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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880869

ABSTRACT

Gap junction (GJ) has been indicated to have an intimate correlation with adhesion junction. However, the direct interaction between them partially remains elusive. In the current study, we aimed to elucidate the role of N-cadherin, one of the core components in adhesion junction, in mediating connexin 43, one of the functional constituents in gap junction, via transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) induction in osteoblasts. We first elucidated the expressions of N-cadherin induced by TGF-β1 and also confirmed the upregulation of Cx43, and the enhancement of functional gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) triggered by TGF-β1 in both primary osteoblasts and MC3T3 cell line. Colocalization analysis and Co-IP experimentation showed that N-cadherin interacts with Cx43 at the site of cell-cell contact. Knockdown of N-cadherin by siRNA interference decreased the Cx43 expression and abolished the promoting effect of TGF-β1 on Cx43. Functional GJICs in living primary osteoblasts and MC3T3 cell line were also reduced. TGF-β1-induced increase in N-cadherin and Cx43 was via Smad3 activation, whereas knockdown of Smad3 signaling by using siRNA decreased the expressions of both N-cadherin and Cx43. Overall, these data indicate the direct interactions between N-cadherin and Cx43, and reveal the intervention of adhesion junction in functional gap junction in living osteoblasts.


Subject(s)
Cadherins , Cell Communication , Connexin 43 , Osteoblasts , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880855

ABSTRACT

Dental pulp can initiate its damage repair after an injury of the pulp-dentin complex by rearrangement of odontoblasts and formation of newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is one of the gap junction proteins that participates in multiple tissue repair processes. However, the role of Cx43 in the repair of the dental pulp remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the function of Cx43 in the odontoblast arrangement patterns and odontoblastic differentiation. Human teeth for in vitro experiments were acquired, and a pulp injury model in Sprague-Dawley rats was used for in vivo analysis. The odontoblast arrangement pattern and the expression of Cx43 and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were assessed. To investigate the function of Cx43 in odontoblastic differentiation, we overexpressed or inhibited Cx43. The results indicated that polarized odontoblasts were arranged along the pulp-dentin interface and had high levels of Cx43 expression in the healthy teeth; however, the odontoblast arrangement pattern was slightly changed concomitant to an increase in the Cx43 expression in the carious teeth. Regularly arranged odontoblast-like cells had high levels of the Cx43 expression during the formation of mature dentin, but the odontoblast-like cells were not regularly arranged beneath immature osteodentin in the pulp injury models. Subsequent in vitro experiments demonstrated that Cx43 is upregulated during odontoblastic differentiation of the dental pulp cells, and inhibition or overexpression of Cx43 influence the odontoblastic differentiation. Thus, Cx43 may be involved in the maintenance of odontoblast arrangement patterns, and influence the pulp repair outcomes by the regulation of odontoblastic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Connexin 43 , Dental Pulp , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Odontoblasts , Phosphoproteins , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787143

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective role of imatinib in global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury along with possible mechanisms. Global ischemia was induced in mice by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 20 min, which was followed by reperfusion for 24 h by restoring the blood flow to the brain. The extent of cerebral injury was assessed after 24 h of global ischemia by measuring the locomotor activity (actophotometer test), motor coordination (inclined beam walking test), neurological severity score, learning and memory (object recognition test) and cerebral infarction (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stain). Ischemia-reperfusion injury produced significant cerebral infarction, impaired the behavioral parameters and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in the brain. A single dose administration of imatinib (20 and 40 mg/kg) attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced behavioral deficits and the extent of cerebral infarction along with the restoration of connexin 43 and p-STAT3 levels. However, administration of AG490, a selective Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 inhibitor, abolished the neuroprotective actions of imatinib and decreased the expression of connexin 43 and p-STAT3. It is concluded that imatinib has the potential of attenuating global ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury, which may be possibly attributed to activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway along with the increase in the expression of connexin 43.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Cerebral Infarction , Connexin 43 , Imatinib Mesylate , Ischemia , Learning , Memory , Mice , Motor Activity , Neuroprotection , Phosphotransferases , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers , Walking
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(6): 711-722, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057503

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the role of the dishevelled binding antagonist of beta catenin 1 (DACT1) in the cytoskeletal arrangement of cardiomyocytes in atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: The DACT1 expression and its associations with the degree of fibrosis and β-catenin in valvular disease patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Masson's staining. DACT1 was overexpressed in the atrial myocyte cell line (HL-1) and the cardiac cell line (H9C2) by adenoviral vectors. Alterations in the fibrous actin (F-actin) content and organization and the expression of β-catenin were detected by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. Additionally, the association of DACT1 with gap junctions connexin 43 (Cx43) was detected by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. Results: Decreased cytoplasmic DACT1 expression in the myocardium was associated with AF (P=0.037) and a high degree of fibrosis (weak vs. strong, P=0.028; weak vs. very strong, P=0.029). A positive association was observed between DACT1 and β-catenin expression in clinical samples (P=0.028, Spearman's rho=0.408). Furthermore, overexpression of DACT1 in HL-1 and H9C2 cells induced an increase in β-catenin and subsequent partial colocalization of DACT1 and β-catenin. In addition, F-actin content and organization were enhanced. Interestingly, DACT1 was positively correlated with the Cx43 expression in clinical samples (P=0.048, Spearman's rho=0.370) and changed the Cx43 distribution in cardiac cell lines. Conclusion: DACT1 proved to be a novel AF-related gene by regulating Cx43 via cytoskeletal organization induced by β-catenin accumulation in cardiomyocytes. DACT1 could thus serve as a potential therapeutic marker for AF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Connexin 43/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Cell Movement , Connexin 43/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901003, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054672

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate that Connexin (Cx43) plays a role in lesions after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods: We use Cx43 deficient model (heterozygotes mice) and compared to a wild group. The groups underwent 1 hour ischemia and 24 hours reperfusion. The heterozygote genotype was confirmed by PCR. We analyzed the hepatic enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT) and histology. Results: The mice with Cx43 deficiency showed an ALT mean value of 4166 vs. 307 in the control group (p<0.001); AST mean value of 7231 vs. 471 in the control group (p<0.001); GGT mean value of 9.4 vs. 1.7 in the control group (p=0.001); histology showed necrosis and inflammation in the knockout group. Conclusions: This research demonstrated that the deficiency of Cx43 worses the prognosis for liver injury. The topic is a promising target for therapeutics advancements in liver diseases and procedures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Connexin 43/deficiency , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice, Knockout , Connexin 43/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Genotyping Techniques , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis , Liver/pathology , Necrosis
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813082

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of connexin 43 (Cx43) silence on the apoptosis in mouse chondrocyte under mechanical stress.
 Methods: Mouse chondrocyte ATDC5 cells were divided into a control group, a mechanical stress group, a Cx43 siRNA transfection group, a scramble siRNA transfection group, a mechanical stress+scramble group, and a mechanical stress+siCx43 group. Flexcell FX-5000 system was used to produce mechanical stress on ATDC5 cells cultured in vitro. The mRNA and protein level of Cx43 was detected by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot. The cell activity and cell apoptosis was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method and flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 activity was detected by colorimetric assay. The protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, p-JNK and JNK was detected by Western blot.
 Results: Mechanical stress upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of Cx43 (both P<0.05). Transfection of Cx43 siRNA significantly decreased Cx43 mRNA and protein level (both P<0.05). After stimulation with mechanical stress, chondrocyte viability was significantly decreased, whereas cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity were increased (both P<0.05). Mechanical stress obviously upregulated Bax protein level, and downregulated Bcl-2 protein expression and Bcl-2/Bax (both P<0.05). Cx43 siRNA transfection significantly increased cell viability, inhibited cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activity (both P<0.05). Cx43 siRNA also inhibited Bax expression, and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression and Bcl-2/Bax (both P<0.05). Furthermore, Cx43 siRNA significantly suppressed the p-JNK expression induced by mechanical stress (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Cx43 silence inhibits mechanical stress-induced apoptosis in chondrocyte, which might be mediated by JNK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Chondrocytes , Connexin 43 , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Stress, Mechanical , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of a pedigree affected with oculodentodigital dysplasia.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood or amniotic fluid samples derived from the pedigree. Exon 2 of the GJA1 gene was amplified for sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Two pedigree members were found to carry heterozygous missense variation of the GJA1 gene, c.221A>C (p.H74P).@*CONCLUSION@#The missense c.221A>C variation of the GJA1 gene probably underlies the oculodentodigital dysplasia in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Connexin 43 , Genetics , Craniofacial Abnormalities , Genetics , Eye Abnormalities , Genetics , Foot Deformities, Congenital , Genetics , Humans , Mutation , Pedigree , Syndactyly , Genetics , Tooth Abnormalities , Genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of SRC kinase inhibitor PP2 on the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer A549 cells and explore its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#MTT assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of PP2 on the proliferation of A549 cells. Cell scratch and Transwell assays were performed to assess the invasion and metastatic capacity of A549 cells after treatment with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 μmol/L PP2 for 24 h. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of connexin43 (Cx43) and MMP-2 in the cells after small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing or overexpression of Cx43; the changes in the cell invasion and metastasis in response to PP2 treatment after Cx43 silencing or overexpression were investigated.@*RESULTS@#MTT assay showed that treatment with PP2 at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 μmol/L significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatments with PP2 at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 μmol/L for 24 h also concentration-dependently lowered the invasion and metastatic abilities of the cells ( < 0.05). At 4 and 8 μmol/L, PP2 significantly increased the expression level of Cx43 protein and decreased the expression level of MMP-2 protein. Overexpression of Cx43 significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of PP2 on the cell invasion and metastasis, and Cx43 silencing significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of PP2 ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#PP2 treatment can suppress the invasion and metastasis of A549 cells possibly by modulating the expression of Cx43.


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Connexin 43 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , src-Family Kinases
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of connexin43 (Cx43) protein on autophagy in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant testicular cancer I-10 cells.@*METHODS@#The expression of Cx43 proteins in testicular cancer I-10 cells and I-10/DDP cells were detected with Western blotting. I-10/DDP cells were transfected with a full- length mouse Cx43 vector (mCx43) Lipofectamine, the empty vector or Lipofectamine (blank control group), and the changes in the expressions of LC3 and p62 proteins were determined with Western blotting. mCherry-GFP-LC3B transfection and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the changes in autophagy of the cells with Cx43 overexpression.@*RESULTS@#Cx43 was significantly decreased in I-10/DDP cells compared with I-10 cells ( < 0.01). Transfection of the I-10/DDP cells with mCx43 vector resulted in significantly increased Cx43 expression in the cells ( < 0.01) and caused significantly decreased expression of LC3-Ⅱ ( < 0.01) and increased expression of p62 ( < 0.05) as compared with the negative control cells. Both transmission electron microscopy and mCherry-GFP-LC3B transfection showed that the number of autophagosomes was obviously reduced in mCx43-transfected cells as compared with the negative control cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cx43 inhibits autophagy in cisplatin-resistant testicular cancer I-10 /DDP cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin , Connexin 43 , Metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Male , Mice , Testicular Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death. This phenomenon has been recently reported to play an important role in radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction protein that regulates cell growth and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cx43 on X-ray-induced pyroptosis in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).@*METHODS@#HUVECs, Cx43 overexpression, and Cx43 knockdown strains were irradiated with 10 Gy. Proteins were detected using western blot analysis. Cell pyroptosis was evaluated using the fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of caspase assay (FLICA) and propidium iodide staining through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cell morphology and cytotoxicity were detected by scanning electron microscopy and lactate dehydrogenase release assay, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Irradiation with 10 Gy X-ray induced pyroptosis in the HUVECs and reduced Cx43 expression. The pyroptosis in the HUVECs was significantly attenuated by overexpression of Cx43 as it decreased the level of active caspase-1. However, interference of Cx43 expression with siRNA significantly promoted pyroptosis by increasing the active caspase-1 level. Pannexin1 (Panx1), a gap junction protein regulates pyroptosis, and its cleaved form is used to evaluate channel opening and active state. The level of cleaved Panx1 in the HUVECs and Cx43 knockdown strains increased in the presence of X-ray, but decreased in the Cx43 overexpression strains. Furthermore, interference of Panx1 with siRNA alleviated the upregulation of pyroptosis caused by Cx43 knockdown.@*CONCLUSION@#Results suggest that single high-dose X-ray irradiation induces pyroptosis in the HUVECs. In addition, Cx43 regulates pyroptosis directly by activating caspase-1 or indirectly by cleaving Panx1.


Subject(s)
Caspase 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Connexin 43 , Genetics , Metabolism , Connexins , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Radiation Effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Humans , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Pyroptosis , X-Rays
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761783

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to examine the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) on the cardiac functions and morphology, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, myocardial antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD] and glutathione [GSH]), and expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and connexin 43 (Cx-43) in myocardial muscles in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI). Thirty two adult male Sprague Dawely rats were divided into 4 groups (each 8 rats): normal control (NC) group, ISO group: received ISO at dose of 150 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 2 successive days; ISO + Trizma group: received (ISO) and Trizma (solvent of CoPP) at dose of 5 mg/kg i.p. injection 2 days before injection of ISO, with ISO at day 0 and at day 2 after ISO injections; and ISO + CoPP group: received ISO and CoPP at a dose of 5 mg/kg dissolved in Trizma i.p. injection as Trizma. We found that, administration of ISO caused significant increase in heart rate, corrected QT interval, ST segment, cardiac enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-muscle/brain), cardiac HO-1, Hsp70 with significant attenuation in myocardial GSH, SOD, and Cx-43. On the other hand, administration of CoPP caused significant improvement in ECG parameters, cardiac enzymes, cardiac morphology; antioxidants induced by ISO with significant increase in HO-1, Cx-43, and Hsp70 expression in myocardium. In conclusions, we concluded that induction of HO-1 by CoPP ameliorates ISO-induced myocardial injury, which might be due to up-regulation of Hsp70 and gap junction protein (Cx-43).


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antioxidants , Body Weight , Cobalt , Connexin 43 , Connexins , Creatine , Electrocardiography , Glutathione , Hand , Heart Rate , Heat-Shock Proteins , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Humans , Isoproterenol , Male , Muscles , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardium , Oxidoreductases , Rats , Tromethamine , Up-Regulation
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 395-404, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777174

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to examine whether Ramipril (an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme) affected spontaneous hypertension-induced injury of cerebral artery by regulating connexin 43 (Cx43) expression. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into WKY, WKY + Ramipril, SHR, and SHR + Ramipril groups (n = 8). The arterial pressure was monitored by the tail-cuff method, and vascular function in basilar arteries was examined by pressure myography. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to show vascular remodeling. The expression and distribution of Cx43 was determined by using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis. The protein and mRNA levels of Cx43 were examined by Western blot and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. The results showed that chronic Ramipril treatment significantly attenuated blood pressure elevation (P < 0.01, n = 8) and blood vessel wall thickness in SHR (P < 0.01, n = 8). The cerebral artery contraction rate in the SHR group was higher than that in the WKY group (P < 0.05, n = 8). The cerebral artery contraction rate in the SHR + Ramipril group was lower than that in the SHR group (P < 0.05, n = 8). Pretreatment with 2-APB (Cx43 non-specific blocker) or Gap26 (Cx43 specific blocker) significantly decreased the vasoconstriction rate, while pretreatment with AAP10 (Cx43 non-specific agonist) significantly increased the vasoconstriction in the SHR + Ramipril group (P < 0.05, n = 8). In addition, the expression of Cx43 mRNA and protein in cerebral arteries of SHR group was higher than that of WKY group (P < 0.05, n = 8). The mRNA and protein expression of Cx43 in cerebral arteries of SHR + Ramipril group was significantly lower than that of SHR group (P < 0.05, n = 8). These results suggest that Ramipril can down-regulate the expression of Cx43 mRNA and protein in cerebral arterial cells of SHR, lower blood pressure, promote vasodilation, and improve arterial damage and vascular dysfunction caused by hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , Cerebral Arteries , Metabolism , Connexin 43 , Metabolism , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Ramipril , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Vascular Remodeling
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) may be a valuable source for cardiovascular tissue engineering and cell therapy. The aim of this study is to verify angiotensin II and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) as potential cardiomyogenic differentiation inducers of AF-MSCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF-MSCs were obtained from amniocentesis samples from second-trimester pregnant women, isolated and characterized by the expression of cell surface markers (CD44, CD90, CD105 positive; CD34 negative) and pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1). Cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced using different concentrations of angiotensin II and TGF-β1. Successful initiation of differentiation was confirmed by alterations in cell morphology, upregulation of cardiac genes-markers NKX2-5, TBX5, GATA4, MYH6, TNNT2, DES and main cardiac ion channels genes (sodium, calcium, potassium) as determined by RT-qPCR. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed the increased expression of Connexin43, the main component of gap junctions, and Nkx2.5, the early cardiac transcription factor. Induced AF-MSCs switched their phenotype towards more energetic and started utilizing oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis for energy production as assessed using Agilent Seahorse XF analyzer. The immune analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes DNMT1, HDAC1/2 and Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1/2) proteins BMI1, EZH2 and SUZ12 as well as of modified histones H3 and H4 indicated global chromatin remodeling during the induced differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin II and TGF-β1 are efficient cardiomyogenic inducers of human AF-MSCs; they initiate alterations at the gene and protein expression, metabolic and epigenetic levels in stem cells leading towards cardiomyocyte-like phenotype formation.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Connexin 43 , Epigenomics , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gap Junctions , Glycolysis , Histones , Humans , Ion Channels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Muscle Cells , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Phenotype , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 , Pregnant Women , Smegmamorpha , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760188

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Increased apoptosis was recently found in the hypertrophied left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although the available evidence suggests that apoptosis can be induced in cardiac cells by various insults including pressure overload, cardiac apoptosis appears to result from an exaggerated local production of angiotensin in adult SHRs. Altered expressions of Bcl associated X (Bax), Bcl-2, chemokine receptor (CCR)-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (PERK), and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA were investigated to explore the effects of losartan on the SHR model. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male rats were grouped as follows: control (C), SHR (hypertension: H), and losartan (L; SHRs were treated with losartan [10 mg/kg/day] for 5 weeks). Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed. RESULTS: Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA was significantly increased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, and connexin 43 proteins and kallikrein mRNA was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at week 5. PERK protein expression was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at weeks 3 and 5. Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. CONCLUSION: Losartan treatment reduced expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA in SHRs, along with decreased inflammation and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiotensins , Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Connexin 43 , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Gene Expression , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Inflammation , Kallikreins , Losartan , Male , Monocytes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) from patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its clinical implications.@*METHODS@#We prospectively collected the clinical data from 40 patients with ACS including 20 with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and 20 with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted in our department between January, 2018 and June, 2018, with 20 healthy subjects undergoing routine physical examinations serving as the control group. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from all the participants and plasma and PBMCs were separated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (TIIA) were used for analysis of plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), respectively; real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of Cx43 in the PBMCs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the patients with UAP showed significantly increased plasma levels of IL-1β and hs-CRP ( < 0.001) and obviously elevated expressions of Cx43 at both mRNA and protein levels in the PBMCs ( < 0.001). Compared with the patients with UAP, the patients with AMI had significantly higher plasma IL-1β and hs-CRP levels ( < 0.001 and < 0.01) but lower expression levels of Cx43 in the PBMCs ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients with UAP and AMI have activated inflammatory responses and reverse changes in Cx43 expression in the PBMCs, suggesting the different roles of Cx43 in the pathogenic mechanisms of different types of ACS.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Angina, Unstable , C-Reactive Protein , Connexin 43 , Humans , Monocytes
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687962

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the genetic basis for a patient with oculodentodigital dysplasia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples from the patient and his parents. Whole-exome sequencing was carried out for the trio family. Suspected mutation was verified by Sanger sequencing.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A de novo c.412G>A mutation of the GJA1 gene was identified in the patient, which was validated by Sanger sequencing.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The c.412G>A mutation of the GJA1 gene probably underlies the disease in the patient.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Connexin 43 , Genetics , Craniofacial Abnormalities , Genetics , Exome , Eye Abnormalities , Genetics , Foot Deformities, Congenital , Genetics , Humans , Male , Mutation , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Syndactyly , Genetics , Tooth Abnormalities , Genetics
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 919-925, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have indicated the possibility that genistein may improve depression via regulating the expression of miR-221/222. This study is to explore whether genistein could improve depression by altering miR-221/222 levels and investigate the possible mechanisms involved in the improvement effect of genistein. METHODS: The animal model of depression was established through unpredictable chronic mild stress. Nest building test and splash test were adapted to evaluate the effects of genistein on depressive symptoms in mice. qRT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of miR-221/222 and connexin 43 (Cx43) in the prefrontal cortex of the mice. In vitro, U87-MG astrocytes were treated with genistein and the expression of miR-221/222 and Cx43 was measured. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to verify whether Cx43 was a direct target of miR-221/222. RESULTS: The behavioral tests showed that genistein could significantly reduce depression symptoms of mice, and this remission was not affected by gender. Genistein in vivo and in vitro could reduce increased levels of miR-221 and miR-222 in the prefrontal cortex of depressed mice, while upregulate Cx43 expression. Dual-luciferase reporter assay suggested Cx43 was directly regulated by miR-221/222 in astrocytes. CONCLUSION: Genistein can play its antidepressant effect through down-regulating miR-221/222 by targeting Cx43.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Behavior Rating Scale , Blotting, Western , Connexin 43 , Depression , Genistein , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Models, Animal , Prefrontal Cortex
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 736-745, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716430

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bioactive molecules critical to intracellular signaling are contained in extracellular vesicles (EVs) and have cardioprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injured hearts. This study investigated the mechanism of the cardioprotective effects of EVs derived from hypoxia-preconditioned human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: EV solutions (0.4 µg/µL) derived from normoxia-preconditioned MSCs (EVNM) and hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs (EVHM) were delivered in a rat IR injury model. Successful EV delivery was confirmed by the detection of PKH26 staining in hearts from EV-treated rats. RESULTS: EVHM significantly reduced infarct size (24±2% vs. 8±1%, p < 0.001), and diminished arrhythmias by recovering electrical conduction, INa current, and Cx43 expression. EVHM also reversed reductions in Wnt1 and β-catenin levels and increases in GSK3β induced after IR injury. miRNA-26a was significantly increased in EVHM, compared with EVNM, in real-time PCR. Finally, in in vitro experiments, hypoxia-induced increases in GSK3β expression were significantly reduced by the overexpression of miRNA-26a. CONCLUSION: EVHM reduced IR injury by suppressing GSK3β expression via miRNA-26a and increased Cx43 expression. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of EVHM is related with Wnt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Connexin 43 , Extracellular Vesicles , Heart , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reperfusion Injury , Wnt Signaling Pathway
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 98-108, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777072

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that spinal microglia regulate pathological pain in males. In this study, we investigated the effects of several microglial and astroglial modulators on inflammatory and neuropathic pain following intrathecal injection in male and female mice. These modulators were the microglial inhibitors minocycline and ZVEID (a caspase-6 inhibitor) and the astroglial inhibitors L-α-aminoadipate (L-AA, an astroglial toxin) and carbenoxolone (a connexin 43 inhibitor), as well as U0126 (an ERK kinase inhibitor) and D-JNKI-1 (a c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor). We found that spinal administration of minocycline or ZVEID, or Caspase6 deletion, reduced formalin-induced inflammatory and nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain primarily in male mice. In contrast, intrathecal L-AA reduced neuropathic pain but not inflammatory pain in both sexes. Intrathecal U0126 and D-JNKI-1 reduced neuropathic pain in both sexes. Nerve injury caused spinal upregulation of the astroglial markers GFAP and Connexin 43 in both sexes. Collectively, our data confirmed male-dominant microglial signaling but also revealed sex-independent astroglial signaling in the spinal cord in inflammatory and neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
2-Aminoadipic Acid , Toxicity , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Astrocytes , Pathology , Carbenoxolone , Pharmacology , Caspase 6 , Metabolism , Connexin 43 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Pathology , Minocycline , Therapeutic Uses , Neuralgia , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Pain Measurement , Phenylurea Compounds , Pharmacology , Sex Characteristics , Spinal Cord , Pathology , Time Factors
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Salivary hypofunction is one of the common side effects after radioiodine therapy, and its pathophysiology is salivary ductal stenosis resulting from ductal cell injury. This study aimed to develop the functional culture environment of human parotid gland ductal cells in in vitro three-dimensional perfusion culture system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared plastic dish culture method and three-dimensional culture system containing Matrigel and nanofiber. Morphogenesis of reconstituted salivary structures was assessed by histomorphometry. Functional characteristics were assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (aquaporin 5, CK7, CK18, connexin 43, and p21). In addition, we designed the media perfusion culture system and identified higher rate of cell proliferation and expression of connexin 43 in perfusion system comparing to dish. RESULTS: Human parotid ductal cells were well proliferated with the ductal cell characters under environment with Matrigel. In the presence of Matrigel, aquaporin 5, CK18 and connexin 43 were more expressed than 2D dish and 3D nanofiber setting. In the media perfusion culture system, ductal cells in 3D culture media showed higher cells count and connexin 43 expression compared to 2D dish. CONCLUSION: This in vitro ductal cell perfusion culture system using Matrigel could be used to study for radioiodine induced sialadenitis model in vivo.


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 5 , Cell Proliferation , Connexin 43 , Constriction, Pathologic , Culture Media , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Morphogenesis , Nanofibers , Parotid Gland , Perfusion , Plastics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Salivary Ducts , Salivary Glands , Sialadenitis , Thyroid Neoplasms
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