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1.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1293230

ABSTRACT

Corneal thermal burn from domestic electric clothes pressing iron is a very rare occurrence among teenagers in Nigeria. We report the case of thermal burn to the ocular surface of a 16-year-old female, at home, from the sole plate of an electric clothes pressing iron. She presented with superficial eyelids and corneal burns (RoperHall Classification Grade II; Dua Classification Grade II). The patient was successfully managed with topical cyclopentolate 2%, topical moxifloxacin 0.5%, and tetracycline ointment. Well-documented causative agents of domestic eye injuries in the young in Nigeria are usually flying missiles. Thermal ocular injuries are quite uncommon, and when they occur, are likely due to steam burns. This report highlights the electric clothes pressing iron as a domestic hazard that caregivers must be mindful of.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Burns , Contact Lenses , Corneal Transplantation , Nigeria
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(2): 141-147, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137946

ABSTRACT

Resumo A adaptação de lentes de contato após o transplante de córnea tem sido considerada um desafio na reabilitação visual. Atualmente existe a possibilidade de adaptação de lentes de contato de vários tamanhos, diversos desenhos e com diferentes espessuras e materiais, como por exemplo lentes gelatinosas, lentes corneanas rígidas gás-permeáveis, lentes córneo-esclerais, mini esclerais e esclerais. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar uma revisão da literatura atual que possa exemplificar a utilização de alguns dos diferentes tipos de lentes de contato que possam ser usadas após o transplante de córnea. Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa da literatura médica na língua inglesa, utilizando como base de dados para a pesquisa, Pubmed e Mendeley. Como critério de inclusão, foi estabelecido a relevância do artigo de acordo com a experiência da equipe. Foram selecionados 26 artigos, com ano de publicação entre 2001 e 2018. Dentre os artigos selecionados, cinco possuem como principal assunto o transplante de córnea, nove artigos sobre lentes de contato em geral, e 12 artigos sobre lentes de contato esclerais ou mini esclerais. Devido a maior transmissibilidade de oxigênio para a córnea, o uso das lentes corneanas rígidas gás-permeáveis mostrou-se mais seguro e com probabilidade de uso por um período maior de tempo.


Abstract Contact lens fitting after corneal transplantation has been considered a challenge in visual rehabilitation. There is currently the possibility of adapting contact lenses of various sizes, various designs and with different thicknesses and materials, such as gelatinous lenses, gas-permeable rigid corneal lenses, corneal-scleral lenses, mini-scleral and scleral lenses. The objective of this study was to present a review of current literature that may exemplify the use of some of the different types of contact lenses that can be used after corneal transplantation. An integrative review of the medical literature in the English language, using as a database for the research, Pubmed and Mendeley. Twenty six articles were selected, with year of publication between 2001 and 2018, as inclusion criterion, the relevance of articles according to the authors' experience was used. Five articles were selected that have as main subject corneal transplantation, nine articles on contact lenses in general, and 12 articles on scleral or mini scleral contact lenses. Due to the greater transmissibility of oxygen to the cornea, the use of rigid gas-permeable corneal lenses was shown to be safer and more likely to be used for a longer period of time.


Subject(s)
Corneal Transplantation/rehabilitation , Contact Lenses , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic , Adaptation
4.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(1): e775, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126722

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Estandarizar una técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real para la detección del parásito e identificar Acanthamoeba en líquidos conservantes de lentes de contacto. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal sobre la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real para la detección de Acanthamoeba, en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud de la ciudad de Asunción, en Paraguay. Se analizaron 110 líquidos conservantes aportados por usuarios sanos de lentes de contacto, mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real y cultivo en medio PAGE - SDS. Resultados: Se estandarizó con éxito la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real con límite de sensibilidad de 1 pg/µL. Se aisló Acanthamoeba a partir de una muestra (1 por ciento) por método de cultivo, mientras que la carga parasitaria en el líquido conservante fue inferior al límite de detección de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real. El ADN obtenido del cultivo de dicha muestra fue positivo para Acanthamoeba por este método. Conclusión: El sistema estandarizado presenta buena sensibilidad y podrá ser incorporado en los laboratorios que cuentan con acceso a equipos de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real para un diagnóstico rápido y más eficiente en casos de sospechas de queratitis amebiana. Recomendamos el uso combinado de métodos moleculares y cultivo para aumentar la potencia del diagnóstico, sobre todo en muestras donde la carga parasitaria es muy baja(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Standardize a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of the parasite and identify Acanthamoeba in contact lens solutions. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted about a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of Acanthamoeba at the Institute of Health Sciences Research in the city of Asunción, Paraguay. A total 110 solutions were analyzed, which were provided by healthy contact lens users, by real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture in SDS-PAGE medium. Results: Successful standardization was achieved of the real-time polymerase chain reaction technique with a sensitivity limit of 1 pg/µl. Acanthamoeba was isolated from one sample (1 percent) by culture, whereas the parasite load in the contact lens solution was below the detection limit of the real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. The DNA obtained from the culture of that sample was positive for Acanthamoeba by the real-time polymerase chain reaction technique method. Conclusion: The system standardized exhibits good sensitivity and may be incorporated into laboratories with real-time polymerase chain reaction technique equipment for a rapid and more efficient diagnosis of suspected amoebic keratitis. We recommend the combined use of molecular methods and culture to enhance diagnostic power, mainly in samples where the parasite load is very low(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Acanthamoeba/microbiology , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/etiology , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Contact Lens Solutions/therapeutic use , Observational Studies as Topic
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811323

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We used a questionnaire to explore perceptions and clinical practice patterns of Korean pediatric ophthalmologists in terms of amblyopia.METHODS: From September to November 2018, we conducted a web-based questionnaire survey of 99 specialists of the Korean Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus who operated ophthalmology clinics in Korea. We received 56 responses (56.57%) and retrospectively analyzed the data.RESULTS: The average specialist age was 44.0 ± 9.7 years. The mean age of treated amblyopia patients was 3 to 5 years (69.6%); the most common amblyopia was refractive anisometropic amblyopia (75.0%). On average, treatment commenced at 4 years of age (53.6%); child and parent co-operation most significantly influenced treatment success (46.4%). The preferred test was cycloplegic refraction (96.4%) and the preferred treatment occlusion therapy (100%) with glasses correction (98.2%). Occlusion therapy was most commonly performed for 2 hours/day (69.6%); the minimum age for eyeglasses prescription was 2.10 ± 1.18 years. Only three respondents (5.36%) prescribed contact lenses and only one (1.79%) performed refractive surgery.CONCLUSIONS: In Korea, amblyopia treatment is based on occlusion therapy and glasses correction. However, the time of treatment commencement, the duration of occlusion therapy, and the glasses used for correction varied. It is necessary to develop guidelines for amblyopia treatment; these should reflect current medical conditions.


Subject(s)
Amblyopia , Child , Contact Lenses , Eyeglasses , Glass , Humans , Korea , Ophthalmology , Parents , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Prescriptions , Refractive Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Specialization , Strabismus , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(2): [P58-P65], Dic 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047140

ABSTRACT

Las amebas de vida libre (AVL) existen ampliamente distribuidas en la naturaleza, donde el género Acanthamoeba es la más frecuentemente aislada en diversos ambientes del suelo, aire y agua y está asociada a enfermedades en humanos. Su capacidad para vivir en ambientes adversos se debe a su baja demanda de alimentación y a que en su ciclo biológico tiene un estadio en forma de quiste, lo que la hace muy resistente. El hombre, como hospedero puede desarrollar infecciones en el sistema nervioso central, en la piel y los pulmones. A nivel ocular es capaz de afectar la córnea y producir queratitis. Por lo tanto es considerado un importante agente etiológico de patologías humanas. En esta revisión se aborda la biología, patogénesis y los mecanismos de defensa del ser humano frente a la infección por Acanthamoeba. Además a esto, de los factores de riesgo por el uso de lentes de contacto y malos hábitos de higiene del usuario y por último el abordaje diagnóstico microbiológico y molecular. Esta herramienta ha ido mejorando con el avance de la tecnología, indispensable para la temprana identificación y el logro de una oportuna y eficaz intervención clínica y terapéutica. Finalmente exponemos la situación actual en relación a los métodos de diagnóstico con que se cuentan y los escasos reportes clínicos existentes en Paraguay. Palabras clave: Acanthamoeba sp., Lentes de contacto, Queratitis.


Free-living amoeba (FLA) exist widely in nature, where the genus Acanthamoeba is the most frequently isolated in various environments of soil, air and water. It is associated with diseases in human. Its ability to live in adverse environments is due to the low food demand and that in its biological cycle it has a cyst-shaped stage, which makes it very resistant. Man, as a host, can acquire infections in the central nervous system and in the skin and lungs. On the ocular level, it can affect the cornea and cause keratitis. Therefore, it is considered an important etiological agent of human pathologies. This review addresses the biology, pathogenesis and human defense mechanisms against Acanthamoeba infection. In addition to this, the review explores the risk factors related to the use of contact lenses and poor hygienic behavior of the users, and finally the microbiological and molecular diagnosis. This particular tool has been improved with the advancement of technology and is essential for timely identification and the achievement of a good clinical and therapeutic intervention. Finally, we present the current situation in Paraguay regarding the few existing clinical reports and the diagnostic methods available. Key words: Acanthamoeba sp., Contact lenses, Keratitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/diagnosis , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Healthy Lifestyle
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e797, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099084

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar las características de los pacientes pediátricos con miopías por encima de 6 dioptrías. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y observacional, de corte longitudinal, en 43 niños entre 3 y 15 años de edad con diagnóstico de miopía igual o mayor de 6 dioptrías en uno o ambos ojos (72 ojos), quienes acudieron a la consulta del Servicio de Oftalmología Pediátrica y Estrabismo del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" durante el periodo comprendido entre enero y diciembre del año 2018. Las variables del estudio fueron la edad, el sexo, el color de la piel, la miopía (isometrópica y anisometrópica), la longitud axial, la agudeza visual con corrección, el tipo de corrección óptica, la presencia y el grado de estereopsia. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de 3 a 5 años (34,4 por ciento), el sexo femenino y el color de la piel blanca. La longitud axial aumentó junto con el equivalente esférico de los pacientes. La corrección más usada correspondió a los cristales, aunque se demostró estadísticamente que con los lentes de gas permeables los pacientes presentaban mejor agudeza visual (p= 0,016), donde se registró también la media más alta de equivalente esférico. De 43 pacientes, 20 (46,5 por ciento) no presentaron estereopsia. Los pacientes con anisometropías (64 por ciento) no presentaron estereopsia, lo que fue estadísticamente significativo. Conclusiones: Con los lentes de gas permeables los pacientes presentan mejor agudeza visual y mayor equivalente esférico. La mayor cantidad de pacientes sin estereopsia corresponde a las miopías por anisometropías(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Identify the characteristics of pediatric patients with greater than 6 diopter myopia. Methods: An observational descriptive longitudinal study was conducted of 43 children aged 3-15 years diagnosed with myopia equal to or greater than 6 diopters in one or both eyes (72 eyes) who attended the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Service at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from January to December 2018. The variables considered were age, sex, skin color, myopia (isometropic or anisometropic), axial length, corrected visual acuity, type of optical correction, and presence and degree of stereopsis. Results: A predominance was found of the 3-5 years age group (34.4 percent), female sex and white skin color. Axial length increased with spherical equivalent. The most common correction was glasses, but it was statistically demonstrated that gas permeable lenses provided better visual acuity (p= 0.016) and the highest spherical equivalent mean. Of the 43 patients evaluated, 20 (46.5 percent) did not present stereopsis. Patients with anisometropia (64 percent) did not present stereopsis, which constituted a statistically significant fact. Conclusion: Gas permeable lenses provide better visual acuity and a greater spherical equivalent. Most of the patients without stereopsis have anisometropic myopia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study
8.
Odontol. vital ; (30): 79-86, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1091417

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los pacientes acuden cada vez más, al consultorio odontológico a fin de mejorar el aspecto de su sonrisa, ampliando la demanda de procedimientos estéticos, y es responsabilidad del odontólogo ofrecer distintas técnicas para que el paciente acoja un tratamiento óptimo, orientado a la conservación de los tejidos dentales en este aspecto; las carillas de cerámica sin preparación, o lentes de contacto, constituyen una opción conservadora de recubrimiento parcial, que mejora la estética del sector anterior, el siguiente caso describe una posibilidad restauradora estética mínimamente invasiva para la rehabilitación del sector anterior, con el uso de porcelana IPS e. max® Press, resaltando el proceso de planificación por medio del diseño digital en dos dimensiones.


Abstract Patients increasingly come to the dental office to improve the appearance of their smile, expanding the demand for aesthetic procedures, and it is the dentist´s responsibility to offer different techniques for the patient to receive an optimal treatment, aimed at preserving the dental tissues in this aspect, unprepared ceramic veneers, or contact lenses, are a conservative alternative, which improves the aesthetics of the front sector, the following case describes a minimally invasive aesthetic restorative alternative for the rehabilitation of the anterior sector, with the use of IPS e. max® Press porcelain, highlighting the planning process through digital design in two dimensions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Dental Porcelain/therapeutic use , Dental Veneers , Esthetics, Dental , Contact Lenses
9.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(2): e737, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093699

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El parasitismo es uno de los fenómenos más sorprendentes de los observados en los animales. El número de organismos conocidos de vida parasitaria es muy elevado. Existe una gran cantidad de especies cuya supervivencia está relacionada con la de otras y dependen, en distinta medida, de ellas. Esta dependencia no implica que los animales parásitos sean organismos degenerados o deficientes; al contrario, a la vida parasitaria se ha llegado tras largo tiempo de evolución, en el que los parásitos han ido superando barreras y adaptándose a vivir en, o sobre sus hospedadores. Las queratitis por Acanthamoeba son infrecuentes; pero se describe un aumento a nivel mundial relacionado con el uso creciente de lentes de contacto. El diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento adecuado deben realizarse para evitar la pérdida de la visión. Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos publicados, con el objetivo de conocer sobre la Acanthamoeba como parásito y su afectación ocular. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud(AU)


ABSTRACT Parasitism is one of the most surprising phenomena among those occurring in animals. The number of known parasitic organisms is very high. There is a large number of species whose survival is related to that of others and depend on them to a greater or lesser degree. Such dependence does not imply that parasitic animals are either degenerate or deficient. On the contrary, parasitic life has been the result of a long process of evolution along which parasites have gradually overcome hurdles and have adapted to live in or on their hosts. Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease, but a worldwide increase has been reported due to the growing use of contact lenses. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are required to prevent sight loss. A search was conducted for published papers with the purpose of learning about Acanthamoeba as a parasite and the related eye conditions. Use was made of the platform Infomed, specifically the Virtual Health Library(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parasitic Diseases/drug therapy , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/epidemiology , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Contact Lenses/parasitology , Review Literature as Topic
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 546-554, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004287

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se reportó el caso clínico de una fémina de 50 años de edad. Acudió a los Servicios de Oftalmología, del Hospital Provincial Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández, de Matanzas. Refirió síntomas irritativos y disminución visual por el ojo izquierdo. El examen oftalmológico mostró en dicho ojo la presencia de lesiones esferoideas de color ámbar, conjuntivo corneales en periferia (horas 3-4 y 9). Se extendían en banda a la córnea central, algunas con aspecto nodular. En el ojo derecho presentaba lesiones similares pero localizadas mayoritariamente en la periferia corneal y conjuntiva horas 3 y 9. Con estos elementos se estableció diagnóstico clínico de degeneración esferoidea, enfermedad degenerativa corneal poco frecuente y generalmente asintomática siempre que no progrese y afecte la visión. Se aplicó como tratamiento una queratectomia superficial, manual, con colocación de una lente de contacto terapéutica en el ojo izquierdo, sin complicaciones. Hubo regresión de los síntomas irritativos y mejoría de la agudeza visual constatada en las consultas de seguimiento. Se recomendó la necesidad de protección solar al constituir las radiaciones ultravioletas un factor de riesgo de importancia en el desarrollo de esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT The authors reported the case of a woman, aged 50 years, who assisted the Ophthalmology service of the Provincial Hospital "Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández", of Matanzas. She referred irritant symptoms and left eye visual decrease. The ophthalmologic examination showed the presence of amber-color spheroidal lesions, corneal conjunctives in periphery (3-4 and 9 hours) in that eye. They extended in bands to the central cornea, some of them with nodular aspect. There were similar lesions in the right eye, but they were located mainly corneal and peripheral conjunctive hours 3 and 9. With these elements it was established the clinical diagnosis of spheroidal degeneration, a few frequent corneal degenerative disease that is almost always asymptomatic if it does not progress and affects sight. As a treatment the patient underwent a manual, superficial keratectomy with location of therapeutic contact lens without complications. There it was a regression of the irritant symptoms and an improvement of the visual acuity stated in the follow-up consultations. The patients was recommended sun protection because ultraviolet rays are important risk factors in the development of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Corneal Diseases , Sun Protection Factor , Keratectomy/methods , Keratitis/surgery , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/therapy , Ophthalmic Solutions , Steroids , Contact Lenses , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Corneal Diseases/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1007853

ABSTRACT

La córnea es un órgano transparente e inmunológicamente privilegiado, debido a la falta de vasos sanguíneos, distribución y acomodación de sus fibras de colágeno. Sus ingeniosos métodos de defensa incluyen barreras físicas como el epitelio corneal, el recambio y composición de la película lágrima, y finalmente, la protección recibida del medio ambiente por medio del párpado. La córnea tiene 5 capas, incluyendo un epitelio de 5 a 7 células de espesor, estroma y endotelio, con capas de apoyo entre el estroma y las otras dos capas. A la infección de la córnea secundaria a bacterias, hongos, ó protozoarios se le conoce como queratitis1, una afección que amenaza a la visión y que puede llegar a perforación corneal o a una extensión de la infección como la endoftalmitis. De hecho, la complicación más seria de la queratitis es la ceguera producida por cicatrización corneal(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Keratitis/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Keratitis/etiology , Keratitis/drug therapy
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(3): 194-207, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001343

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Scotopic sensitivity syndrome, later called Meares-Irlen syndrome or simply Irlen syndrome (IS) has been described as symptoms of poor reading ability due to poor color matching and distorted graphic images. Individuals with this syndrome are considered slow, ineffective readers with low comprehension and visual fatigue. It is still uncertain whether the disease pathophysiology is an independent entity or part of the dyslexia spectrum. Nevertheless, treatments with lenses and colored filters have been proposed to alleviate the effect of the luminous contrast and improve patients' reading performance. However, no evidence of treatment effectiveness has been achieved. Objective: The aim of the present study was to obtain evidence about IS etiology, diagnosis and intervention efficacy. Methods: A systematic review was performed covering the available studies on IS, assessing the available data according to their level of evidence, focusing on diagnostic tools, proposed interventions and related outcomes. Results: The data showed high heterogeneity among studies, and lack of evidence on the existence of IS and treatment effectiveness. Conclusion: The syndrome as described, as well as its treatments, require further strong evidence.


RESUMO Background: A síndrome da sensibilidade escotópica, posteriormente denominada síndrome de Meares-Irlen ou simplesmente síndrome de Irlen (SI), foi descrita como indivíduos com sintomas de baixa capacidade de leitura devido à combinação de cores e distorções nas imagens. Indivíduos com essa síndrome podem apresentar leitura lenta e ineficaz, com baixo nível de compreensão e fadiga visual. A fisiopatologia da doença ainda é incerta como uma entidade independente ou como parte do espectro da dislexia. No entanto, tratamentos com lentes e filtros coloridos foram propostos com o objetivo de aliviar o efeito do contraste luminoso e melhorar o desempenho de leitura dos pacientes. Outrossim, nenhuma evidência de eficácia do tratamento foi alcançada. Objetivos: Obter evidências sobre a etiologia, eficácia diagnóstica e intervenção da SI. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática, cobrindo os estudos disponíveis sobre a SI, avaliando os dados disponíveis de acordo com seu nível de evidência, com foco em ferramentas de diagnóstico, intervenções propostas e desfechos relacionados. Resultados: Os dados mostram alta heterogeneidade, falta de evidência sobre a existência da SI e eficácia do tratamento. Conclusões: A síndrome descrita e seus tratamentos exigem evidências mais robustas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/therapy , Syndrome , Vision Disorders/etiology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Contact Lenses , Dyslexia/physiopathology , Night Vision
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 129-135, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989398

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the reliability of swept- source optical coherence tomography in cases in which soft contact lenses cannot be removed when acquiring biometric measurements. Methods: Eight subjects were included and only one eye per participant was analyzed. Each eye was measured six times by swept-source optical coherence tomography with the IOLMaster 700 instrument (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). Axial length, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and keratometric measurements were evaluated for the naked eye and while wearing soft contact lenses of three different powers (-1.5, -3.0, and +2.0 D). Results: There were statistically significant changes in axial length, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric measurements with soft contact lenses as compared to the naked eye (p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in lens thickness outcomes between the naked eye and while wearing the three soft contact lenses (p>0.5). The changes in axial length, central corneal thickness, and anterior chamber depth were lens-specific and dependent on the thickness of the lens used. Conclusions: Sept-source optical coherence tomography based lens thickness measurements while wearing soft contact lenses are comparable to those of the naked eye. However, the thickness and the optical design of the soft contact lens may lead to significant differences in the axial lengh, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber deph, and keratometric measurements.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a confiabilidade da tomografia de coerência óptica de varredura em casos especiais em que lentes de contato gelatinosas não podem ser removidas ao realizar medições biométricas. Métodos: Oito indivíduos foram incluídos e apenas um olho por participante foi analisado. Cada olho foi medido seis vezes por tomografia de coerência óptica de varredura com o instrumento IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Alemanha). O comprimento axial, a espessura central da córnea, a profundidade da câmara anterior, a espessura da lente e as medidas ceratométricas foram avaliados a olho nu e enquanto usavam lentes de contato gelatinosas de três diferentes potências (-1,5, -3,0 e +2,0 D). Resultados: Houve alterações significativas no comprimento axial, espessura central da córnea, profundidade da câmara anterior e medidas ceratométricas com as lentes de contato gelatinosas em comparação com as a olho nu (p<0,001). No entanto, não houve diferenças significativas nos resultados de espessura do cristalino entre o olho nu e enquanto usava as três lentes de contato gelatinosas (p>0,5). As alterações de comprimento axial, espessura central da córnea e profundidade da câmara anterior foram específicas da lente e dependentes da espessura da lente usada. Conclusões: As medições da espessura da lente baseadas na tomografia de coerência óptica da Sept-source, enquanto usam lentes de lentes de contato gelatinosas, são comparáveis às do olho nu. Entretanto, a es pessura e o desenho óptico da lente de contato gelatinosa podem levar a diferenças significativas no comprimento axial, na espessura central da córnea, na profundidade da câmara anterior e nas medidas ceratométricas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Biometry/methods , Contact Lenses , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Axial Length, Eye/anatomy & histology , Axial Length, Eye/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Eye Segment/anatomy & histology , Anterior Eye Segment/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cross-Over Studies
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 49-51, jan.-fev. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990793

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente relato apresenta o caso de conjuntivite causada por Ralstonia pichettii em paciente imunocompetente usuária de lente de contato. A bactéria isolada da solução utilizada para desinfecção das lentes R. pichettii não pertente a microbiota humana mas infecta pacientes imunodeprimidos e está presente em soluções aquosas. Não há padronização de sensibilidade para esta bactéria e poucos antibióticos foram testados para bactérias não fermentadoras da glicose. Devido ao reduzido perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrado pela R. pichettii, torna-se importante a identificação correta deste agente etiológico em quadros de conjuntivite e ceratites. Este relato de caso ilustra que R. Pickettii é um patógeno mais importante do que se pensava anteriormente.


Abstract The present report reports a case of conjunctivitis caused by Ralstonia pichettii in an immunocompetent patient wearing a contact lens. The bacterium isolated from the solution used to disinfect R. pichettii does not belong to the human microbiota but infects immunodepressed patients and is present in aqueous solutions. There is no standardization of sensitivity for this bacterium and few antibiotics have been tested for non-fermenting glucose bacteria. Due to the reduced antimicrobial sensitivity profile demonstrated by R. pichettii, it is important to correctly identify this etiologic agent in conjunctivitis and keratitis. This case report illustrates that R. Pickettii is a more important pathogen than previously thought.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/etiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Ralstonia pickettii
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786173

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the basic optical properties for presbyopia correction, including eyeglasses and contact lenses. Conventional eyeglasses are the most established technology for presbyopia correction, and contact lenses have been recognized to have a huge potential in presbyopia correction. However, successful treatment using contact lenses is dependent on age-related factors, such as upper and lower eyelid movements, palpebral aperture, and decreased lacrimal secretion and tear stability. Monovision and multifocality are optical properties of the lens that form the basis of presbyopia correction. The monovision method is based on the principle of neuro-adaptation, wherein one eye automatically selects a clear image and suppresses an unclear image for processing in the brain when there is a difference in the clarity of the images obtained from both the eyes because of anisopia, which is characterized by unequal visual power between the two eyes. Simultaneous views of near and far objects cannot be achieved using eyeglasses, but these can be realized using contact lenses or intraocular lenses. Alternative views of near and far objects can be achieved using a variety of bifocal contact lenses, which function similar to bifocal eyeglasses. Traditional strategies for presbyopia correction, including the use of monovision, bi/tri/multifocal, and progressive eyeglasses and the use of contact lenses, are being challenged by novel strategies involving pharmacotherapy and electrostimulation. Although the immediate prospect of any newly developed innovation remains slim, improved lens profiles would lead to a better match between the lens and the needs of individuals with presbyopia.


Subject(s)
Brain , Contact Lenses , Drug Therapy , Eyeglasses , Eyelids , Lenses, Intraocular , Methods , Presbyopia , Tears
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766892

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report a case of Aeromonas keratitis presenting as radial keratoneuritis. CASE SUMMARY: A 33-year-old woman with a history of cleaning her contact lenses with tap water presented with decreased visual acuity for 1 day in the left eye. The patient showed diffuse corneal edema, stromal infiltration, and radial keratoneuritis, which were thought to be pathognomonic for Aeromonas keratitis. Based on the patient's clinical findings and past history, a diagnosis of Aeromonas keratitis was made and she was prescribed topical fortified cefazolin (50 mg/mL, 5%), tobramycin (3 mg/mL), and 0.02% chlorhexidine per hour. Culture results from the contact lens and contact lens solution confirmed infection by Aeromonas hydrophilia. Polymerase chain reaction results for Aeromonas were negative. After 8 days of treatment, the uncorrected visual acuity was 0.7/0.3 with improvement in her corneal findings. CONCLUSIONS: Radial keratoneuritis is not always pathognomic for Aeromonas keratitis and can be present in Aeromonas keratitis. Therefore, ophthalmologists should be cautious when interpreting this clinical sign.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aeromonas , Cefazolin , Chlorhexidine , Contact Lens Solutions , Contact Lenses , Cornea , Corneal Edema , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Keratitis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tobramycin , Visual Acuity , Water
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(6): 338-341, nov.-dez. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this project is to describe the epidemiological profile of the Contact Lens Sector of the Benjamin Constant Institute in Rio de Janeiro. Methods: A retrospective study of 788 cases was carried out from March / 2004 to June / 2015. Results: Most of the objects in the cases were female (62.23%). As for the indication, 445 cases (56.47%) were optical, 281 cases (35.65%) were esthetic, 44 cases (5.58%) were prosthetic, and 18 cases (2.30%) were cosmetic. The most prevalent age group was from 20-39 years of age (46.34% of cases), followed by 40-64 years of age (25.31% of cases). Of the total of adapted cases, 81.6% were with rigid lenses, and among the optical medical indications, 61.4% of the cases were by keratoconus. Conclusions: Because it is a reference medical service, whose main objective is the rehabilitation of patients with low vision, the optical medical indication was the most frequent. The rigid lenses showed up with a prominent role in the adaptations.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever as estatísticas do Setor de Lente de Contato do Instituto Benjamin Constant do Rio de Janeiro. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 794 casos no período de março/2004 a junho/2015. Resultados: A maior parte dos casos foi do sexo feminino (62,21%) e a indicação mais frequente foi médicas ópticas (56,04%). A faixa etária mais prevalente foi a de 20-39 anos, correspondendo a 46,34%, e em seguida a de 40-64 anos (25,31%). Do total de casos adaptados, 81,6% foram com lentes rígidas. Entre as indicações médicas ópticas 61,4% dos casos foram por ceratocone. Conclusões: Por ser tratar em um serviço médico de referencia, cujo principal objetivo é a reabilitação de pacientes com visão subnormal, a indicação médica óptica foi a mais frequente. As lentes rígidas mostraram-se com papel de destaque nas adaptações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adaptation, Physiological , Contact Lenses/statistics & numerical data , Visual Acuity , Retrospective Studies
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 475-480, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973852

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the visual quality performance of scleral contact lenses in patients with keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, and post-keratoplasty astigmatism, and their impact on quality of life. Methods: We included 40 patients (58 eyes) with keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, and post-keratoplasty astigmatism who were examined between October 2014 and June 2017 and fitted with scleral contact lenses in this study. Before fitting scleral contact lenses, we noted refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity, spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected contrast sensitivity, and spectacle-corrected contrast sensitivity. We performed corneal topography on and applied a questionnaire that included the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire to all participants. We recorded corrected contrast sensitivity and corrected distance visual acuity on the third month after fitting scleral contact lenses and requested that subjects repeat the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire. Results: The mean age of patients was 28.12 ± 13.19 years. Mean logMAR uncorrected distance visual acuity, spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity, and corrected distance visual acuity with scleral contact lenses were 0.91 ± 0.21 (0.40-1.80), 0.57 ± 0.12 (0.10-1.80), and 0.16 ± 0.02 (0.00-1.30), respectively. We observed significantly higher corrected distance visual acuity with scleral contact lenses compared with uncorrected distance visual acuity and spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (p<0.05). Mean uncorrected contrast sensitivity, spectacle-corrected contrast sensitivity and CCS with scleral contact lenses were 0.97 ± 0.12 (0.30-1.65), 1.16 ± 0.51 (0.30-1.80), and 1.51 ± 0.25 (0.90-1.80), respectively. Significantly higher contrast sensitivity levels were recorded with scleral contact lenses compared with those recorded with uncorrected contrast sensitivity and spectacle-corrected contrast sensitivity (p<0.05). We found the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire overall score for patients with scleral contact lens treatment to be significantly higher compared with that for patients with uncorrected sight (p<0.05). Conclusion: Scleral contact lenses are an effective alternative visual correction method for keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, and post-keratoplasty astigmatism. A significant increase in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity can be obtained with scleral contact lenses in patients with irregular corneas.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho da qualidade visual das lentes de contato esclerais em pacientes com ceratocone, degeneração marginal transparente e astigmatismo pós-ceratoplastia e seu impacto na qualidade de vida. Métodos: Foram incluídos 40 pacientes (58 olhos) com ceratocone, degeneração marginal transparente ou astigmatismo pós-ce­ratoplastia que foram examinados entre outubro de 2014 e junho de 2017 e adaptados com lentes de contato esclerais neste estudo. Antes de ajustar as lentes de contato esclerais, registrou-se refração, acuidade visual à distância não corrigida, acuidade visual à distância corrigida por óculos, sensibilidade ao contraste não corrigida e sensibilidade ao contraste corrigida por óculos. Rea­lizamos topografia da córnea e aplicamos um questionário que incluía o Questionário de Funcionamento Visual do National Eye Institute para todos os participantes. Registramos a sensibilidade ao contraste corrigida e corrigimos a acuidade visual à distância no terceiro mês após a adaptação das lentes de contato esclerais e solicitamos aos participantes que repetissem o Questionário de Funcionamento Visual do National Eye Institute. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 28,12 ± 13,19 anos. A acuidade visual à distância não corrigida logMAR média, a acuidade visual à distância corrigida por óculos e a distância visual corrigida com as lentes de contato esclerais foram 0,91 ± 0,21 (0,40-1,80), 0,57 ± 0,12 (0,10-1,80), 0,16 ± 0,02 (0,00-1,30), respectivamente. Observamos uma acuidade visual à distância corrigida significativamente maior com lentes de contato esclerais em comparação à acuidade visual à distância não corrigida e à acuidade visual à distância corrigida por óculos (p<0,05). Sensibilidade ao contraste médio não corrigido, sensibilidade ao contraste corrigida por óculos e CCS com lentes de contato esclerais foram 0,97 ± 0,12 (0,30-1,65), 1,16 ± 0,51 (0,30-1,80), 1,51 ± 0,25 (0,90-1,80), respectivamente. Significativamente maiores níveis de sensibilidade ao contraste foram registrados com lentes de contato esclerais em comparação com aqueles registrados com sensibilidade ao contraste não corrigida e sensibilidade ao contraste corrigida por óculos (p<0,05). Descobrimos que a pontuação geral do Questionário de Funcionamento Visual do National Eye Institute para pacientes em tratamento com lentes de contato esclerais é significativamente maior em comparação com pacientes com visão não corrigia (p<0,05). Conclusão: As lentes de contato esclerais constituem um método alternativo eficaz de correção visual alternativa para o ceratocone, degeneração marginal transparente e o astigmatismo pós-ceratoplastia. Um aumento significativo na acuidade visual e sensibilidade ao contraste pode ser obtido com lentes de contato esclerais em pacientes com córneas irregulares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Sclera , Visual Acuity/physiology , Contact Lenses , Corneal Diseases/rehabilitation , Astigmatism/surgery , Astigmatism/rehabilitation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Corneal Topography , Keratoconus/rehabilitation
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 371-375, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the bacterial and fungal microbiota found in contact lens cases among two groups of patients to correlate the data on the habits of contact lens users and to evaluate whether there is a difference in the culture results between users of ridged and nonridged contact lens cases. Methods: Two groups (35 patients per group) were included, consisting of hospital workers and those who had not visited a hospital in the past 30 days, and a questionnaire regarding epidemiological data and habits related to contact lens and lens case use was administered. In addition, 140 samples collected from the right and left compartments of each lens case by swabbing the bottom of the wells were tested using bacterioscopy as well as fungal and bacterial cultures via computerized identification of the species. Results: No fungal growth was identified in any of the 70 contact lens cases; however, bacteria were found in 39 cases, and there was no statistical difference between the groups. Most bacteria (>85%) were gram-negative bacilli. Contamination inone compartment of the contact lens case elevated the risk of contamination of the other side (>80%). Moreover, contamination was statistically higher in the ridged cases than in nonridged cases (p=0.0149). Conclusion: The types of bacteria contaminating the cases are generally not seen in eye diseases associated with contact lens use, suggesting that other decisive variables are involved in eye infection from a contaminated lens or case. Fungal contamination of contact lens cases appears to be an exception. Ridged cases are commonly used by contact lens wearers and present a potential risk to eye health. In addition, the results of bacterial tests between hospital workers and those who did not visit a hospital were not significantly different.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a microbiota bacteriana e fúngica encontrada em estojos de lentes de contato em dois grupos, correlacionar os dados sobre os hábitos de uso de lentes de contato e avaliar se há diferença na positividade das culturas entre os usuários estojos de lentes de contato com ranhuras e sem ranhuras. Métodos: Dois grupos foram formados, trabalhadores do hospital e pessoas que não visitaram o hospital (35 indivíduos por grupo), e um questionário foi aplicado sobre dados epidemiológicos e hábitos relacionados ao uso de lentes de contato e estojos de lentes. Além disso, 140 amostras, coletadas do compartimento direito e esquerdo de cada estojo de lente, esfregando o fundo dos mesmos, foram testadas por bacterioscopia e por culturas de fungos e bactérias, com identificação computadorizada da espécie. Resultados: Não houve crescimento fúngico em nenhum dos 70 estojos de lentes de contato, porém bactérias foram encontradas em 39; não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. A maioria das bactérias (>85%) eram bacilos gram-negativos. Quando um compartimento estava contaminado, o risco de contaminação do outro compartimento era elevado (>80%). A contaminação foi estatisticamente maior nos estojos com ranhuras (p=0,0149). Conclusão: A contaminação dos estojos parece ocorrer por bactérias que, em geral, não são encontradas em doenças oculares associadas ao uso de lentes de contato, sugerindo que existem outras variáveis decisivas nas infecções oculares de uma lente ou estojo contaminado. Contaminação de estojos de lentes de contato com fungos parece ser uma exceção. O uso de estojos com ranhuras é uma prática comum e apresenta um risco potencial à saúde ocular. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos resultados dos testes bacterianos entre trabalhadores hospitalares e pessoas que não visitaram o hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Contact Lenses/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 716-719, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957453

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report an Acanthamoeba keratitis case associated with the use of contact lens in a 28-year-old female from Brasília, Brazil. Samples from corneal scraping and contact lens case were used for culture establishment, PCR amplification, and partial sequencing (fragments of ~400kb) of small subunit rDNA; both culture and PCR were positive. The sequence analyses of the cornea and of isolates from the contact lens case showed similarity with the T4 genotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T4 Acanthamoeba keratitis case from the Midwest region of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Acanthamoeba/genetics , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/diagnosis , Contact Lenses/parasitology , Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/surgery , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/etiology , Genotype
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