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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S39-S47, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147361

ABSTRACT

El estreñimiento funcional es un motivo de consulta frecuente en pediatría, con una prevalencia del 3 %. El Grupo de Trabajo de Constipación del Comité de Gastroenterología de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría se reunió con el objetivo de actualizar el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la constipación funcional en pediatría.Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura para evaluar la calidad de la evidencia. Ante un paciente constipado, es fundamental una historia y examen clínico completos. Los Criterios de Roma IV establecen pautas que, habitualmente, permiten diagnosticar la constipación funcional y evitar estudios innecesarios. La realización de estudios diagnósticos solo se pondrá en consideración ante la presencia de respuesta refractaria al tratamiento médico o en los casos de signos de alarma (banderas rojas). El primer paso del tratamiento es la desimpactación (por vía oral o enemas), seguida del tratamiento dietético, de hábitos y laxantes (es de primera elección el polietilenglicol).


Functional constipation is a common disease and one of the most frequent reasons of visit in pediatric clinics with a 3 % of prevalence. The Constipation Working Group of the Gastroenterology Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría met with the objective of updating the diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation in pediatrics.A literature search was performed to assess the quality of the evidence. In a constipated patient, a complete history and clinical examination is essential. The Rome IV Criteria establish guidelines that usually allow us to diagnose functional constipation, avoiding unnecessary studies. The performance of diagnostic studies will only be considered in the absence of response to medical treatment or in cases of alarm signs (red flags). The first step of treatment is disimpaction (orally or enemas), followed by dietary treatment, habits and laxatives, with polyethylene glycol being the first choice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Constipation/diagnosis , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Constipation/drug therapy , Constipation/therapy , Fecal Incontinence
2.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1166-1170, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921027

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the rules of acupoint and medication selection of acupoint application therapy for functional constipation (FC) by data mining technology.@*METHODS@#The clinical research literature regarding acupoint application therapy for FC from published to February 26, 2020 was searched in CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, SinoMed and PubMed. The prescriptions were extracted, and by using SPSS24.0 and SPSS Modeler14.0 software, the use of high-frequency acupoints and medication was summarized. The association rule analysis, cluster analysis and core prescription analysis of acupoints and medication were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 122 prescriptions of acupoint application therapy were included, involving 32 acupoints. The core prescription of acupoints was Tianshu (ST 25), Dachangshu (BL 25), Shenque (CV 8) and Guanyuan (CV 4). The high-frequency meridians mainly included conception vessel, @*CONCLUSION@#The use of local acupoint and regulating-


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Constipation/drug therapy , Data Mining , Humans , Meridians
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879077

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium officinale is a sacred product for nourishing Yin and has a clear "thick gastrointestinal" effect. Modern pharmacological studies had found that it could improve gastrointestinal function. This study observed the improvement effect of D. officinale on constipation model mice with Yin deficiency caused by warm-drying medicine. It provided experimental basis for the treatment of Yin deficiency constipation. The male and female ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, D. officinale high, medium and low dose groups(0.6, 0.4, 0.2 g·kg~(-1)), and phenolphthalein tablets group. The model mice of Yin deficiency constipation were established by gavage with warm-drying medicine. The overall state and body temperature of the mice were observed and recorded. The number of feces, feces weight, fecal moisture content and intestinal propulsion were measured. The morphological damage of colon tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) in the colon was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemical method. The expression of iNOS mRNA in the colon was detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the serum cyclic guanosine phosphate(cGMP) level was detected the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The results showed that D. candidum could reduce the body temperature of mice with Yin deficiency constipation, increase the number of feces, wet feces, dry feces and intestinal propulsion ability, reduce the expression of iNOS protein and mRNA in the colon, and reduce the content of cGMP in the serum. It showed that D. candidum could improve the symptoms of Yin deficiency constipation mice caused by warm-drying medicine, and the mechanism may be related to reducing the expression of iNOS in the colon and increasing intestinal motility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Constipation/drug therapy , Dendrobium , Female , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Yin Deficiency/genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878876

ABSTRACT

The effect of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules(SHTB) on the endogenous metabolites of colon tissue in mice with slow transit constipation was analyzed by metabolomics methods to explore its mechanism in the treatment of constipation. ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group and SHTB group according to the body weight. The mice were given diphenoxylate to establish the slow transit constipation model. Mouse carbon ink pushing rate, first defecation time and the number of defecation particles in 12 h were observed. The mouse colon tissue was separated and the mucous cells were detected by Periodic acid Schiff and Alcian blue(AB-PAS) staining. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS) technology was used to characterize the differences in tissue metabolism to screen out the potential different metabolites and possible metabolic pathways in colon tissue. The results indicated that SHTB could significantly shorten the first defecation time and the number of defecations, and increase the number of intestinal peristalsis and mucous cells in the colonic mucosa compared to the model mice. Metabolomics results showed that, compared with the normal group, a total of 17 potential biomarkers, including L-kynurenine, N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine, L-formylkynurenine, N6-acetyl-L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, phenylacetaldehyde, xanthoxin, thymidine, glycyl-L-leucine, cystathionine,(R)-1-aminopropan-2-ol, deoxycytidine, gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyraldehyde, D-galactose, L-arginine, L-proline and pyruvate, were found and identified in colon tissue. Treated with SHTB, these metabolic differences tended to return to normal levels. Therefore, it could be made a conclusion that the therapeutic effect of SHTB on chronic transit constipation may be related to regulating phenylalanine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis, pyrimidine metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle and galactose metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Constipation/drug therapy , Metabolomics , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878874

ABSTRACT

Shouhui Tongbian Capsules was used to explore the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism on slow transit constipation model mice induced by loperamide hydrochloride. In the experiment, loperamide hydrochloride-induced ICR mice were used as the model of slow transit constipation. Fifty ICR mice were divided into the blank group, model group and high, medium and low dose groups of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules extract(100, 200 and 400 mg·kg~(-1)). The model group and the administration groups were then modeled using loperamide hydrochloride intragastrically to obtain slow transit constipation. After successful modeling, high, medium and low doses of drugs were given to each drug group by intragastric administration. After 14 days of administration, the first defecation time, 6 h defecation grain number, 6 h defecation wet weight and dry weight, black feces discharged within 6 h and the fecal water content were measured. Intestinal tissues were taken for c-Kit and SCF immunohistochemical sections to detect the expression of c-Kit and SCF in the blank group, model group and high, medium and low dose groups of the medicinal extract of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules. The tissue changes in the intestinal wall of mice were detected by HE staining. At the same time, partial intestinal tissues were taken to test the activity of ATP synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in intestinal tissues of mice. RESULTS:: showed that Shouhui Tongbian Capsules effectively improved the symptoms of slow transit constipation in ICR mice and promoted intestinal movement. Shouhui Tongbian Capsules obviously shortened the time of discharging black stool for the first time, improved the intestinal propulsion rate, increased the water content and amount of feces, and improved the constipation symptoms. Mechanism study revealed that Shouhui Tongbian Capsules increased ATP synthase activity and mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase activity in intestinal tissue, and up-regulated c-Kit/SCF signaling pathway to promote interstitial Cajal cells proliferation, intestinal nerve transmission, intestinal motility and transport capacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsules , Constipation/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Transit , Loperamide , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 498-506, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142347

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is a type 2 chloride channel activator that has been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment for chronic constipation. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing efficacy of lubiprostone for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) and opioid-induced constipation (OIC). METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Lubiprostone RCTs reporting outcomes of spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) and abdominal pain or discomfort were deemed eligible. Meta-analysis was performed calculating risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals, using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model. RESULTS: Searches yielded 109 records representing 93 non-duplicate publications, and 11 RCTs (978 CIC, 1,366 IBS-C, 1,300 OIC, total = 3,644) met inclusion criteria. Qualitative synthesis showed that for CIC patients, lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM outcomes. Meta-analysis for CIC was feasible for full responder and SBM within 24h rates, indicating superiority of lubiprostone over placebo. For IBS-C, lubiprostone was significantly superior for all SBM outcomes in follow-ups ranging from 1 week-3 months. In terms of abdominal pain, lubiprostone provided significantly better symptoms relief, particularly after 1 month of treatment. For OIC, lubiprostone was more effective than placebo for both SBM and discomfort measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM frequency for CIC, IBS-C and OIC. In terms of abdominal symptoms, the most pronounced effect was seen for abdominal pain in IBS-C patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Lubiprostona é um ativador de canal de cloreto tipo 2 que tem se demonstrado eficaz e seguro no tratamento da constipação crônica. OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) avaliando a eficácia da lubiprostona para pacientes com constipação idiopática crônica (CIC), síndrome do intestino irritável com constipação predominante (IBS-C) e constipação induzida por opioide (OIC). MÉTODOS: Buscas foram conduzidas no PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database e Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. ECRs de lubiprostona relatando desfechos de movimentos intestinais espontâneos (SBM) e dor ou desconforto abdominal foram considerados elegíveis. Metanálise foi realizada calculando razão de riscos e intervalos de confiança de 95%, utilizando o método de Mantel-Haenszel e modelo de efeitos aleatórios. RESULTADOS: As buscas identificaram 109 registros representando 93 publicações não-duplicadas e 11 ECRs (978 pacientes de CIC, 1366 de IBS-C e 1300 OIC, total = 3644) preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Síntese qualitativa mostrou que, para pacientes com CIC, a lubiprostona foi superior ao placebo em termos de desfechos SBM. Metanálise para CIC foi possível para os desfechos de responder completo e taxa de SBM em 24 horas, indicando superioridade da lubiprostona sobre o placebo. Para IBS-C, lubiprostona foi significativamente superior para todos os desfechos de SBM em tempos de seguimento variando de 1 semana a 3 meses. Em termos de dor abdominal, lubiprostona proporciono alívio dos sintomas significativamente melhor, particularmente após 1 mês de tratamento. Para OIC, lubiprostona foi mais efetiva do que placebo tanto para medidas de SBM quando de desconforto abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados demonstraram que lubiprostona é superior ao placebo em termos de frequência de SBM para CIC, IBS-C e OIC. Em termos de sintomas abdominais, o efeito mais pronunciado foi visto para dor abdominal em pacientes com IBS-C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constipation/drug therapy , Lubiprostone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Constipation/chemically induced , Defecation , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid
7.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 247-252, July-Sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134991

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anorectal physiology tests are indicated for patients who have refractory symptoms of constipation, but the best sequence of investigation remains controversial. Objective: To evaluate the influence of colonic transit time and anorectal manometry in the diagnosis of chronic constipation in adults. Method: This was a study of adult patients with constipation at a private clinic in a city in southern Brazil, from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2018. Those who showed warning signs were referred for colonoscopy and those with any anatomical alterations were excluded. The patients received 10 g of psyllium and those who remained symptomatic after three weeks were referred for functional assessment with colonic transit time (CTT). Those who presented outlet obstruction in the colonic transit time were referred to anorectal manometry. Results: Of the 889 adult patients surveyed, 227 were included. Of the 216 who completed the study, 167 responded to primary treatment. Forty-nine underwent CTT. In these, 16 had normal colonic transit time and 33 were altered. In those with altered colonic transit time, eight had a pattern of colonic inertia and 25 had an obstruction pattern. The 25 patients with an outlet obstruction pattern underwent anorectal manometry. Eighteen had signs of paradoxical contracture of the puborectal muscle (PPRC) and seven did not. Conclusion: This study concluded that anorectal physiology exams contribute to the diagnosis of constipation, often changing the behavior. These exams should be performed whenever the patient does not respond to hygienic changes and fiber replacement.


Resumo Introdução: Os exames de fisiologia anorretal estão indicados nos pacientes que mantém sintomas refratários de constipação, porém uma sequência desejada de investigação permanece contraditória. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do tempo de trânsito colônico e da manometria anorretal no diagnóstico da constipação crônica de adultos. Método: Estudamos os pacientes adultos de uma clínica privada em uma cidade do sul do Brasil, no período de 01 de Janeiro de 2009 a 31 de Dezembro de 2018 apresentando constipação. Aqueles que apresentassem sinais de alerta, eram encaminhados a colonoscopia e com qualquer alteração anatômica eram excluídos. Foram prescritos 10 g de Psyllium e aqueles que permaneceram sintomáticos após três semanas foram encaminhados à avaliação funcional com tempo de trânsito colônico (TTC). Os que apresentavam obstrução de saída ao tempo de trânsito colônico foram encaminhados a manometria anorretal. Resultados: Dos 889 pacientes adultos levantados, 227 foram incluídos. Dos 216 que concluíram o estudo, 167 responderam ao tratamento primário. Quarenta e nove realizaram TTC. Nestes, 16 tiveram tempo de trânsito colônico normal e 33 alterado. Naqueles com tempo de trânsito colônico alterado: oito tinham padrão de inércia colônica e 25, padrão de obstrução de saída. Os 25 pacientes com padrão de obstrução de saída foram submetidos à manometria anorretal. Dezoito tinham sinais de Contratura Paradoxal do músculo Puborretal (CPPR) e sete não. Conclusão: Concluímos que os exames de fisiologia anorretal contribuem para o diagnóstico da constipação, muitas vezes alterando a conduta. Estes exames devem ser realizados sempre que o paciente não responder as alterações higienodietéticas e a reposição de fibras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Gastrointestinal Transit , Constipation/physiopathology , Manometry , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/drug therapy
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(1): 27-33, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984656

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Evaluate the effect of combinations of green banana biomass and laxatives in children and adolescents with chronic constipation. Methods: This was a randomized study of 80 children and adolescents with functional constipation according to the Rome IV Criteria, who were divided into five groups: (1) green banana biomass alone; (2) green banana biomass plus PEG 3350 with electrolytes; (3) green banana biomass plus sodium picosulfate; (4) PEG 3350 with electrolytes alone; and (5) sodium picosulfate alone. Primary outcome measure was the reduction of the proportion of patients with Bristol Stool Form Scale ratings 1 or 2. Secondary outcome measures were: increase of the proportion of >3 bowel movements/week and reduction of the proportion of fecal incontinence, straining on defecation, painful defecation, blood in stool, abdominal pain, and decreased laxative doses. Results: On consumption of green banana biomass alone, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the proportion of children with Bristol Stool Form Scale rating 1 or 2, straining on defecation, painful defecation, and abdominal pain. Conversely, no reduction was observed in fecal incontinence episodes/week, blood in stool, and no increase was observed in the proportion of children with >3 bowel movements/week. The percentage of children who required decreased laxative dose was high when green banana biomass was associated with sodium picosulfate (87%), and PEG 3350 with electrolytes (63%). Green banana biomass alone and associated with laxatives was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported. Conclusion: Green banana biomass is advantageous as an adjunct therapy on functional constipation, mainly for reducing doses of laxatives.


Resumo Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito das combinações da biomassa de banana verde e laxantes em crianças e adolescentes com constipação crônica. Métodos: Estudo randomizado de 80 crianças e adolescentes com constipação funcional de acordo com os Critérios de Roma IV divididos em cinco grupos: 1) Somente biomassa de banana verde; 2) Biomassa de banana verde mais PEG 3350 com eletrólitos; 3) Biomassa de banana verde mais picossulfato de sódio; 4) PEG 3350 somente com eletrólitos e 5) somente picossulfato de sódio. O desfecho primário foi a redução da proporção de pacientes com as classificações 1 ou 2 da Escala de Bristol para Consistência de Fezes. Os desfechos secundários foram: aumento da produção de > 3 evacuações/semana e redução da proporção de incontinência fecal, esforço na defecação, defecação dolorosa, sangue nas fezes, dor abdominal e redução nas dose de laxantes. Resultados: No consumo somente de biomassa de banana verde há uma redução estatisticamente significativa na proporção de crianças com classificação 1 ou 2 da Escala de Bristol para Consistência de Fezes, esforço na defecação, defecação dolorosa e dor abdominal. Por outro lado, não houve redução nos episódios fecais/semana de incontinência, sangue nas fezes e nenhum aumento na proporção de crianças com > 3 evacuações/semana. O percentual de crianças que tiveram sua dose de laxante reduzida foi alto quando a biomassa de banana verde foi associada a picossulfato de sódio (87%) e PEG 3350 com eletrólitos (63%). A biomassa de banana verde sozinha e associada a laxantes foi bem tolerada e não houve efeitos adversos relatados. Conclusão: A biomassa de banana verde é vantajosa como uma terapia adjuvante na constipação funcional, principalmente na redução das doses de laxantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Biomass , Constipation/diet therapy , Constipation/drug therapy , Musa , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(supl.1): 2-12, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Intestinal secretagogues have been tested for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The class-effect of these type of drugs has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of intestinal secretagogues for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: A computer-based search of papers from 1966 to September 2017 was performed. Search strategy consisted of the following MESH terms: intestinal secretagogues OR linaclotide OR lubiprostone OR plecanatide OR tenapanor OR chloride channel AND chronic constipation OR irritable bowel syndrome. Data were extracted as intention-to-treat analyses. A random-effects model was used to give a more conservative estimate of the effect of individual therapies, allowing for any heterogeneity among studies. Outcome measures were described as Relative Risk of achieving an improvement in the symptom under consideration. RESULTS: Database Search yielded 520 bibliographic citations: 16 trials were included for analysis, which enrolled 7658 patients. Twelve trials assessed the efficacy of intestinal secretagogues for chronic constipation. These were better than placebo at achieving an increase in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements per week [RR 1.87 (1.24-2.83)], at achieving three or more spontaneous bowel movements per week [RR 1.56 (1.31-1.85)] and at inducing spontaneous bowel movement after medication intake [RR 1.49 (1.07-2.06)]. Similar results were observed when assessing the efficacy of intestinal secretagogues on constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome based on the results of six trials. CONCLUSION: Intestinal secretagogues are useful and safe therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of constipation-related syndromes.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os secretagogos intestinais têm sido testados para o tratamento da constipação crônica e síndrome do intestino irritável com constipação predominante. O efeito classe desses tipos de drogas ainda não foi estudado. OBJETIVO: Determinar a eficácia e a segurança de secretagogos intestinais para o tratamento da constipação crônica e síndrome do intestino irritável de constipação predominante. MÉTODOS: Realizada pesquisa baseada em banco de dados de trabalhos publicados entre 1966 e setembro de 2017. A estratégia de pesquisa consistia dos seguintes termos MeSH: secretagogos intestinais OU linaclotide OU lubiprostona OU plecanatide OU tenapanor OU canal de cloro E constipação crônica OU síndrome do intestino irritável. Os dados foram extraídos como análises de intenção de tratar. Um modelo de efeitos aleatórios foi usado para dar uma estimativa mais conservadora do efeito das terapias individuais, permitindo a qualquer heterogeneidade entre os estudos. Os desfechos foram descritos como risco relativo de alcançar uma melhoria no sintoma em consideração. RESULTADOS: A busca no banco de dados rendeu 520 citações bibliográficas: 16 ensaios foram incluídos para análise, que incluiu 7658 pacientes. Doze trabalhos avaliaram a eficácia de secretagogos intestinais para constipação crônica. Estes foram melhores do que placebo, alcançando um aumento no número de evacuações completas espontâneas por semana [RR 1,87 (1,24-2,83)], para a aquisição de três ou mais evacuações espontâneas por semana [RR 1,56 (1,31-1,85)] e na indução espontânea do movimento intestinal após a ingestão de medicação [RR 1,49 (1,07-2,06)]. Resultados semelhantes foram observados ao avaliar a eficácia de secretagogos intestinais na síndrome do intestino irritável de constipação predominante com base em resultados de seis ensaios. CONCLUSÃO: Os secretagogos intestinais são alternativas terapêuticas úteis e seguras para o tratamento de síndromes relacionadas à constipação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Constipation/drug therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Secretagogues/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Constipation/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Secretagogues/adverse effects
10.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 38(2): 137-144, Apr.-June 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the published professional association guidelines regarding the current diagnosis and treatment of functional intestinal constipation in adults and to compare those guidelines with the authors' experience to standardize actions that aid clinical reasoning and decision-making for medical professionals. A literature search was conducted in the Medline/PubMed, Scielo, EMBASE and Cochrane online databases using the following terms: chronic constipation, diagnosis, management of chronic constipation, Roma IV and surgical treatment. Conclusively, chronic intestinal constipation is a common condition in adults and occurs most frequently in the elderly and in women. Establishing a precise diagnosis of the physiopathology of functional chronic constipation is complex and requires many functional tests in refractory cases. An understanding of intestinal motility and the defecatory process is critical for the appropriate management of chronic functional intestinal constipation, with surgery reserved for cases in which pharmacologic intervention has failed. The information contained in this review article is subject to the critical evaluation of the medical specialist responsible for determining the action plan to be followed within the context of the conditions and clinical status of each individual patient.


RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os consensos de sociedade de especialistas e guidelines publicados sobre o diagnóstico e tratamento da constipação intestinal crônica em adultos, e confrontar com a experiência dos autores, a fim de padronizar condutas que auxiliem o raciocínio e a tomada de conduta do médico. Foi realizada busca na literatura científica, mais precisamente nas bases de dados eletrônicos Medline/Pubmed, Scielo, EMBASE and Cochrane, tendo sido utilizado os seguintes descritores: chronic constipation, diagnosis, management of chronic constipation, Roma IV and surgical treatment. Pode-se concluir que constipação crônica é condição comum em adultos, ocorrendo com maior frequência em idosos e mulheres. Identificar com precisão a fisiopatologia presente na constipação crônica funcional é complexo, requerendo a realização de testes funcionais nos casos refratários. O entendimento da motilidade intestinal e do mecanismo defecatório é importante para o manejo da constipação intestinal crônica funcional, sendo o tratamento cirúrgico indicado para casos selecionados, onde à abordagem medicamentosa não surtiu efeito. As informações contidas neste artigo de revisão devem ser submetidas à avaliação e à crítica do médico especialista responsável pela conduta a ser tomada, frente à sua realidade e ao estado clínico de cada paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Constipation/surgery , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/drug therapy , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Constipation/physiopathology , Laxatives/therapeutic use
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7372, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951733

ABSTRACT

The effect of bisacodyl on the treatment of rats with slow transit constipation (STC) was studied. Forty-five female Wister rats were divided into control group, STC group, and STC bisacodyl group. The immunohistochemical method was used to determine interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the expression of c-Kit protein. Body mass and the number of defecations were significantly decreased in the STC group compared with the control group on the 100th day after diphenoxylate administration, while dry weight of feces was significantly increased and the intestinal transit time was prolonged. There were significant differences in the number of defecations, dry weight of feces, and intestinal transit time among the three groups. The number of defecations was higher, dry weight of feces was lower, and intestinal transit time was shorter in the STC bisacodyl group compared to the STC group. In addition, ICC basement membrane dissolution occurred in the colon wall of the STC group. The connection between ICC and surrounding cells was destroyed, and the nucleus shrunken to different degrees. Moreover, c-Kit expression in the STC group was significantly lower than the control group. The connection between ICC and surrounding cells in the STC bisacodyl group was significantly stronger than the STC group, and the number of ICC and the expression of c-Kit were increased. Bisacodyl could reduce the severity of STC in rats by increasing the number of ICC and the expression of c-Kit.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Bisacodyl/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colon/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/metabolism , Constipation/drug therapy , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Colon/drug effects , Colon/pathology , Constipation/physiopathology , Constipation/metabolism , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/metabolism , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/pathology
12.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 37(1): 63-71, Jan.-Mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Revision of the state of the art of the knowledge regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of Colonic Inertia, which predominantly affects young women and has a significant socio-economic impact. Methods: A search was made in “colonic inertia”, “colon inertia” and “slow transit constipation” in PubMed database for articles of the last 5 years, in Portuguese or English with available abstract and full text. 59 articles and 2013 guidelines of the American Gastroenterological Association on constipation were included. Results: The pathophysiology is not completely elucidated and the reduction of the interstitial cells of Cajal is the most consistent histological finding. Diagnosis requires the exclusion of secondary causes of constipation and obstructed defecation syndrome, to which contribute several complementary diagnostic tests. Given the frequency of failure of the medical treatment, surgery is often the only possible option. Sacral nerve stimulation seems to be a promising therapeutical alternative. Conclusion: A deeper investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms is fundamental to acquire a more global and integrated vision. Rigorous patient selection for each treatment and the discovery of new therapeutical targets may avoid the use of surgical therapies.


RESUMO Objetivo: Revisão do estado da arte do conhecimento da patofisiologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da Inércia Cólica, que afeta predominantemente mulheres jovens e tem um impacto socioeconómico significativo. Métodos: Pesquisou-se na base de dados PubMed por “colonic inertia”, “colon inertia” e “slow transit constipation” por artigos apenas dos últimos 5 anos, em português ou em inglês com resumo e texto completo disponíveis. Incluíram-se 59 artigos e as recomendações de 2013 da Associação Americana de Gastroenterologia para a obstipação. Resultados: A patofisiologia ainda não está completamente esclarecida, sendo que a redução das células intersticiais de Cajal constitui o achado histológico mais consistente. O diagnóstico requer a exclusão de causas secundárias de obstipação e de síndrome de obstrução defecatória, para o qual contribuem vários exames complementares de diagnóstico. Dada a frequência do insucesso do tratamento médico, a cirurgia é, muitas vezes, a única opção possível. A estimulação nervosa sagrada parece ser uma alternativa terapêutica promissora. Conclusão: É fundamental uma investigação mais profunda dos mecanismos patofisiológicos envolvidos para adquirir uma visão mais global e integrada. A seleção rigorosa de pacientes para cada tratamento e a descoberta de novos alvos terapêuticos poderão evitar a utilização de terapêuticas cirúrgicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constipation/surgery , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/physiopathology , Constipation/drug therapy
13.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(6): 567-573, nov.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769795

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo A adição de frutooligossacarídeos e galactooligossacarídeos a fórmulas infantis pode diminuir a consistência fecal e aumentar a frequência das evacuações. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o efeito do galactooligossacarídeo em crianças com constipação crônica. Métodos Entre 2010 e 2012, 20 pacientes constipados (4-16 anos), atendidos numa unidade básica de saúde, completaram ensaio clínico duplo cego, placebo-controlado e de delineamento crossover. Onze pacientes receberam galactooligossacarídeo (1,7 g) por 30 dias, seguidos por 15 dias de washout, e, após, placebo (maltodextrina) por 30 dias; nove pacientes receberam placebo 30 dias, seguidos de 15 dias de washout e 30 dias de galactooligossacarídeo (1,7 g). Os desfechos primários foram frequência semanal de evacuações, esforço evacuatório e consistência fecal, classificada por escala numérica elaborada para este estudo e compilada no primeiro, 15̊ e 30̊ dias de cada período de crossover. Análise estatística foi feita por método de análise de variância (Anova) para medidas repetidas. Resultados Intensidade dos sintomas nos grupos foi semelhante no início do estudo (p = 0,45). Durante a ingestão de galactooligossacarídeo constatou-se maior frequência de evacuações, p < 0,0001, menor dificuldade evacuatória, p < 0,0001 e diminuição da consistência fecal, p = 0,0014. Efeitos colaterais não foram referidos durante a ingestão do prebiótico. Conclusão Durante a ingestão de galactooligossacarídeo os sintomas clínicos da constipação em crianças e adolescentes foram significantemente aliviados.


Abstract Objective Fructooligosacharides and galactooligosacharides soften fecal bolus and increase frequency of depositions when added to infant formula. This study aimed to determine the effects of galactooligosaccharide in pediatric patients with chronic constipation. Methods From 2010 to 2012, 20 constipated patients (4-16 years of age) attended to at a primary healthcare unit were enrolled in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Eleven children ingested galactooligosaccharide (1.7 g) for 30 days, followed by a 15-day washout period, and a 30-day period of placebo (maltodextrin). Nine patients ingested maltodextrin for 30 days, followed by 15-day washout period, and galactooligosaccharide (1.7 g) for 30 days. Constipation symptoms were considered as primary outcomes: bowel movements/week, straining during defecation, and stool consistency. Outcome symptoms were ranked according to a numerical scale elaborated for this study. Data were recorded at baseline, and on days 15 and 30 of each 30-day crossover period. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze symptoms along time. Results At baseline, there was no significant difference in symptoms severity between groups (p = 0.45). Galactooligosaccharide ingestion was related to increase of the bowel movement frequency, p < 0.0001; relief of defecation straining, p < 0.0001; and decrease in stool consistency, p = 0.0014, compared to placebo ingestion. Patients reported no side effects from galactooligosaccharide. Conclusion Galactooligosaccharide was effective at improving clinical symptoms in this group of constipated children.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Constipation/drug therapy , Trisaccharides/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 208-213, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This integrated analysis aimed to identify the factors associated with the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in Asian and non-Asian patients with chronic constipation (CC) who receive prucalopride or placebo over 12 weeks. METHODS: Pooled data from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase III studies (NCT00488137, NCT00483886, NCT00485940, and NCT01116206) on patients treated with prucalopride 2 mg or placebo were analyzed. The associations between predictors and TEAEs were evaluated based on a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 1,821 patients (Asian, 26.1%; non-Asian, 73.9%) were analyzed. Prucalopride treatment was significantly associated with diarrhea, headache, and nausea (p<0.001), but not with abdominal pain, compared with placebo. Differences in the prevalence of TEAEs between prucalopride and placebo decreased greatly after the first day of treatment. Compared with non-Asians, Asians were more likely to experience diarrhea and less likely to develop abdominal pain, headache, and nausea. Prior laxative use, CC duration, and body weight were not predictive of any of these TEAEs. CONCLUSIONS: Prucalopride treatment was positively associated with diarrhea, headache, and nausea. Asian patients tended to have a higher frequency of diarrhea but lower frequencies of headache, abdominal pain, and nausea compared with non-Asians.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/chemically induced , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Benzofurans/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Constipation/drug therapy , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Double-Blind Method , Female , Headache/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nausea/chemically induced , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Regression Analysis
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 208-213, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This integrated analysis aimed to identify the factors associated with the most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in Asian and non-Asian patients with chronic constipation (CC) who receive prucalopride or placebo over 12 weeks. METHODS: Pooled data from four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase III studies (NCT00488137, NCT00483886, NCT00485940, and NCT01116206) on patients treated with prucalopride 2 mg or placebo were analyzed. The associations between predictors and TEAEs were evaluated based on a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 1,821 patients (Asian, 26.1%; non-Asian, 73.9%) were analyzed. Prucalopride treatment was significantly associated with diarrhea, headache, and nausea (p<0.001), but not with abdominal pain, compared with placebo. Differences in the prevalence of TEAEs between prucalopride and placebo decreased greatly after the first day of treatment. Compared with non-Asians, Asians were more likely to experience diarrhea and less likely to develop abdominal pain, headache, and nausea. Prior laxative use, CC duration, and body weight were not predictive of any of these TEAEs. CONCLUSIONS: Prucalopride treatment was positively associated with diarrhea, headache, and nausea. Asian patients tended to have a higher frequency of diarrhea but lower frequencies of headache, abdominal pain, and nausea compared with non-Asians.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/chemically induced , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Benzofurans/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Constipation/drug therapy , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Double-Blind Method , Female , Headache/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nausea/chemically induced , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Regression Analysis
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 12(1)jan.-mar. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-707346

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: A constipação intestinal é um problema crônico, frequente, que afeta a Qualidade de Vida dos indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia clínica e a tolerabilidade da composição Cassia fistula e Senna alexandrina Miller, na apresentação geleia sem açúcar, em pacientes diagnosticados com constipação intestinal funcional crônica. MÉTODOS: Estudo envolvendo 96 voluntários com diagnóstico de constipação intestinal funcional crônica, conforme Critérios de Roma III, randomizados em grupos ativo e placebo. A avaliação da eficácia primária foi realizada por meio da frequência média de evacuações, consistência média das fezes e melhora global da constipação. Foram realizadas ainda avaliações secundárias, como número de dias seguidos sem evacuação, proporção de evacuações com dor, esforço, sensação de evacuação incompleta ou bloqueio, uso de manobras manuais, sujeitos de pesquisa que aderiram às recomendações de hábitos de vida, uso de fármacos de resgate e melhora da constipação segundo avaliação do sujeito de pesquisa. RESULTADOS: A proporção de sujeitos da pesquisa que apresentou melhora global da constipação foi de 65,1% no grupo ativo e de 22,0% grupo placebo (p<0,0001). Para a maioria das avaliações secundárias de eficácia, o grupo ativo apresentou melhor desempenho quando comparado ao grupo pesquisa. De acordo com a avaliação dos sujeitos de pesquisa sobre a melhora da constipação, o grupo ativo apresentou melhor desempenho do que o grupo pesquisa. Quanto à segurança, os dois grupos apresentaram resultados similares. CONCLUSÃO: A geleia sem açúcar composta de Cassia fistula e Senna alexandrina Miller apresentou um comportamento seguro e eficaz, sendo uma alternativa para tratamento da constipação intestinal funcional crônica.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intestinal constipation is a chronic and frequent problem that affects Quality of Life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the composition Cassia fistula and Senna alexandrina Miller, as sugar free jelly, in patients diagnosed with chronic functional constipation. METHODS: We evaluated 96 volunteers diagnosed with functional constipation according to Rome III criteria. Volunteers were randomized into active and placebo groups. Primary efficacy endpoint was evaluated by mean frequency of bowel movements, consistency of stools and global improvement of constipation. Secondary endpoints were evaluated, such as number of days without bowel movements, proportion of bowel movements with pain, with strain, sensation of incomplete or blocked bowel movement, use of, manual maneuvers to facilitate defecation, subjects who adhered to the diet recommendation, use of rescue medication, and level of constipation improvement, according to subject evaluation. RESULTS: Global improvement of constipationwas observed in 65.1% of subjects enrolled in active group versus 22% in placebo group (p<0.0001). For most secondary efficacy evaluations, the active group performed better when compared to placebo group. According to the evaluation of the subjects on the improvement of constipation, the active group performed better than the placebo group. As for security, the two groups showed similar results. CONCLUSION: Cassia fistula and Senna alexandrina Miller sugar free jelly demonstrated to be safe and effective and it can be used as an alternative for the treatment of functional constipation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Cassia , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Constipation/drug therapy , Drug Tolerance , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Senna Extract
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74444

ABSTRACT

Chronic constipation is a very common clinical problem with its prevalence of up to 14% in the general population. It is not a life-threatening disease, but since patient's satisfaction to the treatment is known to be as low as 50%, chronic constipation still remains a clinically challenging problem. Fortunately, many new treatments have been introduced or are to be introduced in the near future. This article will review the basic concepts and the results of recent studies on the new treatments for chronic constipation.


Subject(s)
Chloride Channel Agonists/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Constipation/drug therapy , Humans , Laxatives/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 797-800, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211903

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a chronic hemodialysis patient who developed hypermagnesemia due to an overdose of magnesium-containing laxative and paralytic ileus resulting in colonic perforation. Despite intravenous calcium infusion and daily hemodialysis, the patient developed ischemic colitis and intestinal perforation. Colonic perforation accompanied with hypermagnesemia in hemodialysis patients has rarely been reported. This case suggests that hypermagnesemia should be considered in renal failure patients as this can result in life-threatening events despite prompt treatment.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ischemic/chemically induced , Constipation/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intestinal Perforation/chemically induced , Laxatives/adverse effects , Magnesium/poisoning , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis
20.
Rev. GASTROHNUP ; 14(1): 27-30, ene.15, 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-645116

ABSTRACT

Entre las manifestaciones digestivas que se presentan en el tratamiento del niño con cáncer, bien sea por la quimioterapia, la radioterapia, los medicamentos subyacentes a estas terapias o a la misma enfermedad per sé, se encuentran las náuseas, los vómitos, la diarrea, el estreñimiento y la disminución del apetito. Todos ellos, junto con la pérdida de la actividad física y los cambios en los hábitos alimentarios, pueden conllevar a malnutrición. Es necesario así entonces realizar algunas sugerencias preventivas nutricionales y de puericultura, para evitar la morbilidad secundaria a ello.


Among the digestive symptoms that occur in the treatment of children with cancer, either gy chemotherapy, radiotherapy, drug therapy or underlying these the same disease per se, include nausea, vomiting, diarrea, constipation and the decline and loss of appetite. They, along with the loss of physycal activit and changes in eating habits, can lead to malnutrition. Need and then make some suggestions preventive nutrition and childcare, to avoid the morbidity secondary to it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Gagging , Neoplasms/classification , Neoplasms/complications , Vomiting/classification , Vomiting/complications , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/pathology , Vomiting/drug therapy , Vomiting/rehabilitation , Constipation/classification , Constipation/complications , Constipation/epidemiology , Constipation/pathology , Constipation/prevention & control , Constipation/drug therapy , Drug Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy/mortality , Radiotherapy/classification , Radiotherapy/methods , Radiotherapy
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