como el ultrasonido, es útil sobre todo en zonas con prevalencia alta de la patología y en pacientes con determinados factores de riesgo.


Introduction. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilation of the abdominal aorta greater than 1.5 times the expected diameter. Its prevalence is variable, with reported rates of up to 12.5%. It is considered the cause of death of more than 10,000 people a year in the United States. The objective of this literature review was to describe risk factors and screening tools for AAA. Methods. A literature search was conducted using two equations in electronic databases, using terms selected from "Medical Subject Heading" (MeSH) and "Descriptors in Health Sciences" (DeCS). The quality of the studies was evaluated with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) tool. Results. Forty articles were collected and from them the review text was constructed, identifying the risk factors associated with the development of AAA, such as male sex, smoking, high blood pressure, family history and obesity, among others. Diabetes mellitus seems to act as a protective factor. Among the screening instruments, abdominal ultrasound is one of the most used. Conclusion. AAA is a multifactorial pathology. Currently, aortic ultrasonography is the method of choice for screening, allowing early detection. Screening for AAA with non-invasive methods, such as ultrasound, is useful especially in areas with a high prevalence of this pathology and in patients with certain risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Screening , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , Computed Tomography Angiography , Aortic Diseases , Tobacco Use Disorder , Ultrasonography
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1666-1672, dic. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528798

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The temporal bone is a complicate structure which located on the lateral skull. The objective of the present study was to determine the temporal bone air spaces' morphometry, morphology, and pneumatization in Turkish healthy adult people. This retrospective observational study was carried out from 82 subjects (47 males, 35 females) aged 18-69 years. The external auditory canal and related structures' diameters and the volume of these areas were evaluated. The means and standard deviations of the Meatus acusticus externus length (MAEL), meatus acusticus externus pars cartilaginea length (MAEcL), meatus acusticus externus pars ossea length (MAEoL), meatus acusticus externus pars cartilaginea surface (MAEcS), meatus acusticus externus pars ossea surface (MAEoS), meatus acusticus externus volume (MAEV), meatus acusticus externus pars cartilaginea volume (MAEcV), meatus acusticus externus pars ossea volume (MAEoV), processus mastoideus air cells volume (PMACV), cavum tympani volume (CTV), and temporale pneumatic spaces volume (OTPSV) were found as 23.21±3.70 mm, 12.69±3.72 mm, 7.80±3.70 mm, 669.89±107.7 mm2, 267.50±30.51 mm2, 743.50±119.6 mm3, 971.97±156.69 mm3, 419.51±48.67 mm3, 5915.93±650.34 mm3, 673.48±91.93 mm3, 7813.34±717.49 mm3 have found in 82 subjects, respectively. In this paper, the morphometric and volume properties of the temporal bone cavities measurements were significantly higher in males than females. These results may both provide reference values of Turkish healthy population, and lead to decrease potential surgical complications about temporal and mastoid regions.


El hueso temporal es una compleja estructura ubicada en el parte lateral del cráneo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la morfometría, morfología y neumatización de los espacios aéreos del hueso temporal en individuos adultos turcos sanos. Este estudio observacional retrospectivo que se llevó a cabo en 82 sujetos (47 hombres, 35 mujeres) de entre 18 y 69 años. Se evaluaron los diámetros del meato acústico externo y las estructuras relacionadas y el volumen de estas áreas. Las medias y las desviaciones estándar de la longitud del meato acústico externo (MAEL), la longitud de la parte cartilaginosa del meato acústico externo (MAEcL), la longitud de la parte ósea del meato acústico externo (MAEoL), la superficie de la parte cartilaginosa del meato acústico externo (MAEcS), la superficie de la parte ósea del meato acústico externo (MAEoS), volumen del meato acústico externo (MAEV), volumen de la parte cartilaginosa del meato acústico externo (MAEcV), volumen de la parte ósea del meato acústico externo (MAEoV), volumen de las células aéreas del proceso mastoideo (PMACV), volumen del cavum tympani (CTV) y el volumen de los espacios neumáticos temporales (OTPSV) se encontró como 23,21 ± 3,70 mm, 12,69 ± 3,72 mm, 7,80 ± 3,70 mm, 669,89 ± 107,7 mm2, 267,50 ± 30,51 mm2, 743,50 ± 119,6 mm3, 971,97 ± 156,69 mm3, 419,5. 1±48,67 mm3, 5915,93 ± 650,34 mm3, 673,48 ± 91,93 mm3, 7813,34 ± 717,49 mm3, respectivamente. En este artículo, las propiedades morfométricas y de volumen de las mediciones de las cavidades del hueso temporal fueron significativamente mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Estos resultados pueden proporcionar valores de referencia de la población sana turca y conducir a una disminución de las posibles complicaciones quirúrgicas en las regiones temporal y mastoidea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Retrospective Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1580-1586, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521044

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Middle cerebral artery (MCA), which has the largest irrigation area of the arteries that feed the brain, is an important artery whose microanatomy should be well known because of its vascular variation. In pathologies which are known to affect the cerebrovascular system such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension, morphometric characteristics of MCA gain importance. The aim of this study is to compare the morphometric characteristics of M1 segment of MCA in T2DM and hypertensive patients with those of healthy control group by using computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The study was carried out with retrospective morphometric analysis of CTA images of 200 individuals between 40 and 65 years of age. The individuals were grouped in four as hypertensive patients (group 1), patients with T2DM (group 2), patients with hypertension and T2DM (group 3) and healthy control group (group 4). Length and diameter measurements of M1 segment were performed and recorded by using 3D CTA images. While statistically significant difference was found between bilateral M1 segment diameters of both women and men (p0.05). As a result of the post hoc analysis performed, it was concluded that right and left M1 segment diameter of group 1, group 2 and group 3 was found to be different from group 4 in both sexes (p<0.05). We believe that this study will both be a guide in radio-anatomic assessments to be performed and also increase microanatomic level of information in the surgical treatment of the artery by showing the morphometric changes that occur in M1 segment of MCA in T2DM diseases.


La arteria cerebral media (ACM), que otorga la mayor área de irrigación de las arterias que alimentan el cerebro, es un vaso importante cuya microanatomía debe ser bien conocida por su variación vascular. En patologías que afectan al sistema cerebrovascular, como la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y la hipertensión, las características morfométricas de la ACM cobran importancia. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar las características morfométricas del segmento M1 de la ACM en pacientes con DM2 e hipertensos con las del grupo control sano mediante el uso de angiografía por tomografía computada (TC). El estudio fue realizado através de análisis morfométrico retrospectivo de imágenes de TC de 200 individuos entre 40 y 65 años de edad. Los individuos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos, como pacientes hipertensos (grupo 1), pacientes con DM2 (grupo 2), pacientes con hipertensión y DM2 (grupo 3) y grupo control sano (grupo 4). Las mediciones de longitud y diámetro del segmento M1 se realizaron y registraron utilizando imágenes 3D TC. Si bien se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los diámetros bilaterales de los segmentos M1 de mujeres y hombres (p0,05). Como resultado del análisis post hoc realizado, se concluyó que el diámetro de los segmentos M1 derecho e izquierdo del grupo 1, grupo 2 y grupo 3 fue diferente del grupo 4 en ambos sexos (p<0.05). Creemos que este estudio será una guía en las evaluaciones anátomo-radiológicas y también mejorará el nivel de información microanatómica en el tratamiento quirúrgico al mostrar los cambios morfométricos que ocurren en el segmento M1 de la ACM en las enfermedades con DM2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Computed Tomography Angiography , Hypertension
6.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 141-149, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971163

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the preoperative whole perforator evaluation and intraoperative eccentric design of anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) based on superficial fascial perforators by modified computed tomography angiography (CTA), and the clinical effects were observed. Methods: A prospective observational study was adopted. Twelve patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors and 10 patients with open injury of the upper limb with large soft tissue defects were hospitalized in the Department of Hand & Microsurgery and Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery of Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University from January 2021 to July 2022, with 12 males and 10 females, aged from 33 to 75 years, an average age of 56.6 years. The wounds of the patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors were reconstructed by ALTF after the extensive tumor resection and radical cervical lymph node dissection in the same stage; the wounds of the patients with skin and soft tissue defect on the upper limb were covered by ALTF in stage Ⅱ after debridement in stage Ⅰ. After debridement, the area of wound was 3.5 cm×3.5 cm-25.0 cm×10.0 cm and the area of the required flap area was 4.0 cm×4.0 cm-23.0 cm×13.0 cm. Modified CTA scan was performed on the donor site of ALTF before the operation, with the parameters of modified CTA being set to mainly reduce the tube voltage and tube current, and increase the contrast dose and the dual phase scan. The acquired image data were sent to GE AW 4.7 workstation and adopted the volume reconstruction function for visual reconstruction and evaluation of the whole perforator. The information of perforator and source artery was marked on the body surface before operation according to the above evaluation. During the operation, an eccentric flap centered on the visible superficial fascia whole perforator was designed and cut according to the desired flap area and shape. The donor sites of the flap were repaired by direct sutures or full-thickness skin grafts. The total radiation dose was compared between the modified CTA scan and the traditional CTA scan. The distribution of outlet point of perforator of double thighs, the length and direction of superficial fascia perforators based modified CTA were recorded. The type, number, and origin of the target perforator, distribution of of outlet point of perforator, and the diameter, course, and branch of the source artery observed before the operation were compared with those observed during the operation. The healing of donor site wound and the survival of flaps in recipient site were observed after operation. The texture and appearance of flap, oral and upper limb functions, and the functions of femoral donor sites were followed up. Results: The total radiation dose of modified CTA scan was lower than that of the traditional CTA scan. A total of 48 perforators of double thighs were observed, among which, 31 (64.6%) perforators went outward and downward, 9 (18.8%) perforators went inward and downward, 6 (12.5%) perforators went outward and upward, and 2 (4.2%) perforators went inward and upward, and the average length of superficial fascia perforators was 19.94 mm. The preoperative observed type, number, and source of the perforator, the distribution of the outlet point of the perforator, diameter, course, and branches of the source artery were basically consistent with the intraoperative exploration. The types of 15 septocutaneous (including musculoseptocutaneous) perforators and 10 musculocutaneous perforators observed before the operation was consistent with intraoperative exploration. The distance between the mark of the surface perforator point and the actual exit point of the perforator during operation was (0.38±0.11) mm. All flaps survived without vascular crisis. The donor site wounds of 5 cases of skin grafting and 17 cases of direct suturing wounds healed well. The postoperative follow-up was 2 months to 1 year, with an average of 8.2 months, the flaps were soft and slightly bloated; the function of diet and mouth closing was accessible in patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors, the speech function was mildly impaired in patients with tongue cancer, but they could complete basic oral communication; the wrist and elbow joints and forearm rotation function were not significantly limited in patients with upper limb soft tissue injuries; there was no obvious tightness in the donor sites, and the function of the hip and knee joints was not limited. Conclusions: The whole perforator and even the subcutaneous perforator of the donor site of ALTF can be evaluated by modified CTA, and the flap can be used in oral or maxillofacial reconstruction and repair of skin and soft tissue defects of upper limbs to achieve good results. By clarifying the type, number, and source of the perforator, the distribution of the outlet point of the perforator, diameter, course, and branches of the source artery before the operation, the eccentric design of the ALTF based on the superficial fascia perforator was realized. This study has strong guiding value.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Thigh , Computed Tomography Angiography , Prospective Studies , Subcutaneous Tissue , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 416-421, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981285

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of deep learning reconstruction algorithm on the image quality of head and neck CT angiography (CTA) at 100 kVp. Methods CT scanning was performed at 100 kVp for the 37 patients who underwent head and neck CTA in PUMC Hospital from March to April in 2021.Four sets of images were reconstructed by three-dimensional adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR 3D) and advanced intelligent Clear-IQ engine (AiCE) (low,medium,and high intensity algorithms),respectively.The average CT value,standard deviation (SD),signal-to-noise ratio (SNR),and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the region of interest in the transverse section image were calculated.Furthermore,the four sets of sagittal maximum intensity projection images of the anterior cerebral artery were scored (1 point:poor,5 points:excellent). Results The SNR and CNR showed differences in the images reconstructed by AiCE (low,medium,and high intensity) and AIDR 3D (all P<0.01).The quality scores of the image reconstructed by AiCE (low,medium,and high intensity) and AIDR 3D were 4.78±0.41,4.92±0.27,4.97±0.16,and 3.92±0.27,respectively,which showed statistically significant differences (all P<0.001). Conclusion AiCE outperformed AIDR 3D in reconstructing the images of head and neck CTA at 100 kVp,being capable of improving image quality and applicable in clinical examinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Radiation Dosage , Deep Learning , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Algorithms
8.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(3): 245-249, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521833

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Swyer-James-Mac Leod es una entidad poco frecuente adquirida en la infancia, generalmente tras una infección pulmonar moderada a grave de tipo bronquiolitis o neumonía, generalmente virales. Ocasionalmente se tiene el antecedente de infecciones repetidas de este tipo. Consiste en el desarrollo de enfisema hipoplásico pulmonar unilateral, que puede a veces relacionarse con bronquiectasias ipsilaterales o bilaterales, obstrucción fija al flujo aéreo y puede también asociarse a reducción del flujo sanguíneo del pulmón hipoplásico, de manera focal o difusa, con o sin tortuosidad de la vascularización proximal y a veces con una compensación del pulmón contralateral, en forma de sobredistensión e hiperflujo vascular relativo. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 79 años de edad con antecedentes de infecciones tipo bronquiolitis virales repetidas en la infancia, obstrucción fija grave al flujo aéreo y hemoptisis masiva secundaria a una infección por Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensible a la terapia antibiótica habitual.


Swyer-James-Mac Leod syndrome is a rare condition acquired in childhood, usually after a moderate to severe lung infection such as bronchiolitis or pneumonia, usually viral. Occasionally there is a history of repeated infections of this type. It consists of the development of unilateral pulmonary hypoplastic emphysema, which can sometimes be related to ipsilateral or bilateral bronchiectasis, fixed airflow obstruction, and may also be associated with reduced blood flow in the hypoplastic lung, with or without tortuosity of the proximal vascular supply and sometimes with compensation from the contralateral lung, in the form of overdistension and relative vascular hyperflow. We present the case of a 79-year-old man with a history of recurrent viral bronchiolitis-type infections in childhood, severe fixed airflow obstruction, and massive hemoptysis secondary to a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection sensitive to usual antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pulmonary Emphysema/complications , Lung, Hyperlucent/complications , Hemoptysis/etiology , Pulmonary Emphysema/therapy , Pulmonary Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Lung, Hyperlucent/therapy , Lung, Hyperlucent/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography
10.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(2): 55-62, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428392

ABSTRACT

Chest pain (CP) is a frequent reason for consultation in emergency departments (ED). It responds to a broad spectrum of pathologies, ranging from banal causes to severe conditions with high mortality. The clinician must be able to distinguish prompt when CP is due to severe pathology and thus make a timely intervention for the patient's benefit. Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS) is one of the potentially fatal causes of CP. Within this syndrome, we find aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma and atherosclerotic penetrating ulcer. AD is the most frequent presentation of AAS. Although it is not a common condition, its high lethality and low suspicion make it of particular interest as a differential diagnosis of CP. The following are two clinical cases of AD of the ascending aortic treated at the Hospital Regional de Talca (HRT) to analyse the clinical characteristics that help to differentiate this condition, the main electrocardiographic and imaging findings, as well as some of its complications and management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aortic Dissection/surgery , Aortic Dissection/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Aortic Dissection/classification , Myocardial Infarction
11.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(4): 246-252, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441386

ABSTRACT

Las malformaciones arteriovenosas pulmonares (MAVP) consisten en comunicaciones directas entre el sistema arterial y el sistema venoso pulmonar, sin paso de la sangre por el lecho capilar, produciéndose un cortocircuito de derecha a izquierda extracardíaco, pueden ser congénitas o adquiridas. Algunos casos pueden ser asintomáticos, en cambio en otros pueden ocasionar diversas manifestaciones clínicas y se pueden asociar a complicaciones severas. En niños se observa una baja incidencia y son más frecuentes las formas congénitas. La MAVP se debe sospechar por las manifestaciones clínicas y las imágenes de la radiografía de tórax (RxTx) y su confirmación se realiza mediante una AngioTomografía Computada (TC) de tórax. La embolización endovascular es actualmente el tratamiento de elección, con excelentes resultados, aunque requiere de un seguimiento posterior y de un operador experimentado. Reportamos el caso de una niña que ingresó con clínica muy sugerente, incluyendo: disnea, acropaquia, cianosis periférica, e hipoxemia refractaria. Sin embargo, inicialmente el cuadro clínico fue confundido con una crisis asmática. La Angio-TC de tórax confirmó el diagnóstico y el tratamiento mediante embolización endovascular resultó exitoso.


Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) are communications between the arterial and the pulmonary venous system, without passage of blood through the capillary bed, causing a left to right extracardiac shunt. Some cases may be asymptomatic, while others may cause various clinical manifestations and may be associated with severe complications. In children a low incidence is observed, and congenital forms are more frequent. PAVM should be suspected by clinical manifestations and chest x-ray imaging and confirmed by chest Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA). Endovascular embolization is currently the treatment of choice, with excellent results, although it requires subsequent follow-up. We report a patient who was admitted with a very suggestive clinical history, including: dyspnea, clubbing, peripheral cyanosis, and severe hypoxemia, refractory to oxygen therapy. However, initially the clinical picture was confounded with an asthmatic crisis. CTA confirmed the diagnosis and treatment by endovascular embolization was successful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Arteriovenous Malformations/therapy , Arteriovenous Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Veins/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/abnormalities , Pulmonary Veins/abnormalities , Radiography, Thoracic , Embolization, Therapeutic , Computed Tomography Angiography , Oxygen Saturation , Hypoxia
12.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(2): 81-87, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407773

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El aumento de la concentración de dímero-D en pacientes COVID-19 se ha asociado a mayor gravedad y peor pronóstico; sin embargo, su rol en predecir el diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP), aún es incierto. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad del dímero-D plasmático en el diagnóstico de TEP en pacientes con COVID-19. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio observacional analítico. Se incluyó a pacientes COVID-19 que tenían una angiotomografía computada de tórax (AngioTAC). Se registraron datos clínicos, niveles plasmáticos de dímero-D de ingreso y previo al momento de realizar la AngioTAC. Se identificó la presencia o ausencia de TEP. Resultados: Se incluyeron 163 pacientes; 37(23%) presentaron TEP. Al comparar la serie de pacientes con TEP versus sin TEP, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en características clínicas, ni mortalidad. Hubo diferencias significativas en el nivel plasmático del dímero-D previo a realizar la AngioTAC (3.929 versus 1.912 μg/L; p = 0,005). El área bajo la curva ROC del dímero-D para TEPfue de 0,65. El mejor punto de corte del dímero-D fue de 2.000 μg/L, con una baja sensibilidad y valor predictivo positivo. El valor de corte con el mejor valor predictivo negativo (VPN)fue de 900 μg/L (96%), el cual fue mejor que la estrategia de corte de dímero D ajustado por edad (VPN 90%). Conclusión: La capacidad discriminativa del dímero D para diagnosticar TEP fue baja. En cambio, el dímero D mantiene un alto valor predictivo negativo para descartar TEP, el cual es mayor al valor descrito clásicamente en los pacientes no COVID.


Introduction: Increased D-dimer concentration in COVID-19 patients has been associated with greater severity and worse prognosis; however its role in predicting the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), is still uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of plasma D-dimer in the diagnosis of PTE in patients with COVID-19. Method: Analytical observational study. COVID-19 patients who had a chest computed tomography angiography (CTA) were included. Clinical data, Ddimer plasma levels on admission and prior to CTA were recorded. The presence or absence of PTE was identified. Results: 163 patients were included, 37 (23%) presented PTE. After comparing the series of patients with PTE versus the series without PTE, no significant differences were found in clinical characteristics or mortality. There were significant differences in the plasma level of D-dimer prior to performing CTA (3,929 μg/L versus. 1,912 μg/L; p = 0.005). The area under the D-dimer ROC curve for PTEprediction was 0.65. The best D-dimer cutoffpoint was 2.000μg/L, with a low sensitivity and positivepredictive value. The cutoff value with the best negativepredictive value (NPV) was 900 μg/L (96%), which was better than the age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff strategy (NPV 90%). Conclusion: The discriminative ability of D-dimer to diagnose PTE was low. In contrast, D-dimer maintains a high negative predictive value to rule out PTE, which is higher than the value classically described in non-COVID patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Computed Tomography Angiography
13.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 24-34, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395911

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis is a low-frequency disease that can cause compromise of different systems. We report a case of heart failure in an 81-year-old woman secondary to amyloidosis, in which the echocardiogram was a valuable diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Pericardial Effusion/diagnosis , Pericardial Effusion/therapy , Amyloidosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Electrocardiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Heart Failure/etiology
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 578-585, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364359

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Atualmente o sistema de saúde público brasileiro (SUS) não contempla a angiotomografia de coronárias. Objetivos Ranquear sob a perspectiva do SUS, a custo-efetividade de estratégias diagnósticas combinando teste ergométrico, cintilografia miocárdica, ecocardiograma por estresse e angiotomografia de coronárias para o diagnóstico de doença arterial coronariana em uma coorte hipotética de pacientes com probabilidade pré-teste intermediária. Métodos Análise de custo-efetividade por meio de árvore de decisão. Foram analisados a relação de custo-efetividade incremental e o benefício líquido em saúde das estratégias diagnósticas, com a adoção de múltiplos limiares de disposição a pagar entre 0,05 e 1 PIB per capita por diagnóstico correto. Nos casos de testes sequenciais, um segundo teste confirmatório era realizado quando o primeiro fosse positivo. Resultados Após exclusão das estratégias diagnósticas dominadas ou com dominância estendida, a fronteira de eficiência foi composta por três estratégias: teste ergométrico, teste ergométrico seguido de ecocardiograma de estresse, e ecocardiograma de estresse seguido de angiotomografia de coronárias, sendo esta última a estratégia mais custo-efetiva. Pelo critério do benefício líquido, o ranqueamento das estratégias mais custo-efetivas variou conforme a disposição a pagar. Conclusão Utilizando conceitos atuais de avaliação de tecnologias em saúde, este estudo fornece um ranqueamento para a tomada de decisão sobre qual estratégia diagnóstica utilizar, em uma população com risco pré-teste intermediário para DAC. Com estimativa factível de custos para a ATC, o impacto da inclusão desta ao rol do arsenal diagnóstico representaria uma estratégia custo-efetiva na maioria dos cenários avaliados nas variações de disposição a pagar.


Abstract Background The Brazilian public health system does not include computed tomography angiography (CTA). Objective Rank, according to the Brazilian public health system, the cost-effectiveness of different strategies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), combining exercise tests (ET), myocardial scintigraphy (MS), stress echocardiography (SE), and CTA in a hypothetical intermediate pre-test probability cohort of patients. Methods This study implemented a cost-effectiveness analysis through a decision tree. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net benefit were analyzed by adopting multiple thresholds of willingness to pay, from 0.05 to 1 GDP per capita per correct diagnosis. In sequential tests, a second confirmatory test was performed only when the first was positive. Results After excluding dominated or extended dominance diagnostic strategies, the efficiency frontier consisted of three strategies: ET, ET followed by SE, and SE followed by CTA, the last being the most cost-effective strategy. Through the net benefit, the ranking of the most cost-effective strategies varied according to willingness to pay. Conclusions Using current concepts of health technology assessment, this study provides a ranking for decision-making concerning which diagnostic strategy to use in a population with an intermediate pre-test risk for CAD. With a feasible cost estimate adopted for CTA, the impact of including this to the list of the diagnostic arsenal would represent a cost-effective strategy in most of the evaluated scenarios with broad variations in the willingness to pay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Coronary Angiography , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Echocardiography, Stress , Computed Tomography Angiography
16.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 33(2): 5773-5777, jun 2022. imag
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1435005

ABSTRACT

El reconocimiento de los aneurismas aórticos torácicos (AAT) es importante ya que pueden tener complicaciones devastadoras si no se diagnostican a tiempo o no se tratan oportunamente. A continuación, se expone un caso clínico de un paciente de 42 años de edad, de sexo masculino, a quien se le diagnosticó un aneurisma gigante de aorta torácica ascendente y arco aórtico, el más grande publicado en la literatura hasta la fecha. La identificación temprana y la derivación para la intervención quirúrgica son vitales para mejorar la morbilidad y la mortalidad de estos pacientes. El objetivo de este artículo es enfatizar en el papel actual de los distintos métodos imagenológicos en la detección y diagnóstico de la patología aórtica. Los aneurismas aórticos torácicos se reconocen cada vez más en angio-TAC, la cual proporciona excelentes detalles de la aorta y sus relaciones con estructuras adyacentes. En la evaluación de la enfermedad aneurismática, las imágenes transversales son particularmente importantes para representar la extensión de la enfermedad, los diámetros aórticos y arteriales totales y la extensión de la formación del trombo mural


Recognition of thoracic aortic aneurysms is important as they can have devastating complications if left undiagnosed or untreated promptly. The following is a clinical case of a 42-year-old male patient, in whom a giant aneurysm of the ascending thoracic aorta and aortic arch was diagnosed, the largest published in the literature to date. Early identification and referral for surgical intervention are vital to improve the morbidity and mortality of these patients. The objective of this article is to emphasize the current role of the different imaging methods in the detection and diagnosis of aortic pathology. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms are increasingly being recognized on Angio-Tomography, which provides excellent detail of the aorta and its relationships with adjacent structures. In the evaluation of aneurysmal disease, cross-sectional images are particularly important in depicting the extent of disease, total aortic and arterial diameters, and the extent of mural thrombus formation.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic , Radiography, Thoracic , Computed Tomography Angiography
17.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210223, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386119

ABSTRACT

Abstract Internal thoracic artery aneurysms (ITAAs) are rare with wide variation in clinical presentation and a high risk of rupture. Endovascular techniques are increasingly being used for treatment of such aneurysms over surgical repair in recent times. A 34-year-old male presented with progressive swelling of the right anterior chest wall for 2 weeks and was diagnosed with right internal thoracic artery aneurysm with contained rupture. He underwent successful endovascular repair with coil embolization of ruptured right ITAA. Post intervention computed tomography (CT) angiography confirmed sealing of the ruptured aneurysm with no residual filling of the sac. At six months follow-up he is doing well with complete resolution of hematoma. This case demonstrates that an endovascular approach with coil embolization is a feasible and safe option for treating the rare ruptured ITAAs.


Resumo Os aneurismas da artéria torácica interna (ITAAs) são raros, com ampla variação na apresentação clínica e alto risco de ruptura. As técnicas endovasculares têm sido cada vez mais utilizadas para o tratamento desses aneurismas em relação ao reparo cirúrgico. Um homem de 34 anos de idade apresentou edema progressivo da parede torácica anterior direita por 2 semanas e foi diagnosticado com aneurisma da artéria mamária interna direita com ruptura contida. Ele foi submetido a reparo endovascular bem-sucedido, com embolização de ITAA direito roto. A angiotomografia computadorizada (angioTC) pós-intervenção confirmou o selamento do aneurisma rompido, sem enchimento residual do saco. No seguimento de 6 meses, ele estava bem, com resolução completa do hematoma. Este caso demonstra que a abordagem endovascular com embolização com molas é uma opção viável e segura no tratamento dos raros ITAAs rotos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aneurysm, Ruptured/therapy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endovascular Procedures , Mammary Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography
20.
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210013, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365068

ABSTRACT

Resumo A trombose de veia porta (TVP) é uma doença na qual ocorre trombose desde os ramos intra-hepáticos da veia porta, podendo se estender até a veia esplênica e/ou veia mesentérica superior, estando associada, na maioria das vezes, à cirrose hepática. A TVP não associada a cirrose é rara. O objetivo deste artigo foi relatar dois casos de TVP não associados à cirrose, que foram tratados com anticoagulação e tiveram evolução clínica satisfatória.


Abstract Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a disease in which thrombosis occurs from the intrahepatic branches of the portal vein, and may extend to the splenic vein and/or superior mesenteric vein. It is most often associated with liver cirrhosis. PVT not associated with cirrhosis is rare. The aim of this article is to report two cases of PVT in which it was not associated with cirrhosis. Both were treated with anticoagulation and clinical progress afterwards was good.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Portal Vein/pathology , Mesenteric Ischemia/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
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