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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 302-307, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345301

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the constipation or obstructed defecation symptoms identified by using imaging, as dynamic three-dimensional ultrasound and correlate vaginal delivery, parity, and age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunctions in female patients with obstructed defection symptoms and to determine whether specific pelvic floor dysfunctions identified by dynamic three-dimensional ultrasonography (echodefecography) are correlated with vaginal delivery, parity, and age. The secondary goal is to report the prevalence of coexisting pelvic floor dysfunctions. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study including patients with obstructed defecation symptoms underwent echodefecographyto evaluate pelvic floor dysfunctions in the posterior compartment and correlate with vaginal delivery, parity, and age. RESULTS: Of 889 female: 552 (62%) had had vaginal delivery and 337 (38%) were nulliparous. The prevalence of dysfunctions identified by echodefecography (rectocele, intussusception, enterocele/sigmoidocele, and dyssynergia) was similar between the two groups and was not associated with number of deliveriesor age. However, the prevalence of sphincter defects showed higher rates in women with vaginal delivery and increased with the parity. Up to 33% of patients had coexisting dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dysfunctions such as rectocele, intussusception, dyssynergia, and enterocele/sigmoidocele assessed by echodefecography in patients with obstructed defecation symptoms are found similar regardless of vaginal delivery, number of deliveries or stratified-age. In vaginal delivery, number of deliveries does impact on detection of sphincter defects and liability to fecal incontinence.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Poucos estudos investigaram pacientes portadoras de defecação obstruída identificados por exames de imagens, como ultrassonografia tridimensional dinâmica, correlacionando parto vaginal, paridade e idade. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de disfunções do assoalho pélvico em pacientes do sexo feminino com sintomas de defecação obstruída e determinar se disfunções específicas do assoalho pélvico identificadas por ultrassonografia tridimensional dinâmica (ecodefecografia) estão correlacionadas com parto vaginal, paridade e idade. O objetivo secundário é relatar a prevalência de disfunções do assoalho pélvico coexistentes. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo de coorte retrospectivo incluindo pacientes com sintomas de obstrução da defecação submetidas à ecodefecografia para avaliar disfunções do assoalho pélvico no compartimento posterior e correlacionar com parto vaginal, paridade e idade. RESULTADOS: De 889 mulheres: 552 (62%) tiveram parto vaginal e 337 (38%) eram nulíparas. A prevalência de disfunções identificadas pela ecodefecografia (retocele, intussuscepção, enterocele/sigmoidocele e dissinergia) foi semelhante entre os dois grupos e não foi associada ao número de partos ou à idade. No entanto, a prevalência de defeitos esfincterianos apresentou taxas mais elevadas em mulheres com parto vaginal e aumentou com a paridade. Até 33% dos pacientes apresentavam disfunções coexistentes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de disfunções como retocele, intussuscepção, dissinergia e enterocele/sigmoidocele avaliada pela ecodefecografia em pacientes com sintomas de defecação obstruída são semelhantes independentemente do parto normal, número de partos ou idade estratificada. No parto vaginal, o número de partos tem impacto na detecção de defeitos esfincterianos e na possibilidade de incontinência fecal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pelvic Floor/diagnostic imaging , Defecation , Parity , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Constipation , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/epidemiology , Delivery, Obstetric
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 329-336, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining reasons causing refractory chronic constipation (RCC) in children. The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposures on this condition have been even less clear. However, some related factors may contribute to evaluation of blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Pb and Cd exposures and RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwestern Iran. METHODS: This study was performed on a total number of 48 children aged 2-13 years, including 36 medically-diagnosed RCC cases and 12 controls referring to a pediatric clinic in the city of Ahvaz. Their BLLs and BCLs were then determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data from the researcher-designed questionnaire were also recoded and the related risk factors were analyzed through Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the geometric means of Pb and Cd in blood samples in the control group were 58.95 µg/dL and 0.45 µg/dL; respectively. These values in the case group were equally 45.26 µg/dL and 0.26 µg/dL; respectively. A significant difference was additionally observed between BCLs in the case and control groups (P<0.01). All children in both groups also had BLLs greater than the permissible limit endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (≤10 µg/dL). On the other hand, 8.3% of the individuals in the case group and 33.3% of those in the control group had BCLs higher than the acceptable range mentioned by WHO (≤0.5 µg/dL). CONCLUSION: Pb and Cd exposures due to environmental pollution and susceptibility to heavy metals may not be associated with RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz. Although this research was the first one providing data on BLLs and BCLs in children with RCC, the findings could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há limitadas pesquisas que procuram razões que causem constipação crônica refratária (CCR) em crianças. Os efeitos das exposições de chumbo (Pb) e cádmio (Cd) nesta condição têm sido ainda menos claros. No entanto, alguns fatores relacionados podem contribuir para a avaliação dos níveis de Pb no sangue (NPbSs) e dos níveis de Cd no sangue (NCdSs). OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a relação entre as exposições de Pb e Cd e a CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz, província de Khuzestan, no Sudoeste do Irã. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado em um número total de 48 crianças de 2 a 13 anos, incluindo 36 casos de CCR diagnosticados clinicamente, e 12 controles encaminhados a uma clínica pediátrica na cidade de Ahvaz. Seus NPbSs e NCdSs foram então determinados usando um espectrógrafo de absorção atômica do forno de grafite. Os dados do questionário projetado pelo pesquisador também foram recodificados, e os fatores de risco relacionados foram analisados por meio da análise de correlação e regressão logística de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os achados revelaram que as médias geométricas de Pb e Cd em amostras de sangue no grupo controle foram de 58,95 μg/dL e 0,45 μg/dL; respectivamente. Esses valores no grupo constipação foram igualmente 45,26 μg/dL e 0,26 μg/dL; respectivamente. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os NCdSs nos grupos de caso e controle (P<0,01). Todas as crianças de ambos os grupos também apresentaram NPbSs maiores do que o limite permitido endossado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) (≤10 μg/dL). Por outro lado, 8,3% dos indivíduos no grupo de casos e 33,3% dos do grupo controle apresentaram NCdSs superiores à faixa aceitável mencionada pela OMS (≤0,5 μg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: As exposições de Pb e Cd por poluição ambiental e suscetibilidade a metais pesados podem não estar associadas à CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz. Embora esta pesquisa tenha sido a primeira a fornecer dados sobre NPbSs e NCdSs em crianças com CCR, os achados poderiam ser úteis para a concepção de futuros estudos epidemiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Risk Factors , Constipation/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 169-177, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134309

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Toilet training (TT) is an important marker in a child's physical and psychosocial development. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects associated to delayed TT. Material and Methods: We interviewed 372 parents of children who had completed TT up to 48 months before the interview. The questionnaires were applied at school exits when parents went to pick their children up and at public parks. Questions included demographics, aspects related to TT, dysfunction voiding symptom score and evaluation of constipation. Results: The interviews were performed at a mean of 15.3±10.4 (0 to 47) months after the end of TT. Girls accounted for 53% of the sample. The mean age at finishing TT was 31.6±9.3 months and similar in both genders (p=0.77). TT occurred before school entry in 45.7% of the children and medical advice for TT was sought only by 4.8% of the parents. No association was observed of age at completing TT and presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (p=0.57) and/or constipation (p=0.98). In the univariate analysis, prematurity (OR=2.7 [95% CI 2.3-3.1], p <0.0001) and mothers who work outside their household (OR=1.8 [95% CI 1.4-2.3], p <0.0001) were associated to delayed TT. Conclusion: Children completed TT at a mean of 2 years and 7 months of age. The age of completing TT was not related to LUTS and/or constipation. Premature children and those whose mothers work outside the home finish TT later.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Toilet Training , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Surveys and Questionnaires , Constipation
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S39-S47, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147361

ABSTRACT

El estreñimiento funcional es un motivo de consulta frecuente en pediatría, con una prevalencia del 3 %. El Grupo de Trabajo de Constipación del Comité de Gastroenterología de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría se reunió con el objetivo de actualizar el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la constipación funcional en pediatría.Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura para evaluar la calidad de la evidencia. Ante un paciente constipado, es fundamental una historia y examen clínico completos. Los Criterios de Roma IV establecen pautas que, habitualmente, permiten diagnosticar la constipación funcional y evitar estudios innecesarios. La realización de estudios diagnósticos solo se pondrá en consideración ante la presencia de respuesta refractaria al tratamiento médico o en los casos de signos de alarma (banderas rojas). El primer paso del tratamiento es la desimpactación (por vía oral o enemas), seguida del tratamiento dietético, de hábitos y laxantes (es de primera elección el polietilenglicol).


Functional constipation is a common disease and one of the most frequent reasons of visit in pediatric clinics with a 3 % of prevalence. The Constipation Working Group of the Gastroenterology Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría met with the objective of updating the diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation in pediatrics.A literature search was performed to assess the quality of the evidence. In a constipated patient, a complete history and clinical examination is essential. The Rome IV Criteria establish guidelines that usually allow us to diagnose functional constipation, avoiding unnecessary studies. The performance of diagnostic studies will only be considered in the absence of response to medical treatment or in cases of alarm signs (red flags). The first step of treatment is disimpaction (orally or enemas), followed by dietary treatment, habits and laxatives, with polyethylene glycol being the first choice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Constipation/diagnosis , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Constipation/drug therapy , Constipation/therapy , Fecal Incontinence
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878876

ABSTRACT

The effect of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules(SHTB) on the endogenous metabolites of colon tissue in mice with slow transit constipation was analyzed by metabolomics methods to explore its mechanism in the treatment of constipation. ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group and SHTB group according to the body weight. The mice were given diphenoxylate to establish the slow transit constipation model. Mouse carbon ink pushing rate, first defecation time and the number of defecation particles in 12 h were observed. The mouse colon tissue was separated and the mucous cells were detected by Periodic acid Schiff and Alcian blue(AB-PAS) staining. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS) technology was used to characterize the differences in tissue metabolism to screen out the potential different metabolites and possible metabolic pathways in colon tissue. The results indicated that SHTB could significantly shorten the first defecation time and the number of defecations, and increase the number of intestinal peristalsis and mucous cells in the colonic mucosa compared to the model mice. Metabolomics results showed that, compared with the normal group, a total of 17 potential biomarkers, including L-kynurenine, N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine, L-formylkynurenine, N6-acetyl-L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, phenylacetaldehyde, xanthoxin, thymidine, glycyl-L-leucine, cystathionine,(R)-1-aminopropan-2-ol, deoxycytidine, gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyraldehyde, D-galactose, L-arginine, L-proline and pyruvate, were found and identified in colon tissue. Treated with SHTB, these metabolic differences tended to return to normal levels. Therefore, it could be made a conclusion that the therapeutic effect of SHTB on chronic transit constipation may be related to regulating phenylalanine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis, pyrimidine metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle and galactose metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Constipation/drug therapy , Metabolomics , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878874

ABSTRACT

Shouhui Tongbian Capsules was used to explore the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism on slow transit constipation model mice induced by loperamide hydrochloride. In the experiment, loperamide hydrochloride-induced ICR mice were used as the model of slow transit constipation. Fifty ICR mice were divided into the blank group, model group and high, medium and low dose groups of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules extract(100, 200 and 400 mg·kg~(-1)). The model group and the administration groups were then modeled using loperamide hydrochloride intragastrically to obtain slow transit constipation. After successful modeling, high, medium and low doses of drugs were given to each drug group by intragastric administration. After 14 days of administration, the first defecation time, 6 h defecation grain number, 6 h defecation wet weight and dry weight, black feces discharged within 6 h and the fecal water content were measured. Intestinal tissues were taken for c-Kit and SCF immunohistochemical sections to detect the expression of c-Kit and SCF in the blank group, model group and high, medium and low dose groups of the medicinal extract of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules. The tissue changes in the intestinal wall of mice were detected by HE staining. At the same time, partial intestinal tissues were taken to test the activity of ATP synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in intestinal tissues of mice. RESULTS:: showed that Shouhui Tongbian Capsules effectively improved the symptoms of slow transit constipation in ICR mice and promoted intestinal movement. Shouhui Tongbian Capsules obviously shortened the time of discharging black stool for the first time, improved the intestinal propulsion rate, increased the water content and amount of feces, and improved the constipation symptoms. Mechanism study revealed that Shouhui Tongbian Capsules increased ATP synthase activity and mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase activity in intestinal tissue, and up-regulated c-Kit/SCF signaling pathway to promote interstitial Cajal cells proliferation, intestinal nerve transmission, intestinal motility and transport capacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsules , Constipation/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Transit , Loperamide , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878873

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanism of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules in treating constipation by means of network pharmacology and molecular docking approach. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and Bioinfoematics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine(BATMAN) were applied to obtain chemical components and potential targets of eight herbs in Shouhui Tongbian Capsules according to the screening principles of oral availability(OB)≥30% and drug-like property(DL)≥0.18. Disease targets relating to constipation were screened out through GeneCards, PharmGkb and other databases, drug targets were integrated with disease targets, and intersection targets were exactly the potential action targets of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules for treating constipation; PPI network of potential targets was constructed using STRING platform, and GO(gene ontology) analysis and KEGG(Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathway data were obtained to conduct enrichment analysis and predict its mechanism of action. Cytoscape 3.6.1 was used to construct a network of "medicinal materials-chemical components-drug targets", and the network topology analysis was carried out on the PPI network to obtain its main components and key targets. Molecular docking between components and key targets of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules verified the accuracy of network pharmacological analysis results. The PPI network analysis showed 92 chemical components, including quercetin, stigmaste-rol, aloe-emodin, rhein, and key targets for instance AKT1, MAPK1, IL6, JUN, TNF and TP53. The enrichment analysis of KEGG screened out 157 signal pathways(P<0.01), mainly involving interleukin 17 signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, thyroid hormone signaling pathway. Quercetin, resveratrol and lysine with top degree value had a rational conformation in docking site of protein crystal complexes. This study preliminarily showed that various active ingredients in Shouhui Tongbian Capsules could regulate multiple signaling pathways, increase intestinal smoothness and peristalsis function, ensure smooth intestinal lumen, and play a role in treating constipation by acting on key targets, such as AKT1, MAPK1, IL6 and JUN.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Constipation/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021260, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249020

ABSTRACT

Background Intestinal duplications are rare congenital developmental anomalies with an incidence of 0.005-0.025% of births. They are usually identified before 2 years of age and commonly affect the foregut or mid-/hindgut. However, it is very uncommon for these anomalies, to arise in the colon or present during adulthood. Case presentation Herein, we present a case of a 28-year-old woman with a long-standing history of constipation, tenesmus, and rectal prolapse. Colonoscopy results were normal. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a diffusely mildly dilated redundant colon, which was prominently stool-filled. The gastrografin enema showed ahaustral mucosal appearance of the sigmoid and descending colon with findings suggestive of tricompartmental pelvic floor prolapse, moderate-size anterior rectocele, and grade 2 sigmoidocele. A laparoscopic exploration was performed, revealing a tubular duplicated colon at the sigmoid level. A sigmoid resection rectopexy was performed. Pathologic examination supported the diagnosis. At 1-month follow-up, the patient was doing well without constipation or rectal prolapse. Conclusions Tubular colonic duplications are very rare in adults but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic constipation refractory to medical therapy. Due to the non-specific manifestations of this entity, it is rather challenging to make an accurate diagnosis pre-operatively. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Some reports suggest that carcinomas are more prone to develop in colonic/rectal duplications than in other GI tract duplications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Congenital Abnormalities , Colon/abnormalities , Constipation/complications , Diagnosis, Differential
9.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(4): e20200520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1279021

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo identificar os principais sinais e sintomas manifestados por pacientes em cuidados paliativos oncológicos na assistência domiciliar. Método revisão integrativa nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e CINAHL em janeiro de 2020. Perguntou-se: "Quais os principais sinais e sintomas manifestados por pacientes em cuidados paliativos oncológicos destacados nos estudos abrangendo o contexto do domicílio?". Foram descritores/termos: Sinais e Sintomas/Signs and Symptoms; Assistência Domiciliar/Home Care Services; Cuidados Paliativos/Palliative Care e Neoplasias/Neoplasms. Elencaram-se como critérios de elegibilidade: texto completo; entre 2015 e 2019; em inglês, português ou espanhol e idade adulta. Para o mapeamento dos dados, consideraram-se: título; país; ano; objetivo; método; sinais e sintomas. Os resultados foram categorizados em subgrupos, considerando a classificação conceitual predeterminada (sinal e sintoma). O elemento contagem facilitou a análise e a comparação de dados. Resultados foram selecionados 35 artigos, sendo identificados 25 sinais e 23 sintomas. Os mais frequentes foram: dor, náusea/vômito, dispneia, fadiga, depressão, ansiedade, constipação, perda de apetite, sonolência, bem-estar e insônia. A maioria (39) relacionou-se ao domínio físico. Conclusão a identificação dos principais sinais e sintomas, neste contexto, direciona a prática dos profissionais de saúde para as intervenções mais adequadas e o mais precocemente possível, contribuindo para viabilizar a assistência domiciliar, e alerta para a necessidade de educação permanente sobre este tema.


Resumen Objetivo identificar los principales signos y síntomas que manifiestan los pacientes en cuidados oncológicos paliativos en la atención domiciliaria. Método revisión integradora basada en LILACS, MEDLINE y CINAHL en enero de 2020. Se preguntó: "¿Cuáles son los principales signos y síntomas que manifiestan los pacientes en cuidados paliativos oncológicos destacados en estudios que abarcan el contexto del hogar?". Los descriptores / términos fueron: signos y síntomas / /Signs and Symptoms; Asistencia domiciliaria / Home Care Services; Cuidados paliativos / Palliative Care / y Neoplasias/ Neoplasms. Se enumeraron los siguientes criterios de elegibilidad: texto completo; entre 2015 y 2019; en inglés, portugués o español y edad adulta. Para el mapeo de datos, se consideraron los siguientes: título; padres; año; objetivo; método; signos y síntomas. Los resultados se categorizaron en subgrupos, considerando la clasificación conceptual predeterminada (signo y síntoma). El elemento de conteo facilitó el análisis y la comparación de datos. Resultados Se seleccionaron 35 artículos, se identificaron 25 signos y 23 síntomas. Los más frecuentes fueron: dolor, náuseas / vómitos, disnea, fatiga, depresión, ansiedad, estreñimiento, pérdida de apetito, somnolencia, bienestar e insomnio. La mayoría (39) estaban relacionados con el dominio físico. Conclusión la identificación de los principales signos y síntomas, en este contexto, orienta la práctica de los profesionales de la salud hacia las intervenciones más adecuadas y lo más temprano posible, contribuyendo a hacer factible la atención domiciliaria, y alerta sobre la necesidad de una educación permanente sobre este tema.


Abstract Objective to identify the main signs and symptoms manifested by palliative care oncology patients in home care. Method integrative review in LILACS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases in January 2020. The question was asked: "What are the main signs and symptoms manifested by patients in palliative oncology care highlighted in studies covering the context of the home?" Descriptors/terms were: Signs and Symptoms/Signs and Symptoms; Home Care/Home Care Services; Palliative Care/Palliative Care and Neoplasms/Neoplasms. Eligibility criteria were listed as follows: full text; between 2015 and 2019; in English, Portuguese or Spanish and adult age. For data mapping, the following were considered: title; country; year; objective; method; signs and symptoms. The results were categorized into subgroups, considering the predetermined conceptual classification (sign and symptom). The counting element facilitated the analysis and comparison of data. Results a total of 35 articles were selected, and 25 signs and 23 symptoms were identified. The most frequent were: pain, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea, fatigue, depression, anxiety, constipation, loss of appetite, sleepiness, well-being, and insomnia. Most (39) were related to the physical domain. Conclusion the identification of the main signs and symptoms, in this context, directs the practice of health professionals to the most appropriate interventions as early as possible, contributing to the feasibility of home care, and alerts to the need for continuing education on this topic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Palliative Care , Death , Home Nursing , Neoplasms , Anxiety , Quality of Life , Anorexia , Constipation , Depression , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Cancer Pain , Sleepiness , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Nausea
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879077

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium officinale is a sacred product for nourishing Yin and has a clear "thick gastrointestinal" effect. Modern pharmacological studies had found that it could improve gastrointestinal function. This study observed the improvement effect of D. officinale on constipation model mice with Yin deficiency caused by warm-drying medicine. It provided experimental basis for the treatment of Yin deficiency constipation. The male and female ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, D. officinale high, medium and low dose groups(0.6, 0.4, 0.2 g·kg~(-1)), and phenolphthalein tablets group. The model mice of Yin deficiency constipation were established by gavage with warm-drying medicine. The overall state and body temperature of the mice were observed and recorded. The number of feces, feces weight, fecal moisture content and intestinal propulsion were measured. The morphological damage of colon tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) in the colon was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemical method. The expression of iNOS mRNA in the colon was detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the serum cyclic guanosine phosphate(cGMP) level was detected the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The results showed that D. candidum could reduce the body temperature of mice with Yin deficiency constipation, increase the number of feces, wet feces, dry feces and intestinal propulsion ability, reduce the expression of iNOS protein and mRNA in the colon, and reduce the content of cGMP in the serum. It showed that D. candidum could improve the symptoms of Yin deficiency constipation mice caused by warm-drying medicine, and the mechanism may be related to reducing the expression of iNOS in the colon and increasing intestinal motility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Constipation/drug therapy , Dendrobium , Female , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Yin Deficiency/genetics
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 498-506, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142347

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is a type 2 chloride channel activator that has been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment for chronic constipation. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing efficacy of lubiprostone for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) and opioid-induced constipation (OIC). METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Lubiprostone RCTs reporting outcomes of spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) and abdominal pain or discomfort were deemed eligible. Meta-analysis was performed calculating risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals, using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model. RESULTS: Searches yielded 109 records representing 93 non-duplicate publications, and 11 RCTs (978 CIC, 1,366 IBS-C, 1,300 OIC, total = 3,644) met inclusion criteria. Qualitative synthesis showed that for CIC patients, lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM outcomes. Meta-analysis for CIC was feasible for full responder and SBM within 24h rates, indicating superiority of lubiprostone over placebo. For IBS-C, lubiprostone was significantly superior for all SBM outcomes in follow-ups ranging from 1 week-3 months. In terms of abdominal pain, lubiprostone provided significantly better symptoms relief, particularly after 1 month of treatment. For OIC, lubiprostone was more effective than placebo for both SBM and discomfort measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM frequency for CIC, IBS-C and OIC. In terms of abdominal symptoms, the most pronounced effect was seen for abdominal pain in IBS-C patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Lubiprostona é um ativador de canal de cloreto tipo 2 que tem se demonstrado eficaz e seguro no tratamento da constipação crônica. OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) avaliando a eficácia da lubiprostona para pacientes com constipação idiopática crônica (CIC), síndrome do intestino irritável com constipação predominante (IBS-C) e constipação induzida por opioide (OIC). MÉTODOS: Buscas foram conduzidas no PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database e Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. ECRs de lubiprostona relatando desfechos de movimentos intestinais espontâneos (SBM) e dor ou desconforto abdominal foram considerados elegíveis. Metanálise foi realizada calculando razão de riscos e intervalos de confiança de 95%, utilizando o método de Mantel-Haenszel e modelo de efeitos aleatórios. RESULTADOS: As buscas identificaram 109 registros representando 93 publicações não-duplicadas e 11 ECRs (978 pacientes de CIC, 1366 de IBS-C e 1300 OIC, total = 3644) preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Síntese qualitativa mostrou que, para pacientes com CIC, a lubiprostona foi superior ao placebo em termos de desfechos SBM. Metanálise para CIC foi possível para os desfechos de responder completo e taxa de SBM em 24 horas, indicando superioridade da lubiprostona sobre o placebo. Para IBS-C, lubiprostona foi significativamente superior para todos os desfechos de SBM em tempos de seguimento variando de 1 semana a 3 meses. Em termos de dor abdominal, lubiprostona proporciono alívio dos sintomas significativamente melhor, particularmente após 1 mês de tratamento. Para OIC, lubiprostona foi mais efetiva do que placebo tanto para medidas de SBM quando de desconforto abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados demonstraram que lubiprostona é superior ao placebo em termos de frequência de SBM para CIC, IBS-C e OIC. Em termos de sintomas abdominais, o efeito mais pronunciado foi visto para dor abdominal em pacientes com IBS-C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constipation/drug therapy , Lubiprostone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Constipation/chemically induced , Defecation , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid
12.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 354-360, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cancer patients may have gastrointestinal changes that influence nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal changes resulting from outpatient chemotherapy treatment in cancer patients. METHODS: In a retrospective longitudinal study, the nutritional status and chemotherapy gastrointestinal changes (nausea, vomit, diarrhea, constipation, mucositis, dysphagia, xerostomia, inappetence, dysgeusia and heartburn) in cancer patients (n=187) were investigated in an outpatient follow-up. For the study of the parameters over time, the generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman coefficient, at a significance level of 5% were also used. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were female (63.64%) and the mean age was 57.5±12.1 years. The most frequent symptoms were nausea (18.54%); inappetence (18.31%); intestinal constipation (11.58%); diarrhea (7.98%); xerostomia (7.59%) and vomiting (7.43%). The nutritional status did not exhibit any relevant changes (P=0.7594). However, a higher prevalence of eutrophy was observed, followed by overweight; vomiting exhibited a significant difference (P=0.0211). The nausea symptom exhibited a significant difference with a higher prevalence of colorectal neoplasia when compared to breast neoplasia (P=0.0062); as well as vomiting in lung and colorectal neoplasias (P=0.0022), and dysphagia, in head and neck neoplasia, when compared to other neoplasms (P<0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the number of medical appointments and gender (P=0.0102) and between dysphagia and gender (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The study findings enhance the need for signs and symptoms follow up, as well as nutritional status follow up of patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Pacientes oncológicos podem apresentar alterações gastrointestinais que influenciam o estado nutricional. OBJETIVO: Investigar a ocorrência de alterações gastrointestinais decorrentes do tratamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia, em pacientes oncológicos. MÉTODOS: Num estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, investigou-se o estado nutricional e as alterações gastrointestinais (náuseas, vômito, diarreia, constipação, mucosite, disfagia, xerostomia, inapetência, disgeusia e pirose) de pacientes oncológicos (n=187), em acompanhamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia. Para o estudo dos parâmetros ao longo do tempo, utilizou-se o método das equações de estimação generalizadas (EEG). Também foram utilizados os testes de Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney e o coeficiente de Spearman, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (63,64%) e a média de idade foi 57,5±12,1 anos. Os sintomas mais frequentes foram náuseas (18,54%); inapetência (18,31%); constipação intestinal (11,58%); diarreia (7,98%); xerostomia (7,59%) e vômito (7,43%). O estado nutricional não apresentou alterações relevantes (P=0,7594). No entanto, observou-se maior prevalência de eutrofia, seguido do sobrepeso e o vômito apresentou diferença significativa (P=0,0211). O sintoma de náusea apresentou diferença significativa com maior prevalência na neoplasia colorretal, quando comparado à neoplasia de mama (P=0,0062); assim como o vômito nas neoplasias de pulmão e colorretal (P=0,0022). E a disfagia, na neoplasia de cabeça e pescoço, quando comparada às demais neoplasias (P<0,001). Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o número de consultas médicas e sexo (P=0,0102) e entre disfagia e sexo (P<0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Os achados encontrados no estudo permitem reforçar a necessidade do acompanhamento de sinais e sintomas, bem como do estado nutricional, de pacientes em acompanhamento ambulatorial de quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Outpatients , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Vomiting/etiology , Weight Loss , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Constipation/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Middle Aged , Nausea
14.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51231, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146476

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar os diagnósticos de enfermagem prevalentes em estudantes de enfermagem, na perspectiva das necessidades psicobiológicas autorreferidas, descrever os resultados esperados e propor intervenções de enfermagem. Método: estudo quantitativo, exploratório e descritivo, realizado em 2018 com 156 estudantes do curso de graduação em enfermagem, após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Utilizou-se um questionário autoaplicável e a análise foi a partir do software estatístico SPSS, por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados: os diagnósticos de enfermagem mais prevalentes foram: fadiga (93,6%), insônia (67,5%), estilo de vida sedentário (54,5%) e constipação (53,8%). Foram elencados objetivos a serem alcançados a partir desses diagnósticos, e então determinadas possíveis intervenções. Conclusão: observou-se que, dos quatro diagnósticos mais prevalentes, dois apresentavam o estresse e a ansiedade como fatores contribuintes para o surgimento. Assim, faz-se necessário que as instituições de ensino superior adotem medidas de enfrentamento e promoção da saúde dos estudantes frente a esses aspectos.


Objective: to identify the nursing diagnoses prevalent in nursing students, from self-reported psychobiological needs, to describe the results expected, and propose nursing interventions. Method: this quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study of 156 undergraduate nursing students was conducted in 2018, after approval by the research ethics committee. A selfadministered questionnaire was used and data analysis was based on the statistical software SPSS, by means of descriptive statistics. Results: the most prevalent nursing diagnoses were: fatigue (93.6%), insomnia (67.5%), sedentary lifestyle (54.5%) and constipation (53.8%). Objectives to be achieved from these diagnoses were listed, and then possible interventions were determined. Conclusion: of the four most prevalent diagnoses, two involved stress and anxiety as contributing factors. Higher education institutions should thus adopt measures to address these conditions and promote students' health accordingly.


Objetivo: identificar los diagnósticos de enfermería prevalentes en estudiantes de enfermería, a partir de las necesidades psicobiológicas autoinformadas, describir los resultados esperados y proponer intervenciones de enfermería. Método: este estudio cuantitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo de 156 estudiantes de pregrado en enfermería se realizó en 2018, luego de la aprobación del comité de ética en investigación. Se utilizó un cuestionario autoadministrado y el análisis de los datos se basó en el software estadístico SPSS, mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: los diagnósticos de enfermería más prevalentes fueron: fatiga (93,6%), insomnio (67,5%), sedentarismo (54,5%) y estreñimiento (53,8%). Se enumeraron los objetivos a alcanzar a partir de estos diagnósticos y luego se determinaron las posibles intervenciones. Conclusión: de los cuatro diagnósticos más prevalentes, dos involucraron estrés y ansiedad como factores contribuyentes. Por tanto, las instituciones de educación superior deberían adoptar medidas para abordar estas condiciones y promover la salud de los estudiantes en consecuencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Nursing , Nursing Diagnosis , Higher Education Institutions , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Health Services Needs and Demand , Nursing Process , Anxiety , Brazil , Student Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Constipation , Fatigue , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): 350-357, oct 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122544

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Hirschsprung ocurre en 1 de cada 5000 nacimientos. La falla de migración de las células ganglionares desde la cresta neural en dirección cefalocaudal genera su ausencia en parte o todo el colon. Se manifiesta con falta de eliminación de meconio, distensión abdominal y dificultades en la evacuación. Luego del tratamiento quirúrgico, existen complicaciones a corto y largo plazo. El objetivo de esta publicación es describir las principales causas de síntomas persistentes en los pacientes operados por enfermedad de Hirschsprung y presentar un algoritmo diagnóstico-terapéutico factible de ser realizado en nuestro medio


Hirschsprung disease is characterized by the lack of migration of intrinsic parasympathetic ganglia from neural crest and consequently absence of them at varying length of the bowel, resulting in functional obstruction. The incidence is 1 per 5000 births. After surgery, short term and long term comorbidity commonly occurs. The aim of this article is to revise the main causes of ongoing symptoms after surgery in Hirschsprung disease patients and to show a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm that can be developed in our community


Subject(s)
Humans , Hirschsprung Disease/surgery , Hirschsprung Disease/diagnosis , Hirschsprung Disease/therapy , Pediatrics , Chronic Disease , Constipation/diet therapy , Constipation/etiology , Enterocolitis/diet therapy , Enterocolitis/etiology , Fecal Incontinence/diet therapy , Fecal Incontinence/etiology
16.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 389-394, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138729

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En pacientes constipados crónicos por obstrucción de salida, la contracción paradojal del puborrectal (CPP) o "anismo" es frecuente. El tratamiento con Biofeedback y rehabilitación pelviperineal presenta resultados exitosos entre el 40-90%. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado del tratamiento con Biofeedback y rehabilitación pelviperineal en pacientes con CPP a corto plazo. Materiales y Método: Serie de casos. Datos obtenidos prospectivamente de la Unidad de Piso Pelviano. Se incluyó pacientes entre 2008 y 2015 que cumplían criterios de constipación crónica secundaria a CPP, confirmado por manometría anorrectal y/o defeco-resonancia. Se analizaron datos demográficos, frecuencia de evacuaciones, uso de laxantes, enemas, pujo, Score de Altomare y Score de constipación de Wexner pre y post-tratamiento. Resultados: 43 pacientes, de los cuales 39 son mujeres. Edad media de 40 años (rango: 14-84). Duración de síntomas fue ≥ 5 años en el 72,5%. Mediana de sesiones de Biofeedback de 8 (6-10). El 62,8% presenta ≤ 2 evacuaciones semanales y disminuye a un 29,3% post-tratamiento (p < 0,001). El 76,2% requiere laxantes orales y el 42,9% enemas, disminuyendo a 35,1% (p < 0,001) y 5,4% (p < 0,001) respectivamente post-tratamiento. Sensación de evacuación incompleta/fragmentada en todos los intentos mejoró de 67,4% a 14,6% (p < 0,001) y el pujo excesivo en más de la mitad de intentos mejoró de 76,1% a 10,8% (p < 0,001). Score de Wexner para constipación y Altomare mejoró de 18 a 7 (p < 0,001) y de 16 a 5 (p < 0,001) respectivamente. Conclusión: El biofeedback y la rehabilitación pelviperineal son efectivas en el tratamiento de la CPP.


Introduction: In patients with chronic constipation by obstructive defecation syndrome Paradoxical Puborectalis Contraction or "anismus" is important. Successful results for Biofeedback treatment and Pelviperineal Rehabilitation it described between 40-90%. Aim: To evaluate the outcome of biofeedback and pelviperineal rehabilitation in patients with CPP in the short-term. Materials and Method: Case series. Data was obtained from the prospective database of Pelvic Floor Unit of Universidad Católica de Chile. Patients with anismus were included between 2008 and 2015. Diagnostic criteria were chronic constipation patients by anismus with anorectal manometry and/or defecoresonancy that confirms this disorder and discards other causes of obstruted defecation síndrome. Demographic variables, frequency of bowel movements, use of laxatives, enemas, pushing, Altomare Score and Wexner constipation Score were analyzed pre and post-treatment. Results: Series of 43 patients, 39 of whom where women. Median age: 40 years (range: 14-84). Duration of symptoms ≥ 5 years in 72.5%. Median of Biofeedback sessions: 8 (range 6-10). Pre-treatment, 62.8% had ≤ 2 evacuations weekly and 29.3% post-treatment (p < 0.001). Oral laxatives were required in 76.2% and 42.9% enemas, decreasing to 35.1% (p < 0.001) and 5.4% (p < 0.001) post-treatment respectively. Feeling of incomplete/evacuation fragmented all the time improved from 67.4% to 14.6% (p < 0.001) and excessive pushing in more than half of time improved from 76.1% to 10.8% (p < 0.001). Wexner Score for and Altomare Score improved from 18 to 7 (p < 0.001) and 16 to 5 (p < 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Adult with chronic constipation by anismus can be treated effectively with Biofeedback and Pelviperineal Rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofeedback, Psychology/methods , Constipation/therapy , Defecation , Prospective Studies , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Constipation/physiopathology
17.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 247-252, July-Sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134991

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anorectal physiology tests are indicated for patients who have refractory symptoms of constipation, but the best sequence of investigation remains controversial. Objective: To evaluate the influence of colonic transit time and anorectal manometry in the diagnosis of chronic constipation in adults. Method: This was a study of adult patients with constipation at a private clinic in a city in southern Brazil, from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2018. Those who showed warning signs were referred for colonoscopy and those with any anatomical alterations were excluded. The patients received 10 g of psyllium and those who remained symptomatic after three weeks were referred for functional assessment with colonic transit time (CTT). Those who presented outlet obstruction in the colonic transit time were referred to anorectal manometry. Results: Of the 889 adult patients surveyed, 227 were included. Of the 216 who completed the study, 167 responded to primary treatment. Forty-nine underwent CTT. In these, 16 had normal colonic transit time and 33 were altered. In those with altered colonic transit time, eight had a pattern of colonic inertia and 25 had an obstruction pattern. The 25 patients with an outlet obstruction pattern underwent anorectal manometry. Eighteen had signs of paradoxical contracture of the puborectal muscle (PPRC) and seven did not. Conclusion: This study concluded that anorectal physiology exams contribute to the diagnosis of constipation, often changing the behavior. These exams should be performed whenever the patient does not respond to hygienic changes and fiber replacement.


Resumo Introdução: Os exames de fisiologia anorretal estão indicados nos pacientes que mantém sintomas refratários de constipação, porém uma sequência desejada de investigação permanece contraditória. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do tempo de trânsito colônico e da manometria anorretal no diagnóstico da constipação crônica de adultos. Método: Estudamos os pacientes adultos de uma clínica privada em uma cidade do sul do Brasil, no período de 01 de Janeiro de 2009 a 31 de Dezembro de 2018 apresentando constipação. Aqueles que apresentassem sinais de alerta, eram encaminhados a colonoscopia e com qualquer alteração anatômica eram excluídos. Foram prescritos 10 g de Psyllium e aqueles que permaneceram sintomáticos após três semanas foram encaminhados à avaliação funcional com tempo de trânsito colônico (TTC). Os que apresentavam obstrução de saída ao tempo de trânsito colônico foram encaminhados a manometria anorretal. Resultados: Dos 889 pacientes adultos levantados, 227 foram incluídos. Dos 216 que concluíram o estudo, 167 responderam ao tratamento primário. Quarenta e nove realizaram TTC. Nestes, 16 tiveram tempo de trânsito colônico normal e 33 alterado. Naqueles com tempo de trânsito colônico alterado: oito tinham padrão de inércia colônica e 25, padrão de obstrução de saída. Os 25 pacientes com padrão de obstrução de saída foram submetidos à manometria anorretal. Dezoito tinham sinais de Contratura Paradoxal do músculo Puborretal (CPPR) e sete não. Conclusão: Concluímos que os exames de fisiologia anorretal contribuem para o diagnóstico da constipação, muitas vezes alterando a conduta. Estes exames devem ser realizados sempre que o paciente não responder as alterações higienodietéticas e a reposição de fibras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Gastrointestinal Transit , Constipation/physiopathology , Manometry , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/drug therapy
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 306-310, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131679

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Evacuation disorders are prevalent in the adult population, and a significant portion of cases may originate from pelvic floor muscle dysfunctions. Anorectal manometry (ARM) is an important diagnostic tool and can guide conservative treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of pelvic dysfunction in patients with evacuation disorders through clinical and manometric findings and to evaluate, using the same findings, whether there are published protocols that could be guided by anorectal manometry. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 278 anorectal manometries performed for the investigation of evacuation disorders in patients seen at the anorectal physiology outpatient clinic of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto between January 2015 to June 2019 was conducted. The following parameters were calculated: resting pressure (RP), squeeze pressure (SP), high-pressure zone (HPZ), rectal sensitivity (RS) and rectal capacity (RC). The pressure measurements and manometric plots were reviewed to determine the diagnosis and to propose potential pelvic physical therapy procedures. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the continuous variables and to evaluate the equality of variances between groups of patients with fecal incontinence (FI) and chronic constipation (CC). Results with a significance level lower than 0.05 (P-value <0.05) were considered statistically significant. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM® SPSS® Statistics version 20. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 45±22 years, with a predominance of females (64.4%) and economically inactive (72.7%) patients. The indications for exam performance were FI (65.8%) and CC (34.2%). Patients with FI had lower RP (41.9 mmHg x 67.6 mmHg; P<0.001), SP (85.4 mmHg x 116.0 mmHg; P<0.001), HPZ (1.49 cm x 2.42 cm; P<0.001), RS (57.9 mL x 71.5 mL; P=0.044) and RC (146.2 mL x 195.5 mL; P<0.001) compared to those of patients with CC. For patients with FI, the main diagnosis was the absence of a functional anal canal (49.7%). For patients with CC, the main diagnosis was outflow tract obstruction (54.7%). For patients with FI, the main protocol involved a combination of anorectal biofeedback (aBF) with tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) (57.9%). For patients with CC, the most indicated protocol was aBF combined with TNS and rectal balloon training (RBT) (54.7%). CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of pelvic floor changes in patients with evacuation disorders. There was a high potential for performing pelvic floor physical therapy based on the clinical and manometric findings.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os distúrbios evacuatórios são prevalentes na população adulta e uma parcela significativa dos casos pode ter origem a partir de disfunções da musculatura do assoalho pélvico. A manometria anorretal (MAR) é importante ferramenta diagnóstica e pode guiar o tratamento conservador. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de disfunção pélvica em pacientes com distúrbios de evacuação por meio de achados clínicos e manométricos e avaliar, usando os mesmos achados, se existem protocolos publicados que possam ser guiados pela MAR. MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se uma análise retrospectiva de um banco de dados prospectivo de 278 manometrias anorretais realizadas para investigação de distúrbios evacuatórios em pacientes do ambulatório de fisiologia anorretal do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, de janeiro de 2015 a junho de 2019. Os seguintes parâmetros foram calculados: pressão de repouso (RP), pressão de contração voluntária (PVC), canal anal funcional (CAF), sensibilidade retal (SR) e capacidade retal (CR). As medidas pressóricas e os gráficos manométricos foram revisados para elaboração do diagnóstico e para a proposição dos potenciais procedimentos de fisioterapia pélvica. Para comparação das variáveis contínuas e avaliação da igualdade entre variâncias, utilizou-se a análise de variância (ANOVA) e o teste exato de Fisher, entre os grupos de pacientes com incontinência fecal (IF) e constipação crônica (CC). Resultados com nível de significância menor que 0,05 (P-valor <0,05) foram considerados estatisticamente relevantes. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o programa IBM® SPSS® Statistics, versão 20. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 45±22 anos de idade, com predomínio do sexo feminino (64,4%) e economicamente inativo (72,7%). As indicações para a realização do exame foram IF (65,8%) e CC (34,2%). Pacientes com IF apresentaram menores valores de PR (41,9 mmHg x 67,6 mmHg; P<0,001), PCV (85,4 mmHg x 116,0 mmHg; P<0,001) CAF (1,49 cm x 2,42 cm; P<0,001), SR (57,9 mL x 71,5 mL; P=0,044) e CR (146,2 mL x 195,5 mL; P<0,001), quando comparados aos pacientes com CC. Nos pacientes com IF, o principal diagnóstico foi de ausência de canal anal funcional (49,7%). Em pacientes com CI, o principal diagnóstico foi de obstrução da via de saída (54,7%). Para pacientes com IF, o principal protocolo foi a associação do biofeedback anorretal (BFa) com estimulação do nervo tibial (ENT) (57,9%). Já nos pacientes com CC, o protocolo mais indicado foi o de BFa associado à ENT e treinamento com balão retal (54,7%). CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se elevada prevalência de alterações no assoalho pélvico de pacientes com distúrbios evacuatórios. Verificou-se elevado potencial para realização de fisioterapia do assoalho pélvico com base nos achados clínicos e manométricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Fecal Incontinence/therapy , Anal Canal , Rectum , Retrospective Studies , Physical Therapy Modalities , Constipation/therapy , Manometry , Middle Aged
19.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 273-277, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Defecation disorders, whether anal incontinence or chronic intestinal constipation, are frequent pelvic floor alterations in the general population and are more common in those with risk factors,i.e., in the elderly, women with an obstetric background, and those with comorbidities, history of pelvic radiotherapy, diabetics, the bedridden, or those with history of orifice surgery, among others. Objective: To analyze the incidence of defecation disorders in geriatric patients treated at the Medical Specialties Outpatient Service (MSOS) of Hospital Santa Marcelina. Methods: Prospective, randomized study that interviewed the same patients in two moments: 1) subjective anamnesis through spontaneous history and 2) objective anamnesis with specific questionnaires to assess anal incontinence and chronic constipation. Results: Between March 2016 and June 2017, 149 patients were analyzed, of whom 114 (76.5%) were female, with a similar mean age between genders; 51.67% had symptoms of anal incontinence and/or chronic constipation. Only 35.5% of patients with complaints of fecal leakage or flatus spontaneously reported them, while 87.1% of constipated patients did so. In the present study, no significant correlation was observed between the mode of delivery (p = 0.106), pregnancy (p = 0.099), and the number of deliveries (p = 0.126) with anal incontinence. In turn, there was no higher incidence of chronic intestinal constipation in females (p = 0.099) and most patients with this complaint had Bristol type 1 or 2 stools. Conclusion: The incidence of defecation disorders in the geriatric population is high and, most notably, anal incontinence is not spontaneously reported by most patients.


Resumo Introdução: Os distúrbios da evacuação, seja a incontinência anal ou a constipação intestinal crônica, representam alterações do assoalho pélvico bastante frequente na população em geral e mais comumente naqueles com fatores de risco, ou seja, em idosos, mulheres com passado obstétrico, comorbidades, antecedente de radioterapia pélvica, diabéticos, acamados, história de cirurgias orificiais, dentre outros. Objetivo: Analisar a incidência de distúrbios defecatórios em pacientes geriátricos atendidos no Ambulatório de Especialidades Médicas (AME) do Hospital Santa Marcelina. Metodologia: Estudo prospectivo e aleatório com a entrevista do mesmo paciente em dois momentos: 1) Anamnese subjetiva através da história espontânea e 2) Anamnese objetiva com questionários específicos para avaliação de incontinência anal e constipação intestinal crônica. Resultados: Foram analisados 149 pacientes entre Março de 2016 e Junho de 2017, sendo 114 (76,5%) do sexo feminino com média de idade semelhante entre os sexos; 51,67% apresentavam sintomas de incontinência anal e/ou constipação intestinal crônica. Apenas 35,5% dos pacientes com queixas de escape de fezes ou flatos relataram de forma espontânea e 87,1% dos pacientes constipados o fizeram. No presente estudo não se verificou correlação significativa entre via de parto p = 0,106, gestação p = 0,099 e número de partos p = 0,126 com incontinência anal. Por outro lado, não se verificou maior incidência de constipação intestinal crônica no sexo feminino p = 0,099 e a maioria dos pacientes com essa queixa apresentavam fezes ressecadas tipo Bristol 1 ou 2. Conclusão: Incidência de distúrbios da defecação na população geriátrica é elevada e, notadamente a IA não é referida de forma espontânea pela maioria dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Constipation/epidemiology , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Pelvic Floor
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