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1.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(5): e201, sep.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139456

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Evaluar las condiciones de habitabilidad de las viviendas y su incidencia sobre la salud en el sector de Mochuelo Bajo, en Bogotá (Colombia), en el marco del proyecto Hábitat Saludable, que es liderado por el Centro de estudios en Vivienda, Hábitat e Innovación Social (CENVIS). Métodos Se elaboró una herramienta de toma de información en campo sobre condiciones socioeconómicas y saludables de la unidad habitacional de familias adscritas al proyecto. Posteriormente, se realizó un análisis cuantitativo de la información recolectada para responder al objetivo de la investigación. Resultados Al aplicar la herramienta, se encontró: a) inadecuado abastecimiento, almacenamiento y manejo del agua potable, b) mala disposición de excretas humanas y desechos sólidos domiciliarios, c) mal manejo en el aprovechamiento del agua lluvia, d) inadecuada convivencia con animales domésticos y de consumo, e) contaminación del aire al interior y; f) sistemas autoconstrucción con materiales no seguros y sin asesoría técnica, además de construcción en terrenos inestables. Conclusiones En el sector de Mochuelo Bajo, existen falencias generalizables relacionadas con un inadecuado abastecimiento, almacenamiento y manejo del agua potable, una mala disposición de excretas humanas y de desechos sólidos domiciliarios. También respecto al manejo del agua lluvia, y la convivencia con animales tanto domésticos como de consumo.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the habitability conditions of dwellings and their impact on human health in Mochuelo Bajo, sector in Bogota Colombia, within the framework of the Healthy Habitat project led by the Housing, Habitat and Social Innovation Center (CENVIS). Methods A tool was developed for field data collection about socioeconomic and healthy conditions of housing units and families assigned to the project. After which, a quantitative analysis was performed in order to answer to the stablished objective. Results It was found through the tool application: a) inadequate supply, storage and management of drinking water, b) poor disposal of human excreta and solid household waste, c) poor management of rainwater use, d) inadequate coexistence with domestic and consumption animals, e) interior air pollution and f) self-construction systems with unsafe materials and without technical advice. Conclusions In the Mochuelo Bajo sector there were found generalized shortcomings related to an inadequate supplying and usage of potable water, a wrong disposition of human excreta and of solid household waste. At the same time, there are shortcomings in terms of rainwater and coexistence with animals, both domestic and for consumption.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ecosystem , Construction Materials , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Promotion/methods , Colombia
2.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019004-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763758

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth's crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Beds , Carcinogens , Construction Materials , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Radiation Exposure , Radon , Smoke , Smoking , Thorium , Thyroid Neoplasms , Uranium
3.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019004-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785782

ABSTRACT

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth's crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.


Subject(s)
Background Radiation , Beds , Carcinogens , Construction Materials , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Radiation Exposure , Radon , Smoke , Smoking , Thorium , Thyroid Neoplasms , Uranium
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 1-9, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775132

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Industrial Waste , Waste Management/methods , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cluster Analysis , Construction Materials , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Temperature
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Construction site supervisors are exposed to many chemicals, dusts, and metals including asbestos. Asbestos is a hazardous chemical that is carcinogenic. Laryngeal cancer is not a rare disease in Korea. The most common causes of this disease are tobacco and alcohol, and representative occupational cause is asbestos. However, up to now, no case of laryngeal cancer induced by asbestos has been reported in Korea. In this study, we report such a case in a construction site supervisor. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old man who had been experiencing hoarseness for 2 months was diagnosed with laryngeal cancer. The pathologic diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma in situ, based on examination of a biopsy specimen obtained by resection of the lesion. The patient had been exposed to asbestos for 38 years at construction sites where he worked until diagnosed with laryngeal cancer. He had been exposed to asbestos when demolishing buildings and inspecting materials. CONCLUSION: The patient in this case worked with construction materials including asbestos and supervised construction for 38 years, and was thus exposed to asbestos at construction sites. Much of the asbestos was highly concentrated especially during demolition processes. We therefore consider the laryngeal cancer of this patient to be a work-related disease.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Construction Industry , Construction Materials , Diagnosis , Dust , Hoarseness , Humans , Korea , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Metals , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Rare Diseases , Tobacco
6.
Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches. 2015; 18 (2): 53-60
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-177676

ABSTRACT

Rice is one of the strategic crops in Egypt. In 2013, 1.42 million feddans [acres] has been grown with an average production of about 4.3 million tons. It is mainly cultivated in the northern east part of the country especially in Kafr El-Sheikh, Al-Sharkia and Al-Dakahlia Governorates. But the processing of that large amount of rice yields approximately 4 million tons of rice straw as an agricultural residue annually. In Egypt, only 20% of the rice straw used for other purposes such as ethanol, paper, fertilizers production and fodders. The remaining part was left on the fields for burning, causing high degrees of environmental pollution known as the Black Cloud, despite the high economic value of these residues if they are recycled and reused. This paper explores the different architectural styles of straw construction worldwide, whether by the rice-cement bricks, straw panels or straw bales. With an aim to reach an economic environmentally adapted system for wide application of straw construction in Egypt. The paper presents an Egyptian environmental example of building a low-cost house which saving about 40% of the direct cost if it built by the traditional cement bricks method, in addition to the indirect cost saving in energy consumption, and thermal insulation


Subject(s)
Construction Materials , Air Pollution , Economics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310239

ABSTRACT

This paper mainly introduces the material composition and structure of two kinds of compound tabletop which currently used in large medical imaging equipment, also introduces the proper material choosing and production processing, together with the advantage and shortage of this two kinds of tabletop and different application occasion.


Subject(s)
Construction Materials , Diagnostic Imaging , Durable Medical Equipment
8.
Rev. luna azul ; (38): 146-158, ene.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-735000

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el impacto ambiental que produce la explotación del yacimiento de calizas La Inagua y elaborar el plan de medidas correctoras para minimizar los efectos negativos y compatibilizar la actividad minera con la protección del medio ambiente. Se utilizó una metodología de evaluación de impacto ambiental que integra distintas propuestas de otros investigadores. Se identificaron los impactos ambientales producidos por las acciones de desbroce, destape y extracción de materia prima, perforación y voladura, excavaciones, transportación, procesamiento de la materia prima y su almacenamiento; así como la interacción entre estas acciones y los componentes del medio (suelo, aire, agua, flora, fauna, paisaje, infraestructura y economía). Se estableció que los impactos más significativos ocurren durante el desbroce y destape, y que los componentes ambientales más afectados son el suelo, el aire, el agua y la economía. Finalmente se proponen medidas correctoras para mitigar las afectaciones ambientales.


This study aims to assess the environmental impact produced by the exploitation of "La Inagua" limestone deposit and to develop the corrective measures plan to minimize the negative effects and to make mining compatible with environmental protection. An environmental impact evaluation methodology was used in this study which integrates different proposals by other researchers. Environmental impacts caused by the actions of clearing, removal of raw material, drilling and blasting, excavations, transportation, processing of the raw material and its storage were identified, as well as the interaction between these actions and the environmental factors (soil, air, water, flora, fauna, landscape, infrastructure and economy). It was established that the most significant impacts occur during the clearing and removal of raw material while the most affected environmental factors are soil, air, water and the economy. Finally, corrective measurements are proposed in order to mitigate the environmental impacts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Construction Materials , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environment , Mining
9.
Rev. cuba. hig. epidemiol ; 52(1): 106-119, ene.-abr. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-735312

ABSTRACT

En varios asentamientos del país se han construido viviendas Petrocasas de policloruro de vinilo, relleno con hormigón sobre balsa y cubierta de lámina de aluminio revestida de papel asfalto por ambas caras. El policloruro de vinilo como material de construcción resulta controversial en relación a sus efectos en la salud. Con el objetivo de caracterizar desde el punto de vista sanitario el ambiente físico en viviendas Petrocasas de Cienfuegos, fue conducido un estudio descriptivo en dos semanas seleccionadas de las estaciones seca y húmeda de 2008 y 2009. Se monitoreó factores de riesgo físico en una muestra de 6 viviendas seleccionadas según la opinión de expertos, del total de las 104 viviendas del asentamiento según su ubicación en las filas de viviendas: centro, culata de fila y fachada. Se estudió el ruido, componente magnético del campo electromagnético de baja frecuencia, iluminación natural, artificial, microclima y penetración del viento. La evaluación del monitoreo se efectuó por descriptores estadísticos, modelos de regresión, varianza y espectro de potencia bivariado con los paquetes estadísticos: SPSS v. 17,0 y Statistica v. 8,0. Durante la estación seca, la temperatura del aire es mayor en la habitación principal de viviendas con fachada al sur. En ambas estaciones, las temperaturas y humedades relativas de las viviendas son más altas que en la intemperie. Las cubiertas y paredes muestran calentamientos ante el asoleamiento. Los coeficientes de iluminación natural presentan elevadas reflexiones. Los valores del campo electromagnético son bajos. En la estación seca los niveles sonoros reflejan una contaminación acústica moderada. Concluimos que el microclima en el interior de las viviendas durante el día es inconfortable(AU)


Petrohouses have been built in several villages in the country. These houses are made of polyvinyl chloride, filled with raft concrete and covered with aluminum sheets coated with asphalt paper on both sides. The health effects of polyvinyl chloride as a construction material is a matter of controversy. With the purpose of carrying out a health characterization of the physical environment in Cienfuegos petrohouses, a descriptive study was conducted during two weeks selected from the dry and wet seasons of 2008 and 2009. Physical risk factors were monitored in a sample of 6 houses selected on the basis of expert opinion, of the total 104 houses in the village, according to their location in the rows: front, mid and end positions. The variables studied were noise, magnetic component of the low frequency electromagnetic field, natural and artificial lighting, microclimate and wind penetration. Monitoring was evaluated with statistical descriptors, regression models, variance and bivariate power spectrum, with the statistical software SPSS v. 17.0 and Statistica v. 8.0. In the dry season, air temperature is higher in the main room of houses with facades facing the south. In both seasons, temperature and relative humidity values are higher inside the houses than outside. Covers and walls heat up when hit by the sun. Natural lighting coefficients show high reflection values. Electromagnetic field values are low. In the dry season, sound levels show moderate acoustic contamination. It is concluded that the microclimate inside houses during the day is uncomfortable(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vinyl Compounds/adverse effects , PVC Pipes/adverse effects , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Construction Materials/adverse effects , Housing , Environment , Local Building Material/methods , Microclimate
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1001-1007, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705287

ABSTRACT

Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed.


Subject(s)
Corrosion , Construction Materials/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Acids/metabolism
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 87(4): 567-571, July-Aug. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-645325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis is one of the common work-related dermatoses. Among bricklayers, cement can cause both allergic contact dermatitis and primary contact irritative dermatitis. The personal protective equipment (rubber gloves) may favor the development of allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: 1) to evaluate the frequency of allergic contact dermatitis among construction workers between January 2005 and December 2009; 2) to determine the major sensitizing agents in the study group; and 3) to compare the data obtained from the construction workers to that of a group of patients who were not construction workers. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patch tests. Patients were separated into two groups: 1) bricklayers and 2) non-bricklayers. RESULTS: Of the 525 patch tests analyzed, 466 (90%) were from non-bricklayers and 53 (10%) from bricklayers. The hands were affected in 38 (61%) of them. 13 patients (24%) had irritative contact dermatitis and 40 (76%) had allergic contact dermatitis. The group of construction workers had a high frequency of sensitization to cement, and 29 (54.7%) had sensitization to rubber vulcanizing agents. 23 patients (43.4%) had sensitization to both cement and rubber. CONCLUSIONS: Among the bricklayers the presence of allergic contact dermatitis to rubber and cement in the same patient is common and demonstrates the importance of the patch test.


FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatite de contato é uma das dermatoses comumente relacionadas ao trabalho. Entre os pedreiros o cimento pode causar tanto a Dermatite Alérgica de Contato quanto a Dermatite de Contato por Irritação Primária. Os equipamentos de proteção individual (luvas de borracha) podem favorecer o desenvolvimento de Dermatite Alérgica de Contato. OBJETIVOS: 1) avaliar a freqüência de Dermatite Alérgica de Contato entre os pedreiros entre Janeiro de 2005 e Dezembro de 2009; 2) determinar os principais agentes sensibilizantes; e 3) comparar os resultados obtidos entre o grupo de pedreiros com um grupo sem pedreiros. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de testes de contato. Pacientes foram separados em 2 grupos: 1) pedreiros e 2) não pedreiros. RESULTADOS: dentre os 525 testes de contato analisados, 466 (90%) eram de não pedreiros e 53 (10%) de pedreiros. As mãos foram acometidas em 38 (61%). 13 pacientes (24%) tinham Dermatite de Contato por Irritação Primária e 40 (76%) tinham Dermatite Alérgica de Contato. O grupo de pedreiros apresentou alta freqüência de sensibilização ao cimento, e 29 (54,7%) tinham sensibilização a agentes vulcanizadores da borracha. 23 pacientes (43,4%) pedreiros tinham sensibilização tanto ao cimento quanto à borracha. CONCLUSÕES: entre os pedreiros a presença de Dermatite Alérgica de Contato ao cimento e à borracha no mesmo paciente foi comum e demonstrou a importância do teste de contato.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Construction Materials/toxicity , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Occupational/diagnosis , Gloves, Protective/adverse effects , Construction Industry , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Singapore medical journal ; : e169-71, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-249674

ABSTRACT

A man attempted suicide by shooting seven nails into his head with a nail gun; five in the right temporal region and two in the left. He subsequently presented at the emergency department with complaints of headache. He was found to be oriented in space and time, with no focal neurological deficits. The patient handed the nail gun to the doctors and informed them that he had earlier attempted suicide. Radiological studies showed the presence of nails arranged like a 'martyr's crown'. The man died six days after the surgical removal of the nails. Autopsy was refused by Italian authorities. We conclude that imaging techniques are an adjuvant to forensic medical diagnosis and forensic autopsies.


Subject(s)
Construction Materials , Foreign Bodies , Diagnostic Imaging , Head , Diagnostic Imaging , Head Injuries, Penetrating , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography , Suicide
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242788

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the occupational exposure levels of dust in new suspension preheated dry process (NSP) cement production line and put forward rectification measures for dust-exposed posts, and to provide ideas for the modern cement production enterprises in dust control and occupational health management.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Occupational health field investigation combined with field test were used to measure the time-weighted average concentration (C(TWA)) of the dust in the workplace. Rectification measures were taken for the dust-exposed posts with unqualified dust concentration, and the protective effects of dustproof facilities in the rectified workplace were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The field investigation revealed incompletely closed dustproof facilities, improperly set dust hoods, excess of dust leakage points, and other problems in the dust-exposed posts of an NSP cement production line before rectification, and the dustproof facilities could hardly exert dust removal effect. The field test showed that the vast majority of dust-exposed posts had the dust concentrations exceeding the occupational exposure limits (OELs), with a qualified rate as low as 31.8%. A series of rectification measures were taken for these posts. After the rectification, the dust-exposed posts demonstrated dramatically dropped C(TWA), and the qualified rate of dust concentration in the dust-exposed posts rose to 90.9%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The dust hazards in NSP cement production line cannot be ignored. Taking appropriate protective measures are critical for curbing dust hazards in modern cement production.</p>


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational , Construction Materials , Dust , Humans , Occupational Exposure , Workplace
14.
Toxicological Research ; : 187-193, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118329

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the physical and psychological health effects of air pollutants from new building materials, 100 employees who worked in new buildings were given a general health questionnaire, and the prevalence of their subjective complaints was measured. The collected data were classified according to age, gender, smoking status, profession, working time, sleep time, life style, and length of employment. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The THI lie scale scores were significantly higher among the older respondents. Compared to males, females showed a significantly higher level in the depression itemas well asa tendency toward high ratios of physical and psychological complaints. The smoking group showed higher scores regarding health complaints related to most physical and psychological items. Smokers showed significantly increased respiratory organ complaints compared to nonsmokers. Those with a profession showed significantly higher level of nervousness. The group of those working 7 to 10 hours group showed higher rates of complaints in the multiple subjective symptoms and mouth/anus items than the group working less than 2 hours. Those living an irregular life showed a tendency toward higher rates of complaints for most physical and psychological subjective factors. Those who were satisfied with their environments showed significantly lower scores in the mouth/anus, impulsiveness, mental irritability, depression, and nervousness items. In summary, this study shows that the health complaint scores regarding physical and psychological symptoms tended to be higher among the unsatisfied group, the irregular life group, the group who worked long hours, the elderly, smokers, and females. These results can be used to improve the psychosomatic health status and working environments of employees working in new buildings.


Subject(s)
Aged , Air Pollutants , Anxiety , Construction Materials , Depression , Employment , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoke , Smoking
15.
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2011; 8 (4): 343-352
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-124817

ABSTRACT

Heat loss through walls in houses is remarkable and it shares about 25% of total loss. Utilizing Foam Lightweight Concrete [FLC] block in walls may lead to reduction in both gas consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to heat insulation property of the block and consequently less energy consumption. The main objective of this research was to investigate how FLC block can save natural gas usage within building envelop. A typical residential building was simulated for pressed brick, terra-cotta block, 3D panel, and FLC block by utilizing Behsazan software. Afterwards, building gas consumption and relevant carbon dioxide emissions were compared for abovementioned wall materials, while the building area was constant and its height was variable. Results showed that annual gas reduction attributed to utilizing FLC block walls with different heights varies from 25.7% to 30.6% and from 18.5% to 23.3% in comparison with pressed brick and terra-cotta block walls, respectively. This reduction for 3D panel walls was about 4.6%. Moreover, CO[2] emission reduction depending on the number of floors for FLC block walls with pressed brick, terra-cotta block, and 3D panel walls were equal to 20.8 to 24, 15 to 18.3, and 3.4 to 3.8 kg CO[2]/m[2], respectively


Subject(s)
Construction Materials , Hot Temperature , Carbon Dioxide
16.
Rev. salud pública ; 12(4): 682-692, ago. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-574940

ABSTRACT

El propósito del presente estudio es el de valorar la tesis de que el impacto a la salud de la exposición a fibras de asbesto presentes en los lugares de trabajo y en el ambiente requiere contramedidas basadas en la evidencia científica y la cooperación internacional. La evidencia científica adquirida a nivel internacional sobre el asbesto, la experiencia pluridecenal madurada en Italia sobre este tema, así como la conciencia de que la adaptación de medidas para combatir los efectos en la salud causados por la exposición a asbesto debe ser verificada considerando la especificidad de los diversos contextos nacionales y locales en América Latina, constituyen la base para la identificación de las cuatro principales directrices de intervención (Promoción del acceso a la documentación sobre el asbesto - Realización de intervenciones para reducir la exposición al asbesto - Vigilancia sanitaria de los sujetos expuestos - Detección del mesotelioma) - que pueden ser desarrolladas en el ámbito de la cooperación técnico-científica entre Italia y los países de América Latina. La integración de las capacidades de los investigadores colombianos e italianos podrá permitir conseguir estos resultados, contribuyendo al proceso de eliminación del asbesto ya en curso en América Latina.


The present paper was aimed at promoting countermeasures based on scientific evidence and international cooperation for evaluating the impact on health caused by exposure to asbestos fibres in the workplace and the environment. Scientific evidence regarding asbestos made available by the international scientific community, decades of experience gained in Italy on this issue and being aware that adopting measures to combat the health effects caused by asbestos exposure should be verified considering the specificity of various national and local contexts in Latin-America form the basis for identifying four main areas for intervention which may be developed in the field of technical and scientific cooperation between Italy and Latin-America countries: promoting access to information about asbestos, interventions for reducing exposure to asbestos, health surveillance of exposed subjects and mesothelioma detection. Integrating Colombian and Italian researchers' abilities may lead to such results being achieved, thereby contributing to banning asbestos, which is already underway in Latin-America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asbestos/adverse effects , Asbestosis/prevention & control , Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects , International Cooperation , Mesothelioma/prevention & control , Pleural Neoplasms/prevention & control , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Construction Materials , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Italy , Latin America , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Mesothelioma/etiology , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Pleural Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pleural Neoplasms/etiology , Workers' Compensation
17.
Clinics ; 65(10): 1003-1007, 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-565984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of carpenters from the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran). METHODS: The frequency of respiratory symptoms was retrospectively estimated in a sample of 66 carpenters in the city of Mashhad in northeast Iran using a questionnaire including questions on work-related respiratory symptoms in the past year, allergy, type of irritant chemicals that induce respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and working periods as a carpenter. PFT values were also measured in all participants, and the age and smoking habits matched those of a sample of men from the general population as a control group. RESULTS: Thirty-five carpenters (53 percent) reported work-related respiratory symptoms. Cough (34.4 percent) and sputum (33.3 percent) were the most common symptoms, and only 15.15 percent of carpenters reported wheezing during work. All respiratory symptoms were higher in carpenters than in controls, which was statistically significant for cough and sputum (p<0.001 in both cases). Most allergic symptoms were also significantly greater among the carpenters than in the control group (p<0.05 for both itchy eyes and sneezing). Most respiratory and allergic symptoms in the carpenters increased during work compared to rest period which was statistically significant only for cough (p<0.05). PFT values were significantly lower in the carpenters than in control subjects (p<0.05 to p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Carpentry work was associated with a high frequency of respiratory symptoms, particularly after exposure to irritating chemicals during work. PFT values were also significantly reduced among carpenters compared to controls.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Construction Materials/toxicity , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Iran/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology
18.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 14(6): 2005-2014, dez. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-535967

ABSTRACT

Este estudo ocupa-se de analisar as condições de trabalho e saúde a partir dos relatos dos trabalhadores envolvidos na atividade de coprocessamento de resíduos tóxicos em fornos de cimenteiras de Cantagalo (RJ). Realizamos uma investigação qualitativa baseada na utilização de roteiro semi-estruturado, na qual foram entrevistados treze indivíduos. Na análise do discurso, foi possível observar falhas no planejamento do processo de trabalho, na identificação de riscos, na prevenção de agravos, no monitoramento de impactos à saúde e ao ambiente, bem como na identificação e notificação aos órgãos competentes. A assimilação das incertezas do processo, favorecendo os interesses dos empreendedores, permitiu que recaísse sobre os trabalhadores o ônus do adoecimento, aceitável na medida em que se negam evidências clínicas. Torna-se imperioso amplo debate que envolva entes públicos e privados, a sociedade e suas representações, confrontando-se questões éticas, ambientais e de saúde aos interesses do capital, para que se estabeleçam novas diretrizes para o processo.


This study analyzes the work and health conditions through the discourse of the employees involved in the activity of toxic waste co-processing in cement kilns in Cantagalo, RJ. A qualitative approach was adopted using a semi-structured interview with 13 individuals. After analyzing the discourse, it was possible to observe relevant failures in the work process planning, in the identification of risks, in preventing diseases, in monitoring health impacts and to the environment, even their identification and notification to the competent authorities. The assimilation of the uncertainties of the process, favoring the interests of the entrepreneurs, has passed on the workers the burden of illness, rendered acceptable in that they deny clinical evidences. It is imperative to establish a broad debate involving public and private entities, the society in all its representations, confronting ethical, environmental and health issues to the interests of capital in order to set new guidelines for the process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Construction Materials , Hazardous Waste , Incineration , Occupational Health , Brazil , Interviews as Topic
19.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 14(6): 2143-2152, dez. 2009. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-535980

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do artigo é discutir a forma como a coincineração de resíduos em fábricas de cimento vem crescendo no Brasil, bem como seus impactos sobre a saúde humana e o meio ambiente. Informações gerais sobre mercado e efeitos sobre a saúde foram obtidas através de revisão bibliográfica e alguns estudos de caso, escolhidos a partir de debate com integrantes da Rede Brasileira de Justiça Ambiental, foram construídos para ilustrar a situação no Brasil. Os estudos encontrados mostraram que, independente do nível de desenvolvimento tecnológico dos países, a saúde dos trabalhadores e das pessoas que moram próximas às fábricas de cimento vem sendo prejudicada pela poluição emitida pelas empresas de cimento, em especial por aquelas que praticam a coincineração. Além disso, no contexto brasileiro, a vulnerabilidade das instituições e populações afetadas tende a agravar este problema. Como conclusão, defende-se o aumento da capacidade institucional dos órgãos brasileiros responsáveis pelo monitoramento das atividades industriais, bem como uma rediscussão mais aprofundada dos aspectos políticos e éticos ligados ao transporte e comércio de resíduos industriais.


In this article we discuss the development of hazardous waste co-incineration in cement kilns in Brazil as well as its impacts on health and the environment. Information was gathered through an extensive review on social and environmental impacts of co-incineration, and case studies, chosen after discussion with social movement representatives concerned with the co-incineration issue and related to the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice, are described to illustrate the reality of co-incineration in Brazil. Studies showed that workers and community health suffers negative impacts from such practices in high-, middle- and low-income countries. In the Brazilian context, the institutional and social vulnerability intensifies these problems. To conclude, we argue for the necessity of increasing the institutional capacity of health and environmental agencies in Brazil, through staff training and better infra-structure. Additionally, we also propose a return of the debate about political and ethical aspects of industrial waste trade.


Subject(s)
Construction Materials , Environmental Pollution , Hazardous Waste , Incineration , Brazil , Risk Factors
20.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2009 Jul; 12(2): 136-139
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135168

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of delayed presentation of attempted suicide with a nail gun that penetrated both the right and left ventricle. Nearly invisible entry point of the nail did not reflect the gravity of the injury. A prompt and accurate history along with chest X-ray and bedside transthoracic echocardiography facilitated localization of the nails and helped assess the damage. Despite cardiac arrest after induction of general anesthesia, the patient had a successful outcome. Issues related to the injury site, modalities of investigation and management strategies in a patient with cardiac tamponade are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Construction Materials , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Electrocardiography , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Heart Injuries/diagnosis , Heart Injuries/surgery , Heart Ventricles/injuries , Humans , Hypotension/complications , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Intraoperative Complications/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Suicide, Attempted
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