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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 159-165, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521149


Introduction: Distension of the rectum wall and subsequent momentary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) trigger a reflex called the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). This same rectal distension causes a reflex contraction of the external anal sphincter (EAS), responsible for conscious continence called rectoanal excitatory reflex (RAER). This set of reflexes are named sampling reflex. Objectives: The sampling reflex is necessary to initiate defecation or flatulence. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sampling reflex and its practical applicability as a manometric marker of the main defecation disorders. Methodology: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) items. The development method consisted of searching for articles in the research platforms BVS, PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and ScienceDirect and for the selection of articles the Rayyan Platform was used. The articles resulting from the search strategies were added to the platform and five collaborators were invited for the blind selection. Finally, 6 articles were included in the final review. Results: An intact sampling reflex allows the individual to facilitate discrimination between flatus and stool and to choose whether to discharge or retain rectal contents. On the other hand, an impaired sampling reflex can predispose an individual to incontinence. Therefore, it was observed that patients with defecation disorders had an impaired sampling reflex, since it was found that constipated patients have incomplete opening of the IAS, lower amplitude of RAIR and increase of RAER. Most incontinent patients present a failure in the recruitment of the EAS, a decrease in the RAER and an increase in the RAIR, in duration and amplitude. (AU)

Humans , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Fecal Incontinence/diagnosis , Reflex , Constipation , Manometry
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202598, abr. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418445


Introducción. Habitualmente, durante la manometría anorrectal, en lo correspondiente al reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio (RRAI) solo se pesquisa su presencia o ausencia. Estudios han reportado que su análisis detallado puede brindar datos de interés. Nuestra hipótesis es que la medición del RRAI puede dar información para reconocer causas orgánicas (médula anclada, lipoma, etc.) en pacientes en los que previamente se consideró como de causa funcional. Objetivos. Comparar la duración del reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio en la manometría anorrectal de pacientes con constipación funcional refractaria (CFR) y mielomeningocele (MMC). Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, analítico (2004-2019). Pacientes constipados crónicos con incontinencia fecal funcional y orgánica (mielomeningocele). Se les realizó manometría anorrectal con sistema de perfusión de agua y se midió la duración del RRAI con diferentes volúmenes (20, 40 y 60 cc). Grupo 1 (G1): 81 CFR. Grupo 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Se excluyeron pacientes con retraso madurativo, esfínter anal complaciente, agenesia sacra y aquellos no colaboradores. Resultados. Se incluyeron 135 sujetos (62 varones). La mediana de edad fue G1:9,57 años; G2: 9,63 años. Duración promedio G1 vs. G2 con 20 cc: 8,89 vs. 15,21 segundos; con 40 cc: 11.41 vs. 21,12 segundos; con 60 cc: 14,15 vs. 26,02 segundos. La diferencia de duración del RRAI entre ambos grupos con diferentes volúmenes fue estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,0001). Conclusión. La duración del RRAI aumenta a mayor volumen de insuflación del balón en ambas poblaciones. Pacientes con MMC tuvieron mayor duración del RRAI que aquellos con CFR. En los pacientes con RRAI prolongado, debe descartarse lesión medular.

Introduction. Usually, during anorectal manometry, only the presence or absence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is investigated. Studies have reported that a detailed analysis may provide data of interest. Our hypothesis is that RAIR measurement may provide information to detect organic causes (tethered cord, lipoma, etc.) in patients in whom a functional cause had been previously considered. Objectives. To compare RAIR duration in anorectal manometry between patients with refractory functional constipation (RFC) and myelomeningocele (MMC). Population and methods. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study (2004­2019). Patients with chronic constipation and functional and organic fecal incontinence (myelomeningocele). The anorectal manometry was performed with a water-perfused system, and the duration of RAIR was measured with different volumes (20, 40, and 60 cc). Group 1 (G1): 81 RFC. Group 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Patients with developmental delay, compliant anal sphincter, sacral agenesis and non-cooperative patients were excluded. Results. A total of 135 individuals were included (62 were male). Their median age was 9.57 years in G1 and 9.63 years in G2. Average duration in G1 versus G2 with 20 cc: 8.89 versus 15.21 seconds; 40 cc: 11.41 versus 21.12 seconds; 60 cc: 14.15 versus 26.02 seconds. The difference in RAIR duration with the varying volumes was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Conclusion. RAIR duration was longer with increasing balloon inflation volumes in both populations. RAIR duration was longer in patients with MMC than in those with RFC. Spinal injury should be ruled out in patients with prolonged RAIR.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Rectum/physiopathology , Meningomyelocele/diagnosis , Meningomyelocele/epidemiology , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/epidemiology , Reflex/physiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Manometry/methods
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 206-212, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971387


OBJECTIVES@#With the rapid development of aging population, the number of elderly patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery continues to increase. Lumbar spine surgery could cause moderate to severe postoperative pain, and the conventional opioid-based analgesia techniques have many side effects, which are barriers to the recovery after surgery of the elderly. Previous studies have demonstrated that erector spinae plane block (ESPB) could bring about favorable analgesia in spinal surgery. As far as the elderly are concerned, the analgesic and recovery effects of ESPB on posterior lumbar spine surgery are not completely clear. This study aims to observe the effects of bilateral ESPB on elderly patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery, and to improve the anesthesia techniques.@*METHODS@#A total of 70 elderly patients of both sex, who were selected from May 2020 to November 2021, scheduled for elective posterior lumbar spine surgery, and in the age of 60-79 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists class Ⅱ-Ⅲ, were divided into a ESPB group and a control (C) group using a random number table method, with 35 patients each. Before general anesthesia induction, 20 mL 0.4% ropivacaine was injected to the transverse process of L3 or L4 bilaterally in the ESPB group and only saline in the C group. The score of Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) indicating pain at rest and on movement within 48 h after operation, time of first patient control analgesia (PCA), cumulative consumptions of sufentanil within 48 hours, Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) scores on the morning of day 1 and day 2 after operation, Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) scores at 24 and 48 h after operation, full diet intake times, perioperative adverse reactions such as intraoperative hypotension, postoperative dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and constipation were compared between the 2 groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 70 patients were enrolled and 62 subjects completed the study, including 32 in the ESPB group and 30 in the C group. Compared with the C group, the postoperative NRS scores at rest at 2, 4, 6, and 12 h and on movementat at 2, 4, and 6 h were lower, time of first PCA was later, sufentanil consumptions were significantly decreased during 0-12 h and 12-24 h after operation, LSEQ scores on the morning of day 1 and QoR-15 scores at 24 and 48 h after operation were higher, full diet intakes achieved earlier in the ESPB group (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidences of intraoperative hypotension, postoperative dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and constipation between the 2 groups (all P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Providing favorable analgesic effects with reduced opioids consumption, bilateral ESPB for posterior lumbar spine surgery in the elderly patients could also improve postoperative sleep quality, promote gastrointestinal functional restoration, and enhance recovery with few adverse reactions.

Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Sufentanil , Dizziness , Pain , Anesthesia, General , Constipation , Hypotension , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Analgesics, Opioid , Ultrasonography, Interventional
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 128-132, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969960


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effect of acupuncture at Huiyin (CV 1) and oral administration of western medication in treatment of chronic severe functional constipation (CSFC).@*METHODS@#A total of 64 patients with CSFC were randomly divided into an acupuncture group (32 cases, 5 cases dropped off) and a western medication group (32 cases, 4 cases dropped off). Both groups were given routine basic treatment. The acupuncture group was treated by directly puncture of 20-30 mm at Huiyin (CV 1), once a day for the first 4 weeks, 5 times a week, once every other day for the next 4 weeks, 3 times a week, totally for 8 weeks. The western medication group was treated with 2 mg prucalopride succinate tablets orally before breakfast every day for 8 weeks. The average number of weekly spontaneous bowel movement (SBM) of the two groups were observed before treatment and 1-8 weeks into treatment. The constipation symptom score before and after treatment, and in follow-up of 1 month after treatment, as well as quality of life [patient assessment of constipation quality of life questionnaire (PAC-QOL) score and the proportion of patients of PAC-QOL score difference before and after treatment≥1] before and after treatment were compared in the two groups. The clinical effects of the two groups were evaluated after treatment and in follow-up.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the average number of weekly SBM in the two groups was increased 1-8 weeks into treatment (P<0.05). The average number of weekly SBM in the acupuncture group was less than that in the western medication group 1 week into treatment (P<0.05), and the average number of weekly SBM in the observation group was more than that in the western medication group 4-8 weeks into treatment (P<0.05). The scores of constipation symptom after treatment and in follow-up and scores of PAC-QOL after-treatment in the two groups were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the acupuncture group were lower than the western medication group (P<0.05). The proportion of patients of PAC-QOL score difference before and after treatment≥1 in the acupuncture group was higher than that in the west medication group (P<0.05). The total effective rates after treatment and in follow-up in the acupuncture group were 81.5% (22/27) and 78.3% (18/23), respectively, which were better than 42.9% (12/28) and 43.5% (10/23) in the western medication group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture at Huiyin (CV 1) can effectively increase the number of spontaneous defecation in patients with CSFC, reduce constipation symptoms, improve the quality of life, and the effect after treatment and in follow-up is better than oral western medication.

Humans , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Acupuncture Points , Constipation/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 614-617, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986828


In recent years, colonic manometry has been gradually introduced into clinical practice. It helps clinicians to gain a better understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of colonic contractile activity in healthy adults and patients with colonic dysfunction. More and more patterns of colonic motility are being discovered with the help of colonic manometry. However, the clinical significance of these findings still needs to be further investigated. This review enhances our understanding of colonic motility and the current state of development and application of colonic manometry, as well as the limitations, future directions and potential of the technique in assessing the impact of treatment on colonic motility patterns, by analyzing and summarizing the literature related to colonic manometry.

Humans , Adult , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Colon/physiology , Colonic Diseases , Manometry/methods , Clinical Relevance , Constipation
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 467-474, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986815


Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with small bowel tumors. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study. We collected clinicopathological data of patients with primary jejunal or ileal tumors who had undergone small bowel resection in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University between January 2012 and September 2017. The inclusion criteria included: (1) older than 18 years; (2) had undergone small bowel resection; (3) primary location at jejunum or ileum; (4) postoperative pathological examination confirmed malignancy or malignant potential; and (5) complete clinicopathological and follow-up data. Patients with a history of previous or other concomitant malignancies and those who had undergone exploratory laparotomy with biopsy but no resection were excluded. The clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses of included patients were analyzed. Results: The study cohort comprised 220 patients with small bowel tumors, 136 of which were classified as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), 47 as adenocarcinomas, and 35 as lymphomas. The median follow-up for all patient was 81.0 months (75.9-86.1). GISTs frequently manifested as gastrointestinal bleeding (61.0%, 83/136) and abdominal pain (38.2%, 52/136). In the patients with GISTs, the rates of lymph node and distant metastasis were 0.7% (1/136) and 11.8% (16/136), respectively. The median follow-up time was 81.0 (75.9-86.1) months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.3%. Multivariate Cox regression-analysis results showed that distant metastasis was the only factor associated with OS of patients with GISTs (HR=23.639, 95% CI: 4.564-122.430, P<0.001). The main clinical manifestations of small bowel adenocarcinoma were abdominal pain (85.1%, 40/47), constipation/diarrhea (61.7%, 29/47), and weight loss (61.7%, 29/47). Rates of lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma were 53.2% (25/47) and 23.4% (11/47), respectively. The 3-year OS rate of patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma was 44.7%. Multivariate Cox regression-analysis results showed that distant metastasis (HR=4.018, 95%CI: 2.108-10.331, P<0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR=0.291, 95% CI: 0.140-0.609, P=0.001) were independently associated with OS of patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. Small bowel lymphoma frequently manifested as abdominal pain (68.6%, 24/35) and constipation/diarrhea (31.4%, 11/35); 77.1% (27/35) of small bowel lymphomas were of B-cell origin. The 3-year OS rate of patients with small bowel lymphomas was 60.0%. T/NK cell lymphomas (HR= 6.598, 95% CI: 2.172-20.041, P<0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR=0.119, 95% CI: 0.015-0.925, P=0.042) were independently associated with OS of patients with small bowel lymphoma. Small bowel GISTs have a better prognosis than small intestinal adenocarcinomas (P<0.001) or lymphomas (P<0.001), and small bowel lymphomas have a better prognosis than small bowel adenocarcinomas (P=0.035). Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of small intestinal tumor are non-specific. Small bowel GISTs are relatively indolent and have a good prognosis, whereas adenocarcinomas and lymphomas (especially T/NK-cell lymphomas) are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy would likely improve the prognosis of patients with small bowel adenocarcinomas or lymphomas.

Humans , Prognosis , Intestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Duodenal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Lymphoma , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Constipation , Abdominal Pain , Retrospective Studies
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 397-406, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982688


OBJECTIVE@#Abnormalities in the gut microbiota and intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of functional constipation (FC). Electro-acupuncture (EA) has been shown to improve constipation-related symptoms and rebalance the gut microbiota. However, it is currently unknown whether the gut microbiota is a key mechanistic target for EA or how EA promotes gut motility by regulating the gut microbiota and SCFAs. Therefore, we assessed the effects of EA in FC mice and pseudo-germfree (PGF) mice to address these questions.@*METHODS@#Forty female Kunming mice were randomly separated into a normal control group (n = 8), an FC group (n = 8), an FC + EA group (n = 8), a PGF group (n = 8) and a PGF + EA group (n = 8). The FC group and FC + EA group were treated with diphenoxylate to establish the FC model; the PGF group and PGF + EA group were given an antibiotic cocktail to initiate the PGF model. After maintaining the model for 14 d, mice in the FC + EA and PGF + EA groups received EA stimulation at the ST25 and ST37 acupoints, once a day, 5 times per week, for 2 weeks. Fecal parameters and intestinal transit rate were calculated to assess the efficacy of EA on constipation and gastrointestinal motility. Colonic contents were used to quantify gut microbial diversity using 16S rRNA sequencing, and measure SCFA concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.@*RESULTS@#EA significantly shortened the first black stool defecation time (P < 0.05) and increased the intestinal transit rate (P < 0.01), and fecal pellet number (P < 0.05), wet weight (P < 0.05) and water content (P < 0.01) over 8 h, compared with the FC group, showing that EA promoted gut motility and alleviated constipation. However, EA treatment did not reverse slow-transit colonic motility in PGF mice (P > 0.05), demonstrating that the gut microbiota may play a mechanistic role in the EA treatment of constipation. In addition, EA treatment restored the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and significantly increased butyric acid generation in FC mice (P < 0.05), most likely due to the upregulation of Staphylococcaceae microorganisms (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA-mediated resolution of constipation occurs through rebalancing the gut microbiota and promoting butyric acid generation. Please cite this article as: Xu MM, Guo Y, Chen Y, Zhang W, Wang L, Li Y. Electro-acupuncture promotes gut motility and alleviates functional constipation by regulating gut microbiota and increasing butyric acid generation in mice. J Integr Med. 2023; Epub ahead of print.

Mice , Female , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Constipation/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Electroacupuncture/methods
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 459-469, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982299


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate autophagy-related mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) action in improving gastrointestinal motility in mice with functional constipation (FC).@*METHODS@#According to a random number table, the Kunming mice were divided into the normal control, FC and EA groups in Experiment I. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to observe whether it antagonized the effects of EA in Experiment II. An FC model was established by diphenoxylate gavage. Then the mice were treated with EA stimulation at Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) acupoints. The first black stool defecation time, the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and intestinal transit rate were used to assess intestinal transit. Colonic tissues underwent histopathological assessment, and the expressions of autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway members were investigated by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The relationship between enteric glial cells (EGCs) and autophagy was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, localization analysis, and electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#EA treatment shortened the first black stool defecation time, increased the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and improved the intestinal transit rate in FC mice (P<0.01). In terms of a putative autophagy mechanism, EA treatment promoted the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins in the colonic tissue of FC mice (P<0.05), with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and LC3 significantly colocalized. Furthermore, EA promoted colonic autophagy in FC mice by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The positive effect of EA on intestinal motility in FC mice was blocked by 3-MA.@*CONCLUSION@#EA treatment can inhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the colonic tissues of FC mice, thereby promoting EGCs autophagy to improve intestinal motility.

Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Signal Transduction , Constipation/therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Neuroglia/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 109-116, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981593


Objective To investigate the clinical symptoms experienced by patients with thoracic spinal tumors and verify the associated symptoms that are predictive of a decline in muscle strength in the lower limbs. Methods A single-center, retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on in-patients diagnosed with epidural thoracic spinal tumors between January 2011 and May 2021. The study involved a review of electronic medical records and radiographs and the collection of clinical data. The differences in clinical manifestations between patients with constipation and those without constipation were analyzed. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with a decline in muscle strength in the lower limbs.Results A total of 227 patients were enrolled, including 131 patients with constipation and 96 without constipation. The constipation group had a significantly higher proportion of patients who experienced difficulty walking or paralysis compared to those without constipation prior to surgery (83.2% vs. 17.7%, χ2 = 99.035,P < 0.001). Constipation (OR = 9.522, 95%CI: 4.150-21.849, P < 0.001) and urinary retention (OR = 14.490, 95%CI: 4.543-46.213, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for muscle strength decline in the lower limbs. Conclusions The study observed that patients with thoracic spinal tumors who experienced constipation symptoms had a higher incidence of lower limb weakness. Moreover, the analysis revealed that constipation and urinary retention were independent risk factors associated with a preoperative decline in muscle strength of lower limbs.

Humans , Constipation/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lower Extremity , Muscle Strength , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Neoplasms , Urinary Retention
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(4): e007069, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, UNISALUD, LILACS | ID: biblio-1526537


A partir del caso de una paciente con síndrome de intestino irritable a predominio de estreñimiento cuyos síntomas mejoraron con el consumo regular de kiwi, el médico de familia se planteó la pregunta de si el kiwi podría mejorar los síntomas asociados a constipación crónica en comparación con el tratamiento habitual. Tras realizar una búsqueda de estudios que analizaran los efectos del consumo de kiwi sobre el hábito intestinal, fueron seleccionados tres artículos que permiten concluir que el consumo de esta fruta tiene una eficacia superior al placebo y comparable al psyllium y las pasas de ciruela para mejorar los síntomas de personas con estreñimiento crónico. (AU)

Based on the case of a patient with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome whose symptoms improved with regular consumption of kiwi, the family doctor wondered if kiwi could improve symptoms associated with chronic constipation compared to usual treatment. After conducting a search for studies that analyzed the effects of kiwi consumption on intestinal habit, three articles were selected that allow us to conclude that the consumption of this fruit has an efficacy superior to placebo and comparable to psyllium and plum raisins to improve the symptoms of people with chronic constipation. (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Constipation/diet therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diet therapy , Fruit , Psyllium/therapeutic use , Abdominal Pain/diet therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Constipation/diagnosis , Actinidia , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Feces , Systematic Reviews as Topic
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 30-35, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430685


Introduction: Chronic intestinal constipation (CIC) presents an incidence of 2.6 to 30.7% in the overall population and due to the social reality imposed by the coronavirus pandemic, some behavior changes in the Brazilian population occurred that might or not be associated with alterations of CIC prevalence. Objective: To assess CIC incidence in medical students before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil in a private higher educational institution in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo. Methods: Clinic data were collected through Google Forms software from the same students seeking to analyze the variables before (year of 2019) and during the coronavirus pandemic. The data were: age, sex, body mass index, constipation referred in a subjective way and confirmed through the ROME III criteria, feces consistency and anxiety and/or depression during the pandemic. Results: A total of 126 medical students from a private higher education institution from São Paulo, SP were included. The average age was 22.9 years old, 70.6% were female and the average BMI was 23.3 kg/m2. Regarding the ROME III criteria, 32.5% presented >2 in 2019 and 42.1% during the pandemic. Concerning the feces consistency, 31.75 and 35.71% presented dry Bristol 1 feces or in both periods, respectively. Conclusion: It was observed an increase in the prevalence of chronic intestinal constipation in medical students from a private higher education institution from São Paulo, state of São Paulo, during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as dryness in the feces. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Students, Medical , Constipation/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Feces
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 18-23, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430688


Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunction can manifest as a spectrum including anorectal dysfunction, vaginal prolapse, and urinary incontinence. Sacrospinous fixation is a procedure performed by gynecologists to treat vaginal prolapse. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of transvaginal prolapse surgery on anorectal function. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing sacrospinous fixation surgery for vaginal prolapse between 2014 to 2020. Those with anorectal dysfunction who had also been evaluated by the colorectal service preoperatively and postoperatively were included for analysis. These patients were assessed with symptom-specific validated questionnaires. The effect of surgery on constipation and fecal incontinence symptoms was analyzed. Results: A total of 22 patients were included for analysis. All patients underwent transvaginal sacrospinous fixation, and 95.4% also had posterior colporrhaphy for vaginal prolapse. There were a statistically significant improvements in the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI), the St. Mark's Incontinence Score (Vaizey), the embarrassment and lifestyle components of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score, the Constipation Scoring System, the Obstructed Defecation Score, and components of the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score. Conclusion: Transvaginal prolapse surgery leads to a favorable effect on anorectal function, with improvements in both obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence scores in this small series. (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Uterine Prolapse/surgery , Constipation , Fecal Incontinence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Pelvic Floor Disorders/surgery
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(1): 1-6, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430692


Context: Postoperative, critically ill, and elderly patients often have fecal loading or impaction. In a few such patients, disimpaction of fecalomas and colon cleansing are difficult. Bowel obstruction, megacolon, lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and gut perforation are complications that may ensue. Oral laxatives or enemas may only be partially effective. Surgical intervention may be needed for salvage or to treat complications. Series and Design: Fourteen hospitalized cases with defecation disorder due to fecal loading of the colon were enrolled for retrospective analysis. Colonoscopic instillation of mannitol and/or lactulose was undertaken as an intervention when the use of oral laxatives was either ineffective or unfeasible, and enema had yielded poor results. Results: Ten patients had satisfactory outcomes for fecal clearance, whereas four patients with poor or incomplete responses underwent repeat interventions or surgery. No significant complications were encountered due to this therapy. Conclusion: Colonoscopic instillation of mannitol or lactulose in fecal-loaded critically ill patients results in a safe and satisfactory fecal clearance. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colonoscopy , Constipation/therapy , Laxatives , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Constipation/diagnostic imaging , Lactulose/therapeutic use , Mannitol/therapeutic use
REVISA (Online) ; 12(4): 899-913, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531324


Objetivo: Avaliar a presença de CI em estudantes das fases iniciais e finais dos cursos de Medicina, Nutrição e Engenharia Civil de uma Universidade no Extremo Sul Catarinense -Criciúma, através da ingestão alimentar e hídrica, dos tipos de fezes, se fazem uso, ou não, de alternativas de evacuação, comparando os hábitos alimentares com influência na constipação nos estudantes das três diferentes áreas. Método:Tal estudo foi realizado através de um questionário adaptado com questões sobre os hábitos de vida do indivíduo, juntamente com os critérios de Roma III, Roma IV e Escala de Bristol. Resultados:Caracterizou-se por 158 estudantes, sendo 71,5% (n=113) representam o sexo feminino e apenas 28,5% (n=45), o sexo masculino. A ingestão de líquidos demonstrou-se ser baixa, sendo 33,5% (n=53) ingerem mais que 1600ml/dia. Através da Escala de Bristol, 15,8% (n=25) revelaram evacuar o Tipo 1 e 2, caracterizando CI. Sobre os laxantes, apenas 3,2% (n=5) confirmaram a utilização. Foi verificada CI em 18,6% (n=21) das mulheres e 8,9% (n=4) dos homens. Conclusão:a alimentação destacou ser pobre em fibras. É notório que os estudantes sofrem com sintomas de CI. Através do auxílio de um profissional de nutrição, é necessário que equilibrem sua alimentação com fibras, consumem mais água diariamente e, consequentemente, auxiliem no bom funcionamento intestinal e na melhora da qualidade de vida.

Objective: To evaluate the presence of IC in students in the initial and final stages of Medicine, Nutrition and Civil Engineering courses at a University in the extreme south of Santa Catarina -Criciúma, through food and water intake, types of feces, whether they use, or no, of evacuation alternatives, comparing eating habits with influence on constipation in students from three different areas. Method: This study was carried out through a questionnaire answered with questions about the individual's life habits, together with the criteria of Rome III, Rome IV and Bristol Scale. Results: Characterized by 158 students, 71.5% (n=113) female and only 28.5% (n=45) male. Liquid intake was low, with 33.5% (n=53) ingesting more than 1600ml/day. Through the Bristol Scale, 15.8% (n=25) revealed to evacuate Type 1 and 2, characterizing CI. Regarding laxatives, only 3.2% (n=5) confirmed their use. CI was found in 18.6% (n=21) of women and 8.9% (n=4) of men. Conclusion:the highlighted diet is low in fiber. It is notorious that students suffer from HF symptoms. Through the help of a nutrition professional, it is necessary that they balance their diet with fiber, consume more water daily and, consequently, help in the good intestinal functioning and in the improvement of the qualityof life.

Objetivo:Evaluar la presencia de CI en estudiantes de las etapas inicial y final de las carreras de Medicina, Nutrición e Ingeniería Civil de una Universidad del extremo sur de Santa Catarina -Criciúma, a través de la ingesta de alimentos y agua, tipos de heces, si utilizan , o no, de alternativas de evacuación, comparando los hábitos alimentarios con influencia sobre el estreñimiento en estudiantes de las tres diferentes áreas. Método:Este estudio se realizó mediante un cuestionario adaptado con preguntas sobre el estilo de vida del individuo, junto con los criterios de Roma III, Roma IV y la Escala de Bristol. Resultados:Se caracterizó por 158 estudiantes, 71,5% (n=113) mujeres y sólo 28,5% (n=45) hombres. La ingesta de líquidos resultó ser baja, con un 33,5% (n=53) ingiriendo más de 1.600 ml/día. A través de la Escala de Bristol, el 15,8% (n=25) reveló evacuar Tipo 1 y 2, caracterizando CI. Respecto a los laxantes, sólo el 3,2% (n=5)confirmó su uso. La CI se verificó en el 18,6% (n=21) de las mujeres y en el 8,9% (n=4) de los hombres. Conclusión:la dieta era baja en fibra. Es notorio que los estudiantes padecen síntomas de CI. Con la ayuda de un profesional de la nutrición, es necesario que equilibren su dieta con fibra, consuman más agua diariamente y, en consecuencia, ayuden en el buen funcionamiento intestinal y en la mejora de la calidad de vida.

Constipation , Dietary Fiber , Drinking
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1403143


El procedimiento de apendicostomía continente para la realización de enemas anterógrados ha sido publicado ya hace varios años para el tratamiento de la incontinencia fecal y del estreñimiento de muy difícil manejo. Otra indicación del mismo incluye el estreñimiento severo, en el cual se agotaron las medidas farmacológicas y el único tratamiento efectivo es la realización de enemas. El objetivo principal del procedimiento es ofrecer a los niños y sus familias una alternativa a la hora de realizar los enemas, logrando una mayor adherencia al tratamiento y buscando alcanzar una mejor calidad de vida que permita adecuarse a las actividades con sus pares. Por otra parte permite al niño ir logrando cierta independencia gradual a medida que crezca, preparándolos para el futuro y haciéndolos participes activos de su cuidado. Se describen los primeros casos en donde utilizamos en nuestro medio el abordaje laparoscópico, sus indicaciones, la técnica quirúrgica y los resultados iniciales. Hemos constatado como ventaja principal los beneficios del abordaje mínimamente invasivo, como la exploración completa de la cavidad abdominal, el menor dolor postoperatorio, cicatrices más pequeñas, menor creación de adherencias.

The appendicostomy procedure for performing antegrade enemas has been published several years ago for the treatment of fecal incontinence and constipation that are very difficult to manage. The Malone procedure is performed in our setting, especially in patients with fecal incontinence secondary to neurological disorders such as myelomeningocele using a conventional approach. Other indications of it is severe constipation, in which pharmacological measures have been exhausted and the only effective treatment is enemas. The main objective of the procedure is to offer children and their families an alternative when performing enemas, achieving greater adherence to treatment and seeking to achieve a better quality of life that allows them to adapt to the activities of their peers. On the other hand, it allows the child to achieve a certain gradual independence as they grow, preparing them for the future and making them active participants in their care. The first cases in which we use the laparoscopic approach, its indications, the surgical technique and the initial results are described. We think that its main advantage is the benefits of the minimally invasive approach, such as complete exploration of the abdominal cavity, less postoperative pain, smaller scars, and less creation of adhesions.

O procedimento de apendicostomia continente para a realização de enemas anterógrados foi publicado há vários anos para o tratamento de incontinência fecal e constipação de difícil manejo. Outra indicação inclui constipação grave, na qual as medidas farmacológicas foram esgotadas e o único tratamento eficaz são os enemas. O principal objetivo do procedimento é oferecer às crianças e seus familiares uma alternativa na realização dos enemas, alcançando maior adesão ao tratamento e buscando alcançar uma melhor qualidade de vida que lhes permita adaptar-se às atividades com seus pares. Por outro lado, permite que a criança alcance uma certa independência gradual à medida que cresce, preparando-a para o futuro e tornando-a participante ativa em seus cuidados. São descritos os primeiros casos em que utilizamos a via laparoscópica, suas indicações, a técnica cirúrgica e os resultados iniciais. Confirmamos os benefícios da abordagem minimamente invasiva como principal vantagem, como exploração completa da cavidade abdominal, menos dor pós-operatória, cicatrizes menores e menor formação de aderências.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Appendectomy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Constipation/surgery , Fecal Incontinence/surgery , Appendectomy/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy/instrumentation , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 346-353, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1391193


Los trastornos funcionales gastrointestinales (TFGI) se caracterizan por síntomas atribuibles al tracto gastrointestinal que no pueden ser explicados por anormalidades estructurales ni bioquímicas. Durante el primer año de vida, pueden generar mucho malestar en el lactante y preocupación en sus padres. Su diagnóstico se basa en criterios clínicos que expertos han determinado y en una historia clínica y un examen físico completo que descartan causas orgánicas. El objetivo de esta actualización es presentar estrategias para el manejo de los TFGI más frecuentes durante el primer año de vida: cólicos, regurgitaciones, disquecia y estreñimiento, bajo la visión de los nuevos conocimientos fisiopatológicos, que eviten los estudios y medicaciones innecesarias.

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by symptoms attributable to the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be explained by the presence of structural or biochemical abnormalities. During the first year of life, FGIDs can cause great discomfort in infants and concern in their parents. The diagnosis of FGIDs is based on clinical criteria determined by experts and on a comprehensive case-taking process and physical exam to rule out organic causes. The objective of this update is to describe strategies for the management of the most frequent FGIDs during the first year of life: colics, regurgitations, dyschezia, and constipation, in light of new pathophysiological insights, to avoid unnecessary tests and medications.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Colic , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Vomiting , Prevalence , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/drug therapy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(3): 245-250, July-Sept. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421980


Background: Rectocele is a frequent finding in women and is usually asymptomatic. However, it is sometimes associated with symptoms of obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS). While most patients with ODS due to rectocele respond well to conservative treatment, some may require surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the predictors of failure of symptom improvement after rectocele repair. Methods: The study included adult women with rectocele who underwent surgical treatment by transperineal repair (TPR) or transvaginal repair (TVR). The preoperative and postoperative assessment was done using the Wexner constipation score, anorectal manometry, and defecography. Results: A total of 93 female patients with a mean age of 43.7 years were included. Among them, 65.6% of patients underwent TPR and 34.4% underwent TVR; 22 (23.7%) patients reported failure of significant improvement in ODS symptoms after surgery. The independent predictors of failure of improvement were higher preoperative Wexner score (odds ratio, OR: 1.4, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09-1.84, p = 0.009), larger residual rectocele after repair (OR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.43-6.08, p = 0.003), and lower postoperative maximum tolerable volume (OR: 0.949, 95% CI: 0.907-0.992, p = 0.02). The predictive cutoff point for the preoperative Wexner score was 15. Conclusions: Patients with a preoperative Wexner score higher than 15 and larger residual rectocele after surgery may experience little improvement in symptoms after rectocele repair. Although TPR was associated with a poorer relief of symptoms than did TVR; it was not an independent predictor of failure. (AU)

Humans , Female , Treatment Outcome , Rectocele/surgery , Symptom Assessment , Perineum/surgery , Vagina/surgery , Constipation
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(3): 234-237, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421987


Introduction: Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent disease in Western society. Chronic constipation can have a different etiology in patients who underwent a cesarean section and result from postoperative stress and metabolic response to trauma, analgesic agents, immobilization, and dietary restrictions. Chronic constipation may also occur due to puerperium-related psychological changes and to the stretching and weakening of the perineal and abdominal muscles after childbirth. Objectives: The present study analyzes intestinal transit restoration after a cesarean section and the influence of osmotic laxative agents. Methods: The present prospective, nonrandomized sample study used the ROME III questionnaire and the Bristol stool scale in adult women who underwent a cesarean section. We divided the subjects into 2 groups, each with 30 patients, to compare the effect of the prophylactic administration of an osmotic laxative. Results: We evaluated 60 randomly-chosen pregnant women from the Obstetrics ward of Hospital Santa Marcelina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, from October 2019 to March 2020. Their mean age was 26.8 years old, and the mean gestation time was 37.95 weeks. Ten patients (16.7%) presented with constipation before the cesarean section, and 38 (63.3%) had a bowel movement after the procedure. However, in 84.2% of these patients, the usual stool consistency worsened. After the cesarean section, 46.7% of the women who did not receive laxative agents had a bowel movement, compared with 80% of those who did (p = 0.0074). Conclusion: Some factors, including those related to the procedure, may hamper intestinal transit restoration after a cesarean section. Osmotic laxative agents can facilitate transit restoration with no negative effects in this group of patients. (AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Constipation/prevention & control , Postpartum Period , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Cesarean Section , Surveys and Questionnaires , Constipation/therapy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(3): 210-216, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421990


Background: Functional evacuation disorder (FED) is the second most common cause of functional constipation (FC) after constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, the data on FED is relatively scanty in our region. Hence, the present study was performed to evaluate the demographics of FED and to find out the predictors of FED in patients with chronic constipation. Methods: A total of 134 patients with chronic constipation diagnosed according to the Rome IV criteria who were referred for high-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. All FC patients who underwent HRAM were asked to fill a questionnaire and underwent anorectal manometry and were submitted to the balloon expulsion test (BET). Results: The mean age of patients was 43.09 ± 9.32 years old, with a total of 76 (54%) males. The most common symptom was straining during defecation (87%) followed by incomplete evacuation (86%). The prevalence of FED, diagnosed by HRAM and by the BET was 39%. Patients with FED had a significantly higher percentage of straining and sensation of anorectal blockade compared with those without FED (96 versus 82%; p < 0.01; 81 versus 44%; p < 0.001, respectively). On the multivariate regression analysis, straining > 30 minutes (odds ratio [OR] = 3.63; p = 0.03), maximum squeeze pressure (OR = 1.05; p < 0.001), and balloon volume at maximal sensation (OR = 1.06; p < 0.001) were found to be significant independent predictors of FED. Conclusion: Prolonged straining and sensation of anorectal blockade were significant indicators of FED in patients with chronic constipation. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Constipation/diagnosis , Rectal Diseases , Constipation/epidemiology , Defecation/physiology , Manometry