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1.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e54648, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363590

ABSTRACT

Healthcare services must be guided by biosafety practices and microbial control. This control is highly influenced by humidity, which directly impacts the maintenance of sterility of the materials used in the appointments. High concentration of moisture, in the form of aerosol, splashes and spills, is caused during dental care. During the COVID-19 times the contamination by aerosol and droplets worries greatly. Considering that it could cause harm to the sterility of an autoclaved material, especially in dental environments, the objective was to evaluate the behavior of SMS sterilization packages (Spunbonded / Meltblown / Spunbonded) against microbial penetration in an aqueous vehicle. SMS of three brands were challenged, equally divided into two groups: virgin and processed (subjected to a single autoclaving cycle). Each specimen was aseptically deposited on Macconkey agar. Subsequently, 5 µL of Escherichia coliATCC 25922 saline solution [108CFU mL-1] was deposited in center of the SMS specimen and the dish incubated at36°C/ 48h. Reading was performed by the presence or absence of bacterial growth typical of the species under the SMS, observed on the back of Petri dish. The lowest penetration rate observed was 60% for one of the brands in the virgin condition, and 75% for two brands in the processed condition. Statistical analysis showed an association between bacterial penetration and the evaluated group, this association being valid only in the virgin condition. The different SMS behave similarly in terms of resistance to bacterial penetration after being processed. The data show that moisture can assist in bacterial transport through sterilized SMS. Therefore, SMS packages are not able to prevent bacterial penetration, and possibly other microorganisms, when in aqueous vehicles, offering a potential risk of breaking the aseptic chain. Thus, care must be taken in routines for handling and storage sterile packaging.


Subject(s)
Product Packaging/instrumentation , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Dental Offices/organization & administration , Humidity/prevention & control , Sterilization/instrumentation , Infection Control/instrumentation , Evaluation Study , Drug Packaging/instrumentation , Saline Solution/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Microbiological Phenomena/immunology
2.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365228

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate knowledge and attitudes towards biosafety recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic at a Brazilian dental school. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 2020 with the clinical staff of a Brazilian dental school. The whole clinical staff was sent pre-tested self-administered online questionnaires about knowledge and attitudes towards the recommendations for biosafety in dental settings in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistical analyses were carried out for proportion calculation. Results Disposable head covering caps, isolation gowns, and gloves were the most frequently reported personal protective equipment (PPE). The rates ranged from 52.9% to 88.5% for N95 respirators, from 68.6% to 92.6% for face shields, from 47.4% to 67.5% for conventional eye protection shields, and 45.1% to 77.4% for eye protection with solid side shields. Chlorhexidine gluconate was the most frequent mouthwash indicated before clinical dental care. The percentage of agreement to provide clinical care to patients with suspected COVID-19 varied from 23.5% to 50.0%. The percentage of respondents who agreed that bioaerosol-generating procedures should be avoided was higher than 74.5%. Less than 50% knew the correct sequence for doffing of PPE. Conclusion This study revealed important gaps in knowledge and attitudes towards prevention and control measures against infection in dental environments in the context of COVID-19, indicating the need for improvements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Education, Dental , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Schools, Dental , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Infection Control
3.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 2 Rev; 22 Mayo 2020. 15 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1140189

ABSTRACT

Fecha de actualización: 22 de mayo 2020. Brindar los lineamientos generales para la toma de muestra, conservación y transporte para el diagnóstico de virus respiratorios, con su posterior envío al Centro Nacional de Influenza (NIC) del Laboratorio Nacional de Salud; aplicable a establecidos del nivel nacional en atención a pacientes que cumplen con la definición de caso y se tipifica como "sospechoso inusitado". Y lineamientos de bioseguridad para la toma de muestras de casos tipificados como "sospechosos inusitados" que presuntivamente contengan el virus influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N9) A(H9N2) y 2019-nCoV o cualquier otro virus proveniente de un paciente tipificado como caso Inusitado. Con aplicación a nivel nacional, en las dependencias dentro y fuera del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, encargadas de la toma de muestra para el diagnóstico de Virus Respiratorios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Betacoronavirus , Laboratories/supply & distribution , Patients , Specimen Handling/methods , Public Health
4.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 2, 2020. 4 p.
Non-conventional in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096488

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019, un nuevo coronavirus (2019-nCoV) fue identificado como el agente etiológico de una enfermedad respiratoria aguda severa en personas expuestas a un mercado de mariscos en Wuhan, China; • La transmisión interhumana ha sido documentada, incluso en trabajadores de salud y los procedimientos generadores de aerosoles (PGA)† pueden tener un rol en la diseminación de la enfermedad; • Hay muchas incertidumbres respecto a la historia natural de la enfermedad por el 2019-nCoV, incluyendo fuente(s), los mecanismos de transmisión, la capacidad de diseminación del virus, y la persistencia del virus en el ambiente y fómites; • Al 06 de febrero de 2020, se recomiendan las siguientes precauciones para el cuidado del pacientes sospechosos o confirmados de 2019-nCoV‡: o Para cualquier caso sospechoso o confirmado de 2019-nCoV: precauciones estándares + contacto + precauciones en la transmisión por gotitas o Para cualquier caso sospechoso o confirmado de 2019-nCoV y procedimientos generadores de aerosoles: precauciones estándares + contacto + transmisión aérea (aerosoles o núcleo de gotitas) • El uso de equipos de protección personal (EPP) por los trabajadores de salud requiere de la evaluación del riesgo relacionada a las actividades de salud; • Estas recomendaciones son preliminares y sujetas a revisión hasta que nuevas evidencias estén disponibles.


In December 2019 a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was identified as the causative agent of a severe acute respiratory illness among people exposed in a seafood market in Wuhan, China; • Human-to-human transmission has been documented, including in healthcare workers, and aerosol-generating procedures (AGP)† may play a role in the spread of the disease; • There are uncertainties in the natural history of the 2019-nCoV, including source(s), transmissibility mechanisms, viral shedding, and persistence of the virus in the environment and on fomites; • As of 6 February 2020, the following precautions are recommended for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV: o For any suspected or confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV: standard + contact + droplet precautions o For any suspected or confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV and AGP: standard + contact + airborne precautions • The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare workers requires an evaluation of the risk related to healthcare-related activities; • These recommendations are preliminary and subject to review as new evidence becomes available. The figures presented in this technical recommendation are rough estimates and based upon simulation exercises on the use of PPE during previous outbreaks with similar transmission modes, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). • The number of PPE units should vary according to disease severity and the number of aerosol-generating procedures per patient. • Suspected and confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV should be isolated in adequately ventilated single rooms. When single rooms are not available, patients suspected of being infected with 2019-nCoV should be grouped together (cohort). • For each patient/day it is recommended§: o Gown ­ 25 units. o Medical mask ­ 25 units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Betacoronavirus
5.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 20(supl.1): e0115, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135580

ABSTRACT

Abstract The precautionary principle is part of evidence-based healthcare and is used both preventively and therapeutically when there is no available evidence about how to manage problems/diseases/conditions that are especially life-threatening. However, since it is not always based in the most qualified evidence, it is frequently questioned. The emergence of a highly contagious disease, with increased levels of morbimortality, an acute respiratory syndrome, the so called Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), led health professionals to look for the best alternatives to save lives. In this sense, the precautionary principle was evocated. The aim of this paper is to make a reflection about the precautionary principle, the dental profession and COVID-19. It is important to have in mind that in such a disease, guidelines, protocols and approaches can change very fast, since a continuous evaluation of all policies is mandatory. During the pandemic, elective procedures may be restricted, but international organizations removed the recommendation to postpone elective procedures. Clinicians are advised to be updated about their local current policies. On the other hand, there are cases in which in-office dental care is unavoidable, such as individuals with pain, spontaneous bleeding and dental trauma. Biosafety is upmost importance when seeking patients during pandemic. In this sense, it was concluded that precautionary principle should be, therefore, used. However, caution needs to be taken and continuous surveillance necessary.


Subject(s)
Dental Care , Coronavirus , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Dental Health Services , Evidence-Based Practice/instrumentation , Pandemics
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 20(supl.1): e0117, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135578

ABSTRACT

Abstract The most recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - COVID-19 - caused by coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2) has high-virulence transmission and direct human contagiousness by proximity. Thus, the considerable occupational risk in pediatric dentistry is evident, given the nature and form of procedures performed in an outpatient setting. Thus, the aim of this paper was to identify and contextualize technical and scientific information available to date aimed at preventing and minimizing risks for patients, caregivers and professionals. The results indicate that protective measures are being developed considering procedures according to risks and benefits, and five points stand out: 1. Regulation of resumption of elective procedures, screening and scheduling patients; 2. Restructuring clinical environment and infection control; 3. Improvement of personal protective equipment and biosafety recommendations; 4. Maximization of the use of non-invasive techniques, use of high-powered dental suction, and absolute isolation of the operative field; and 5. Minimization of the use of air-water syringe, dental spittoon and high-speed handpiece. The measures to be taken require reflection for the restart of a "new clinical practice", especially aiming at behavioral and structural changes regarding operational biosafety.


Subject(s)
Clinical Protocols/standards , Pediatric Dentistry , Coronavirus , Dental Care for Children , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Brazil/epidemiology , Occupational Risks , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology
7.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): [1-3], 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087920

ABSTRACT

El siguiente artículo busca presentar diversas consideraciones para la atención odontológica a fin de disminuir riesgo de exposición al virus «Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)¼ para el profesional odontólogo. La higiene y el lavado de manos tanto de profesionales como de pacientes, es considerado uno de los puntos más críticos para reducir el contagio. Los odontólogos también deben preferir procedimientos electivos, en caso de atención de urgencias tomar medidas estrictas de bioseguridad para la protección de la piel y mucosas y considerar diferir en lo posible la atención odontológica en pacientes con signos y síntomas de Coronavirus (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Dental Care/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): [271-278], 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087922

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019, en China surgió un nuevo brote de neumonía la cual fue identificada como SARS-CoV-2 el cual tiene una rápida propagación al ser trasmitido principalmente mediante tos, estornudo o contacto. Presenta diversos síntomas como fiebre, tos seca y mialgia. Puede afectar a cualquier edad siendo principalmente leve y con resolución espontánea, pero en personas mayores y/o con comorbilidades puede presentar un curso severo o mortal. Para su diagnóstico es importante evaluar la presencia de fiebre, realizar una historia epidemiológica, TC de tórax y pruebas de laboratorio como RT-PCR o muestras del tracto respiratorio.Se realizó una revisión sistemática cualitativa realizando una búsqueda en las bases de datos Medline y ClinicalKey, se encontraron 72 artículos, los cuales se leyeron por completo, de ellos 16 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. La gran parte de las acciones odontológicas producen gotas o aerosoles, por esta razón se deben tomar medidas de protección, selección de pacientes y tipos de tratamientos para disminuir la posibilidad de infecciones en el personal de salud y pacientes, evaluar el uso de goma dique y colutorios previos a la atención, evitar instrumental generador de aerosoles, postergar atenciones electivas, tratar solamente emergencias dentales y extremar las medidas de desinfección de las instalaciones utilizando agentes biocidas efectivos contra el coronavirus. La trasmisión por fómites y aerosoles está comprobada por lo que debemos extremar precauciones. En situaciones de pandemia hay que considerar entregar un soporte psicológico a los pacientes, especialmente con patologías orales psicosomáticas las que pueden empeorar. La posibilidad de trasmisión en el periodo de recuperación no está comprobada ni descartada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Care/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Patient Care/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus
9.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): [279-284], 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087924

ABSTRACT

Los Coronavirus son una familia de virus de amplia distribución en la naturaleza presentes principalmente en los animales. El Covid-19 es la enfermedad causada por el coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), que fue identificado y caracterizado en enero de 2020 en China. Los profesionales del área odontológica deben tomar todas las medidas de protección al tener que realizar una atención de urgencia, lavado de manos y utilización de equipos de protección personal. Para cada una de las urgencias odontológicas consideradas en la guía del Ministerio de Salud de Chile se dan recomendaciones para el actuar y posterior desechos e higienización de materiales. El objetivo de este artículo de revisión es entregar recomendaciones actualizadas y atingentes a nuestra realidad nacional a fin de disminuir las posibilidades de contagio ante la exposición inminente de pacientes sospechosos o que pudiesen presentar Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Dental Care/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Betacoronavirus
10.
Univ. odontol ; 38(80): 1-19, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994835

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El personal del área de la salud está constantemente expuesto a sangre y fluidos provenientes de los pacientes durante su jornada laboral. Por lo tanto, el personal de odontología corre el riesgo de contraer enfermedades infecciosas. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia del riesgo laboral por objetos punzocortantes en odontólogos de primer nivel de atención de los Centros de Salud urbano y rural de los Servicios de Salud de Nuevo León Monterrey Nuevo León, México. Métodos: diseño del estudio no experimental, descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo. Población de estudio: odontólogos aplicativos de los Servicios de Salud de Nuevo León con un muestreo probabilístico 108 odontólogos. Se utilizó un cuestionario diseñado con 12 preguntas relacionadas con los accidentes punzocortantes, con una confiabilidad de un alfa de Cronbach de .832. Resultados: el 38.8 % de los masculinos informó haber presentado accidente laboral y femeninas el 67.2 % señalaron haber sufrido un accidente con punzocortante. En relación al conocer si habían sufrido algún accidente por objetos punzocortantes, solo el 59.3 % lo reportó y un 40.7 % no había sufrido accidente; un 49 % si recibió capacitación en bioseguridad y un 51 % no ha recibido capacitación. Conclusión: Con base a estos resultados podemos concluir que aún falta por mejorar las capacitaciones y ampliar la cobertura de capacitación a los odontólogos en materia de normativas de bioseguridad y manejo de residuos peligrosos biológicos infecciosos, así como actualizar el conocimiento de infecciones transmitidas por objetos punzocortantes.


Background: The staff of the health area is constantly exposed to blood and / or fluids coming from patients during their workday. Therefore, dentistry personnel run the risk of contracting infectious diseases. Purpose: To know the frequency of occupational risk due to sharp objects in top-level dentists of the urban and rural Health Centers of the Health Services of Nuevo León. Methods: design of the non-experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective study. Study population: applicative dentists of the Health Services of Nuevo Leon with a probabilistic sampling 108 of dentists. A questionnaire designed with 12 questions related to sharps accidents with a reliability of a Cronbach's alpha of .832 was used. Results: 38.8 % of the men reported having presented an accident at work and 67.2 % of the women reported having suffered an accident with a sharp cut. In relation to knowing if they had suffered an infection due to an accident by sharp objects, 59.3 % had suffered an accident and 40.7 % had not suffered an accident; 49 % were trained in biosecurity and 51 % have not received training. Conclusion: Based on these results we can conclude that there is still a need to improve the training and expand the coverage of training to the dentist in matters of biosafety regulations and management of infectious biological dangerous wastes as well as to update the knowledge of puncture-borne infections.


Antecedentes: A equipe da área de saúde é constantemente exposta ao sangue e / ou fluidos provenientes dos pacientes durante o dia de trabalho. Portanto, o pessoal de odontologia corre o risco de contrair doenças infecciosas. Objetivo: Conhecer a frequência do risco ocupacional por objetos pontiagudos em dentistas de nível superior dos Centros de Saúde urbanos e rurais dos Serviços de Saúde de Nuevo León. Métodos: delineamento do estudo não experimental, descritivo, transversal e prospectivo. População do estudo: dentistas aplicativos dos Serviços de Saúde de Nuevo León com amostragem probabilística 108 de cirurgiões-dentistas. Foi utilizado um questionário elaborado com 12 questões relacionadas aos acidentes com perfurocortantes, com confiabilidade de um alfa de Cronbach de 0,832. Resultados: 38,8% dos homens relataram ter sofrido acidente no trabalho e 67,2% das mulheres relataram ter sofrido acidente com um corte acentuado. Em relação a saber se sofreram infecção por acidente por objetos pontiagudos, 59,3% sofreram acidente e 40,7% não sofreram acidente; 49% foram treinados em biossegurança e 51% não receberam treinamento. Conclusão: Com base nesses resultados, podemos concluir que ainda há uma necessidade de melhorar o treinamento e ampliar a cobertura do treinamento para o dentista em questões de regulamentos de biossegurança e gestão de resíduos infecciosos biológicos perigosos, bem como atualizar o conhecimento sobre punção. infecções suportadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Instruments , Occupational Health , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the need of containers used in the diagnosis and prevention of infection. 2. To produce the containers, 3. To test the practicability of the product. MATERIAL AND METHOD: - The study on the need of the containers was done by questionnaires answered by nurses and microbiology laboratory technicians in 56 hospitals. - The containers were produced by the researchers who later had them tested for their practicability by nurses and technicians in the same hospitals. - The study was done during 2002-2004. RESULTS: Fifty-six hospitals were enrolled by stratified random sampling. Questionnaires were responded by 424 nurses and 35 microbiology laboratory technicians. Sputum trap, body fluid and feces containers and needle disposal box were studied and the need for commercial products was 31.1%, 31.1%, 32.3% and 99.5% respectively. Sixteen percent to 58.5% of these containers were bought and 14.3% to 68.6% were home-made. Sputum trap, body fluid and feces containers, and needle disposal boxes were produced and tested by 400 nurses and 32 laboratory technicians. The products were evaluated as satisfactory in 59.4% to 80.0%. The lid of the needle disposal box designed as saw tooth was not convenient for use and was later modified to various slits. The costs of the containers produced were 1.3% to 29.8% of available commercial products. CONCLUSION: Sputum trap, body fluid and feces containers and needle disposal boxes of reasonable prices were needed in Thailand. These containers could be produced locally and were much cheaper than available commercial ones.


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Laboratories, Hospital , Medical Waste Disposal/instrumentation , Microbiology/instrumentation , Needlestick Injuries/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , /instrumentation , Thailand
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