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1.
Washington; OPS; 20 Mayo 2022. 7 p. (Alerta epidemiológico - Organización Panamericana de la Salud).
Monography in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370036

ABSTRACT

Ante la ocurrencia de casos de viruela símica en algunos países dentro y fuera de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/ Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS) comparte con sus Estados Miembros una serie de consideraciones en relación con la identificación de casos, el aislamiento, identificación y seguimiento de contactos, el manejo clínico y la prevención y el control de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud. También se brinda orientaciones sobre tratamiento disponible y vacunas.


Diante da ocorrência de casos de varíola do macaco em alguns países dentro e fora da Região das Américas, a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde (OPAS/OMS) compartilha com seus Estados-Membros uma série de considerações em relação a identificação de casos, isolamento, identificação e acompanhamento de contatos, manejo clínico, e prevenção e controle de infecção relacionada à atenção a saúde. Também oferece orientações sobre tratamentos disponíveis e vacinas


Given the occurrence of cases of monkeypox in countries within and outside of the Region of the Americas, the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) shares with its Member States a series of considerations in relation to the identification of cases, the isolation, identification and follow-up of contacts, the clinical management, and the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections. Guidance regarding available treatment and vaccines is also provided


Subject(s)
Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Americas/epidemiology , Smallpox Vaccine , Contact Tracing , Disease Notification , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/prevention & control
2.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 37(1): e1346, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280316

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La tuberculosis constituye la principal causa de muerte en el mundo por enfermedad infecciosa. Objetivo: Verificar el cumplimiento de las acciones de control de foco de los contactos de casos de tuberculosis. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Universo constituido por los 338 contactos identificados de 10 casos de tuberculosis. Los datos procedieron de encuestas epidemiológicas, base de datos de morbilidad y tarjetas de notificación de la unidad municipal de higiene y epidemiologia del municipio Boyeros. Se utilizaron las variables: edad, sexo, nivel educacional y ocupación. Se identificaron los factores de vulnerabilidad en los contactos y se verificó cumplimiento del examen médico, los complementarios, realización y resultado de prueba de tuberculina, quimioprofilaxis y seguimiento. Resultados: Prevaleció el sexo masculino (64,2 por ciento) y los mayores de 65 años (46,7 por ciento). Los grupos vulnerables más frecuentes fueron los contactos en unidades de salud con internamiento prolongado y más de 60 años (87,2 por ciento y 62,1 por ciento, respectivamente). No se detectó el número real de contactos y convivientes ni fue investigado el 100 por ciento. Las pruebas de tuberculina realizadas arrojaron el mayor porciento de no reactores, el 90 por ciento de los contactos recibieron quimiprofilaxis y su seguimiento fue deficiente. Conclusiones: La no detección oportuna de los contactos y convivientes de casos de tuberculosis y los incumplimientos de su estudio constituyeron las principales deficiencias de los controles de foco realizados. El seguimiento de los contactos fue inadecuado, lo que pudiera propiciar la aparición de nuevos casos de tuberculosis en el municipio(AU)


Introduction: Tuberculosis is worldwide the main cause of death due to infectious disease. Objective: To verify compliance with outbreak control actions associated with contacts of tuberculosis cases. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study. The universe was made up of the 338 contacts identified from ten cases of tuberculosis. The data came from epidemiological surveys, morbidity database and notification cards of the municipal hygiene and epidemiology unit of Boyeros Municipality. The following variables were used: age, sex, educational level and occupation. The vulnerability factors in the contacts were identified, as well as compliance with medical examination, complementary tests, performance and result of tuberculin test, chemoprophylaxis and follow-up. Results: The male sex (64.2 percent) and people over 65 years of age (46.7 percent) prevailed. The most frequent vulnerable groups were contacts in health units with prolonged hospitalization and aged over 60 years (87.2 percent and 62.1 percent, respectively). The actual number of contacts and partners was not detected, nor 100 percent of them were investigated. The tuberculin tests carried out showed the highest percentage of non-reactors. 90 percent of the contacts received chemoprophylaxis and their follow-up was poor. Conclusions: There was no timely detection of the contacts and cohabitants of tuberculosis cases and no compliance with their study, which constituted the main deficiencies of the outbreak controls carried out. The follow-up of the contacts was inadequate, which could lead to the appearance of new cases of tuberculosis in the municipality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculin Test/methods , Contact Tracing/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries have used contact tracing apps, including Japan's voluntary-use contact-confirming application (COCOA). The current study aimed to identify industry and workplace characteristics associated with the downloading of this COVID-19 contact tracing app.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study of full-time workers used an online survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of industry and workplace characteristics with contact tracing app use.@*RESULTS@#Of the 27,036 participants, 25.1% had downloaded the COCOA. Workers in the public service (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.45) and information technology (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.20-1.58) industries were more likely to use the app than were those in the manufacturing industry. In contrast, app usage was less common among workers in the retail and wholesale (aOR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99) and food/beverage (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94) industries, but further adjustment for company size attenuated these associations. Workers at larger companies were more likely to use the app. Compared with permanent employees, the odds of using the app were higher for managers and civil servants but lower for those who were self-employed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Downloading of COCOA among Japanese workers was insufficient; thus, the mitigating effect of COCOA on the COVID-19 pandemic is considered to be limited. One possible reason for the under-implementation of the contact tracing app in the retail and wholesale and food/beverage industries is small company size, as suggested by the fully adjusted model results. An awareness campaign should be conducted to promote the widespread use of the contact tracing app in these industries.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Industry/classification , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
4.
Clinics ; 76: e2639, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the declining numbers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, social distancing measures have gradually been lifted. However, the risk of a surge in the number of cases cannot be overlooked. Even with the adoption of nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as restrictions on mass gatherings, wearing of masks, and complete or partial closure of schools, other public health measures may help control the epidemic. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the contact tracing of symptomatic individuals on the COVID-19 epidemic regardless of the use of diagnostic testing. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model that includes isolation of symptomatic individuals and tracing of contacts to assess the effects of the contact tracing of symptomatic individuals on the COVID-19 epidemic in the state of São Paulo. RESULTS: For a selection efficacy (proportion of isolated contacts who are infected) of 80%, cases and deaths may be reduced by 80% after 60 days when 5000 symptomatic individuals are isolated per day, each of them together with 10 contacts. On the other hand, for a selection efficacy of 20%, the number of cases and deaths may be reduced by approximately 40% and 50%, respectively, compared with the scenario in which no contact-tracing strategy is implemented. CONCLUSION: Contact tracing of symptomatic individuals may potentially be an alternative strategy when the number of diagnostic tests available is not sufficient for massive testing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Betacoronavirus
5.
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 55(2): 29-37, 2021. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1293303

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe how early case detection, testing and contact tracing measures were deployed by stakeholders in response to the COVID-19 outbreak in Ghana ­ using three outbreak scenarios. Design: A descriptive assessment of three case studies of COVID-19 outbreaks within three settings that occurred in Ghana from March 13 till the end of June 2020. Setting: A construction camp, a factory and a training institution in Ghana. Participants: Staff of a construction camp, a factory, workers and students of a training institution. Interventions: We described and compared the three COVID-19 outbreak scenarios in Ghana, highlighting identification and diagnosis of cases, testing, contact tracing and stakeholder engagement for each scenario. We also outlined the challenges and lessons learnt in the management of these scenarios. Main outcome measures: Approach used for diagnosis, testing, contact tracing and stakeholder engagement. Results: Index cases of the training institution and construction camp were screened the same day of reporting symptoms, whiles the factory index case required a second visit before the screening. All index cases were tested with RTPCR. The training institution followed and tested all contacts, and an enhanced contact tracing approach was conducted for staff of the other two sites. Multi-sectorial engagement and collaboration with stakeholders enabled effective handling of the outbreak response in all sites. Conclusion: Comparing all three settings, early diagnosis and prompt actions taken through multi-sectorial collaborations played a major role in controlling the outbreak. Engaging stakeholders in the COVID-19 response is an effective way to mitigate the challenges in responding to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Qualitative Research , Ghana
6.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(1): 74-79, ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124803

ABSTRACT

La correcta aplicación de las técnicas del proceso de muestreo se ha hecho indispensable para la investigación en el campo de la epidemiologia, el desafío de todo investigador, es que los resultados de unos cuantos, puedan ser extrapolables para una población. El presente artículo, es una revisión no sistemática, que proporciona información sobre la aplicación de un método de muestreo aleatorio asociado con una ubicación geográfica, para el estudio de "Valores de Referencia de la Fuerza de Agarre en adultos del departamento de Cochabamba-Bolivia". Primeramente, en la introducción se revisa la importancia de estimación de parámetros poblaciones de referencia, a partir de preguntas descriptivas. Seguidamente se menciona las características de la investigación epidemiológica asociada a la espacialidad; en tercer lugar, se detalla la metodología y las experiencias que conllevo la aplicación del muestreo en el proyecto. Finalmente se hace un hincapié en la necesidad y relevancia del uso de esta metodología.


The correct application of the sampling process techniques has become indispensable for research in the field of epidemiology, the challenge of every researcher, is that the results of a few can be extrapolated to a population. This article is a non-systematic review, which provides information on the application of a random sampling method associated with a geographical location, for the study of "Reference Values of Grip Force in adults of the department of Cochabamba-Bolivia". First, the introduction reviews the importance of estimating reference population parameters, based on descriptive questions. Next, the characteristics of the epidemiological research associated with spatiality are mentioned, in third place, the methodology and the experiences that the application of sampling in the project entails. Finally, an emphasis is placed on the need and relevance of the use of this methodology.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing
7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 290-293, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249913

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a paradigm shift in healthcare. Objective: To evaluate the utility of a strategy to comprehensively address the pandemic in a health area that covers 42,000 people. Method: Between March 10 and May 15, 2020, the COVID Unit was created in the corresponding regional hospital, and an independent circuit was established for the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19; social health centers were monitored with PCR testing. Results: Eighteen COVID-19-positive patients (age 72.9 ± 13.2 years) were admitted, out of which 66% were males. All these patients had pneumonia and 67% had respiratory distress syndrome; no one required mechanical ventilation. Mean hospital stay was 9.4 ± 5.3 days, and mortality, 11%. PCR tests were applied to all hospital residents (n = 827) and workers (n = 519), 1,044 phone calls were made and 36 hospital admissions were avoided. Only 50 patients required close follow-up, out of which four (0.48%) were positive for COVID-19. Conclusion: Clinical monitoring at the hospital and social health centers showed that patient profile was like that documented in the literature and that the incidence of COVID-19 was low in social health centers.


Resumen Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 provocó un cambio de paradigma en la atención médica. Objetivo: Evaluar una estrategia para abordar integralmente la pandemia en un distrito de salud que comprende 42 000 personas. Método: Entre el 10 de marzo y 15 de mayo de 2020 se creó la Unidad COVID en un hospital regional correspondiente al distrito y se estableció un circuito independiente para el diagnóstico y manejo de pacientes con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19; los centros de salud social fueron monitoreados mediante PCR. Resultados: Ingresaron 18 pacientes positivos a COVID-19 (edad de 72.9 ± 13.2 años), 66 % eran hombres; todos presentaron neumonía, 67 % desarrolló síndrome de dificultad respiratoria y ninguno requirió ventilación mecánica. La estancia hospitalaria fue de 9.4 ± 5.3 días y la mortalidad, de 11 %. Se realizaron pruebas de PCR a todos los residentes (n = 827) y trabajadores (n = 519) del hospital, se realizaron 1044 llamadas telefónicas y se evitaron 36 hospitalizaciones. Solo 50 pacientes necesitaron seguimiento cercano, cuatro (0.48 %) positivos a COVID-19. Conclusión: El monitoreo clínico en el hospital y centros de salud social mostró que el perfil de los pacientes fue similar al documentado en la literatura y que la incidencia de COVID-19 fue baja en los centros sociales de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hospitalization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Spain , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Incidence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 151-159, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115771

ABSTRACT

Background: Contact investigation is cardinal in the control of tuberculosis (TB) since it helps to stop its transmission. In Chile, the National TB Program strategy does not include latent TB infection testing, regular chemoprophylaxis or follow-up in adults. Active TB was found in only 1.2% of contacts at country-level during 2018. Aim: To evaluate the performance of a systematic screening of adult household contacts with targeted chemoprophylaxis and prolonged active follow-up. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort of household contacts in Santiago. Two face-to-face visits (at 0 and 12 weeks) that included QuantiFERON TB-Gold plus tests (QFT), chest radiography (CXR) at 0 and 24 weeks and, periodic text messaging or phone call follow-up for up to 48 weeks were implemented. Contacts with positive QFT were referred for TB chemoprophylaxis. Results: A total of 200 contacts were enrolled, 69% were migrants. At baseline evaluation, 45% had a positive QFT result and 1.6% had co-prevalent active TB. At follow-up, 13% contacts further converted to QFT (+), and 5.1% more were diagnosed with active TB (mean follow-up time 32 weeks). Of these 10 further active TB cases, 6 (60%) had a negative QFT and all (100%) had normal CXR at baseline; while three cases occurred in QFT converters. Conclusions: In this cohort of household contacts, 6.7 % were diagnosed with active TB (more than 2/3 at follow-up) and 13% had a late QFT (+) conversion. Active and prolonged contacts' follow-up are essential to detect new infections and tackle the TB epidemic in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Contact Tracing , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculin Test , Family Characteristics , Family Health , Prevalence , Follow-Up Studies
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200494, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136860

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diagnosing cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with only non-respiratory symptoms has been challenging. We reported the diagnosis of a child who tested positive for COVID-19 with abdominal pain/diarrhea and tracked his family cluster. One member of the family tested positive for COVID-19 on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and three other family members had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190507, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092191

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Intra-domiciliary contacts are a group with the highest risk of developing leprosy. METHODS A cross-sectional study of intra-domiciliary contacts of new leprosy cases was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. RESULTS Among 190 contacts, 63% were invited to visit the health unit, and 54.2% received the BCG vaccine. The prevalence of leprosy among the contacts was 4.7%. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of leprosy among the contacts was high and similar to that found previously. There were failures in surveillance actions carried out by health units. Never-before treated cases were found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Leprosy/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Leprosy/prevention & control , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 43, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094422

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The rapid increase in clinical cases of the new coronavirus disease, COVID-19, suggests high transmissibility. However, the estimates of the basic reproductive number reported in the literature vary widely. Considering this, we drew the function of contact-rate reduction required to control the transmission from both detectable and undetectable sources. Based on this, we offer a set of recommendations for symptomatic and asymptomatic populations during the current pandemic. Understanding the dynamics of transmission is essential to support government decisions and improve the community's adherence to preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Brazil , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Feasibility Studies , Models, Statistical , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Basic Reproduction Number
12.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 54: e03648, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1143695

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a efetividade da comunicação verbal e por cartão no comparecimento de parceiros sexuais de pessoas com infecções sexualmente transmissíveis com fatores associados ao seu êxito. Método Ensaio clínico, controlado, randomizado, cuja intervenção consistiu no oferecimento de um cartão de notificação para os pacientes-índices entregarem aos seus parceiros. Resultados A amostra foi de 189 pacientes-índices, 94 do grupo controle que convidaram verbalmente os parceiros sexuais para atendimento e 95 do grupo intervenção que levaram o cartão de notificação de parceiros como forma de convite para atendimento. Houve comparecimento de 52,6% dos parceiros convidados por cartão, e 43,6% dos convidados verbalmente, mas sem diferença estatística significativa (p=0,215). Os fatores associados ao não êxito no comparecimento de parceiros foram: não residir com o parceiro (p=0,0001), não ter parceiros fixos (p=0,0001), ter parceria casual (p=0,028) e usar preservativo com parceiro fixo (p=0,045). O tipo de infecção não influenciou a vinda do parceiro. Conclusão Face à ausência de maior efetividade na notificação por cartão, recomenda-se outro modelo de cartão contendo informações destinadas a parceiros para ser usado combinado a outros métodos. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos: RBR-7jp5mr.


RESUMEN Objetivo Comparar efectividad de comunicación oral y por tarjeta en la comparecencia de parejas sexuales de personas con enfermedades de transmisión sexual y factores asociados a su éxito. Método Ensayo clínico, controlado, randomizado, con participación consistente en entrega de tarjeta informativa para que los pacientes indicados entreguen a sus parejas. Resultados Muestra de 189 pacientes indicados, 94 del grupo control, que invitaron verbalmente a sus parejas sexuales para atención, y 95 del grupo intervención, que entregaron tarjeta de reporte de parejas como medio de citación a su atención. Comparecieron 52,6% de las parejas invitadas vía tarjeta, y 43,6% de citados oralmente, sin diferencia estadísticamente significante (p=0,215). Los factores asociados al fracaso de la comparecencia de parejas fueron: no residir con la pareja (p=0,0001), tener una relación casual (p=0,028) y utilizar preservativos con la pareja fija (p=0,045). El tipo de infección no influyó en la comparecencia de la pareja. Conclusión Considerando carencia de mayor efectividad del reporte vía tarjeta, se recomienda otro modelo de la misma incluyendo información destinada a parejas para utilizarse combinada con otros métodos. Registro Brasileño de Ensayos Clínicos: RBR-7jp5mr.


ABSTRACT Objective To compare the effectiveness of verbal communication and communication by card in getting sexual partners of people with sexually transmitted infections to attend a health service and the factors associated with the success of these types of communication. Method Clinical, controlled, and randomized study, whose intervention was offering a reporting card for index patients to hand to their sexual partners. Results The sample was 189 index patients, 94 of whom were in the control group, and verbally invited their sexual partners to receive care, and 95 were allocated to the intervention group, and took their partner's reporting card to their partners as a way to invite them to receive care. The percentage of partners invited by card who came to the service was 52.6%, in contrast with 43.6% among partners who were invited verbally, but no significant statistical difference was found (p=0.215). The factors associated with failure to convince partners to come to the service were: not living with the partner (p=0.0001); not having a steady partner (p=0.0001); having casual partners (p=0.028); and using condoms with a steady partner (p=0.045). The infection type did not influence the studied partners' visits to the service. Conclusion Given the failure to achieve effectiveness when applying the reporting by card, the authors recommend another card model containing information for partners to be used in combination with other methods. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry: RBR-7jp5mr.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/nursing , Contact Tracing , Public Health Nursing
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.1): 2487-2492, Mar. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101070

ABSTRACT

Resumo Dados ganham cada vez mais importância e valor na busca de respostas para enfrentar a COVID-19 tanto para a ciência quanto para as autoridades sanitárias. Em virtude da dificuldade de realizar diagnóstico da infecção na população em geral, iniciativas apoiadas em tecnologias digitais vêm sendo desenvolvidas por governos ou empresas privadas para possibilitar rastreamentos de sintomas, contatos e deslocamentos de modo a apoiar estratégias de acompanhamento e avaliação na vigilância de contágios. A despeito da importância e necessidade dessas iniciativas, questionamentos acerca da quantidade e tipos de dados pessoais coletados, processados, compartilhados e utilizados em nome da saúde pública, bem como os concomitantes ou posteriores usos desses dados, suscitam questionamentos éticos, legais e técnicos. Desafios que apontam para a necessidade de novos modelos de governança de dados e de tecnologias, responsáveis e transparentes, para controlar o Sars-Cov2 e as futuras emergências de saúde pública.


Abstract Data has become increasingly important and valuable for both scientists and health authorities searching for answers to the COVID-19 crisis. Due to difficulties in diagnosing this infection in populations around the world, initiatives supported by digital technologies are being developed by governments and private companies to enable the tracking of the public's symptoms, contacts and movements. Considering the current scenario, initiatives designed to support infection surveillance and monitoring are essential and necessary. Nonetheless, ethical, legal and technical questions abound regarding the amount and types of personal data being collected, processed, shared and used in the name of public health, as well as the concomitant or posterior use of this data. These challenges demonstrate the need for new models of responsible and transparent data and technology governance in efforts to control SARS-COV2, as well as in future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Global Health , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Privacy , Health Records, Personal , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Confidentiality , Social Media , Data Anonymization
14.
S. Afr. j. bioeth. law ; 13(1): 15-20, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1270210

ABSTRACT

Containing the COVID-19 pandemic necessitates the use of personal information without the consent of the person. The protection of personal information is fundamental to the rights that ensure an open and democratic society. When regulations that limit the right to privacy are issued outside of the democratic process, every effort must be made to protect personal information and privacy. The limitation of human rights must be treated as an exception to the norm, and any regulations should be drafted to ensure minimum limitation of rights, rather than to the minimum acceptable standard. The contact tracing regulations included in the COVID-19 disaster regulations include some basic principles to ensure privacy; however, other important principles are not addressed. These include principles of transparency and data security. The envisaged future use of human data for research purposes, albeit de-identified, needs to be addressed by the COVID-19 designated judge appointed under the regulations


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Human Rights , Personal Protective Equipment , Personally Identifiable Information , South Africa
15.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 110(7): 617-620, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271268

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, South Africa (SA) has established a Tracing Database, collecting both aggregated and individualised mobility and locational data on COVID-19 cases and their contacts. There are compelling public health reasons for this development, since the database has the potential to assist with policy formulation and with contact tracing. While potentially demonstrating the rapid facilitation through technology of an important public service, the Tracing Database does, however, infringe immediately upon constitutional rights to privacy and heightens the implications of ethical choices facing medical professionals. The medical community should be aware of this surveillance innovation and the risks and rewards it raises. To deal with some of these risks, including the potential for temporary rights- infringing measures to become permanent, there are significant safeguards designed into the Tracing Database, including a strict duration requirement and reporting to a designated judge. African states including SA should monitor this form of contact tracing closely, and also encourage knowledge-sharing among cross-sectoral interventions such as the Tracing Database in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Data Collection , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance , South Africa
16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(5): 1326-1332, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042149

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to develop and evaluate an application for syphilis control in pregnant women. Method: methodological research developed between March and November of 2016 in two phases: bibliographic survey of the years 2012 to 2016 in the databases PubMed, CAPES and Scopus and application development. Eight users participated in the usability test and five doctors and five nurses working in prenatal care participated in the evaluation. Results: the application contains informative video, information about the disease, map of health clinics, agenda function and anonymous notification. The evaluation of the objective, function and relevance was considered adequate with value higher than 0.80 in all items of the Content Validity Index. Final considerations: the application makes easier the routine of health services in the context of health promotion, in the convocation and treatment of pregnant women and their partners.


RESUMEN Objetivo: desarrollar y evaluar una aplicación para el control de la sífilis en gestantes. Método: Investigación metodológica desarrollada en el período de marzo a noviembre de 2016, en dos fases: levantamiento bibliográfico de los años 2012 a 2016 en las bases de datos PubMed, CAPES y Scopus y desarrollo de la aplicación. Participaron de la prueba de usabilidad ocho usuarios y de la evaluación cinco médicos y cinco enfermeras que actuaban en el prenatal. Resultados: la aplicación contiene vídeo informativo, información sobre la enfermedad, mapa de los puestos de salud, función de agenda y notificación anónima. La evaluación del objetivo, función y relevancia se consideró adecuada con un valor superior a 0,80 en todos los ítems del Índice de Validación de Contenido. Consideraciones finales: la aplicación facilita la rutina de los servicios de salud en el contexto de promoción de la salud, en la convocatoria y tratamiento de gestantes y sus parejas.


RESUMO Objetivo: desenvolver e avaliar um aplicativo para o controle da sífilis em gestantes. Método: pesquisa metodológica desenvolvida no período de março a novembro de 2016, em duas fases: levantamento bibliográfico dos anos de 2012 a 2016 nas bases de dados PubMed, CAPES e Scopus e desenvolvimento do aplicativo. Participaram do teste de usabilidade: oito usuários e da avaliação cinco médicas e cinco enfermeiras que atuavam no pré-natal. Resultados: o aplicativo contém vídeo informativo, informações sobre a doença, mapa dos postos de saúde, função de agenda e notificação anônima. A avaliação do objetivo, função e relevância foi considerada adequada com valor superior a 0,80 em todos os itens do Índice de Validação de Conteúdo. Considerações finais: o aplicativo facilita a rotina dos serviços de saúde no contexto de promoção da saúde, na convocação e tratamento de gestantes e seus parceiros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Syphilis/prevention & control , Syphilis/therapy , Mobile Applications/standards , Brazil , Syphilis/psychology , Contact Tracing/methods , Program Development/methods , Mobile Applications/trends
17.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 430-438, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286539

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Congenital syphilis continues to be a public health problem in Mexico. Objective: To assess the similarities and differences between national standards, guidelines and international documents related to the detection of syphilis in pregnant women and congenital syphilis. Method Two algorithms were developed based on the standard of female care during pregnancy and on the standard for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections. Based on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines, algorithms were developed for syphilis during pregnancy, syphilis in the newborn and sexual contacts. Results: The standard for pregnancy mentions that syphilis testing should be carried out in every pregnant woman on her first contact or at delivery, without diagnostic tests being specified. The Official Mexican Standard (NOM) on sexually transmitted infections mentions the traditional algorithm for syphilis detection, treatment follow-up, coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus and congenital syphilis criteria. The CDC recommend reverse algorithm, antibody titer, treatment and follow-up as part of diagnosis. Conclusions: The elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis requires NOMs updating and homogenizing, as well as the study of stillbirths and neonates born to mothers with syphilis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Algorithms , Syphilis/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control , World Health Organization , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Contact Tracing , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Government Regulation , Mexico
18.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(1): e594, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985590

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los niños contactos de pacientes con lepra se consideran las personas con mayores posibilidades de desarrollar la enfermedad. Objetivo: Valorar la utilidad del seguimiento serológico de anticuerpos contra el glicolípido fenólico I para el diagnóstico de lepra en niños. Métodos: Investigación prospectiva. Se incluyeron todos los niños contactos de pacientes diagnosticados con lepra en las provincias de La Habana, Santiago de Cuba y Guantánamo entre enero 2013-junio 2015. Los menores se evaluaron clínicamente mediante examen dermatoneurológico y se determinó la presencia de anticuerpos contra el glicolípido fenólico I de Mycobacterium leprae para el estudio serológico. Los niños con serología positiva se siguieron, con estos dos métodos, cada seis meses durante dos años. La confirmación de un caso nuevo de lepra se realizó mediante baciloscopía y biología molecular. Resultados: Se estudiaron 151 niños, de ellos 44 (29,13 por ciento) resultaron positivos al glicolípido fenólico I. Se diagnosticaron durante el período 12 casos, de los cuales 11 tuvieron serología positiva. Presentaron sospecha clínica 10 niños de los estudiados, solo se confirmó un caso nuevo, el cual tuvo serología negativa. En ocho de los niños diagnosticados se detectó presencia de bacilos ácido alcohol resistente en la lámina de baciloscopía. En los restantes cuatro niños el diagnóstico se confirmó por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Conclusiones: Los resultados de esta investigación denotan la utilidad del seguimiento serológico de anticuerpos contra el glicolípido fenólico I en el diagnóstico de lepra en niños, en apoyo a la vigilancia clínica(AU)


Introduction: Children having contact with leprosy patients are considered the contacts with greater possibilities of developing the disease. Objective: To assess the usefulness of antibodies´ serologic follow up against the phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-1) for the diagnosis of leprosy in children. Methods: Prospective study in which were included all children contacts of patients diagnosed with leprosy in Havana, Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo provinces between January 2013 and June 2015. They were evaluated clinically by the dermato-neurological examination and the presence of antibodies against the PGL-1 of M. leprae was determined. Children with positive serology were followed up using these same two methods every six months for two years. The confirmation of a new case of leprosy was made by smear microscopy and molecular biology / PCR-Rlep. Results: A total of 151 children were studied. Of these, 44 children (29.13 percent) were positive for phenolic glycolipid I. A total of 12 children were diagnosed during this period, of which 11 had positive serology. Only 10 children of the studied ones presented clinical suspicion and of these only one new case was confirmed, which had negative serology. In eight of the diagnosed children, the presence of acid-fast bacilli was detected in the smear microscopy. In the remaining four children, the diagnosis was confirmed by the PCR result. Conclusion: The results of this investigation show the usefulness of the antibodies´ serologic follow up against the phenolic glycolipid I in the diagnosis of leprosy in children as a support to clinical surveillance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Contact Tracing/methods , Phenolic Compounds/methods , Leprosy/prevention & control , Leprosy/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prospective Studies , Early Diagnosis
19.
Hansen. int ; 44: 1-14, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1224203

ABSTRACT

A hanseníase afeta os nervos periféri-cos e a pele levando a ocorrência de incapacidades na ausência de tratamento específico oportuno. Portanto, parâmetros sorológicos são necessários para intervenções terapêuticas precoces. A detecção de anticorpos contra o glicolipídio fenólico I (PGL-I) é amplamente empregada no diagnóstico e classificação clínica, enquanto a proteína Leprosy IDRI Diagnostic (LID)-1 foi desenhada com a intenção de melhorar o diagnóstico de pacien-tes paucibacilares. Posteriormente, este antígeno foi conjugado com o na-tural dissacarídeo ligado ao radical oc-til (ND-O) do PGL-I, originando o NDO--LID, para aumentar sua sensibilidade. Nesta revisão, avaliamos 16 estudos, comparando a performance desses três antígenos (PGL-I, LID-1 e NDO--LID) para diagnóstico da hanseníase e avaliação de contatos domiciliares. Verificamos grande variação quanto às populações envolvidas, tamanho das amostras, classificação clínica dos pacientes e metodologia utilizada, dificultando a comparação. Entre os pacientes multibacilares, a positividade anti-PGL-I variou de 54,0 a 96,0%, en-quanto para LID-1 foi de 47,4 a 94,8% e para NDO-LID apresentou níveis de 60,0 a 98,9%. Nos pacientes paucibacilares, a positividade variou de 6,4 a 52,9% quando PGL-I foi utilizado, 4,0 a 60% contra LID-1 e 16,0 a 63,6% frente ao NDO-LID. Para os contatos domiciliares, as respostas anti-PGL-I, LID-1 e NDO-LID foram 13,2%, 21,7% e 22,9%, respectivamente. O antígeno NDO-LID apresentou maior sensibilidade na maioria dos estudos refletindo seu potencial como ferramenta para o diagnóstico da hanseníase, principalmente em pacientes MB, entretanto, o reconhecimento desse antígeno por contatos domiciliares saudáveis reforça o valor da avaliação clínica para o diagnóstico da hanseníase.(au)


Leprosy affects skin and peripheral nerves bringing several disabilities in absence of specific treatment. So that, effective diagnostic tools are required for early therapeutic interventions. Detection of antibodies against phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) is widely employed in the diagnosis and clinical classification while the leprosy IDRI diagnostic (LID-1) protein was designed to improve the diagnosis of paucibacillary patients. More recently, this synthetic antigen was conjugated with the natural octyl disaccharide (ND-O) of PGL-I, originating the NDO-LID in order to increase its sensitivity. Here, we evaluate 16 studies, comparing the performance of these three antigens (PGL-I, LID-1 and NDO-LID) for leprosy diagnosis and evaluation of the household contacts. We verified among the different studies high variation regarding to population involved, sample size, clinical classification of patients and methodology used, making difficult the comparison. Among multibacillary patients, anti-PGL-I positivity ranged from 54.0 to 96.0%, while for LID-1 it was between 47.4 to 94.8% and for NDO-LID presented levels from 60 to 98.9%. In paucibacillary patients, responsiveness ranged from 6.4 to 52.9% when PGL-I was used, 4.0 to 60% against LID-1 and 16.0 to 63.6% if NDO-LID was employed. For household contacts, the responseanti-PGL-I, LID-1 and NDO-LID was13.2%, 21.7% and 22.9%, respectively.NDO-LID antigen showed higher sensitivity in most studies reflecting its potential as tool for leprosy diagnosis, mainly of MB patients, however, the recognition of this antigen by healthy household contact reinforces the value of the clinical evaluation to leprosy diagnosis.(au)


Subject(s)
Leprosy/diagnosis , Serologic Tests , Contact Tracing , Antigens
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777538

ABSTRACT

School students in crowed environment are susceptible to tuberculosis(TB), often resulting outbreaks and public health emergencies. We give further advices on the investigation of index cases and their close contacts, diagnosis and treatment of active TB patients and latent TB infection and their standardized management, aiming at facilitating TB epidemiology investigation, scene disposal and related effect evaluation.


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Consensus , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Schools , Tuberculosis , Epidemiology
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