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Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 24-34, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395911


Amyloidosis is a low-frequency disease that can cause compromise of different systems. We report a case of heart failure in an 81-year-old woman secondary to amyloidosis, in which the echocardiogram was a valuable diagnostic tool.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Pericardial Effusion/diagnosis , Pericardial Effusion/therapy , Amyloidosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Electrocardiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Heart Failure/etiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 578-585, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364359


Resumo Fundamento Atualmente o sistema de saúde público brasileiro (SUS) não contempla a angiotomografia de coronárias. Objetivos Ranquear sob a perspectiva do SUS, a custo-efetividade de estratégias diagnósticas combinando teste ergométrico, cintilografia miocárdica, ecocardiograma por estresse e angiotomografia de coronárias para o diagnóstico de doença arterial coronariana em uma coorte hipotética de pacientes com probabilidade pré-teste intermediária. Métodos Análise de custo-efetividade por meio de árvore de decisão. Foram analisados a relação de custo-efetividade incremental e o benefício líquido em saúde das estratégias diagnósticas, com a adoção de múltiplos limiares de disposição a pagar entre 0,05 e 1 PIB per capita por diagnóstico correto. Nos casos de testes sequenciais, um segundo teste confirmatório era realizado quando o primeiro fosse positivo. Resultados Após exclusão das estratégias diagnósticas dominadas ou com dominância estendida, a fronteira de eficiência foi composta por três estratégias: teste ergométrico, teste ergométrico seguido de ecocardiograma de estresse, e ecocardiograma de estresse seguido de angiotomografia de coronárias, sendo esta última a estratégia mais custo-efetiva. Pelo critério do benefício líquido, o ranqueamento das estratégias mais custo-efetivas variou conforme a disposição a pagar. Conclusão Utilizando conceitos atuais de avaliação de tecnologias em saúde, este estudo fornece um ranqueamento para a tomada de decisão sobre qual estratégia diagnóstica utilizar, em uma população com risco pré-teste intermediário para DAC. Com estimativa factível de custos para a ATC, o impacto da inclusão desta ao rol do arsenal diagnóstico representaria uma estratégia custo-efetiva na maioria dos cenários avaliados nas variações de disposição a pagar.

Abstract Background The Brazilian public health system does not include computed tomography angiography (CTA). Objective Rank, according to the Brazilian public health system, the cost-effectiveness of different strategies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), combining exercise tests (ET), myocardial scintigraphy (MS), stress echocardiography (SE), and CTA in a hypothetical intermediate pre-test probability cohort of patients. Methods This study implemented a cost-effectiveness analysis through a decision tree. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net benefit were analyzed by adopting multiple thresholds of willingness to pay, from 0.05 to 1 GDP per capita per correct diagnosis. In sequential tests, a second confirmatory test was performed only when the first was positive. Results After excluding dominated or extended dominance diagnostic strategies, the efficiency frontier consisted of three strategies: ET, ET followed by SE, and SE followed by CTA, the last being the most cost-effective strategy. Through the net benefit, the ranking of the most cost-effective strategies varied according to willingness to pay. Conclusions Using current concepts of health technology assessment, this study provides a ranking for decision-making concerning which diagnostic strategy to use in a population with an intermediate pre-test risk for CAD. With a feasible cost estimate adopted for CTA, the impact of including this to the list of the diagnostic arsenal would represent a cost-effective strategy in most of the evaluated scenarios with broad variations in the willingness to pay.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Coronary Angiography , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Echocardiography, Stress , Computed Tomography Angiography
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 805-810, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-952348


Objective: To investigate the dynamic change of the secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) throughout the cardiac cycle, and assess its impact on occluder selection. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 35 patients with ASD who received electrocardiogram-gated coronary CT angiography (CCTA) throughout the cardiac cycle as well as interventional closure therapy in Fuwai Hospital from December 2016 to December 2019. The raw data were reconstructed into 20 phasic images of RR intervals (RRI) ranging from 0 to 95% in an increment of 5% and transmitted to a workstation for postprocessing. For each phase image, CT virtual endoscopy reconstruction technique (CTVE) was used to provide views of ASD. Axial sequence assisted CT volumetric measurement (CTAS) was used to calculate the maximum dimensions in axial planes (Da) and in superior-inferior direction (Db). Using a formula for converting circumference to diameter, the equivalent circle dimensions were calculated (De, De=minor axis+2 (major axis-minor axis)/3). Taking the data of 75% RRI phase, the patients were divided into Da75%RRI≥Db75%RRI group and Da75%RRI<Db75%RR group. According to the postoperative chest X-ray, the waist diameter of the occluder in the left anterior oblique plain film was measured, and its correction value (CR-PODlaoc) was calculated with the correction formula. Scatter plots of the changes of the mean values of Da, Db and De with the cardiac cycle were presented. The change and ratio of measured values of Da and De at 35% and 75% RRI was calculated. The ratio of De change to Da change in Da75%RRI≥Db75%RRI group and Da75%RRI<Db75%RR group was calculated, respectively, and compared between groups. Pearson correlation analysis was used to explore the correlation between CR-PODlaoc and De35%RRI and De75%RRI. Results: A total of 35 patients, aged (42.7±15.0) years, including 10 males, were included. Among 35 patients, 8 cases were divided into group Da75%RRI≥Db75%RRI and 27 cases into group Da75%RRI<Db75%RRI. Both Da and Db regularly changed at each phase throughout the cardiac cycle. The Da changed significantly, with a maximum at phase of 35%-45% of RRI, and a minimum between phases of 90% and 0 of RRI. While the Db showed insignificant changes during phases of 10%-90% RRI, and increased at 0-10% of RRI, then reduced in the remaining phases. The change of Da was (6.35±2.46) mm, and the ratio of Da values at 35% and 75% RRI was 0.77±0.08. The change of De was (2.28±1.32) mm, and the ratio of De at 35% and 75% RRI was 0.93±0.05. The ratio of De change to Da change in the Da75%RRI≥Db75%RRI group was 0.67±0.13; while the ratio was 0.34±0.05 in Da75%RRI<Db75%RR group, and there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.02). CR-PODlaoc was positively correlated with De35% RRI (r=0.99, P<0.001) and De75% RRI (r=0.98, P<0.001). Conclusions: Most secundum ASDs show oval shape with Db>Da. Db is basically constant while Da changes significantly during cardiac cycle (10%-90% RRI). Nonetheless, both values peak and maintain the maximum status at end-systolic phase (35%-45% RRI). For patients with huge ASD, occluder selection should be based on the De at 35% RRI phase, which is helpful for the successful intervention.

Adult , Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/surgery , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Septal Occluder Device
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 661-666, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940972


Objective: To investigate the clinical effects of free peroneal artery perforator flaps in repairing forefoot skin and soft tissue defect wounds assisted with three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA). Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From March 2017 to September 2019, 15 patients with skin and soft tissue defect wounds in the forefoot were treated in the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery of Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang, including 12 males and 3 females, with age of 18-60 years. The wound area on admission was 3.0 cm×3.0 cm-9.0 cm×8.0 cm. The 3D-CTA examination before operation was performed to select the peroneal artery perforating vessels with appropriate length of vascular pedicle and good blood perfusion. According to the wound area and the perforating vessels of the peroneal artery located by 3D-CTA, the peroneal artery perforator flaps of 3.5 cm×3.5 cm-9.5 cm×8.5 cm carried with lateral sural cutaneous nerve was designed and cut, and the nerve was anastomosed with the nerve of the wound. The wound in the donor site of the flap was directly sutured or covered with medium-thickness skin graft from the thigh. The consistencies of type, diameter, and perforating position of perforating vessel of the peroneal artery detected by 3D-CTA before the operation with those of the actual measurement during operation were observed. The length of time for flap cutting and the survival of the flap after operation were recorded. During follow-up of 12 months after the operation, the patients were instructed to evaluate the foot function according to the Maryland foot function score standard, and the wound healing in the donor area and the occurrence of complications affecting the motor function of limb were observed. Data were statistically analyzed with paired sample t test. Results: The types of peroneal artery perforating vessels in patients measured during the operation were septocutaneous perforator of 12 cases, musculocutaneous perforator of 2 cases, and musculomuscular septal perforator of 1 case, which were consistent with those measured by preoperative 3D-CTA. The diameter of the peroneal artery perforating vessel measured by preoperative 3D-CTA was (1.38±0.17) mm, which was close to (1.40±0.19) mm measured during the operation (t=0.30, P>0.05). The horizontal distance from the starting point of the perforating vessel to the outer edge of the shank was (42±6) mm, and the vertical distance from the starting point of the perforating vessel to the level of the lateral ankle tip was (219±14) mm measured by preoperative 3D-CTA, which were respectively close to (43±6) and (221±15) mm of intraoperative measurement (with t values of 0.46 and 0.38, respectively, P>0.05). The length of time for cutting flap was (31±6) min. All flaps survived post operation without vascular crisis. During follow-up of 12 months after the operation, the foot function was evaluated as excellent in 11 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 1 case, the donor site wound healed well, the scar was not noticeable with no contracture, and the motor function of joints was not affected. Conclusions: Free peroneal artery perforator flap is one of the effective methods to reconstruct skin and soft tissue defect wounds in the forefoot, and the risk of surgery can be reduced when the anatomical location of the perforating vessels is confirmed by 3D-CTA.

Adolescent , Adult , Arteries , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210013, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365068


Resumo A trombose de veia porta (TVP) é uma doença na qual ocorre trombose desde os ramos intra-hepáticos da veia porta, podendo se estender até a veia esplênica e/ou veia mesentérica superior, estando associada, na maioria das vezes, à cirrose hepática. A TVP não associada a cirrose é rara. O objetivo deste artigo foi relatar dois casos de TVP não associados à cirrose, que foram tratados com anticoagulação e tiveram evolução clínica satisfatória.

Abstract Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a disease in which thrombosis occurs from the intrahepatic branches of the portal vein, and may extend to the splenic vein and/or superior mesenteric vein. It is most often associated with liver cirrhosis. PVT not associated with cirrhosis is rare. The aim of this article is to report two cases of PVT in which it was not associated with cirrhosis. Both were treated with anticoagulation and clinical progress afterwards was good.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Portal Vein/pathology , Mesenteric Ischemia/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
J. vasc. bras ; 21: e20210223, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386119


Abstract Internal thoracic artery aneurysms (ITAAs) are rare with wide variation in clinical presentation and a high risk of rupture. Endovascular techniques are increasingly being used for treatment of such aneurysms over surgical repair in recent times. A 34-year-old male presented with progressive swelling of the right anterior chest wall for 2 weeks and was diagnosed with right internal thoracic artery aneurysm with contained rupture. He underwent successful endovascular repair with coil embolization of ruptured right ITAA. Post intervention computed tomography (CT) angiography confirmed sealing of the ruptured aneurysm with no residual filling of the sac. At six months follow-up he is doing well with complete resolution of hematoma. This case demonstrates that an endovascular approach with coil embolization is a feasible and safe option for treating the rare ruptured ITAAs.

Resumo Os aneurismas da artéria torácica interna (ITAAs) são raros, com ampla variação na apresentação clínica e alto risco de ruptura. As técnicas endovasculares têm sido cada vez mais utilizadas para o tratamento desses aneurismas em relação ao reparo cirúrgico. Um homem de 34 anos de idade apresentou edema progressivo da parede torácica anterior direita por 2 semanas e foi diagnosticado com aneurisma da artéria mamária interna direita com ruptura contida. Ele foi submetido a reparo endovascular bem-sucedido, com embolização de ITAA direito roto. A angiotomografia computadorizada (angioTC) pós-intervenção confirmou o selamento do aneurisma rompido, sem enchimento residual do saco. No seguimento de 6 meses, ele estava bem, com resolução completa do hematoma. Este caso demonstra que a abordagem endovascular com embolização com molas é uma opção viável e segura no tratamento dos raros ITAAs rotos.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aneurysm, Ruptured/therapy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endovascular Procedures , Mammary Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography
Sudan j. med. sci ; 17(3): 377-386, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398225


Hepatobiliary surgery through laparoscopic approach is becoming a routine. Knowledge of extrahepatic arterial tree is essential for surgical and imaging procedures. Anatomical complexity is expected since the liver is developed by mergingof lobules with its separate blood supply. This makes a wide range of variations in the pattern of vascular arrangement and so reinforces the need for an accurate understanding of full spectrum of variations. This study aimed to investigate the variations in origin and distribution of extrahepatic arterial supply. Fifty volunteers (32 males and 18 females) aged 20­70 years were randomly recruited from the department of CT scan in Al Amal Hospital, Khartoum North, Sudan. The patients were already candidates for CT angiography with contrast for conditions other than hepatobiliary diseases. The reported data is related to those who accepted to participate in the study. Patients with history of hepatobiliary disease were excluded. 3D views of the scans were treated and the extrahepatic arterial tree was traced in a computer-based software. Key findings suggest that Michel's classification was considered the standard template for description ­ 76% of them showed Michel's type I classification. Types III and V constituted about 2%. About 4% of the cases were represented by types VI and IX. Other types of variations constituted about 12%. To conclude, although type I classification which describes the textbook pattern of hepatic artery distribution was significantly detected among the Sudanese population, other variants were to be considered since they are related to major arteries like aorta and superior mesenteric.

Humans , Adult , Hepatic Artery , Liver Diseases , Periodicity , Digestive System Diseases , Computed Tomography Angiography
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 340-346, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353595


Introducción. El tromboembolismo pulmonar y la trombosis venosa profunda son urgencias cardiovasculares relativamente comunes, se han descrito diferentes predictores clínicos para la estratificación del riesgo, biomarcadores séricos y pruebas de imagenología. Dentro de los biomarcadores séricos se ha descrito el dímero D. Debido a que la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es un reto diagnóstico para el clínico, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la pertinencia de la solicitud del dímero D, en el servicio de urgencias de un centro de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Bogotá durante los años 2018-2019. Metodología. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaron al servicio de urgencias, de una clínica de tercer nivel, de la ciudad de Bogotá, durante el periodo 2018-2019. Resultados. Se revisaron 583 historias clínicas, se excluyeron 107 pacientes, con un total final de 474 (57.3% mujeres y 42.6% hombres). De estos, 21 pacientes presentaron estudios positivos (angiotomografía y Doppler venoso). El dímero D presentó un valor predictivo negativo inferior al 50%. Discusión. A pesar de los resultados y de ser un estudio de un solo centro se evidencian las dificultades que tienen los médicos de los servicios de urgencias al momento de solicitar pruebas diagnósticas. Conclusiones. Este estudio evidencia la dificultad que existe en los servicios de urgencias al momento de la evaluación diagnóstica y cómo la solicitud de los paraclínicos tiene que ser un proceso estandarizado, guiado por los motivos de consulta y hallazgos al examen físico, y así no perder las características operativas de las pruebas diagnósticas y su utilidad al momento de la evaluación clínica.

Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolisms and deep vein thromboses are relatively common cardiovascular emergencies. Various clinical predictors, serial biomarkers and imaging tests have been described for the stratification of the risk. D-dimer has been described within the serial biomarkers. Since venous thromboembolic disease is a diagnostic challenge for doctors, the objective of this study was to assess the pertinence of the D-dimer request in emergency services in a level three center in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Methodology. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional retrospective study of patients who resorted to emergency services in a level three clinic in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Results. 583 medical records were reviewed, and 107 patients were excluded, with a final total of 474 patients (57.3% women and 42.6% men). Of these, 21 patients had positive studies (angiotomography and venous doppler ultrasound). D-dimer had a negative predictive value of less than 50%. Discussion. Despite the results and it being a study in a single clinic, the difficulties emergency service doctors experience when requesting diagnostic tests can be observed. Conclusions. This study shows the difficulties in emergency services when performing a diagnosis. The request for complementary tests has to be a standardized process guided by the reasons for the consultation and findings from the physical exam, in order not to lose the operational characteristics of the diagnostic tests and their usefulness during the clinical evaluation.

Introdução. Tromboembolismo pulmonar e trombose venosa profunda são emergências cardiovasculares relativamente comuns. Têm sido descritos diferentes preditores clínicos para estratificação de risco, biomarcadores séricos e testes de imagem. Entre os biomarcadores séricos, foi descrito o D-dímero. Considerando que a doença tromboembólica venosa é um desafio diagnóstico para o clínico, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relevância da solicitação de D-dímero no serviço de emergência de um centro de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá ao longo dos anos 2018-2019. Metodologia. Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaram o serviço de emergência de uma clínica de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá, no período de 2018-2019. Resultados. Foram revisados 583 prontuários, excluídos 107 pacientes, totalizando 474 (57.3% mulheres e 42.6% homens). Destes, 21 pacientes apresentaram estudos positivos (angiotomografia e Doppler venoso). D-dímero apresentou valor preditivo negativo inferior a 50%. Discussão. Apesar dos resultados e do fato de se tratar de um estudo só de um centro, são evidentes as dificuldades que os médicos de emergência apresentam ao solicitarem exames diagnósticos. Conclusões. Este estudo mostra a dificuldade que existe nos serviços de emergência no momento da avaliação diagnóstica e como a solicitação dos testes paraclínicos tem que ser um processo padronizado, orientado pelos motivos da consulta e pelos resultados do exame físico, e assim não perder as características operacionais dos exames diagnósticos e sua utilidade no momento da avaliação clínica.

Pulmonary Embolism , Probability , Venous Thrombosis , Diagnostic Errors , Computed Tomography Angiography
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 346-352, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347293


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a incidência de embolia pulmonar, seu relacionamento com os níveis de dímero D e outros possíveis fatores associados, além dos efeitos adversos da anticoagulação e meios de contraste. Métodos: Conduziu-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva em um hospital público chileno. Foram incluídos os pacientes com idade acima de 18 anos com COVID-19, mecanicamente ventilados na unidade de terapia intensiva, admitidos entre março e junho de 2020. Todos os pacientes receberam tromboprofilaxia com heparina, que foi aumentada até uma dose de anticoagulação com níveis de dímero D acima de 3µg/mL. Resultados: Foram acompanhados 127 pacientes, dos quais 73 foram submetidos à angiografia por tomografia computadorizada (média de idade de 54 ± 12 anos; 49 homens). Sessenta e dois dos 73 pacientes (84,9%) receberam anticoagulação total antes da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada. Além disso, 18 dos 73 pacientes tiveram embolia pulmonar (24,7%). Na comparação entre pacientes com e sem embolia pulmonar, não se observaram diferenças significantes em termos de idade, sexo, obesidade, tabagismo, escores de Wells e Genebra revisado, dímero D ou mortalidade. O uso de anticoagulantes foi similar em ambos os grupos. O número de dias desde o início da anticoagulação até a angiografia por tomografia computadorizada foi significantemente menor no grupo com embolia pulmonar (p = 0,002). Três pacientes tiveram lesão renal aguda após o contraste (4,1%), e um paciente teve sangramento importante. Conclusão: Apesar da anticoagulação, um em cada quatro pacientes com COVID-19 submetidos à ventilação mecânica e avaliados com angiografia por tomografia computadorizada apresentou embolia pulmonar. Com uma maior demora para realização da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada após início de anticoagulação empírica, identificou-se um número significantemente menor de embolias

Abstract Objective: To assess pulmonary embolism incidence, its relationship with D-dimer levels and other possible associated factors in addition to anticoagulation and contrast medium adverse effects. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study at a Chilean public hospital was performed. Intensive care unit mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients older than 18 years old between March and June 2020 were included. All patients received heparin thromboprophylaxis, which was increased to the anticoagulation dose with D-dimer greater than 3µg/mL. Results: A total of 127 patients were followed up, of whom 73 underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (mean age, 54 ± 12 years; 49 men). Sixty-two of the 73 patients (84.9%) received full anticoagulation before computed tomography angiography. In addition, 18 of the 73 patients had pulmonary embolism (24.7%). When comparing patients with and without pulmonary embolism, no significant differences were observed in age, sex, obesity, smoking, Wells and revised Geneva scores, D-dimer or mortality. Anticoagulant use was similar in both groups. Days from the start of anticoagulation until computed tomography angiography were significantly lower in the pulmonary embolism group (p = 0.002). Three patients presented post contrast-acute kidney injury (4.1%), and one patient had major bleeding. Conclusion: Despite anticoagulation, one in four COVID-19 patients connected to mechanical ventilation and evaluated with pulmonary computed tomography angiography had pulmonary embolism. With a longer the delay in performing computed tomography angiography once empirical anticoagulation was started, significantly less pulmonary embolism was identified.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Computed Tomography Angiography , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(9): 1328-1332, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351488


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: In coronary computed tomography angiography, a part of the lung parenchyma also enters the image area which is called the field of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of pulmonary abnormalities and document their association with demographic features in subjects undergoing multislice coronary computed tomography angiography obtained for the assessment of coronary artery disease. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study evaluating the coronary computed tomography angiography scans of 1,050 patients (58.5% males and 47.3% smokers) with a mean age of 52.2±11.2 years, obtained between January 2018 and March 2020. Pulmonary abnormalities were reported as nodules, focal consolidations, ground-glass opacities, consolidations, emphysema, cysts, bronchiectasis, atelectasis, and miscellaneous. RESULTS: In total, 274 pulmonary abnormalities were detected in 266 patients (25.3%). The distribution of incidental lung findings was as follows: pulmonary nodules: 36.4%, emphysema: 15.6%, bronchiectasis: 11%, ground-glass opacities: 7.2%, atelectasis 7.2%, focal consolidations: 5%, cysts: 6%, consolidations: 2.5%, and miscellaneous: 9.1%. The patients with pulmonary pathology were older (55.5±11.4 versus 51.0±10.9 years), and the percentage of smokers was higher (60.1 versus 43.2%). The possibility of the presence of any incidental lung findings in field of view of coronary computed tomography angiography increases significantly over the age of 40.5 years (p<0.001, AUC 0.612, 95%CI 0.573-0.651). CONCLUSION: Multislice coronary computed tomography angiography can give important clues regarding pulmonary diseases. It is essential for the reporting radiologist to review the entire scan for pulmonary pathological findings especially in patients with smoking history and over the age of 40.5 years.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Incidental Findings , Computed Tomography Angiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(2): 263-266, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289307


Resumen La hemobilia es una causa poco frecuente de hemorragia del tracto gastrointestinal superior. La principal etiología es de origen iatrogénico y la posibilidad de hemobilia debe considerarse en cualquier paciente con hemorragia gastrointestinal y un historial reciente de procedimientos hepatobiliares. Otras causas menos frecuentes incluyen el trauma de abdomen, la enfermedad oncológica de la vía biliar o las enfermedades inflamatorias del páncreas o la vía biliar. La presentación clínica varía según la gravedad del sangrado; generalmente se presenta con dolor abdominal, ictericia y melenas, aunque puede cursar al ingreso con rectorragia e hipotensión. Un alto porcentaje de estas presenta resolución espontánea, sin requerir procedimientos adicionales. La angiografía es el estándar de oro para el diagnóstico de la hemobilia, pero los avances en la angiotomografía permiten que esta sea una opción menos invasiva y con mayor disponibilidad. La angioembolización es el tratamiento principal para estos pacientes, pero existen otras alternativas como la colocación de stent vascular o de stent en el conducto biliar.

Abstract Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract bleeding. Its main etiology is iatrogenic, and the possibility of hemobilia should be considered in any patient with GI bleeding and a recent history of hepatobiliary surgery. Other less frequent causes include abdominal trauma, oncologic disease of the biliary tract, or inflammatory diseases of the pancreas or bile duct. Its clinical presentation varies depending on the severity of the bleeding. It usually presents with abdominal pain, jaundice, and tarry stools, although patients may also present with rectorrhagia and hypotension on admission. A high percentage of these symptoms have a spontaneous resolution, without requiring additional procedures. Angiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of hemobilia, but advances in computed tomography angiography make it a less invasive and more widely available option. Endovascular embolization is the main treatment for these patients, but there are other alternatives such as vascular or bile duct stent placement.

Humans , Female , Aged , Hemobilia , Angiography , Abdominal Pain , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Diagnosis , Computed Tomography Angiography , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Jaundice
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1091-1098, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278330


Resumo Fundamento A quantificação não invasiva da reserva fracionada de fluxo miocárdico (FFR TC ) através de software baseado em inteligência artificial em versão mais atualizada e tomógrafo de última geração (384 cortes) apresenta elevada performance na detecção de isquemia coronariana. Objetivos Avaliar o desempenho diagnóstico da FFR TC na detecção de doença arterial coronariana (DAC) significativa em relação ao FFRi, em tomógrafos de gerações anteriores (128 e 256 cortes). Métodos Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes encaminhados à angiotomografia de artérias coronárias (TCC) e cateterismo (FFRi). Foram utilizados os tomógrafos Siemens Somatom Definition Flash (256 cortes) e AS+ (128 cortes). A FFR TC e a área luminal mínima (ALM) foram avaliadas em software (cFFR versão 3.0.0, Siemens Healthineers, Forchheim, Alemanha). DAC obstrutiva foi definida como TCC com redução luminal ≥50% e DAC funcionalmente obstrutiva como FFRi ≤0,8. Todos os valores de p reportados são bicaudais; e quando <0,05, foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Noventa e três pacientes consecutivos (152 vasos) foram incluídos. Houve boa concordância entre FFR TC e FFRi, com mínima superestimação da FFR TC (viés: -0,02; limites de concordância: 0,14 a 0,09). Diferentes tomógrafos não modificaram a relação entre FFR TC e FFRi (p para interação = 0,73). A FFR TC demonstrou performance significativamente superior à classificação visual de estenose coronariana (AUC 0,93 vs. 0,61, p <0,001) e à ALM (AUC 0,93 vs. 0,75, p <0,001) reduzindo o número de casos falso-positivos. O melhor ponto de corte para a FFR TC utilizando um índice de Youden foi de 0,85 (sensiblidade, 87%; especificidade, 86%; VPP, 73%; NPV, 94%), com redução de falso-positivos. Conclusão FFR TC baseada em inteligência artificial, em tomógrafos de gerações anteriores (128 e 256 cortes), apresenta boa performance diagnóstica na detecção de DAC, podendo ser utilizada para reduzir procedimentos invasivos.

Abstract Background The non-invasive quantification of the fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) using a more recent version of an artificial intelligence-based software and latest generation CT scanner (384 slices) may show high performance to detect coronary ischemia. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic performance of FFRCT for the detection of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in contrast to invasive FFR (iFFR) using previous generation CT scanners (128 and 256- detector rows). Methods Retrospective study with patients referred to coronary artery CT angiography (CTA) and catheterization (iFFR) procedures. Siemens Somatom Definition Flash (256-detector rows) and AS+ (128-detector rows) CT scanners were used to acquire the images. The FFRCT and the minimal lumen area (MLA) were evaluated using a dedicated software (cFFR version 3.0.0, Siemens Healthineers, Forchheim, Germany). Obstructive CAD was defined as CTA lumen reduction ≥ 50%, and flow-limiting stenosis as iFFR ≤0.8. All reported P values are two-tailed, and when <0.05, they were considered statistically significant. Results Ninety-three consecutive patients (152 vessels) were included. There was good agreement between FFRCT and iFFR, with minimal FFRCT overestimation (bias: -0.02; limits of agreement:0.14-0.09). Different CT scanners did not modify the association between FFRCT and FFRi (p for interaction=0.73). The performance of FFRCT was significantly superior compared to the visual classification of coronary stenosis (AUC 0.93vs.0.61, p<0.001) and to MLA (AUC 0.93vs.0.75, p<0.001), reducing the number of false-positive cases. The optimal cut-off point for FFRCT using a Youden index was 0.85 (87% Sensitivity, 86% Specificity, 73% PPV, 94% NPV), with a reduction of false-positives. Conclusion Machine learning-based FFRCT using previous generation CT scanners (128 and 256-detector rows) shows good diagnostic performance for the detection of CAD, and can be used to reduce the number of invasive procedures.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Severity of Illness Index , Artificial Intelligence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Vessels , Machine Learning , Computed Tomography Angiography
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(2): 175-179, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341280


Resumen La enfermedad de Kawasaki es un síndrome febril agudo y autolimitado, de presunta etiología autoinmune, que característicamente afecta a niños menores de 5 años. Esta enfermedad consiste en una vasculitis aguda de pequeños y medianos vasos que favorece la formación de aneurismas en las arterias coronarias. El diagnóstico en la fase aguda es esencialmente clínico, mientras que en la fase crónica suele hacerse al documentar las secuelas vasculares. La importancia de la identificación apropiada de esta enfermedad radica en que muchos de los infartos fatales y no fatales en personas menores de 40 años tienen hallazgos compatibles con este diagnóstico. Se presenta el caso de un adulto joven con dolor torácico y angiotomografía coronaria con hallazgos compatibles con secuelas de enfermedad de Kawasaki del adulto.

Abstract Kawasaki disease is an acute and self-limited febrile syndrome with a presumed autoimmune etiology that characteristically affects children under 5 years of age. Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of small and medium vessels that facilitates the formation of coronary aneurysms. The diagnosis of the disease during the acute phase is essentially clinical, while the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease during the chronic phase is performed when the vascular complications are detected. The importance of proper identification of Kawasaki disease lies in the fact that many of the fatal and non-fatal infarcts in young adults (<40 years) have findings compatible with this diagnosis. This article describes the case of a young patient with chest pain and coronary angiotomography showing sequelae of Kawasaki disease in the adult.

Humans , Male , Adult , Coronary Aneurysm , Chest Pain , Computed Tomography Angiography , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(2): 160-170, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341278


Abstract Background: cardiovascular diseases are among the principal causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Prevention, early diagnosis and treatment can play an important role in reducing complication of cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: Considering increasing popularity of cardiac computed tomography CT angiography (CTA) in one side and also magnetic esonance angiography (MRA) as gold standard modality on the other side, we decided to perform this meta-analysis study to compare cardiac CTA and MRA in evaluating left ventricular volumes. Method: this study is a systematic review in which we included all studies with inclusion criteria and without exclusion criteria up to 30 December, 2019. Studies were selected after searching on different databases and articles in bibliography of included studies. Obtained studies were screened for quality. Required data were extracted and were then analyzed via STATA 11 statistical package. Results: among 90 articles obtained in primary search, finally 19 studies entered data extraction and synthesis. Based on our meta-analysis, standardized mean difference was -0.09 (95% CI -0.2, 0.02) for end systolic volume (ESV), -0.10 (95% CI -0.22, 0.01) for end diastolic volume (EDV), 0.10 (95% CI -0.01, 0.22) for ejection fraction (EF) and -0.09 (95% CI -0.23, 0.04) for stroke volume (SV). Conclusion: Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis showed that there is no statistically significant difference between CTA and MRA in evaluating ESV, EDV, EF and SV. Based on our findings, it can be interpreted that CTA has similar accuracy with MRA in evaluating ventricular volumes.

Resumen Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares están entre las principales causas de morbimortalidad global. La prevención, el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento pueden desempeñar un papel importante en la reducción de las complicaciones de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Teniendo en cuenta la creciente popularidad de la angiografía por tomografía computarizada (ATC) cardiaca, por un lado, y también la angiografía por resonancia magnética (ARM) como el método de referencia, por el otro, decidimos llevar a cabo un metaanálisis para comparar la ATC y la ARM cardiaca en la evaluación de los volúmenes del ventrículo izquierdo. Método: Revisión sistemática en la cual incluimos todos los estudios con criterios de inclusión y sin criterios de exclusión hasta el 30 de diciembre de 2019. Los estudios se seleccionaron de diferentes bases de datos y artículos de las bibliografías de los estudios incluidos. Los estudios obtenidos se examinaron para evaluar su calidad. Los datos requeridos fueron extraídos y luego analizados utilizando el paquete estadístico STATA 11. Resultados: De los 90 artículos obtenidos en la búsqueda primaria, finalmente 19 estudios entraron a extracción de datos y síntesis. Según nuestro metaanálisis, la diferencia de medias estandarizada fue de −0.09 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] −0.2 a 0.02) para el volumen sistólico final (VSF), −0.10 (IC95%: −0.22 a 0.01) para el volumen diastólico final (VDF), 0.10 (IC95%: −0.01 a 0.22) para la fracción de eyección (FE) y − 0.09 (IC95%: −0.23 a 0.04) para el volumen sistólico (VS). Conclusiones: Los resultados de esta revisión sistemática y metaanálisis mostraron que no existe una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre la ATC y la ARM en la evaluación del VSF, el VDF, la FE y el VS. Basado en nuestros hallazgos, se puede interpretar que la ATC tiene una precisión parecida a la ARM en la evaluación de los volúmenes ventriculares.

Stroke Volume , Meta-Analysis , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Heart Ventricles
CorSalud ; 13(1): 51-58, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345920


RESUMEN Introducción: Los avances tecnológicos en tomografía computarizada han hecho posible la evaluación de estructuras pequeñas y móviles, como las arterias coronarias y el resto del corazón. La tomografía cardíaca aporta información anatómica y funcional. Objetivo: Identificar los valores de las principales medidas anatómicas de las cavidades cardíacas y los grandes vasos, y compararlos con los valores de referencia utilizados. Método: Se realizó un estudio analítico de investigación y desarrollo con un universo de 325 pacientes normotensos, no obesos, sin enfermedad estructural cardiopulmonar o de grandes vasos, arritmia o enfermedad coronaria significativa, de donde se seleccionaron 100 pacientes por muestreo probabilístico aleatorio simple, a quienes se les realizó tomografía computarizada cardíaca de doble fuente en el Cardiocentro Ernesto Che Guevara, Santa Clara, Cuba. Resultados: Las mediciones ventriculares izquierda y derecha mostraron diferencias con la mayoría de los valores referenciales. Los diámetros de la aorta, aumentaron con la edad, fueron superiores en los hombres y difieren de los valores de referencia con excepción del medido en eje corto de la raíz aórtica en telediástole, y el diámetro en eje corto de la aorta descendente en telesístole. La arteria pulmonar mostró diferencias significativas con relación a los valores de referencia. Conclusiones: Las mediciones de las cavidades cardíacas y los grandes vasos basados en las técnicas tomográficas constituyen una necesidad en determinados grupos poblacionales para lograr una estandarización adecuada debido a su gran variabilidad en relación a distintas variables. La diferencia significativa con los valores de referencia indica le necesidad de estudios multicéntricos con poblaciones mayores para lograr su homogeneidad.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Technological advances in computed tomography have made it possible to assess small, mobile structures such as the coronary arteries and the rest of the heart. Cardiac tomography provides anatomical and functional information. Objective: To identify the values of the main anatomical sizes of the cardiac chambers and great vessels, and compare them with the reference values. Method: An analytical research and development study was conducted with a population of 325 normotensive, non-obese patients without cardiopulmonary or great vessel structural disease, arrhythmia or significant coronary artery disease. One hundred patients were selected by simple random probability sampling, who underwent dual-source cardiac computed tomography at the Cardiocentro Ernesto Che Guevara, Santa Clara, Cuba. Results: Left and right ventricular measurements showed differences when compared with most reference values. Aortic diameters increased with age. They were higher in men and were different from the reference values except for the short-axis diameter of the aortic root in end-diastole and short-axis diameter of the descending aorta in end-systole. The pulmonary artery showed significant differences in relation to the reference values. Conclusions: Measurements of cardiac chambers and great vessels by tomographic techniques are necessary in certain population groups to achieve adequate standardization due to their great variability in relation to different variables. The significant difference with the reference values indicates the need for multicenter studies with larger populations to achieve homogeneity.

Reference Values , Coronary Vessels , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Computed Tomography Angiography
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 100-105, Jan. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152972


Resumo Fundamento Qualidade de imagem e dose de radiação são otimizadas com uma frequência cardíaca (FC) lenta e estável na realização de imagens de artérias coronárias durante a angiografia cardíaca por tomografia computadorizada (CCTA, do inglês cardiac computed tomography angiography) A segurança, a eficácia e o protocolo para a redução da FC com medicamento betabloqueador ainda não foi bem descrita em uma população de pacientes pediátricos. Objetivo Oferecer um protocolo de dose de metoprolol eficiente a ser usado em pacientes pediátricos externos durante a CCTA. Métodos Realizamos uma revisão retrospectiva de todos os pacientes pediátricos externos que receberam o metoprolol durante a CCTA. As características demográficas e clínicas foram resumidas e a redução média em FC foi estimada utilizando-se um modelo de regressão linear multivariada. As imagens foram avaliadas em uma escala de 1 a 4 (1= ideal). Resultados Um total de 78 pacientes externos passaram a uma CCTA com o uso de metoprolol. A média de idade foi de 13 anos, a média de peso foi de 46 kg, e 36 pacientes (46%) eram do sexo masculino. As doses médias de metoprolol foram 1,5 (IQR 1,1; 1,8) mg/kg, e 0,4 (IQR 0,2; 0,7) mg/kg para administrações orais e intravenosas, respectivamente. O produto dose-comprimento por exame foi de 57 (IQR 30, 119) mGy*cm. A redução média da FC foi 19 (IQR 12, 26) batimentos por minuto, ou 23%. Não foram relatadas complicações ou eventos adversos. Conclusão O uso de metoprolol num cenário de pacientes pediátricos externos para redução da FC antes de uma CCTA é seguro e eficiente. Pode-se reproduzir um protocolo de dose de metoprolol quando for necessário atingir uma FC mais lenta, garantindo tempos de aquisição mais rápidos, imagens mais claras e redução na exposição à radiação nessa população. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):100-105)

Abstract Background Image quality and radiation dose are optimized with a slow, steady heart rate (HR) when imaging the coronary arteries during cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). The safety, efficacy, and protocol for HR reduction with beta blocker medication is not well described in a pediatric patient population. Objective Provide a safe and efficient metoprolol dose protocol to be used in pediatric outpatients undergoing CCTA. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric outpatients who received metoprolol during CCTA. Demographic and clinical characteristics were summarized and the average reduction in HR was estimated using a multivariate linear regression model. Images were evaluated on a 1-4 scale (1= optimal). Results Seventy-eight pediatric outpatients underwent a CCTA scan with the use of metoprolol. The median age was 13 years, median weight of 46 kg, and 36 (46%) were male. The median doses of metoprolol were 1.5 (IQR 1.1, 1.8) mg/kg and 0.4 (IQR 0.2, 0.7) mg/kg for oral and intravenous administrations, respectively. Procedural dose-length product was 57 (IQR 30, 119) mGy*cm. The average reduction in HR was 19 (IQR 12, 26) beats per minute, or 23%. No complications or adverse events were reported. Conclusion Use of metoprolol in a pediatric outpatient setting for HR reduction prior to CCTA is safe and effective. A metoprolol dose protocol can be reproduced when a slower HR is needed, ensuring faster acquisition times, clear images, and associated reduction in radiation exposure in this population. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):100-105)

Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Coronary Artery Disease , Metoprolol/adverse effects , Outpatients , Radiation Dosage , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Heart Rate