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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0034, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376787

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To measure visual acuity in high contrast and low contrast sensitivities in different grades of visible light transmission films in three different positions (front, lateral and rear windows). Methods: Forty-four healthy volunteers between 30-75 y-o, with BCVA better than 0,5, were tested in the 5 following vehicles with different grades of visible light transmission films. Vehicle 1: 75% in the front and 70% in the lateral and rear windows; Vehicle 2: 70% in the front and lateral windows and 28% in the rear; Vehicle 3: 70% in the front, 28% in the lateral and 15% rear; Vehicle 4: 35% in all 3 windows; Vehicle 5: 50% in the front, 20% in the lateral and 15% in the rear. Descriptive statistics were used and the average of the 3 measurements of VA was considered. Wilcoxon Test was applied to compare the average visual acuity in each vehicle and position. P value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: According to the Brazilian Traffic Regulations for driving in categories C/D/E, when low contrast was tested in the front window, all visible light transmissions were borderline, in the lateral window they were all outside the limit, while in the rear window for both low and high contrast, all visible light transmissions tested were outside the limit and also borderline for driving in categories A/B, with the exception of the vehicle with visible light transmission of 35%. Conclusion: Visual acuity is affected, especially in the rear window, by the use of automotive films. The study is an alert that window films is a possible cause of accidents and may contribute to the revision of traffic regulations worldwide.


RESUMO Objetivo: Medir a acuidade visual em alto e baixo contraste nas diversas graduações de transparência de filmes em três janelas de veículos: frontal, lateral e traseira. Métodos: Foram avaliados 44 voluntários saudáveis entre 30 e 75 anos, com acuidade visual melhor corrigida acima de 0,5, em cinco veículos, sendo: veículo 1, com 75% de transparência frontal e 70% na lateral e traseira; veículo 2, com 70% na frontal e na lateral e 28% na traseira; veículo 3, com 70% na frontal, 28% na lateral e 15% na traseira; veículo 4, com 35% nas três janelas; e veículo 5, com 50% na frontal, 20% na lateral e 15% na traseira. Foi realizada estatística descritiva utilizando a média de três medidas consecutivas, com teste de Wilcoxon para comparar a média de acuidade visual em cada janela, e foi considerado estatisticamente significativo quando valor de p<0,05. Resultados: Todas as transparências testadas nos vidros reduziram a acuidade visual em situação de baixo contraste para níveis limítrofes na janela frontal e níveis ilegais na lateral para conduzir veículos nas categorias C/D/E. Na janela traseira, tanto em alto quanto em baixo contraste, todas as transparências mostraram redução da acuidade visual para níveis ilegais para categorias C/D/E e limítrofes para as categorias A/B, exceto na transparência de 35%. Conclusão: A acuidade visual é reduzida pelo uso dos filmes automotivos, especialmente na janela traseira. Condutores de veículos com filmes devem ser alertados pelo risco aumentado de acidentes. Esse dado científico propõe revisões nas regulações de tráfego mundiais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Automobile Driving/legislation & jurisprudence , Automobiles/legislation & jurisprudence , Automobiles/standards , Contrast Sensitivity , Visual Acuity , Space Perception , Vision Tests , Lighting , Accidents, Traffic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Color , Glass , Light
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e992, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352030

ABSTRACT

La sensibilidad al contraste es considerada como la capacidad de discriminar diferencias de iluminación entre áreas adyacentes, cuyo umbral se estima como la menor cantidad de contraste que se necesita para lograr esta distinción. La medida de la agudeza visual cuantifica la visión en alto contraste; sin embargo, los objetos que nos encontramos en la vida real no son solo de alto contraste, sino que presentan diferentes niveles de contraste y tamaño, lo cual puede ser determinado con el estudio de la sensibilidad al contraste, ya sea a través de cartillas de bajo contraste o de las pruebas que evalúan las frecuencias espaciales, que serán utilizadas según la edad del paciente pediátrico. Con este trabajo se pretende mostrar los diferentes criterios relacionados con la sensibilidad al contraste en edades pediátricas, para lo cual se realizó una búsqueda en diferentes publicaciones y textos de la especialidad. Existe controversia relacionada con la edad pediátrica en la cual se alcanza la sensibilidad al contraste al nivel del adulto, así como los valores normativos en la infancia con las diferentes pruebas empleadas. La valoración de la sensibilidad al contraste constituye una herramienta más para evaluar la función visual conjuntamente con la determinación de la agudeza visual y la visión de colores. Se necesitan más estudios sobre este tema para unificar criterios con el fin de perfeccionar la atención a la población pediátrica(AU)


Contrast sensitivity is the ability to distinguish differences in luminance between adjacent areas. Its threshold is estimated as the smallest amount of contrast needed to achieve such a distinction. Visual acuity measurement quantifies high contrast vision. However, the objects around us are not only characterized by high contrast: they display different levels of contrast and size, which may be determined through the study of contrast sensitivity, either with low contrast charts or spatial frequency tests, to be used according to the pediatric patient's age. The purpose of the study was to present various criteria about contrast sensitivity in pediatric ages. To achieve this end, a search was conducted in different publications and texts from the specialty. A debate is currently in progress about the pediatric age in which adult contrast sensitivity is achieved and the standard values to be verified with the different tests applied in childhood. Contrast sensitivity assessment is one more tool to evaluate visual function and determine visual acuity and color vision. Further studies are required about the subject aimed at unifying criteria so as to improve the care of the pediatric population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Vision, Ocular , Contrast Sensitivity , Visual Acuity , Review Literature as Topic
3.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(3): e734, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139089

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Comparar la sensibilidad al contraste evaluada en un grupo de mexicanos con diabetes mellitus contra uno sin diabetes como control. Métodos: Un total de 31 voluntarios, 14 participantes con DM con un tiempo de diagnóstico entre 2 y 20 años (sin retinopatía diabética), y 17 en el grupo control iniciaron el estudio; 4 diabéticos y 5 no diabéticos fueron excluidos por no cumplir con los criterios de inclusión. Por lo tanto, los datos analizados fueron de un grupo de 10 diabéticos (52 ± 10 años) y otro de 12 no diabéticos (52 ± 6 años). Se evaluó la sensibilidad al contraste con la cartilla Vector Vision CSV1000E a una distancia de 2,5 metros con una iluminación de 85 cd/m2. Resultados: Un mayor porcentaje de ojos diabéticos alcanzaron un mejor umbral de contraste en 3, 6 y 18 ciclos por grado en comparación con el grupo control. En 12 ciclos por grado solamente en los umbrales 1 y 5. Conclusiones: La sensibilidad al contraste de la población mexicana con diabetes mellitus presenta mejor percepción de contraste en las frecuencias evaluadas que el grupo control(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective: Compare contrast sensitivity as measured in a group of Mexican diabetes mellitus patients versus a control non-diabetic group. Methods: A group of 31 volunteers, 14 participants with DM with a diagnosis time between 2 and 20 years (without diabetic retinopathy), and 17 in the control group started the study; 4 diabetics and 5 non-diabetics were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Therefore, the data analyzed were from a group of 10 diabetics (52 ± 10 years) and another of 12 non-diabetics (52 ± 6 years). Contrast sensitivity was evaluated with a Vector Vision CSV1000E chart at a distance of 2.5 meters and a luminance of 85 cd/m2. Results: A higher percentage of diabetic eyes reached a better contrast threshold at 3, 6 and 18 cycles per degree in comparison with the control group. At 12 cycles per degree only at thresholds 1 and 5. Conclusions: Contrast sensitivity in the Mexican population with diabetes mellitus displays better contrast perception at the frequencies evaluated than the control group(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vision, Ocular , Contrast Sensitivity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology
4.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055350

ABSTRACT

Objective: Patients with schizophrenia have visual processing impairments. The main findings from the literature indicate that these deficits may be related to differences in paradigms, medications, and illness duration. This study is part of a large-scale study investigating visual sensitivity in schizophrenia. Here we aimed to investigate the combined effects of illness duration and antipsychotic use on contrast sensitivity function. Methods: Data were collected from 50 healthy controls and 50 outpatients with schizophrenia (classified according to illness duration and medication type) aged 20-45 years old. The contrast sensitivity function was measured for spatial frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 20 cycles per degree using linear sine-wave gratings. Results: Patients with an illness duration > 5 years had more pronounced deficits. Differences in the combined effects of illness duration and antipsychotic use were marked in patients on typical antipsychotics who had been ill > 10 years. No significant differences were found between typical and atypical antipsychotics in patients with an illness duration < 5 years. Conclusion: Visual impairment was related to both long illness duration and medication type. These results should be tested in further studies to investigate pharmacological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Vision Disorders/chemically induced , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Schizophrenia/complications , Time Factors , Vision, Ocular/drug effects , Contrast Sensitivity/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , Chlorpromazine/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
5.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 33: 14, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135897

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the contrast sensitivity of spatial luminance and the color discrimination thresholds of the protan, deutan, and tritan axes of people with leprosy. This study included 8 subjects with leprosy (M = 4, W = 4, M = 33.38 ± 8.7) and 8 healthy subjects (M = 4, W = 4, M = 30.89 ± 5.8). The contrast sensitivity was evaluated by the Metropsis software version 11.0 with vertical sinusoidal grids of frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 16 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) and color vision by the desaturated Lanthony D15 tests and the trivector and ellipse protocols of the Cambridge Color Test. The results showed significant differences between the groups in the processing of spatial frequencies of 0.2 (U = 14; p = .018); 5.0 (U = 45.0; p = .001); 10.0 (U = 45.0; p = .001), and 16.0 (U = 45.0; p = .001) cpd. The difference in color recognition through D15d (U = 4.0; p = .002). Ellipse 2 (U = 10.0; p = .012) and ellipse 3 (U = 9.0; p = .009) were discriminated against. Overall, the results indicate that leprosy changes the visual processing of low, medium, and high spatial frequencies, as well as the sensitivity of the short wavelength (tritan line of confusion) and long (protan line of confusion) cones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Vision Disorders/epidemiology , Contrast Sensitivity , Color Perception , Leprosy/complications
6.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 51(4): 38077, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178129

ABSTRACT

A medida de Sensibilidade ao Contraste (SC) de primeira ordem é frequentemente utilizada para avaliação da percepção espacial. Nosso objetivo foi desenvolver e validar um teste de SC de segunda ordem para aplicação clínica. Modificações metodológicas foram realizadas na rotina psicofísica para redução do tempo de testagem em um primeiro experimento, validamos a nova metodologia. Em um segundo experimento, valores de normalidade foram derivados do resultado de 16 participantes e foram testados nas mesmas condições do primeiro experimento. As medidas de validade foram obtidas por meio do Spearman-Brown Split-Half Reliability Coefficient para todas as frequências espaciais testadas (r> 0,90). O desenvolvimento e a validação deste novo experimento para as medidas de SC de segunda ordem permitirão avançar nos estudos dos mecanismos básicos da percepção de espaço para estímulos complexos, assim como a aplicação clínica em diversas doenças.


The first-order Contrast Sensitivity (SC) measure is often used to assess spatial perception. Our goal was to develop and validate a second-order SC test for clinical application. Methodological changes were made in the psychophysical routine to reduce testing time and in the first experiment we validated the new methodology. In a second experiment, normal values were derived from the result of sixteen participants who were tested under the same conditions as the first experiment. Validity measures were obtained using Spearman-Brown Split-Half Reliability Coefficient for all tested spatial frequencies (r> 0.90). The development and validation of this new experiment for second-order SC measures will allow to advance in the studies of the basic mechanisms of the perception of space for complex stimuli, as well as the clinical application in several diseases.


La medida de sensibilidad al contraste (SC) de primer orden se utiliza a menudo para evaluar la percepción espacial. Nuestro objetivo era desarrollar y validar una prueba SC de segundo orden para aplicación clínica. Se realizaron cambios metodológicos en la rutina psicofísica para reducir el tiempo de prueba y en el primer experimento validamos la nueva metodología. En un segundo experimento, los valores normales se derivaron del resultado de dieciséis participantes que fueron evaluados en las mismas condiciones que el primer experimento. Las medidas de validez se obtuvieron utilizando el coeficiente de confiabilidad de la mitad dividida de Spear-man-Brown para todas las frecuencias espaciales probadas (r> 0.90). El desarrollo y validación de este nuevo experimento para medidas CS de segundo orden permitirá avanzar en los estudios de los mecanismos básicos de percepción del espacio para estímulos complejos, así como la aplicación clínica en diversas enfermedades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychophysics , Space Perception , Contrast Sensitivity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741313

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate contrast sensitivity in patients with Behçet's disease (BD) without ocular involvement. METHODS: The study group was composed of 47 BD patients (20 to 50 years of age) who did not have ocular involvement. The control group was composed of 47 normal volunteers who were similar to the study group in terms of age and gender. No participants in this study had any ocular or systemic pathologies except for BD. The contrast sensitivity measurements were performed using the Functional Acuity Contrast Test under photopic conditions, and the results were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The mean age of the BD patients and control subjects was 34.5 ± 9.7 and 33.2 ± 7.6 years, respectively. The mean disease duration of the BD patients was 5.5 ± 6.4 years. There was a statistically significant decrease at five spatial frequencies (A, 1.5; B, 3; C, 6; D, 2; and E, 18 cycles per degree) in patients with BD compared with control subjects (p < 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.002, p < 0.001, and p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The contrast sensitivity of BD patients without ocular involvement was lower than that of the control group. Further studies seem mandatory to confirm our results.


Subject(s)
Behcet Syndrome , Contrast Sensitivity , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Pathology
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766549

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the characteristics and clinical outcomes of different types of extended depth-of-focus and multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) to determine which IOL can increase patient satisfaction. Modern cataract surgery has undergone tremendous evolution in terms of IOL quality. Recently, different types of presbyopia-correcting IOLs have become commercially available. Among them, multifocal IOLs are the most frequently used. Multifocal IOLs are different from conventional monofocal IOLs because these have multiple focus, which enable patients to see both distant and near objects at the same time. Multifocal IOLs can be classified as either refractive or diffractive IOLs. Diffractive multifocal IOLs include traditional bifocal lenses and relatively new trifocal lenses, and are the most widely used multifocal IOLs owing to their good clinical performance. Trifocal IOLs have an advantage over bifocal IOLs in terms of intermediate visual acuity, but can cause decreased contrast sensitivity and night vision disturbances. Recently developed extended depth-of-focus IOLs are different from traditional multifocal IOLs in that these extend the focus, resulting in smooth continuous focus. It also has the benefit of better contrast sensitivity and improved visual quality over multifocal IOLs; however, is relatively weak in terms of near visual acuity.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Contrast Sensitivity , Humans , Lenses, Intraocular , Night Vision , Patient Satisfaction , Presbyopia , Visual Acuity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760044

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of bifocal versus trifocal diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on visual quality after phacoemulsification in patients with cataracts. METHODS: Eighty-eight eyes from 63 patients were analyzed. Trifocal (AT LISA tri 839MP), bifocal (AcrySof IQ ReSTOR) and bifocal (Tecnis MF ZLB00) IOLs were implanted into 53, 18, and 17 eyes, respectively. Uncorrected distance, intermediate and near visual acuity, refractive errors, contrast sensitivity, and patient satisfaction were measured at 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Refractive error was converted to a spherical equivalent and compared to predicted refraction calculated by IOL calculation formulas. RESULTS: Uncorrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity did not differ significantly between groups. One month after surgery, the mean refractive errors were −0.07 diopters (D) in the AT LISA tri 839MP group, +0.18 D in the AcrySof IQ ReSTOR group, and +0.31 D in the Tecnis MF ZLB00 group (p < 0.001). The predictive accuracy of IOL calculation formulas did not differ between groups. Contrast sensitivity, satisfaction, and spectacle independence in the trifocal group were comparable with those of the two bifocal groups. CONCLUSIONS: Trifocal IOL and two different types of bifocal IOL implantation were all effective for improving visual quality, although refractive error in patients with trifocal IOL shows myopic tendencies.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Contrast Sensitivity , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Patient Satisfaction , Phacoemulsification , Presbyopia , Refractive Errors , Visual Acuity
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786172

ABSTRACT

Presbyopia is an age-related condition that progressively decreases the ability to focus on near objects. Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been developed to improve near vision, including laser in situ keratomileuses (LASIK) and corneal inlay. Most have similar approaches using monovision or increasing the depth of focus. Monovision laser refractive surgery is a combination of conventional LASIK, LASIK which creates a multifocal cornea (central near or peripheral near) and aspheric micro-monovision LASIK with a special ablation profile, which develops spherical aberration. Conductive keratoplasty is a method that uses radiofrequency energy to shrink the mid-peripheral corneal stromal tissue. However, it is not used because of regression. A corneal inlay is a small device that is implanted in the corneal flap or pocket made by a femtosecond laser. It is inserted into the non-dominant eye. There are various inlays such as the Flexivue Microlens (refractive), Raindrop (corneal shape-changing), and KAMRA (small-aperture) inlays. However, the safety and effectiveness of these inlays have not been proven over a long follow-up period, so care is required when performing inlay implantation. All presbyopia treatments can improve near vision but also have limitations and side effects such as reduced far vision, contrast sensitivity, or increased glare. Therefore, it is essential to select patients carefully. Mechanisms associated with presbyopia are not fully understood, and presbyopia remains challenging for ophthalmologists.


Subject(s)
Contrast Sensitivity , Cornea , Corneal Transplantation , Follow-Up Studies , Glare , Humans , Inlays , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ , Methods , Presbyopia , Refractive Surgical Procedures , Vision, Monocular
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786171

ABSTRACT

This review gives an overview of the current multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) landscape, in terms of the technology, benefits, and limitations of different premium IOLs, as well as significant clinical outcomes. Cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment in older adults. From 1980, the number of blind and visually impaired people have decreased due to cataract surgery. As the number of surgical procedures increases every year, patient demands have also changed with many patients expecting excellent visual acuity without glasses. Multifocal IOLs can provide spectacle-independence for near, intermediate, and distant vision tasks. Multifocal IOLs can be classified into bifocal, trifocal, and extended depth of focus multifocal IOLs. The ultimate goal of multifocal lenses includes reduced incidence of photic phenomena, and improved uncorrected near, intermediate, and far visual acuities for those working with computers and smartphones, as well as no contrast sensitivity loss. Although some patients have issues with halos and glare, overall patient satisfaction and quality of life are generally high after multifocal IOL implantation. Careful patient selection should be made to satisfy different individual needs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cataract , Contrast Sensitivity , Eyeglasses , Glare , Glass , Humans , Incidence , Lenses, Intraocular , Patient Satisfaction , Patient Selection , Presbyopia , Quality of Life , Smartphone , Vision Disorders , Visual Acuity
12.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(5): 292-295, set.-out. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977862

ABSTRACT

Resumo A toxoplasmose ocular congênita é uma manifestação da infecção pelo parasita Toxoplasma gondii que ocorrer por meio placentário. Essa doença pode provocar importantes sequelas visuais. Este trabalho descreve um estudo de caso que utilizou avaliação psicofísica visual para descrever alterações funcionais decorrentes da toxoplasmose ocular congênita. A avaliação foi realizada em paciente de 30 anos, sexo masculino, residente em São Luís (MA), hígido com histórico da mãe ter apresentado infecção por toxoplasmose no período gestacional. Somente aos 26 anos foi feita uma avaliação médica detalhada que descreveu lesão na fóvea do olho direito. Na avaliação clínica clássica e na avaliação psicofísica visual, o paciente apresentou visão normal para o olho esquerdo. O olho direito apresentou baixa acuidade visual (valor decimal: 0,028), campo visual com escotomas localizados até 20º de ângulo visual e alteração da visão de cor. O estudo fornece informações médicas seguras e relevantes para o diagnóstico de toxoplasmose ocular congênita utilizando testes eficazes, de baixo custo e boa portabilidade, possibilitando uma alternativa de diagnóstico funcional para ser aplicada em locais de difícil acesso pelo interior do Brasil.


Abstract Congenital ocular toxoplasmosis is a manifestation of infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii that occurs through the placenta. This disease can lead to important visual sequelae. This paper describes a case report that uses visual psychophysics for the alterations of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis. The evaluation was performed in a 30-year-old man, a resident of São Luís (MA), with a history of his mother have had toxoplasmosis in the gestational period. Only at 26 years-old he did the detailed medical evaluation that described a lesion the fovea of the right eye. In the classic clinical examination and in visual psychophysical evaluation, the patient presented normal vision for the left eye. The right eye had low visual acuity (decimal value: 0.028), visual field with scotomas up to 20º of visual angle and alteration of color vision. The study offers safe and relevant medical information for the diagnosis of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis using a low-cost evaluation and with good portability, allowing a functional diagnostic alternative to be applied in places difficult to access in the interior of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Psychophysics/methods , Visual Acuity , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/congenital , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Toxoplasma , Contrast Sensitivity/physiology , Visual Fields/physiology , Toxoplasmosis/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic , Color Perception/physiology , Color Perception Tests/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Visual Field Tests/methods
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6568, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889051

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to compare the visual contrast sensitivity (CS) of men and women exposed and not exposed to organic solvents. Forty-six volunteers of both genders aged between 18 and 41 years (mean±SD=27.72±6.28) participated. Gas station attendants were exposed to gas containing 46.30 ppm of solvents at a temperature of 304±274.39 K, humidity of 62.25±7.59% and ventilation of 0.69±0.46 m/s (a passive gas chromatography-based sampling method was used considering the microclimate variables). Visual CS was measured via the psychophysical method of two-alternative forced choice using vertical sinusoidal gratings with spatial frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 16.0 cpd (cycles per degree) and an average luminance of 34.4 cd/m2. The results showed that visual CS was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the following groups: i) exposed men compared to unexposed men at frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cpd; ii) exposed women compared to unexposed women at a frequency of 5.0 cpd; and iii) exposed women compared to exposed men at a frequency of 0.5 cpd, even at exposures below the tolerance limit (300 ppm). These results suggest that the visual CS of exposed men was impaired over a wider range of spatial frequencies than that of exposed women. This difference may have been due to the higher body fat content of women compared to that of men, suggesting that body fat in women can serve as a protective factor against neurotoxic effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Contrast Sensitivity/drug effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Solvents/adverse effects , Visual Perception/physiology , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Brazil/epidemiology , Educational Status , Microclimate , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Sensory Thresholds/physiology , Sex Factors , Spatial Learning/physiology
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with diffractive aspheric trifocal intraocular lens FineVision Pod F IOL (PhysIOL, Liège, Belgium) implantation. METHODS: Thirty eight eyes received phacoemulsification and implantation of FineVision Pod F IOL. Uncorrected distant visual acuity (UDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA), refractive values, and defocus curve were evaluated at postoperative 1 month and 3 months. Optical quality was evaluated with the contrast sensitivity test, OQAS® (Optical Quality Analysis System, Visiometrics, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain) and questionnaire. RESULTS: At the 3-month postoperative follow-up, the mean spherical equivalent was 0.01 ± 0.31 D and the mean UDVA, UIVA and UNVA were 0.04 ± 0.07, 0.19 ± 0.12, and 0.04 ± 0.07, respectively. Mean contrast sensitivities at 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degrees were 2.00 ± 1.54, 2.16 ± 1.60, 2.25 ± 1.76, 2.16 ± 1.83, 1.52 ± 1.47 and 1.03 ± 0.95 respectively and mean objective scatter index by OQAS® (Optical Quality Analysis System, Visiometrics) was 1.54 ± 0.74. In satisfaction analysis, general satisfaction with surgery was 89% and spectacle independence were 89% at far, 78% at intermediate and 83% at near distance. Postoperative dissatisfaction factors were dryness (36%), glare at night (32%), halo (18%). CONCLUSIONS: The FineVision Pod F IOL showed excellent distant and near visual acuities with an effective intermediate visual acuity. The eyes with FineVision Pod F IOL expected to achieve the favorable visual outcome and patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Contrast Sensitivity , Follow-Up Studies , Glare , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Patient Satisfaction , Phacoemulsification , Visual Acuity
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738501

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We prospectively investigated clinical changes and long-term outcomes after administration of the drugs recommended by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study-2 to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: This prospective multicenter study enrolled 79 eyes of 55 patients taking lutein and zeaxanthin. The primary endpoint was contrast sensitivity; this was checked every 12 months for a total of 36 months after treatment commenced. The secondary endpoints were visual acuity, central macular thickness, and drusen volume; the latter two parameters were assessed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 72.46 ± 7.16 years. Contrast sensitivity gradually improved at both three and six cycles per degree. The corrected visual acuity was 0.13 ± 0.14 logMAR and did not change significantly over the 36 months. Neither the central macular thickness nor drusen volume changed significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast sensitivity markedly improved after treatment, improving vision and patient satisfaction. Visual acuity, central retinal thickness, and drusen volume did not deteriorate. Therefore, progression of AMD and visual function deterioration were halted.


Subject(s)
Contrast Sensitivity , Eye Diseases , Humans , Lutein , Macular Degeneration , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , Retinaldehyde , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Zeaxanthins
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy between trifocal and bifocal diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. METHODS: Through PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, we searched potentially relevant articles published from 1990 to 2018. Defocus curves, visual acuities (VAs) were measured as primary outcomes. Spectacle dependence, postoperative refraction, contrast sensitivity (CS), glare, and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were measured as secondary outcomes. Effects were pooled using random-effects method. RESULTS: We included 11 clinical trials, with a total of 787 eyes (395 subjects). The trifocal IOL group showed better binocular distance VA corrected with defocus levels of −0.5, −1.0, −1.5, and −2.5 diopter than the bifocal IOL group (All P ≤ 0.004). The trifocal IOL group showed better monocular uncorrected distance and intermediate VAs (mean difference [MD], −0.04 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.07, −0.01; P = 0.006 and MD, −0.07 logMAR; 95% CI, −0.13, −0.01; P = 0.03, respectively). Postoperative refraction, glare, CS, and HOAs were not significantly different from each other. CONCLUSION: The overall findings indicate that trifocal diffractive IOL implantation is better than the bifocal diffractive IOL in intermediate VA, and provides similar or better in distance and near VAs without any major deterioration in the visual quality.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Contrast Sensitivity , Glare , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Methods , Telescopes , Visual Acuity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate binocular summation ratio using contrast sensitivity (CS) testing and correlation between binocular summation and stereoacuity, and control scale in intermittent exotropia (IXT). METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study. Thirty-seven IXT and 41 controls were evaluated with both monocular and binocular CS testing. We compared the binocular summation ratio of IXT to that of controls. Near and distance stereoacuity was assessed and office-based control scale was evaluated. We investigated correlation between binocular CS summation ratio and stereoacuity, and control scale in IXT, respectively. RESULTS: IXT had lower binocular CS summation ratio than controls at 1.5 and 3.0 cycles/degree (1.01 ± 1.02 vs. 1.62 ± 1.88 and 1.17 ± 0.96 vs. 1.86 ± 1.75, Both P < 0.05). We found significant correlation between binocular CS summation ratio at 3.0 cycles/degree and both near and distance stereoacuity (r = −0.411, P = 0.012 and r = −0.624, P = 0.005), and ratio at 1.5 cycles/degree also correlated significantly with distance stereoacuity (r = −0.397, P = 0.034) in the IXT. Binocular CS summation ratio was correlated to control scale at 1.5 and 3.0 cycles/degree (r = −0.327, P = 0.041 and r = −0.418, P = 0.028), and the ratio significantly differed in control scale groupings analysis at the same frequencies (Both P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings of subnormal binocular CS summation ratio in IXT had correlation with stereoacuity and control scale suggest that binocular CS testing may be a useful method in assessing binocular visual function in IXT.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Contrast Sensitivity , Exotropia , Humans , Methods , Prospective Studies , Telescopes
18.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(2): 61-64, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899042

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Correlacionar o coeficiente de asfericidade com a aberração esférica longitudinal na superfície corneana, correlacionando também cada uma dessas variáveis com a ceratometria média Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo observacional através da coleta de dados pré-operatórios nos prontuários de indivíduos candidatos a facectomia. Os dados coletados se referiam ao sexo e idade, além do Q, LSA da superfície corneana e ceratometria média (Km). Foram excluídos do estudo os pacientes que realizaram qualquer procedimento cirúrgico corneano, por alterar as medidas da Q, LSA e Km. O topógrafo selecionou, de maneira fixa, uma área 4,5mm da superfície anterior da córnea para medida do Q e da LSA, tendo como ponto central o eixo pupilar. A ocorrência da LSA é relevante em ambientes de penumbra, em indivíduos com pupila maior que 3mm. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 70 olhos de 35 indivíduos: 24 (68,6%) mulheres e 11 (31,4%) homens. A idade variou de 48 a 89 anos (média de 69,97 ± 8,29). A Km variou de 41,00D a 46,50D com média de 43,94 ± 1,48D. Na avaliação do Q da superfície corneana se observou uma média de -0,15 ± 0,15. Seis (8,57%) córneas apresentaram desenho esférico com Q= 0 e apenas uma córnea apresentou desenho asférico com Q= -0,50, gerando LSA= 0,0µm. Em relação a LSA da superfície corneana se observou média de +0,33 ± 0,14 µm. Quarenta e dois olhos (60,0%) apresentaram LSA entre +0,31 a +0,64µm e 19 (27,15%) entre +0,16 a +0,30µm. Não houve correção entre a Km e o Q (r= -0,005 / p= 0,965), assim como entre Km e a LSA (r= 0,167 / p= 0,170). Observou-se correlação (r= 0,962 / p= 0,000) entre as variáveis Q x LSA. Conclusão: Foi observada correlação entre o Q e a LSA da superfície corneana. Não foi observado correlações entre o coeficiente de asfericidade ou aberração esférica longitudinal com a ceratometria média.


Abstract Objective: To correlate the asphericity coefficient (Q) with longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA) of the corneal surface, also correlating each of these variables with the average keratometry Methods: An observational study was conducted by collecting preoperative data from the medical records of individuals candidate cataract surgery, i.e., patient sex and age, as well as Q, LSA of the corneal surface and mean keratometry (Km). Patients who had been subjected to any corneal surgical procedure who would alter Q, LSA and Km measuements were excluded. The corneanl topograph selected, fixedly, a 4.5 mm area of the anterior surface of the cornea for the measurement of Q and LSA, having the pupillary axis as the central point, since the occurrence of LSA is relevant in dim environments in individuals with a pupil wider than 3 mm Results: The sample consisted of 70 eyes of 35 individuals, 24 of them women (68.6%) and 11 men (31.4%) ranging in age from 48 to 89 years (mean: 69.97 ± 8.29). Km ranged from 41.00 to 46.50 D, with a mean of 43.94 ± 1.48D, and mean Q of the corneal surface was -0.15 ± 0.15. Six corneas showed a spherical design (Q= 0.0) and only one showed an aspheric design with Q = -0.50, generating an LSA of 0.0. Mean LSA of the corneal surface was +0.33 ± 0.14 µm. Only one eye showed an LSA equal to 0.0µm, and five showed an LSA of +0.10 to +0.30µm. No eye showed a negative LSA of the corneal surface. There was no correlation between Km and Q (r = -0.005 / p = 0.965) or between Km and LSA (r = 0.167 / p = 0.170). A correlation (r = 0.962 / p = 0.000) was observed between Q and LSA Conclusion: There was a correlation between Q and LSA of the corneal surface. There was no correlation between the sphericity coefficient or longitudinal spherical aberration with the average keratometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cornea/anatomy & histology , Corneal Topography/methods , Organ Size , Contrast Sensitivity , Pupil , Medical Records , Cornea/physiology , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Observational Study , Mathematics , Ocular Physiological Phenomena
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122712

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the pattern of optic nerve enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help to differentiate between idiopathic optic neuritis (ON), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and multiple sclerosis (MS) in unilateral ON. METHODS: An MRI of the brain and orbits was obtained in patients with acute unilateral ON. Patients with ON were divided into three groups: NMO, MS, and idiopathic ON. The length and location of the abnormal optic nerve enhancement were compared for ON eyes with and without NMO or MS. The correlation between the pattern of optic nerve enhancement and the outcome of visual function was analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 36 patients with ON who underwent an MRI within 2 weeks of the onset, 19 were diagnosed with idiopathic ON, 9 with NMO, and 8 with MS. Enhancement of the optic nerve occurred in 21 patients (58.3%) and was limited to the orbital segment in 12 patients. Neither the length nor the location of the optic nerve enhancement was significantly correlated with visual functions other than contrast sensitivity or the diagnosis of idiopathic ON, MS, or NMO. Patients with greater extent of optic nerve sheath enhancement and more posterior segment involvement showed higher contrast sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that the pattern of optic nerve enhancement was not associated with diagnosis of idiopathic ON, NMO, or MS in Korean patients with unilateral ON. We believe further studies that include different ethnic groups will lead to a more definitive answer on this subject.


Subject(s)
Brain , Contrast Sensitivity , Diagnosis , Ethnicity , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Nerve , Optic Neuritis , Orbit
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156642

ABSTRACT

Multiple-pinhole (MPH) glasses are currently sold in many countries with unproven advertisements; however, their objective and subjective effects have not been investigated. Therefore, to investigate the effects of MPH glasses excluding the single-pinhole (SPH) effect, we compared the visual functional changes, reading speed, and ocular discomfort after reading caused by MPH and SPH glasses. Healthy 36 participants with a mean age of 33.1 years underwent examinations of pupil size, visual acuity (VA), depth of focus (DOF), and near point accommodation (NPA); tests for visual field (VF), contrast sensitivity (CS), stereopsis, and reading speed; and a survey of ocular discomfort after reading. Both types of pinhole glasses enlarged pupil diameter and improved VA, DOF, and NPA. However, CS, stereopsis, and VF parameters deteriorated. In comparison with SPH glasses, MPH glasses induced smaller pupil dilation (5.3 and 5.9 mm, P < 0.001) and showed better VF parameters with preserved peripheral VF. However, no significant difference was observed for VA, DOF, NPA, stereopsis, and CS. Reading speed using pinhole glasses was significantly slower than baseline; SPH glasses showed the slowest reading speed. Both types of glasses caused significant ocular discomfort after reading compared with baseline, and symptoms were worst with MPH glasses. In conclusion, both types of pinhole glasses had positive effects due to the pinhole effect; however, they had negative effects on VF, CS, stereopsis, reading speed, and ocular discomfort. In spite of the increased luminance and preserved peripheral VF with MPHs, these glasses caused more severe ocular discomfort than SPH glasses. This clinical trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02572544).


Subject(s)
Contrast Sensitivity , Depth Perception , Eyeglasses , Glass , Pupil , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields
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