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3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 556-562, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249967

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La relación médico-industria farmacéutica (IF) se ha identificado como un problema ético por favorecer conflictos de interés derivados de los beneficios que reciben los médicos y que pueden afectar su juicio clínico. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia de participación de médicos en actividades financiadas por la IF, las actitudes de estos profesionales hacia los representantes de la IF, su conducta prescriptiva y la asociación de sus características y del trabajo con la participación en actividades financiadas por la IF. Método: Encuesta transversal a médicos internistas y cardiólogos. El cuestionario incluyó características de los médicos y centro de trabajo, participación en actividades financiadas por la IF, actitudes hacia los representantes y conducta de prescripción. Resultados: Se analizaron 455 cuestionarios, 78.5 % de los encuestados tuvo conocimiento de la relación médico-IF, la mayoría respondió reunirse con representantes de la IF, 30 % indicó haber recibido subsidios financieros y 10 % consideró que los obsequios afectan su prescripción. Tener conocimiento previo de la relación médico-IF se asoció con menor participación en actividades educativas financiadas por por la IF. Conclusión: Las prácticas y preferencias hacia la IF muestran la necesidad de diseñar estrategias para evitar la prescripción inapropiada.


Abstract Introduction: The physician-pharmaceutical industry relationship has been identified as an ethical problem, due to conflicts of interest motivated by the benefits that doctors receive and that can affect their clinical judgment. Objective: To identify the frequency of physicians participation in activities financed by the pharmaceutical industry (PI), their attitudes towards PI representatives (PIRs), their prescriptive behavior and the association between their characteristics and their workplace with their participation in activities financed by the PI. Method: Cross-sectional survey to internists and cardiologists. The questionnaire included characteristics of the doctors and their workplace, participation in activities financed by the PI, attitudes towards PIRs, and prescription behavior. Results: 455 questionnaires were analyzed; 78.5 % of surveyed subjects were aware of the physician-PI relationship, the majority acknowledged meeting with PIRs, 30 % indicated having received financial subsidies and 10 % considered that gifts affect their prescription. Having prior knowledge of the physician-PI relationship was associated with less participation in PI-financed educational activities. Conclusion: Practices and preferences towards the PI show the need to design strategies to avoid inappropriate prescription.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/ethics , Drug Prescriptions , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Attitude of Health Personnel , Conflict of Interest , Drug Industry/ethics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Workplace , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Gift Giving/ethics , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Cardiologists/ethics , Habits , Internal Medicine/ethics
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 263-268, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138037

ABSTRACT

Abstract Platelet-rich plasma is derived from centrifuging whole blood. There is increasing interest in the sports medicine and athlete community about providing endogenous growth factors directly to the injury site, using autologous blood products such as platelet-rich plasma. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between research financing, conflict of interests, level of evidence and author affiliation with the interpretation of results in articles published on platelet-rich plasma therapy in musculoskeletal ailments. A review of the current literature was performed. The outcome was classified as favorable or unfavorable. The declaration of conflict of interests and the type of funding was extracted from each article. The financing was classified as industry-sponsored; not industry-sponsored; or unidentifiable. The level of evidence was categorized from I to IV. Higher positive outcomes were observed in 134 studies with industry sponsorship compared with not industry-sponsored studies (odds ratio [OR]: 0.26; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.08-0.85; p < 0.05). Compared with level of evidence I, levels II and IV increase the probability of positive outcomes by 12.42 times (p < 0.01) and 10.97 times (p < 0.01) respectively. Proportionally, industry-sponsored studies are more likely to present positive results, as well as articles with a lower quality of evidence.


Resumo O plasma rico em plaquetas é derivado da centrifugação do sangue total. Há um interesse crescente, na medicina esportiva e na comunidade atlética, no fornecimento de fatores de crescimento endógeno diretamente ao sítio da lesão, usando componentes sanguíneos autólogos, como o plasma rico em plaquetas. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a associação entre financiamento de pesquisa, conflito de interesses, nível de evidência e afiliação dos autores com a interpretação dos resultados em publicações sobre terapia com plasma rico em plaquetas nas doenças osteomusculares. Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura atual. O desfecho foi classificado como favorável ou desfavorável. A declaração de conflito de interesses e o tipo de financiamento foram extraídos de cada artigo. O financiamento foi qualificado em patrocínio industrial; não patrocinado pela indústria; ou não identificável. O nível de evidência foi categorizado de I a IV. Foram obtidos os resultados positivos mais altos com 134 estudos financiados pelo setor industrial, em comparação com estudos não financiados pela indústria (razão de probabilidades [RP]: 0,26; intervalo de confiança de 95% [95%IC]: 0,08-0,85; p < 0,05). Em comparação com o nível de evidência I, os níveis II e IV aumentam a probabilidade de resultado positivo em 12,42 vezes (p < 0,01) e 10,97 vezes (p < 0,01), respectivamente. Demonstrou-se que, proporcionalmente, estudos patrocinados pela indústria têm maior probabilidade de apresentar resultados positivos, bem como artigos com menor qualidade de evidência.


Subject(s)
Plasma , Sports Medicine , Blood Platelets , Capital Financing , Conflict of Interest , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Ethics , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Industry
7.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(1): 91-111, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087265

ABSTRACT

A partir de uma abordagem multimetódos baseada em pesquisa qualitativa de observação não-participante, análise de conteúdo e técnicas de snowballing de recomendação algorítmica, a proposta deste artigo é mapear a circulação de três disputas de informação científica ligadas à saúde em páginas e grupos brasileiros no Facebook ­ movimento antivacina, fosfoetanolamina e Mineral Miracle Solution (MMS). Os resultados apontam para um campo de disputa no qual a autoridade científica é um valor relevante, sendo recorrentemente acionada como signo de convencimento junto ao público. Ainda, as fake sciences são um campo de disputa que envolvem 1) interesses comerciais em torno da crença em soluções rápidas e alternativas, 2) implicações jurídicas em torno do discurso pelo direito à informação e acesso a esses tratamentos alternativos, 3) sistema de reputação na busca por interseção na formulação de políticas e a alocação de recursos públicos e 4) uma descrença nas instituições epistêmicas, fazendo os sujeitos acreditarem apenas em experiências individuais baseadas no discurso de testemunho.


From a multi-method approach based on qualitative research of non-participant observation, content analysis and snowballing techniques with algorithmic recommendation, the purpose of this article is to map the circulation of three scientific information disputes related to health on pages and groups on Facebook ­ anti-vaccine movement, phosphoethanolamine and Mineral Miracle Solution (MMS). The results point to a field of dispute in which scientific authority is a relevant value in these spaces, being repeatedly used as a sign of convincing the public. Still, fake sciences are a field of dispute that involve 1) commercial interests around the belief in quick and alternative solutions, 2) legal implications around the discourse for the right to information and access to the alternative treatments, 3) system of reputation in the search for intersection in the formulation of policies and the allocation of public resources and 4) a disbelief in epistemic institutions, making subjects believe only in individual experiences based on the testimony discourse.


Desde un enfoque de métodos múltiples basado en la investigación cualitativa de observación no participante, análisis de contenido y técnicas de snowballing con recomendación algorítmica, el propósito de este artículo es mapear la circulación de tres disputas de información científica relacionadas con la salud en páginas y grupos en Facebook: movimiento antivacunas, fosfoetanolamina y solución de milagro mineral (MMS). Los resultados apuntan a un campo de disputa en el que la autoridad científica es un valor relevante en estos espacios, y se usa repetidamente como un signo de convencer al público. Aún así, las fake sciences son un campo de disputa que involucra 1) intereses comerciales, en torno a la creencia en soluciones rápidas y alternativas, 2) implicaciones legales en torno al discurso sobre el derecho a la información y el acceso a estos tratamientos alternativos, 3) sistema de reputación en la búsqueda de intersección en la formulación de políticas y la asignación de recursos públicos y 4) una incredulidad en las instituciones epistémicas, haciendo que los sujetos crean solo en experiencias individuales basadas en el discurso del testimonio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Conflict of Interest , Qualitative Research , Social Media , Anti-Vaccination Movement , Fraud , Immunization Programs , False Representation , Information Dissemination , Social Networking
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(1): 53-59, ene.-feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249870

ABSTRACT

Resumen En este ensayo se analizan las implicaciones bioéticas de la reciente manipulación genética en embriones humanos con CRISPR-Cas9 para eliminar el gen CCR5 y el nacimiento de dos gemelas discordantes. El experimento se divulgó en medios sociales. Los principales problemas bioéticos identificados son la justificación del modelo, el proceso de consentimiento informado y la falta de declaración de evidentes conflictos de interés. No se evaluaron apropiadamente las consecuencias del experimento sobre la vida de las gemelas nacidas como la afectación a su autonomía, los supuestos beneficios por recibir y los riesgos futuros de daño durante su vida. Habiendo manipulado la línea celular germinal, no se consideraron los efectos sobre su descendencia futura. Este tipo de acciones tiene un impacto negativo en la forma como la sociedad concibe la ciencia. La ingeniería genética debe reservarse al contexto experimental básico o bien como investigación cínica para la corrección de enfermedades conocidas graves de origen genético, bajo estricta supervisión regulatoria y bioética y de manera gradualista de acuerdo con el progreso de las técnicas de edición genética.


Abstract In this essay, the bioethical implications of the recent genetic manipulation in human embryos with CRISPR-Cas9 to eliminate the CCR5 gene and the birth of a pair of discordant twin girls are analyzed. The experiment was disseminated via social media. The main bioethical flaws identified include the justification of the model, the informed consent process and the lack of disclosure of evident conflicts of interest. The consequences of the experiment on the life of the twins that were born were not properly evaluated, such as the impact on their autonomy, the alleged benefits to be received and the future risks of harm during their lifetime. Having manipulated the germ cell line, the effects on their future offspring were not considered. This type of actions negatively affects the way society conceives science. Genetic engineering should be reserved to the basic experimental context or as clinical research for the correction of known serious diseases of genetic origin under strict regulatory and bioethical supervision and using a gradualist approach in accordance with the advances of gene editing techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/ethics , Publishing/ethics , Research Design , Twins, Dizygotic , Genetic Engineering/classification , Genetic Engineering/ethics , Genome, Human , HIV Infections/prevention & control , China , Conflict of Interest , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Bioethical Issues , Therapeutic Human Experimentation/ethics , Informed Consent/ethics
10.
Licere (Online) ; 22(4): 656-679, dez.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051288

ABSTRACT

Inspirados pela disputa em torno do Cais José Estelita, em Recife, nesse trabalho procuramos refletir sobre as contradições e disputas que marcam o processo de urbanização e o lazer na contemporaneidade. Mais especificamente, nosso objetivo é, partindo da análise histórica, compreender como a luta pelo direito ao lazer e pelo direito à cidade se articulam como parte de outro projeto de sociedade. Indicamos a impossibilidade da conquista do pleno direito à cidade e ao lazer por meio de políticas públicas que promovam rearranjos ou regulações do sistema atual e, por fim, apontamos a necessidade de associar as lutas locais a uma luta maior, anticapitalista, por uma democracia substantiva radical e contra toda a forma de mercadorização da vida.


Inspired by the dispute regarding the Cais José Estelita, in Recife, in this essay our aim is to reflect about the contradictions and disputes that mark the process of urbanization and leisure in contemporaneity. More specifically, our objective is, on the basis of a historical analyses, to understand how the fight for the right for leisure and the right for the city are linked, as a part of a different project of society. The impossibility to conquer the full right to the city and leisure by public policies that promote realignments or regulations of the existing system is indicated and, finally, we consider the need to associate the local struggles for the social rights warranties to an anticapitalist greater fight, for a substantial radical democracy and against any form of commodification of life.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Social Change , Urbanization , Conflict of Interest , Cities , Urban Area , Community Participation , Democracy , Leisure Activities
11.
Licere (Online) ; 22(4): 224-259, dez.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050213

ABSTRACT

O artigo tratou do vôlei de rua em Cuiabá/MT como fenômeno sociológico. Procurou desvendar os componentes mediadores do vôlei de rua, bem como identificar os interesses de seus praticantes em Cuiabá/MT, além de evidenciar as histórias de vida de agentes sociais que constroem uma trajetória do lazer, ocupando os espaços comunitários, bairros e as ruas do centro urbano de Cuiabá/MT. A pesquisa buscou também traçar o perfil dos praticantes de vôlei de rua, diferenciar o vôlei de rua do vôlei de quadra e analisar as formas de sociabilidades e disputas em torno dos eventos e jogos de vôlei de rua. A questão norteadora da investigação foi a seguinte: Que estratégias delineiam as maneiras de fazer o "vôlei de rua" em Cuiabá/MT? Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa e descritiva que se utilizou de entrevistas como técnica de coleta de dados. O aporte teórico utilizado é da sociologia contemporânea, os conceitos de campo e habitus de Bourdieu, e cultura e mediação cultural em Geertz, Barbero e Lamizet. O vôlei de rua média as relações sociais entre os atletas, sendo lazer, esporte e veículo produtor de sociabilidades. Dentro dos próprios relatos podemos perceber claramente as diferenças discursivas; uns mais conservadores ou resistentes, outros mais receptivos ao desconhecido, ao novo. Mas o fio condutor de todos os conflitos, provocador da ruptura ressignificante, reside naquele ato de expor publicamente o nome de jogadores que antes na quadra não tinham nenhuma relevância e no ambiente da rua (vôlei de rua) serem os reis da rua.


The article deals with street volleyball in Cuiabá / MT as a sociological phenomenon. It seeks to uncover the mediating components of street volleyball, as well as to identify the interests of its practitioners in Cuiabá / MT, as well as to highlight the life histories of social agents who build a leisure path, occupying community spaces, neighborhoods and the streets of urban center of Cuiabá / MT. The research also sought to outline the profile of street volleyball practitioners, to differentiate street volleyball from volleyball court and to analyze the forms of sociability and disputes surrounding street volleyball events and games. The guiding question of the investigation was the following: What strategies outline the ways of doing "street volleyball" in Cuiabá / MT? This is a qualitative and descriptive research that used interviews as a data collection technique. The theoretical contribution used is contemporary sociology, Bourdieu's field concepts and habitus, and cultural culture and mediation in Geertz, Barbero and Lamizet. Street volleyball mediates social relations among athletes, being leisure, sport and sociability vehicle. Within the own reports we can clearly perceive the discursive differences; some more conservative or resistant, others more receptive to the unknown, to the new. But the guiding thread of all conflicts, which provoked the resigning rupture, lies in that act of publicly exposing the name of players who previously had no relevance in the court and in the street environment (street volleyball) are the kings of the street.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Public Policy , Conflict of Interest , Volleyball , Sociological Factors , Cultural Diffusion
12.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 519-520, Sep.-Oct. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286554

ABSTRACT

Conflicts of interest are situations in which judgment and integrity of medical decisions or actions are influenced by a secondary interest, often of an economic nature. The Committee of Ethics and Transparency in the Physician-Industry Relationship of the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico recognizes that these conflicts occur in health professionals' daily life, but also in public and private institutions that provide health services, as well as in the academy and in research activities. Therefore, it is necessary to identify conflicting situations and always act in accordance with the patient's interest.


Subject(s)
Ethics Committees , Guidelines as Topic , Ethics, Medical , Conflict of Interest , Mexico
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3583-3594, set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019657

ABSTRACT

Resumo O texto apresenta e discute os novos personagens que têm crescente presença no ambiente de pesquisa, quais sejam o pesquisador empreendedor e a universidade empreendedora. Discute ainda o cenário atual da difusão de conhecimento científico que apresenta crescentes problemas, com dificuldade de publicação de resultados e dificuldades de acesso a resultados de pesquisa publicados. Discute também o significado da estratégia da pesquisa translacional e apresenta e discute alguns desafios éticos relevantes que resultam da reorganização das relações entre ciência e negócio. Em particular trata dos conflitos de interesse e dos resultados da supercompetição entre cientistas e instituições em um cenário de encurtamento de apoio financeiro público à ciência.


Abstract The paper introduces and discusses the new players that now have a growing presence on the research scene, namely the entrepreneurial researcher and the entrepreneurial university. It also discusses the current scenario of the diffusion of scientific knowledge that presents increasing problems, with difficulty in publishing results and difficulties in accessing the results of published research. It also discusses the implications of the strategy of translational research and presents and discusses some relevant ethical challenges that result from the reorganization of the relationship between science and business. In particular, it deals with conflicts of interest and the results of excessive competition between scientists and institutions in a scenario of diminished public financial support for science.


Subject(s)
Humans , Research Personnel/organization & administration , Universities/organization & administration , Entrepreneurship/ethics , Translational Medical Research/organization & administration , Publishing , Research Personnel/ethics , Research Support as Topic , Universities/ethics , Conflict of Interest , Ethics, Research , Translational Medical Research/ethics , Logic
14.
Licere (Online) ; 22(2): 524-556, junho.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022284

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo identifica os grupos de pressão que atuaram ativamente no Congresso Nacional durante a tramitação da lei nº 13.155/2015 e os interesses atendidos ao longo desse processo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, de caráter qualitativa, sendo desenvolvida a partir do levantamento e análise documental. Os documentos utilizados foram às notas taquigráficas das sete audiências públicas realizadas para discutir o tema, o relatório das emendas parlamentares, os documentos referentes à Medida Provisória nº671/2015 que deu origem a lei, tanto aqueles elaborados no Parlamento quanto pelo Poder Executivo, e a própria lei nº 13.155/2015. Ao longo da análise da tramitação desse ordenamento ficam evidentes os grupos que disputaram o conteúdo deste marco legal e os interesses em disputa e atendidos pela lei.


The present study seeks to map the pressure groups that actively participated in the National Congress during the process of Law 13,155 / 2015, as well as to present the characteristics and interests served throughout this process. It is an exploratory research, of qualitative character, being developed from the survey and documentary analysis. The documents used were the shorthand notes of the seven public hearings held to discuss the subject, the report on parliamentary amendments, the documents relating to Provisional Measure No. 671/2015 that gave rise to the law, both those drafted in Parliament and the Executive Branch, and own law 13,155 / 2015. Throughout the analysis of the processing of this order, the groups that disputed the content of this legal framework and the interests in dispute and attended by the law are evident.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soccer/economics , Soccer/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Environment , Conflict of Interest , Civil Society , Jurisprudence , Legislation as Topic , Lobbying
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(2): 217-221, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003740

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los Comités Editoriales de revistas de corriente principal se ven enfrentados ocasionalmente a con ductas éticas inapropiadas en los manuscritos recibidos. El Comité de Ética en las publicaciones (COPE) ofrece recomendaciones para los editores respecto a cómo actuar frente a la sospecha de falta de ética en los manuscritos, ya sea recibidos o publicados. Cuando se pesquisa una mala práctica durante el proceso de revisión por pares, el manuscrito es rechazado, no obstante, si la conducta ina propiada es detectada después de la publicación de manuscrito, se procede a retractar la publicación. Revista Chilena de Pediatría no ha sido exenta a este tipo de conflictos. En este artículo analizamos los distintos aspectos relacionados con la falta de integridad de las publicaciones, como son las autorías, el plagio y el conflicto de intereses. Podemos concluir que las malas prácticas ocurren principalmente por desconocimiento de los autores, más que por intención de fraude. Se espera que el presente ma nuscrito logre instruir y sensibilizar a nuestros investigadores, respecto a las buenas prácticas en la investigación y publicación, y, contribuir, en lo posible, a prevenir que estas acciones ocurran en los manuscritos enviados a nuestra Revista.


Abstract: Editorial Boards of mainstream journals occasionally face ethical misconducts in received manus cripts. The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) provides recommendations for editors on how to deal with suspected ethical misconduct in either received or published manuscripts. The manus cript is rejected when malpractice is observed during the peer review process, however, if the mis conduct is detected after the publication, the publication will be retracted. The Revista Chilena de Pediatría (Chilean Journal of Pediatrics) has not been exempt from these type of conflicts. In this article, we analyze different aspects regarding the lack of integrity in publications, such as authorship, plagiarism, and conflict of interest. We can conclude that malpractices take place mainly due to the lack of knowledge of the authors rather than intent to defraud. It is expected that this article will suc ceed in instructing and sensitizing our researchers on good practices in research and publication, and contribute, as far as possible, to prevent this actions in the manuscripts sent to our Journal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodicals as Topic/ethics , Scientific Misconduct/ethics , Peer Review, Research/ethics , Biomedical Research/ethics , Editorial Policies , Pediatrics/standards , Pediatrics/ethics , Periodicals as Topic/standards , Retraction of Publication as Topic , Authorship , Duplicate Publications as Topic , Plagiarism , Chile , Conflict of Interest , Peer Review, Research/standards , Biomedical Research/standards
16.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 37(166): 8-11, mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039675

ABSTRACT

El conflicto de intereses (CDI) surge cuando el interés primario de un profesional de la salud, que es el bienestar de los pacientes, ya sea a través de su atención directa o de otras actividades que generen y difundan conocimiento para mejorar esa atención, está en riesgo de ser sesgado por un interés secundario que ocasionaría un daño. Sin embargo, no siempre la existencia de conflicto implica que se altere una conducta o una decisión, ni que ello resulte en un daño(AU).


Subject(s)
Conflict of Interest , Health , Nutritionists
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 314 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016417

ABSTRACT

Introdução - A partir da década de 1940, diversos programas de distribuição de leite foram implementados no Brasil, aliando combate à fome e à desnutrição com expansão do mercado consumidor. Na cidade de São Paulo foi implementado, em 1995, o Programa Leve Leite (PLL), com o objetivo de reduzir a desnutrição infantil e a evasão escolar mediante entrega de leite em pó a estudantes da rede pública de ensino. Em 2017, suas regras foram modificadas para priorizar crianças de primeira infância e em situação de vulnerabilidade, o que gerou debates entre diferentes setores com relação à diminuição da quantidade de beneficiários, destinação de recursos orçamentários, efetividade do programa, prejuízos sociais e ausência de participação da sociedade civil. Objetivo - Analisar se o Programa Leve Leite, do município de São Paulo, é uma política pública promotora do Direito Humano à Alimentação Adequada (DHAA) e da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (SAN) a partir do delineamento de seu desenho jurídico-institucional, fases, contextos e interesses. Métodos - Pesquisa qualitativa, de caráter descritivo, por meio de coleta de referências documentais e bibliográficas. O corpus reuniu 17 documentos normativos regulamentadores do PLL e documentos complementares, como discursos de prefeitos e vereadores, campanhas eleitorais, projetos de lei, notícias veiculadas pela imprensa, manifestações de famílias das crianças beneficiárias, representantes de organizações da sociedade civil, do poder público e de empresas, publicados entre os anos de 1995 e 2019. Resultados - A utilização dos modelos 'quadro de referência jurídico-institucional das políticas públicas', 'ciclo das políticas públicas', 'abordagem do ciclo de políticas' e 'modelo de distopia das políticas públicas' aplicado à alimentação e nutrição permitiu delimitar três períodos do Programa Leve Leite - 'PLL inicial' (1995), 'PLL inicial-modificado' (1995-2016) e 'PLL atual' (2017-), cujas características foram descritas a partir de suas fases, modificações dos contextos em que elas se desenvolveram e interesses políticos, públicos e privados incidentes. Considerações Finais - Da forma como foi construído, o PLL não pode ser considerado uma política pública promotora do DHAA e da SAN. Apesar de buscar melhorar os índices da desnutrição infantil ou as condições de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica de crianças de primeira infância ou com deficiência, o PLL, ao longo de 24 anos, não se adaptou à institucionalização, no Brasil, de políticas que respeitam, protegem, garantem e promovem a alimentação adequada e saudável. Seu desenho jurídico-institucional o conforma como programa assistencialista e compensatório, sem previsão de intersetorialidade e de participação da sociedade civil, e permite a incidência de atividades políticas corporativas do setor produtivo leiteiro, como estratégias de marketing, lobby e ações jurídicas, e potenciais conflitos entre interesses políticos, privados e públicos. A ausência de estudos de avaliação sobre os resultados do Programa Leve Leite, em mais de duas décadas, permitiu que ele tenha permanecido vigente sujeito à vontade política e eleitoral dos prefeitos municipais. A visão processual, panorâmica e interdisciplinar apresentada pode contribuir para a construção de políticas públicas alinhadas com os princípios de DHAA e SAN, com participação social e sem conflito de interesses públicos e privados.


Introduction - From the 1940s, several milk supplement public programs were implemented in Brazil, combining hunger and malnutrition with expansion of the consumer market. In the city of São Paulo, the Programa Leve Leite (PLL) was implemented in 1995, with the objective of reducing child malnutrition and school dropout by providing milk powder to public school students. In 2017, its rules were changed to prioritize vulnerable and young children, which led to discussions among different sectors regarding the reduction in the number of beneficiaries, allocation of budget resources, program effectiveness, social losses and lack of participation. of civil society. Objective - To analyze whether Programa Leve Leite, in the city of São Paulo, is a public policy that promotes the Human Right to Adequate Food and Food and Nutrition Security from the outline of its legal-institutional design, phases, contexts and interests. Methods - Qualitative and descriptive research through the collection of documentary and bibliographic references. The corpus assembled 17 regulatory documents of PLL and supplementary documents, such as political speeches by mayors and city legislators, election campaigns, bills, news, speeches by families of beneficiary children, representatives of civil society organizations, government and companies, published between 1995 and 2019. Results - The use of models of policy analysis 'legal-institutional of public policy framework', 'policy cycle', 'policy cycle approach' and 'policy dystopia' applied to food and nutrition allowed the delimitation of three periods of the Programa Leve Leite -'Initial PLL' (1995), 'Initial-modified PLL' (1995-2016) and 'Current PLL' (2017-), whose characteristics were described from their phases, modifications of the contexts in which they have been developed and the incidence of political, public and private interests. Final Considerations - As it was built, Programa Leve Leite cannot be considered a public policy that promotes Human Right to Adequate Food and Food and Nutrition Security. Despite seeking to improve the rates of child malnutrition or the socioeconomic vulnerability of young children or children with disabilities, the public program, over 24 years, has not been adapted to the institutionalization in Brazil of policies that respect, protect, guarantee and promote healthy and adequate eating habits. Its legal-institutional design conforms it as a charitable and compensatory program, without foreseeing intersectoral and civil society participation, and allows the incidence of corporate political activities of the dairy sector, such as marketing strategies, lobbying and legal actions, and potential conflicts between political, private and public interests. The absence of evaluation studies on the results of the Programa Leve Leite in more than two decades has allowed it to remain in force subject to the political and electoral will of the municipal mayors. The procedural, panoramic and interdisciplinary view presented can contribute to the construction of public policies aligned with the principles of Human Right to Adequate Food and Food and Nutrition Security, with social participation and without conflict of public and private interests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Nutrition Programs and Policies , Child Welfare , Food Security , Food Assistance , Conflict of Interest , Human Rights , Lobbying
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741528

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine effects of irrational parenthood cognition, family support, and resilience on depression in infertile women. METHODS: Subjects were 118 infertile women who agreed to participate in this study. Data were collected from April 16 to July 31, 2018. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson's correlation and multiple regression with SPSS WIN 23.0 program. RESULTS: Depression significantly differed according to the burden of treatment cost and presence of people giving stress. Depression showed significantly positive correlation with irrational parenthood cognition and significantly negative correlations with family support and resilience. Factors affecting depression were irrational parenthood cognition, family support, and resilience. Irrational parenthood cognition had the greatest effect on depression. These three variables explained 35.8% of total variance. CONCLUSION: Irrational parenthood cognition, family support, and resilience affected depression of infertile women, with irrational parenthood cognition having the greatest effect. Therefore, it is important to develop and implement programs that can reduce irrational parenthood cognition and increase family support and resilience in order to lower depression of infertile women. The authors declared no conflict of interest.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Conflict of Interest , Depression , Female , Health Care Costs , Humans , Infertility, Female , Resilience, Psychological
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741526

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine effect of incivility, resilience, and social support experienced by nursing students on burnout in clinical practice. METHODS: Subjects were 140 nursing students who agreed to participate in this study. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS WIN 23.0 program. RESULTS: Burnout showed significantly positive correlation with incivility but significantly negative correlations with resilience and social support. Factors affecting burnout were satisfaction with major-dissatisfaction, satisfaction with major-average, social support, grade, and relationship with peers. Satisfaction with major (dissatisfaction) had the greatest effect on burnout, explaining 41% of the total variance. CONCLUSION: According to this study, dissatisfaction with major was identified as the most significant factor influencing burnout of nursing students in clinical practice. Therefore, it is important to develop and implement programs that can reduce dissatisfaction with major and increase social support and relationship with peers in order to lower burnout of nursing students. In addition, a systemic management of fourth-grade students with a high level of clinical practice is necessary to reduce the level of clinical practice. The authors declared no conflict of interest.


Subject(s)
Conflict of Interest , Humans , Nursing , Resilience, Psychological , Students, Nursing
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