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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 77-87, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360119

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) e a hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) secundária à hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) podem estar associadas a anormalidades funcionais do átrio esquerdo (AE). Objetivos Caracterizar a mecânica do AE na CMH e na HAS e avaliar qualquer correlação com a extensão da fibrose ventricular esquerda medida por ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) em pacientes com CMH. Métodos A função longitudinal do AE derivada do ecocardiograma bidimensional com speckle tracking foi adquirida a partir de cortes apicais de 60 pacientes com CMH e 34 indivíduos controles, pareados por idade. Pacientes com CMH também foram submetidos à RMC, com medida da extensão do realce tardio por gadolínio. A associação com parâmetros de strain do AE foi analisada. Valores p < 0,05 foram definidos como estatisticamente significativos. Resultados A média da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo não foi diferente entre os grupos. A razão E/e' estava comprometida no grupo CMH e preservada no grupo controle. A mecânica do AE estava significativamente reduzida na CMH em comparação aos pacientes com HAS. O strain rate do AE nas fases de reservatório (SRrAE) e na fase contrátil (SRctAE) foram os melhores parâmetros de discriminação de CMH com uma área sob a curva (AUC) de 0,8, seguido do strain do AE na fase de reservatório (SrAE) (AUC 0,76). O SRrAE e o SRctAE apresentaram elevada especificidade (89% e 91%, respectivamente), e o SrAE apresentou sensibilidade de 80%. Um decréscimo de 2,79% no strain rate do AE na fase de condução (SRcdAE) foi preditor de um aumento de 1 cm na extensão do RT pelo gadolínio (r2=0,42, β 2,79, p=0,027). Conclusões O SRrAE e o SRctAE foram os melhores fatores de discriminação de HVE secundária à CMH. O SRcdAE foi preditor do grau de fibrose ventricular esquerda avaliada por RMC. Esses achados sugerem que a mecânica do AE pode ser um potencial preditor de gravidade de doença na CMH.


Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to systemic hypertension (HTN) may be associated with left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities. Objectives We aimed to characterize LA mechanics in HCM and HTN and determine any correlation with the extent of left ventricular (LV) fibrosis measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in HCM patients. Methods Two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived longitudinal LA function was acquired from apical views in 60 HCM patients, 60 HTN patients, and 34 age-matched controls. HCM patients also underwent CMR, with measurement of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) extension. Association with LA strain parameters was analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Mean LV ejection fraction was not different between the groups. The E/e' ratio was impaired in the HCM group and preserved in the control group. LA mechanics was significantly reduced in HCM, compared to the HTN group. LA strain rate in reservoir (LASRr) and in contractile (LASRct) phases were the best discriminators of HCM, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8, followed by LA strain in reservoir phase (LASr) (AUC 0.76). LASRr and LASR-ct had high specificity (89% and 91%, respectively) and LASr had sensitivity of 80%. A decrease in 2.79% of LA strain rate in conduit phase (LASRcd) predicted an increase of 1cm in LGE extension (r2=0.42, β 2.79, p=0.027). Conclusions LASRr and LASRct were the best discriminators for LVH secondary to HCM. LASRcd predicted the degree of LV fibrosis assessed by CMR. These findings suggest that LA mechanics is a potential predictor of disease severity in HCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Fibrosis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Gadolinium
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1170-1178, dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350043

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Em 2007, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determinou revisões sobre segurança dos agentes de contraste ecocardiográfico (ACE) disponíveis no mercado após relatos de mortes. Ao longo desses anos, diversos estudos comprovaram a segurança dos ACE, porém com poucos estudos relacionados ao SonoVue®. Objetivos Avaliar a segurança do SonoVue® durante o ecocardiograma sob estresse farmacológico (EEF) por meio da análise da incidência de reações alérgicas e da comparação entre os grupos quanto ao surgimento de arritmia, efeitos colaterais menores e eventos adversos. Métodos Estudo observacional, prospectivo, no qual 2.346 pacientes foram submetidos ao EEF e divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1 com ACE (n=1.099) e grupo 2 sem ACE (n=1.247). Os pacientes foram avaliados durante o EEF - 24 horas e 30 dias. Foi definido p significativo quando <0,05. Resultados O grupo 1 apresentou efeitos colaterais mais leves, como cefaleia (5/0,5% vs. 19/1,5%, p=0,012) e hipertensão reativa (3/0,3% vs . 19/1,5%, p=0,002), menos arritmias como extrassístoles ventriculares (180/16,4% vs . 247/19,8%, p=0,032) e taquicardia paroxística supraventricular (2/0,2% vs . 15/1,2%, p=0,003), assim como nenhum evento adverso como infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) e óbito. No grupo 2, um paciente apresentou IAM <24h (1/01%) e dois óbitos <30 dias (2/0,1%). Urticária relacionada ao SonoVue® foi observada em 3 (0,3%) pacientes sem reação anafilática. Conclusão SonoVue® demonstrou segurança durante o EEF, não sendo observados morte, IAM ou reação anafilática. Observou-se menor incidência de efeitos colaterais mais leves e arritmias no grupo que utilizou o ACE, assim como baixa incidência de reações alérgicas leves.


Abstract Background In 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration mandated safety reviews of commercially available echocardiographic contrast agents (ECA), following reports of death. During the past years, different studies have proven the safety of ECA, but there have been few studies on SonoVue®. Objectives To evaluate the safety of SonoVue® during pharmacological stress echocardiography (PSE), by analyzing the incidence of allergic reactions and comparing groups regarding the appearance of arrhythmia, minor side effects and adverse events. Methods In this observational, prospective study, 2346 patients underwent PSE, and they were divided into the following 2 groups: group 1 with ECA (n = 1099) and group 2 without ECA (n = 1247). Patients were evaluated during PSE, at 24 hours, and at 30 days. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Results Group 1 had fewer minor side effects, such as headache (5/0.5% versus 19/1.5%, p = 0.012) and less reactive hypertension (3/0.3% versus 19/1.5%, p = 0.002); fewer arrhythmias, such as ventricular extrasystoles (180/16.4% versus 247/19.8%, p = 0.032) and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (2/0.2% versus 15/1.2%, p = 0.003); and no adverse events, such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or death. In group 2, 1 patient had AMI in < 24 hours (1/01%), and there were 2 deaths in < 30 days (2/0.1%). SonoVue®-related urticaria was seen in 3 (0.3%) patients, without anaphylactic reaction. Conclusion SonoVue® demonstrated safety during PSE. No cases of death, AMI, or anaphylactic reaction were observed. There was a lower incidence of minor side effects and arrhythmias in the group that received ECA, as well as a low incidence of mild allergic reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Echocardiography, Stress , Phospholipids , Sulfur Hexafluoride , United States , Echocardiography , Prospective Studies
3.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 31(3): 176-187, 30-diciembre-2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352463

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Nefropatía Inducida por Contraste (NIC) es una complicación causada por la ad-ministración intravenosa de medios de contrastes para estudios imagenológicos, lo cual incrementa la morbi-mortalidad y costos hospitalarios. La incidencia oscila el 2% en personas sin factores de riesgo, pudiendo llegar hasta el 25 a 50% cuando se asocian factores predisponentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el desarrollo de NIC en pacientes oncológicos y no oncológicos hospitaliza-dos, sus características clínicas, prevalencia, factores asociados y aplicación de una escala de riesgo pre exposición. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en los Hospitales "Abel Gilbert Pontón" y el Instituto Oncológico Nacional "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo" - Guayaquil en el período Abril a Septiembre del 2020. La muestra fue no probabilística, de pacientes con y sin diagnóstico oncológico. En ambos grupos se requirió una tomografía contrastada. Se registró edad, sexo, tipo de cáncer, presencia de Diabetes Tipo 2 (DMT2), Hipertensión arterial, creatinina basal y a las 48 horas. Se usó una escala de preexposición para NIC. Se compara las prevalencias con Chi2, y las asociaciones con Odds Ratio. Resultados: Fueron 100 casos y 100 controles. La prevalencia de NIC fue 28% en no oncológicos y 22% en oncológicos (P=0.33), el factor de riesgo asociado fue la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (OR 2.19 [IC95% 1.0007 ­ 4.808; P=0.0498). El valor de creatinina previa no tuvo efecto sobre el desenlace de nefropatía. La distribución de categorías pre exposición no mostró diferencias significativas entre los pacientes que desarrollaron NIC en relación con los que no desarrollaron (P=0.063). Conclusión: El desarrollo de NIC no se ve influenciado por edad, sexo, paciente e HTA, pero si se ve asociado a la presencia de DM2. La estratificación de riesgo pre exposición no fue de utilidad en este caso, su distribución fue similar en pacientes con o sin NIC


Introduction: Contrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) is a complication caused by intravenous administration of contrast media for imaging studies, which increases morbidity and mortality and hospital costs. The incidence ranges from 2% in people without risk factors, and can reach up to 25 to 50% when predisposing factors are associated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the develop-ment of CIN in hospitalized cancer and non-cancer patients, their clinical characteristics, prevalence, associated factors, and the application of a pre-exposure risk scale. Methodology: A case-control study was carried out at the "Abel Gilbert Pontón" Hospitals and the "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo "- Guayaquil in the period April to September 2020. The sample was non-probabilistic, of patients with and without oncological diagnosis. Contrast tomography was required in both groups. Age, sex, type of cancer, presence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), arterial hypertension, creatinine at baseline and at 48 hours were recorded. A pre-exposure scale for CIN was used. The prevalences are compared with Chi2, and the associations with Odds Ratio. Results: There were 100 cases and 100 controls. The prevalence of CIN was 28% in non-cancer patients and 22% in oncological patients (P = 0.33). The associated risk factor was Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (OR 2.19 [95% CI 1.0007 - 4.808; P = 0.0498). The previous creatinine value had no effect on the outcome of nephropathy. The distribution of pre-exposure categories did not show significant differences between the patients who developed CIN in relation to those who did not develop (P = 0.063). Conclusion: The development of CIN is not influenced by age, sex, patient and hypertension, but is associated with the presence of DM2. Pre-exposure risk stratification was not useful in this case, its distribution was similar in patients with or without CIN


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Contrast Media , Kidney Diseases , Tomography , Risk Factors , Creatinine
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 988-996, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350009

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Em associação às estatinas, os inibidores da pró-proteína convertase subtilisina/kexina tipo 9 (PCSK9) demonstraram ser eficazes na redução de eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes de alto risco. Objetivo: Analisar a custo-efetividade da implementação de evolocumabe para pacientes com alto risco de eventos cardiovasculares no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no Brasil. Métodos: Um modelo de Markov foi utilizado, baseando-se em uma amostra ambulatorial de pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Os desfechos primários analisados foram infarto agudo do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCi), revascularização do miocárdio e morte cardiovascular. O resultado foi expresso por meio da razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI), considerando-se uma taxa de desconto de 5% ao ano, e uma análise de sensibilidade foi realizada, tendo em vista a imprecisão de valores. Resultados: Selecionaram-se 61 pacientes com risco cardiovascular estimado em 35% em 10 anos, se em uso de atorvastatina 80mg/dia, e em 22,75%, se adicionado o evolocumabe. O custo global por paciente no período de 10 anos foi de R$ 46.522,44 no grupo em monoterapia com atorvastatina versus R$ 236.141,85 na terapia combinada, com uma efetividade global de 0,54 e 0,73, respectivamente. Isso resultou em uma RCEI R$ 1.011.188,07 (R$ 864.498,95 a R$ 1.296.748,43) por desfecho cardiovascular evitado. Conclusões: Apesar de não existirem padrões nacionais para custo-efetividade, os dados encontrados sugerem que a estratégia de associação do evolocumabe à terapia com estatina não é, no momento, custo-efetiva.


Abstract Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to systemic hypertension (HTN) may be associated with left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities. Objectives: We aimed to characterize LA mechanics in HCM and HTN and determine any correlation with the extent of left ventricular (LV) fibrosis measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in HCM patients. Methods: Two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived longitudinal LA function was acquired from apical views in 60 HCM patients, 60 HTN patients, and 34 age-matched controls. HCM patients also underwent CMR, with measurement of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) extension. Association with LA strain parameters was analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean LV ejection fraction was not different between the groups. The E/e' ratio was impaired in the HCM group and preserved in the control group. LA mechanics was significantly reduced in HCM, compared to the HTN group. LA strain rate in reservoir (LASRr) and in contractile (LASRct) phases were the best discriminators of HCM, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8, followed by LA strain in reservoir phase (LASr) (AUC 0.76). LASRr and LASR-ct had high specificity (89% and 91%, respectively) and LASr had sensitivity of 80%. A decrease in 2.79% of LA strain rate in conduit phase (LASRcd) predicted an increase of 1cm in LGE extension (r2=0.42, β 2.79, p=0.027). Conclusions: LASRr and LASRct were the best discriminators for LVH secondary to HCM. LASRcd predicted the degree of LV fibrosis assessed by CMR. These findings suggest that LA mechanics is a potential predictor of disease severity in HCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , State Medicine , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/prevention & control , Contrast Media , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/economics , Gadolinium , Anticholesteremic Agents/economics
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 678-687, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345250

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFEr) é uma doença de alta prevalência que requer hospitalizações repetidas e causa morbimortalidade significativa. Portanto, o reconhecimento precoce de preditores de resultados desfavoráveis é essencial para o manejo do paciente. Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar a relação entre realce tardio pelo gadolínio (RTG) detectado por ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) e os parâmetros de repolarização, como o intervalo QT corrigido (QTc), intervalo Tp-e, ângulo QRS-T frontal detectado pelo eletrocardiograma (ECG) de 12 derivações na ICFEr. Método Neste estudo observacional, retrospectivo, de centro único, foram incluídos 97 pacientes consecutivos com ICFEr submetidos à RMC. A população do estudo foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença de RTG. Foram registradas medidas ecocardiográficas e de RMC e características demográficas. Os intervalos QTc, intervalos Tp-e, e ângulos QRS-T frontais foram calculados a partir do ECG. Um valor de p <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados O RTG foi detectado em 52 (53,6%) de 97 pacientes com ICFEr. Os intervalos QTc (p=0,001), intervalos Tp-e (p<0,001), e os ângulos QRS-T frontais (p<0,001) foram significativamente maiores no grupo RTG quando comparados ao grupo não-RTG. Na análise de regressão univariada realizada para investigar os preditores de RTG na ICFEr, todos os três parâmetros de repolarização alcançaram valores significativos, mas na análise multivariada o único parâmetro de repolarização que permaneceu significativo foi o intervalo Tp-e (OR = 1,085 IC 95% 1,032-1,140, p=0,001). Conclusão Com o prolongamento do intervalo Tp-e, pode-se prever a presença de fibrose miocárdica, a qual é um substrato arritmogênico, em pacientes com ICFEr.


Abstract Background Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a highly prevalent disease that requires repeating hospitalizations, causes significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early recognition of poor outcome predictors is essential for patient management. Objective The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and repolarization parameters such as corrected QT (QTc) interval, Tp-e interval, frontal QRS-T angle detected by 12 lead electrocardiograph (ECG) in HFrEF. Method In this single-center, retrospective observational study included 97 consecutive HFrEF patients who had CMR scan. Study population was divided into two groups according to the presence of LGE. Echocardiographic and CMR measurements and demographic features were recorded. QTc intervals, Tp-e intervals, frontal QRS-T angles were calculated from the ECG. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results LGE was detected in 52 (53.6%) out of 97 HFrEF patients. QTc intervals (p=0.001), Tp-e intervals (p<0.001), frontal QRS-T angles (p<0.001) were found to be significantly higher in LGE group when compared to non-LGE group. In univariate regression analysis which was performed to investigate the predictors of LGE in HFrEF, all three repolarization parameters were reached significant values but in multivariate analysis the only repolarization parameter remained significant was Tp-e interval (OR=1.085 95% CI 1.032-1.140, p=0.001). Conclusion With the prolongation of the Tp-e interval, the presence of myocardial fibrosis which is an arrhythmogenic substrate, can be predicted in patients with HFrEF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gadolinium , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Predictive Value of Tests , Contrast Media
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 322-328, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by a chronic and recurrent inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract caused by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: To compare the quality and acceptance of two different oral contrast volumes for computed tomography enterography in Crohn's disease patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 58 consecutive Crohn's disease patients who randomly received an oral contrast agent composed of 78.75 g polyethylene glycol diluted in either 1,000 mL or 2,000 mL of water. An examination was performed to evaluate the presence of inflammation or complications in the small bowel. The variables included the quality of intestinal segment filling and luminal distension, and oral contrast agent acceptance and tolerance in the patients. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and association tests. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were assessed, in which 58.6% were female, 34.5% exhibited clinically-active disease, and 63.8% were receiving biologic therapy. As for comparative analysis between the two different volumes of oral contrast, no statistically significant difference was found regarding bowel loop filling (P=0.58) and adequate luminal distension (P=0.45). Patients who received a larger volume (2,000 mL) exhibited side-effects more frequently (51.7% vs 31.0%; P=0.06) and had greater difficulty ingesting the agent (65.5% vs 37.9%; P=0.07) compared with a volume of 1,000 mL. CONCLUSION: The quality of computed tomography enterography was not influenced by the contrast volume. However, acceptance and tolerance were better in the 1,000 mL group.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença de Crohn (DC) é uma doença inflamatória intestinal caracterizada por uma inflamação crônica e recorrente do trato gastrointestinal causada por uma interação de fatores genéticos e ambientais. OBJETIVO: Comparar a qualidade e aceitação de dois volumes diferentes de contraste oral para enterografia por tomografia computadorizada em pacientes com doença de Crohn. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal foi conduzido em 58 pacientes com doença de Crohn que receberam aleatoriamente um agente de contraste oral composto por 78,75 g de polietilenoglicol diluído em 1.000 mL ou 2.000 mL de água. Um exame foi realizado para avaliar a presença de inflamação ou complicações no intestino delgado. As variáveis incluíram a qualidade do preenchimento do segmento intestinal e distensão luminal e aceitação e tolerância do contraste oral nos pacientes. A análise estatística incluiu estatística descritiva e testes de associação. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 58 pacientes, dos quais 58,6% eram mulheres, 34,5% apresentavam doença clinicamente ativa e 63,8% estavam recebendo terapia biológica. Quanto à análise comparativa entre os dois diferentes volumes de contraste oral, não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação ao enchimento da alça intestinal (P=0,58) e distensão luminal adequada (P=0,45). Pacientes que receberam um volume maior (2.000 mL) exibiram efeitos colaterais com mais frequência (51,7% vs 31,0%; P=0,06) e tiveram maior dificuldade para ingerir o agente (65,5% vs 37,9%; P=0,07) em comparação com um volume de 1.000 mL. CONCLUSÃO: A qualidade da entero-tomografia computadorizada não foi influenciada pelo volume de contraste. No entanto, aceitação e tolerância foram melhores no grupo de 1.000 mL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Crohn Disease/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intestine, Small
7.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(3): 1-11, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292472

ABSTRACT

El intervencionismo coronario se asocia a la aparición de nefropatía inducida por contraste. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar el riesgo de desarrollar nefropatía inducida por contraste (NIC) en pacientes con obstrucción coronaria significativa y su relación con factores de riesgo conocidos para esta nefropatía. Se diseñó un estudio de cohorte prospectiva con 160 pacientes atendidos en el cardiocentro del hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras", Cuba, a los cuales se les realizó una coronariografía invasiva, entre enero 2016 y julio 2017. La edad promedio fue de 61,6 ± 9,2 años; el 70,6% eran hombres. Predominaron los antecedentes patológicos personales de cardiopatía isquémica (85,6%), y de hipertensión arterial (75,6%). El 75% de los casos presentó una oclusión coronaria significativa. La frecuencia de nefropatía por contraste fue de 42,5%. Los factores que guardaron importante relación estadística con la presencia de oclusión arterial significativa fueron la cardiopatía isquémica conocida (p<0,001), el intervencionismo coronario percutáneo previo (p=0,007), la creatinina después (p=0,043) y la NIC (p=0,016) así como el volumen de contraste administrado (p=0,006). En el subgrupo de pacientes con oclusión significativa el hematocrito bajo (p=0,025) y el intervencionismo coronario percutáneo de urgencia (p=0,007) fueron los factores más influyentes. Se concluye que los pacientes con oclusión coronaria significativa tienen un riesgo aumentado para el desarrollo de la nefropatía por contraste. La corrección de aquellos factores de riesgo que sean modificables (como el hematocrito bajo) y la correcta aplicación del protocolo de hidratación son esenciales para prevenir esta complicación.


Coronary intervention is associated with the appearance of contrast-induced nephropathy. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with significant coronary obstruction and its relationship with known risk factors for this nephropathy. A prospective cohort study was designed with 160 patients treated at the cardiocenter of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" hospital, Cuba, who underwent invasive coronary angiography, between January 2016 and July 2017. The average age was 61.6 ± 9 ,2 years; 70.6% were men. The personal pathological history of ischemic heart disease (85.6%) and arterial hypertension (75.6%) predominated. 75% of the cases presented a significant coronary occlusion. The frequency of contrast nephropathy was 42.5%. The factors that had an important statistical relationship with the presence of significant arterial occlusion were known ischemic heart disease (p <0.001), previous percutaneous coronary intervention (p = 0.007), creatinine after the procedure (p = 0.043) and CIN (p = 0.016) as well as the volume of contrast administered (p = 0.006). In the subgroup of patients with significant occlusion, low hematocrit (p = 0.025) and emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (p = 0.007) were the most influential factors. It is concluded that patients with significant coronary occlusion have an increased risk for the development of contrast nephropathy. The correction of those risk factors that are modifiable (such as low hematocrit) and the correct application of the hydration protocol are essential to prevent this complication


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Coronary Occlusion , Acute Kidney Injury , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 196-201, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248785

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La fibrosis endomiocárdica (FE) es una cardiomiopatía restrictiva infrecuente. En América Latina son escasos los reportes. En el presente trabajo se realiza una descripción de una serie de pacientes diagnosticados de FE en Colombia. Método: Realizamos una búsqueda en los registros de imágenes de resonancia magnética (RM) cardiaca realizadas en nuestra institución entre 2016 y 2019 en busca de pacientes con diagnóstico de FE. Se describieron sus características sociodemográficas, clínicas y de imagen. Resultados: Nueve pacientes fueron diagnosticados de FE (el 66.7% mujeres), con una edad promedio de 69 años. Los pacientes presentaron un promedio de 2.6 años de evolución. El principal síntoma referido fue disnea, seguido de síncope, dolor torácico y palpitaciones. En ninguno de ellos se sospechó FE como diagnóstico inicial. En cuanto a los hallazgos ecocardiográficos, se identificó compromiso predominante del ventrículo izquierdo, seguido de compromiso biventricular. Todos los pacientes presentaron patrón de llenado restrictivo con dilatación auricular izquierda severa. En el análisis retrospectivo se cumplieron los criterios de Mocumbi para el diagnóstico de FE en el 100% de los pacientes con gravedad moderada (77.8%). Las imágenes de RM mostraron función sistólica biventricular y volúmenes preservados. Se observó depósito focal de gadolinio subendocárdico a nivel apical y se confirmó la presencia de trombo en el 66% de los casos Conclusión:: La FE es una cardiomiopatía restrictiva infrecuente circunscrita a países tropicales. La mayoría de los pacientes en nuestra serie presentaron compromiso aislado del ventrículo izquierdo, seguido de compromiso biventricular, con función ventricular usualmente preservada.


Abstract Objective: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EF) is an unusual restrictive cardiomyopathy. In Latin America there are few reports. Here, we made a description of patients diagnosed with EF in Colombia. Method: We conducted a search in the records of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed in our institution between 2016-2019 looking for patients with a diagnosis of EF; sociodemographic, clinical and imaging characteristics were described. Results: Nine patients were diagnosed with EF (66.7% female), with an average age of 69 years. Patients presented an average evolution of 2.6 years. The main reported symptom was dyspnea, followed by syncope, chest pain, and palpitations. None of them was initially suspected for EF. Regarding echocardiographic findings, predominant left ventricular involvement was identified, followed by bi-ventricular involvement. All the patients presented a restrictive filling pattern with severe left atrial dilation. In a retrospective analysis, Mocumbi criteria for diagnosis of EF were met in 100% of the patients, majority with moderate severity (77.8%). Cardiac MRI showed biventricular systolic function and volumes preserved. Focal subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement was observed on the apex and apical thrombus was confirmed in 66% of the patients Conclusion: FE is an uncommon restrictive cardiomyopathy limited to tropical countries. Most of patients in our series presented isolated involvement of left ventricle, followed by bi-ventricular involvement, with ventricular function usually preserved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/diagnostic imaging , Endomyocardial Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Colombia , Contrast Media , Gadolinium
9.
Iatreia ; 34(2): 116-123, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250062

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la tomografía abdominal sin medio de contraste oral en pacientes con dolor abdominal. Materiales y métodos: se incluyeron tomografías de pacientes con dolor abdominal entre el 1 de septiembre y 31 de diciembre del 2015 en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación. Se analizó el desempeño de las tomografías con o sin contraste oral y se consideró como prueba de referencia el resultado diagnóstico definitivo en la intervención quirúrgica o por diagnóstico clínico. Se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y los valores predictivos positivos y negativos con intervalos de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: fueron evaluadas un total de 128 tomografías de abdomen, 91 con contraste oral y 37 sin él. La tomografía sin contraste oral tuvo una sensibilidad y especificidad muy similar a la que sí lo tenía, con valores de 84 % y 91,6 %, respectivamente. Conclusión: el rendimiento global de la tomografía con contraste oral fue similar a la que no lo tenía, con valores cercanos al 90 %. La adquisición de la tomografía con contraste oral tomó casi 3 veces más tiempo que el requerido en los estudios sin contraste oral.


SUMMARY Objective: Evaluate the diagnostic performance of abdominal tomography without oral contrast medium in patients with abdominal pain. Materials and methods: Abdominal tomographies of patients with abdominal pain were included, between September 1 and December 31, 2015 at the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación. For the analysis of the tomographies with or without oral contrast, the definitive diagnostic result in the surgical intervention or by clinical diagnosis was considered as a reference test. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values with their respective 95% confidence intervals for tomography with and without oral contrast. Results: 128 abdominal tomographies, 91 with oral contrast and 37 without this type of contrast were evaluated. The tomography without oral contrast had a sensitivity and specificity very similar to the tomography with contrast, with values of 84% and 91.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The performance of the tomography with oral contrast was similar to the tomography without oral contrast, with values close to 90%. The acquisition of tomography with oral contrast took almost 3 times longer than that required in the studies without oral contrast.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain , Contrast Media , Tomography
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1048-1056, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278321

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC) está associada a um risco aumentado de eventos cardiovasculares adversos maiores (ECAM), e a associação entre NIC e mecanismos oxidativos está bem documentada. Objetivo Este estudo visou avaliar a relação entre os níveis séricos da molécula de lesão renal-1 (KIM-1) e a NIC em pacientes idosos com infarto do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMSSST). Métodos O presente estudo incluiu um total de 758 pacientes com IAMSSST que foram submetidos a intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP); 15 desenvolveram NIC após a ICP e outros 104 constituíram o grupo controle, pareado por idade > 65 anos. Foram registrados os valores laboratoriais desde a linha de base até o período entre 48 e 72 horas e os achados clínicos. Os pacientes foram acompanhados durante um ano. Foram considerados significativos valores de p < 0,05. Resultados A NIC foi observada em 12,60% dos pacientes. A KIM-1 sérica foi significativamente mais alta no grupo com NIC que no grupo sem NIC (14,02 [9,53 - 19,90] versus 5,41 [3,41 - 9,03], p < 0,001). O escore Mehran foi significativamente mais alto no grupo com NIC do que no grupo sem NIC (14 [5 - 22] versus 5 [2 - 7], p = 0,001). Os ECAM foram significativamente maiores no grupo com NIC do que no grupo sem NIC (7 [46,70%] versus 12 [11,50%], p = 0,001). A análise de regressão logística multivariada mostrou que o nível de KIM-1 basal (OR = 1,652, IC 95%: 1,20 - 2,27, p = 0,002) e o escore Mehran (OR = 1,457, IC 95%: 1,01 - 2,08, p = 0,039) foram preditores independentes da NIC em pacientes idosos com IAMSSST. Conclusão A concentração sérica basal de KIM-1 e o escore de Mehran são preditores independentes de NIC em pacientes idosos com IAMSSST. Além disso, todas as causas de mortalidade, morte cardiovascular, reinfarto do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral e MACE foram significativamente maiores no grupo CIN no acompanhamento de um ano. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and the association between CIN and oxidative mechanisms is well documented. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and CIN in elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods This study included a total of 758 patients with NSTEMI, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); 15 developed CIN after PCI, and another 104 were the control group, matched for age > 65 years. Baseline to 48-to-72-hour laboratory values and clinical outcomes were recorded. Patients were followed during one year. P values of < 0.05 were considered significant. Results CIN was observed in 12.60% of the patients. Serum KIM-1 was significantly higher in the CIN group than in the non-CIN group (14.02 [9.53 - 19.90] vs. 5.41 [3.41 - 9.03], p < 0.001). The Mehran score was significantly higher in the CIN group than in the non-CIN group (14 [5 - 22] vs. 5 [2 - 7], p = 0.001). MACE were significantly higher in the CIN group than in the non-CIN group (7 [46.70%] vs. 12 [11.50%], p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that baseline KIM-1 level (OR = 1.652, 95% CI: 1.20 - 2.27, p = 0.002) and Mehran score (OR = 1.457, 95% CI: 1.01 - 2.08, p = 0.039) were independent predictors of CIN in elderly patients with NSTEMI. Conclusion Baseline serum KIM-1 concentration and Mehran score are independent predictors of CIN in elderly patients with NSTEMI. Additionally, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, myocardial reinfarction, stroke, and MACE were significantly higher in the CIN group at one-year follow-up. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Kidney Diseases , Risk Factors , Contrast Media , Kidney
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10692, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153536

ABSTRACT

Fibrosis caused by the increase in extracellular matrix in cardiac fibroblasts plays an important role in the occurrence and development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hsa-miR-4443 in AF, human cardiac fibroblast (HCFB) proliferation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. TaqMan Stem-loop miRNA assay was used to measure hsa-miR-4443 expression in patients with persistent AF (n=123) and healthy controls (n=100). Patients with AF were confirmed to have atrial fibrosis by late gadolinium enhancement. At the cellular level, after hsa-miR-4443 mimic and inhibitor were transfected with HCFBs, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were analyzed. Lastly, hsa-miR-4443-targeted gene and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway were evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blot, respectively. In patients with AF, hsa-miR-4443 decreased significantly and collagen metabolism level increased significantly. Logistic regression analysis showed that low hsa-miR-4443 level was a risk factor of AF (P<0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that hsa-miR-4443 was useful for predicting AF (area under the curve: 0.828, sensitivity: 0.71, specificity: 0.78, P<0.001). In HCFBs, hsa-miR-4443 targeted thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and downregulated TGF-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway. The inhibition of hsa-miR-4443 expression promoted HCFB proliferation, migration, invasion, myofibroblast differentiation, and collagen production. The significant reduction of hsa-miR-4443 can be used as a biomarker for AF. hsa-miR-4443 protected AF by targeting THBS1 and regulated TGF-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway to inhibit HCFB proliferation and collagen synthesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation , MicroRNAs/genetics , Fibrosis , Collagen , Contrast Media , Thrombospondin 1/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Fibroblasts , Gadolinium
12.
Clinics ; 76: e1876, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153953

ABSTRACT

Although previous studies have indicated that statin therapy can effectively prevent the development of CIN, this observation remains controversial, especially in high-risk patients. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of statin pretreatment for preventing the development of CIN in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to determine its effectiveness in various subgroups. We searched the online databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. RCTs that involved the comparison of the short-term moderate or high-dose statin pretreatment with placebo for CIN prevention in CKD patients undergoing angiography were included. The primary outcome was CIN prevalence. Seven RCTs comprising 4256 participants were investigated in this analysis. The risk of developing CIN in patients pretreated with statins was significantly lower than that in patients pretreated with placebo (RR=0.57, 95%CI=0.43-0.76, p=0.000). The SCr values of the statin group, when analyzed 48h after angiography were lower than those of the placebo group ((SMD=-0.15, 95% CI=-0.27 to -0.04, p=0.011). In the subgroup analysis, statin pretreatment could decrease the risk of CIN in CKD patients with DM (RR=0.54, 95% CI=0.39-0.76, p=0.000), but not in CKD patients without DM (RR=0.84, 95% CI=0.44-1.60, p=0.606). The efficacy of atorvastatin for preventing CIN was consistent with that observed with the use of rosuvastatin. The risk ratios (RR) were 0.51 (95% CI=0.32-0.81, p=0.004) and 0.60 (95% CI=0.41-0.88, p=0.009), respectively. Our study demonstrated that statin pretreatment could prevent the development of CIN in CKD patients. However, subgroup analysis demonstrated that statin pretreatment, despite being effective in preventing CIN in patients with CKD and DM, was not helpful for CKD patients without DM. Rosuvastatin and atorvastatin exhibited similar preventive effects with respect to CIN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Coronary Angiography , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Rosuvastatin Calcium/therapeutic use
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The high prevalence and high fatality rate of coronary heart disease seriously endanger the safety of human life. The key to its treatment is to restore the perfusion of the narrowed coronary arteries as soon as possible. Two-dimensional echocardiography is limited for assessment of postoperative myocardial function. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) and 2-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI) possess good value in assessing myocardial perfusion and systolic function. We used MCE and 2D-STI to explore the changes of myocardial perfusion and systolic function after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with coronary heart disease, and to evaluate the clinical value of MCE and 2D-STI.@*METHODS@#Twenty patients with coronary heart disease undergoing PCI were selected. MCE was performed before and one day after PCI, and 2D-STI and conventional ultrasound were performed before and a month after PCI. The recovery of left ventricular wall motion was used as a standard to evaluate the ability of MCE semi-quantitative analysis and to predict the recovery of myocardial segment motion.@*RESULTS@#The quantitative value of MCE (signal intensity of contrast medium in plateau phase, slope of curve, and their product) one day after PCI and the contractile function of one month after PCI were significantly improved (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#MCE and 2D-STI can evaluate the improvement of myocardial perfusion and systolic function in patients with coronary heart disease after PCI, and MCE semi-quantitative analysis can effectively predict the ability of ventricular wall recovery.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Humans , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Perfusion , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922054

ABSTRACT

With the popularization of angiography and enhanced scanning in China, high pressure contrast injector is widely used in CT, MRI, DSI and so on, the authors team try to explore and consider the harmfulness and countermeasures of the reuse of the disposable high-pressure contrast injector from the perspective of medical device supervision. Hope that it's helpful to this registration and technical evaluation.


Subject(s)
China , Contrast Media , Injections , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921558

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the roles of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid nodules with calcification. Methods A total of 102 solid thyroid nodules with calcification in 76 patients were evaluated by conventional ultrasound alone and conventional ultrasound combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound.The features obtained through conventional ultrasound alone and that combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound were scored,and the diagnostic performance of the two methods was analyzed based on the final pathological results. Results The distribution of microcalcification(


Subject(s)
Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878697

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the appropriate averaging strategy for pancreatic perfusion datasets to create images for routine reading of insulinoma.Methods Thirty-nine patients undergoing pancreatic perfusion CT in Peking Union Medical College Hospital and diagnosed as insulinoma by pathology were enrolled in this retrospective study.The time-density curve of abdominal aorta calculated by software dynamic angio was used to decide the timings for averaging.Five strategies,by averaging 3,5,7,9 and 11 dynamic scans in perfusion,all including peak enhancement of the abdominal aorta,were investigated in the study.The image noise,pancreas signal-to-noise ratio(SNR),lesion contrast and lesion contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR)were recorded and compared.Besides,overall image quality and insulinoma depiction were also compared.ANOVA and Friedman's test were performed.Results The image noise decreased and the SNR of pancreas increased with the increase in averaging time points(all P0.99)and were higher than that of the first group(all P<0.05).There was no significant difference in overall image quality among the 5 groups(P=0.977).Conclusions Image averaged from 5 scans showed moderate image noise,pancreas SNR and relatively high lesion contrast and lesion CNR.Therefore,it is advised to be used in image averaging to detect insulinoma.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Humans , Insulinoma/diagnostic imaging , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Perfusion , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Reading , Retrospective Studies , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887910

ABSTRACT

Pituitary metastasis,a rare kind of intracranial malignant tumor,is characterized by metastasis from all parts of the body to the pituitary.The common tumors metastatic to pituitary are abundant with blood supply,located in the posterior pituitary lobe and/or the pituitary stalk.The lesion shows infiltrative growth,and mainly demonstrates low signal on T1 weighted imaging and high signal on T2 weighted imaging.It is usually enhanced significantly after iodinated contrast administration.The metastatic tumor with poor blood supply is similar to pituitary macroadenoma on magnetic resonance image,which makes it difficult to be differentiated.We reported two cases of pathologically diagnosed pituitary metastasis with poor blood supply and reviewed related papers,aiming to provide the imaging differentiation points of hypovascular pituitary metastasis.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pituitary Diseases , Pituitary Gland , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887866

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS)and ultrasound(US)in the differential diagnosis between cholesterol polyps and gallbladder adenomas. Methods A total of 136 patients with gallbladder polyp lesions(GPLs)and undergoing cholecystectomy in the First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 2019 to October 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.All the patients underwent US and CEUS examinations before cholecystectomy.US and CEUS images of cholesterol polyps and gallbladder adenomas were compared for the evaluation of the performance of CEUS in the diagnosis of gallbladder adenomas. Results The 136 cases of GPLs included 95 cases of cholesterol polyps and 41 cases of gallbladder adenomas.Cholesterol polyps and gallbladder adenomas showed significant differences in the maximum size of GPLs(


Subject(s)
Adenoma/diagnostic imaging , Cholesterol , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Gallbladder/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887864

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the value of trans-lymphatic contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS)in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer. Methods The patients with suspected thyroid cancer underwent conventional ultrasound and trans-lymphatic CEUS examinations before the biopsy.The differences in ultrasound and CEUS characteristics of cervical lymph nodes between the metastatic group and the non-metastatic group were compared,and pathological results were regarded as the golden standard. Results Twenty patients had thyroid cancer,including 12 cases with lymph node metastasis and 8 cases without metastasis.The diagnostic sensitivity(91.7%


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887861

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS)parameters in evaluating the formation of Kimmelstiel-Wilson(K-W)nodules in diabetic nephropathy(DN).Methods Sixty-two patients pathologically diagnosed with DN and undergoing CEUS in the First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from March 2017 to January 2020 were assigned into two groups according to whether K-W nodules were formed.The cortical CEUS parameters and the ratios of cortical to medullary CEUS parameters were compared between the two groups.Results The 62 patients included 19 patients without K-W nodules(group A)and 43 patients with K-W nodules(group B).The median rise time(


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Ultrasonography
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