Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 318
Filter
1.
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 58-62, 2022. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1366993

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: establecer la efectividad de la acupuntura en el control de los síntomas de la menopausia. Materiales y métodos:se seleccionaron menopaúsicas sanas entre 48 y 57 años que presentaban síntomas relacionados con la menopausia que no recibían terapia hormonal. El tratamiento consistió en 24 sesiones de acupuntura y se evaluó la intensidad de los síntomas con el puntaje del índice de Kupperman antes de iniciar y a las 4 y 8 semanas después de iniciadas las sesiones de acupuntura. Resultados: en 50 menopáusicas con edad promedio de 53,4 +/- 3,2 años después de 4 y 8 semanas de tratamiento no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la intensidad de calorones, sudoración, trastorno del sueño, depresión, vértigo, cefalea, artralgia, palpitaciones, debilidad y síntomas vaginales (p = ns). El valor promedio de índice de Kupperman inicial fue de 30,6 +/- 4,7 puntos, el cual aumentó a 32,1 +/- 5,6 puntos a las cuatro semanas para luego alcanzar un valor de 31,1 +/- 4,8 puntos a las 8 semanas. No se demostraron diferencias significativas en los valores promedio de la escala a las 4 (p = 0,150) y 8 semanas (p = 0,596). Conclusión: la acupuntura no es efectiva para controlar los síntomas causados por la menopausia, por lo que no es una alternativa de la terapia de reemplazo hormonal.


Objective: to establish the effectiveness of acupuncture in controlling menopause symptoms. Materials and Methods: healthy menopausal women aged 48 to 57 years, experiencing menopause-related symptoms, not receiving hormone therapy, were selected. The treatment consisted of 24 acupuncture sessions evaluating symptoms severity using the Kupperman index score before initiation of therapy and at 4 and 8 weeks after undergoing acupuncture therapy. Results: no statistically significantdifferences were observed in 50 menopausal women with mean age of 53.4 +/- 3.2 years after 4 and 8 weeks undergoing acupuncture therapy regarding the severity of hot flashes, sweating, sleep disorder, depression, vertigo, headache, arthralgia, palpitations, weakness and vaginal symptoms (p = ns). The mean initial Kupperman index score was 30.6 +/- 4.7, which increased to 32.1 +/- 5.6 at four weeks and then reached a value of 31.1 +/- 4.8 at 8 weeks. No significant differences were demonstrated in the mean scale values at 4 (p = 0.150) and 8 weeks (p = 0.596). Conclusion: acupuncture is not effective in controlling symptoms caused by menopause, so it is not an alternative to hormone replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Menopause , Acupuncture , Signs and Symptoms , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Control , Methods
2.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(6): 1422-1442, nov.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356841

ABSTRACT

Abstract This research deals with one of the most problematic themes in the Brazilian public security agenda, firearm control. Since the publication of the Statute of the Disarmament in 2003, the Federal Police (FP) has been responsible for controlling firearm possession of the civilian population. Thus, FP officers become central players in firearm control policies in Brazil. In this research, we investigate the attitude of Brazilian FP officers towards firearms and what explains this attitude. We collected data from 800 police officers from different positions working in all regions of the country. The results show that police officers believe that firearm possession is an individual right, but firearms do not protect against crime. The results also show that the officers' attitude towards firearms is influenced by their position and their experience with firearms. The article presents the study's implications for management theory and practice.


Resumen Esta investigación aborda uno de los temas más problemáticos de la agenda de seguridad pública brasileña, el control de armas de fuego. Desde la publicación del Estatuto de Desarme, en 2003, la Policía Federal (PF) se ha encargado de controlar la tenencia y porte de armas de fuego por parte de la población civil. Así, los oficiales de la PF se convierten en actores centrales de las políticas de control de armas de fuego en Brasil. Investigamos la actitud de los oficiales de la PF brasileña hacia las armas de fuego y qué explica esta actitud. Recopilamos datos de 800 policías de diferentes cargos y que operan en todas las regiones del país. Los resultados muestran que los agentes de policía creen que la tenencia de armas de fuego es un derecho individual, pero que las armas no protegen contra el crimen. Los resultados también muestran que la actitud de los policías hacia las armas de fuego está influenciada por el cargo que ocupa y por la experiencia del policía con las armas de fuego. Al final, se presentan las implicaciones del estudio para la teoría y la práctica de la gestión.


Resumo Esta pesquisa trata de um dos temas mais problemáticos da agenda da segurança pública brasileira, o controle de armas de fogo. Desde a publicação do Estatuto do Desarmamento, em 2003, a Polícia Federal (PF) é responsável pelo controle da posse e porte de armas de fogo pela população civil. Assim, os oficiais da PF passaram a ser atores centrais nas políticas de controle de armas de fogo no Brasil. Nesta pesquisa, investigamos a atitude dos oficiais brasileiros de PF em relação às armas de fogo e o que explica essa atitude. Coletamos dados de 800 policiais, de diferentes cargos e atuantes em todas as regiões do país. Os resultados mostram que os policiais acreditam que possuir armas de fogo é um direito individual, mas que a arma não protege contra o crime. Os resultados também mostram que a atitude dos policiais em relação às armas de fogo é influenciada pelo cargo ocupado na PF e pela experiência do policial com armas de fogo. Ao final, são apresentadas as implicações do estudo para a teoria e prática gerencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Safety , Behavior , Firearms/legislation & jurisprudence , Police , Federal Government , Control
3.
San Salvador; MINSAL; dic. 09, 2021. 119 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1361910

ABSTRACT

Los presentes lineamientos técnicos constituyen un instrumentos de consulta para proporcionar la atención que requieren los pacientes que cumplen los requisitos establecidos por los equipos interdisciplinarios tanto comunitarios como hospitalarios (unidades del Dolor y Cuidados Paliativos), tomando en cuenta la población blanco, la oferta de servicios, criterios de referencia, retorno e interconsulta; para lo cual se ha diseñado el flujograma correspondiente, que permite visualizar descriptivamente los pasos para la atención de los pacientes con enfermedades oncológicas, no oncológicas y crónicas degenerativas en estado crónico avanzado y/o terminal


These technical guidelines constitute a consultation instrument to provide the care required by patients who meet the requirements established by both community and hospital interdisciplinary teams (Pain and Palliative Care units), taking into account the target population, the offer of services reference criteria, return and interconsultation; for which the corresponding flowchart has been designed, which allows a descriptive visualization of the steps for the care of patients with oncological, non-oncological and chronic degenerative diseases in an advanced and/or terminal chronic state


Subject(s)
Palliative Care , Health , Grief , Dyspnea , Control
4.
San Salvador; MINSAL; dic. 08, 2021. 95 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1352920

ABSTRACT

El presente lineamiento regulatorio corresponde a la actualización de los Lineamientos Técnicos para el Control de Infecciones en la Atención Sanitaria de diciembre de 2015; esta edición tiene como propósito actualizar la información relacionada, así como incluir las disposiciones para control de infecciones en el Primer Nivel de Atención, como componente del SNIS. Estos lineamientos establecen las disposiciones necesarias para el desarrollo de la vigilancia, control y prevención de las IAAS en el SNIS, los cuales implican criterios técnicos y procedimientos administrativos y las directrices para la implementación de definición de caso, recolección de datos, análisis de la información, intervenciones de prevención, información, monitoreo y control y su estrecha relación con la actividad microbiológica y la antibioticoterapia


This regulatory guideline corresponds to the update of the Technical Guidelines for Infection Control in the Health Care of December 2015; This edition is intended to update related information, as well how to include the provisions for infection control in the First Level of Care, as a component of the SNIS. These guidelines establish the necessary provisions for the development of surveillance, control and prevention of IAAS. in the SNIS, which imply technical criteria and administrative procedures and guidelines for the implementation of case definition, data collection, information analysis, prevention interventions, information, monitoring and control and its close relationship with microbiological activity and antibiotic therapy


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Monitoring , Surveillance , Delivery of Health Care , Infections , Data Collection , Control
5.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oct. 29, 2021. 20 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1352690

ABSTRACT

Los presentes lineamientos técnicos, responden a la necesidad de facilitar la aplicación del Reglamento General de Viáticos, en la parte relacionada a las misiones oficiales al interior del país, y con ello también mejorar el control institucional, tanto a nivel administrativo como financiero, del trámite para la obtención del viático correspondiente, al realizar gestiones o actividades en el interior del país, por parte del personal del Ministerio de Salud, en adelante MINSAL, que cumple con los requisitos para devengarlos, dado que se han emitido diferentes reformas al Reglamento mencionado, las cuales modifican los criterios de aplicación de la normativa


These technical guidelines respond to the need to facilitate the application of the General Travel Regulations, in the part related to official missions within the country, and thereby also improve institutional control, both at the administrative and financial, the procedure to obtain the corresponding per diem, when carrying out formalities or activities in the interior of the country, by the personnel of the Ministry of Health, hereinafter MINSAL, which meets the requirements to accrue them, given that different reforms to the aforementioned Regulation, which modify the criteria for applying the normative


Subject(s)
Social Control, Formal , Travel , Health , Control
6.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 39(3): 117-130, 15 octubre del 2021. Tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1348235

ABSTRACT

Objective. To identify the proportion of poor of glycemic control and associated factors among people with type 2 diabetes attending a regional reference outpatient clinic in Mato Grosso (Brazil). Methods. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study based on data from medical records of 338 people with type 2 diabetes who attend a state reference outpatient clinic in Mato Grosso (Brazil). Information on glycemic control, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and clinical conditions was collected. Results. The prevalence of elevated glycated hemoglobin was 47.34%. In the Poisson multiple regression model analysis with robust variance, poor glycemic control was significantly associated (p<0.05) with the following factors: insulin use (Prevalence Ratio -PR = 2.03), fasting glucose ≤70 and ≥100 mg/dL (PR = 2.0), postprandial glucose ≥180 mg/dL (PR = 1.76), no physical activity (PR = 1.62), the interaction between age group ≤59 years and the time of disease diagnosis >10 years (PR = 1.58), and presence of arterial hypertension (PR = 0.79). Conclusion. Most users of the reference outpatient clinic with type 2 diabetes had poor glycemic control associated with risk factors that alter glycated hemoglobin and negatively affect the achievement of established glycemic levels.


Objetivo. Identificar la proporción de falta de control glucémico y los factores asociados entre las personas con diabetes tipo 2 que acuden a un ambulatorio regional de referencia en Mato Grosso (Brasil). Métodos. Se trata de un estudio transversal basado en los datos de las historias clínicas de 338 personas con diabetes tipo 2 atendidas en un ambulatorio estatal de referencia. Se tomó información del control glucémico, los factores sociodemográficos, el estilo de vida y las condiciones clínicas. Resultados. La prevalencia de hemoglobina glicosilada elevada fue del 47.34%. En el análisis del modelo de regresión múltiple de Poisson con varianza robusta mostró que el descontrol glucémico estaba significativamente asociado (p<0.05) con los siguientes factores: el uso de insulina (Ratio de Prevalencia -RP = 2.03), la glucemia en ayunas ≤70 y ≥100 mg/dL (PR = 2), la glucemia postprandial ≥180 mg/dL (PR = 1.76), la ausencia de actividad física (PR = 1.62), la interacción entre el grupo de edad ≤59 años y el tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad >10 años (PR = 1.58) y la presencia de hipertensión (PR = 0.79). Conclusión. Una buena parte de los usuarios del ambulatorio de referencia con diabetes tipo 2 presentaba descontrol glucémico asociado a factores de riesgo que alteran la hemoglobina glicosilada y afectan negativamente la consecución de los niveles glucémicos establecidos.


Objetivo. Identificar a proporção de falta de controle glicêmico e fatores associados entre pessoas com diabetes tipo 2 que visitam um ambulatório de referência regional em Mato Grosso (Brasil). Métodos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal e quantitativo, com base em dados de prontuários de 338 pessoas com diabetes tipo 2 atendidas em ambulatório de referência estadual de Mato Grosso (Brasil). Foi recolhida informação sobre controlo glicémico, factores socio-demográficos, estilo de vida e condições clínicas. Resultados. A prevalência de hemoglobina glicada elevada foi de 47,34%. Na análise do modelo de regressão múltipla de Poisson com variância robusta, foi demonstrado que o descontrole glicêmico foi significativamente associado (p<0,05) aos seguintes fatores: uso de insulina (Razão de Prevalência -RP = 2.03), glicemia de jejum ≤70 e ≥100 mg / dL (RP = 2.0), glicemia pós-prandial ≥180 mg / dL (RP = 1.76), nenhuma atividade física (RP = 1.62), a interação entre a faixa etária ≤59 anos e o tempo de diagnóstico da doença > 10 anos (RP = 1.58) e apresentar hipertensão arterial (RP = 0.79). Conclusão. Boa parte dos usuários do ambulatório de referência com diabetes do tipo 2 apresentou descontrole glicêmico associados a fatores de risco que alteram a hemoglobina glicada e afeta negativamente o alcance dos níveis glicêmicos estabelecidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Control , Glycemic Control , Life Style
7.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jul. 22, 2021. 49 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1292033

ABSTRACT

El suministro de combustible es uno de los principales insumos adquiridos con fondos del Estado, necesarios para garantizar la operatividad en el transporte y funcionamiento de equipo hospitalario en la red nacional de establecimientos de salud, así como también en el Nivel Superior del Ministerio de Salud. En el marco de lo anterior, el combustible debe ser administrado con mecanismos eficientes, que garanticen seguridad y transparencia en su consumo. Los presentes lineamientos incorporan las actividades y responsabilidades de los encargados de control, autoridades y usuarios de combustible en el Nivel Superior, regiones de salud y hospitales nacionales del MINSAL; así como también, los diferentes procedimientos enfocados al uso controlado de ese suministro


The supply of fuel is one of the main inputs acquired with State funds, necessary to guarantee the operability in the transport and operation of hospital equipment in the national network of health establishments, as well as in the Higher Level of the Ministry of Health. Within the framework of the foregoing, fuel must be managed with efficient mechanisms that guarantee safety and transparency in its consumption. These guidelines incorporate the activities and responsibilities of those in charge of control, authorities and fuel users in the Higher Level, health regions and national hospitals of the MINSAL; as well as the different procedures focused on the controlled use of this supply


Subject(s)
Organization and Administration , Equipment and Supplies , Health Facilities , Hospitals , Control
8.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 493-498, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254336

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los pacientes que sufren algún tipo de trauma tienen una presentación clínica muy variable, por lo que se han diseñado pautas diagnósticas y terapéuticas con el fin de disminuir el número de laparotomías innecesarias. Las herramientas actuales para la predicción de infección intraabdominal, permiten intervenciones tempranas en los pacientes con alto riesgo y un mejor seguimiento clínico posoperatorio. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un estudio de los factores asociados al desarrollo de las infecciones intraabdominales o sepsis abdominal posterior a laparotomía por trauma penetrante. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte de pacientes atendidos por trauma abdominal penetrante en el Hospital Universitario de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, entre enero de 2016 y diciembre de 2018. El análisis de datos se realizó en el software Stata®, versión 14 (StataCorp. LP, College Station, TX, USA). Resultados. Se incluyeron 174 pacientes con edad media de 32 años, el 10,9 % (n=19) de los pacientes presentaron sepsis abdominal, de este grupo el 94,7 % (n=18) requirieron reintervención quirúrgica (p < 0,0001). La mortalidad general del grupo fue de 5,1 % (n=9), sin diferencia significativa entre los pacientes con o sin sepsis abdominal. Discusión. Dentro de los diferentes desenlaces asociados a laparotomía por trauma, se describe la sepsis abdominal como una de las complicaciones que genera morbilidad significativa, con aumento en la estancia hospitalaria, necesidad de reintervención, aumento en los costos de atención y disminución en la calidad de vida, factores en concordancia con los hallazgos del presente estudio


Introduction. Patients who suffer some type of trauma have a highly variable presentation, which is why diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines have been designed in order to reduce the number of unnecessary laparotomies. Current tools for the prediction of intra-abdominal infections allow early interventions in high-risk patients and a better postoperative clinical follow-up. The objective of this article was to study the factors associated with the development of intra-abdominal infections or abdominal sepsis after laparotomy due to penetrating trauma. Methods. Descriptive study of a cohort of patients treated for penetrating abdominal trauma at the Santander University Hospital, Bucaramanga, Colombia, between January 2016 and December 2018. Data analysis was performed using Stata® software, version 14 (Stata corp. LP, College Station, TX, USA). Results. A total of 174 patients with a mean age of 32 years were included, 10.9% (n=19) of the patients presented abdominal sepsis, of this group 94.7% (n=18) had a surgical reintervention (p < 0.0001). The overall mortality of the group was 5.1% (n=9) with no significant difference between patients with or without abdominal sepsis. Discussion. Among the different outcomes associated with laparotomy due to trauma, abdominal sepsis is described as one of the complications that generates significant morbidity, with an increase in hospital stay, the need for reoperation, an increase in care costs and a decrease in quality of life, factors in agreement with the findings of the present study


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wounds and Injuries , Open Abdomen Techniques , Mortality , Sepsis , Control , Laparotomy
9.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 21-50, 20210000.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178616

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El índice de vulnerabilidad CAPE es un índice global de política exterior que identifica a los países a los que se dará prioridad para recibir ayuda exterior. Ofrece un enfoque evidenciado, estructurado y razonado para utilizar la ayuda en acuerdos bilaterales con la salud mental como base. La presente versión está diseñada específicamente para la región de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), que comprende 33 países. Objetivos: Identificar los países a ser priorizados para la ayuda externa, a través de la versión ALC del Índice de Vulnerabilidad CAPE (CAPE VI-LAC). Materiales y métodos: Al igual que con la versión global del Índice de Vulnerabilidad CAPE, consideramos varios índices o medidas a nivel de país que indican el estado de salud o que puede influir en la salud. Para el análisis, calificamos a los 20 peores países. Utilizamos 26 indicadores validados y disponibles internacionalmente para explorar y realizar el análisis. Resultados: Las cifras y el mapa muestran los 32 países que figuraron entre los 20 peores en al menos un indicador y también los 12 peores dentro de la CAPE VI-LAC en su conjunto. De los 33 países de ALC, sólo San Cristóbal y Nieves no figuraba en ninguno de los 20 países peores en ningún momento. Conclusión: Lo que podemos concluir con un alto grado de certeza es que los 12 países con peores puntuaciones son posiblemente estados frágiles; países donde los gobiernos no tienen el control o la autoridad completos, a menudo son represivos y corruptos, participan en graves abusos de los derechos humanos y se caracterizan por la inestabilidad política de diversas formas, la desventaja por los cambios climáticos extremos, la pobreza extrema, la desigualdad social y étnica divisiones, incapaces de proporcionar servicios básicos y sufren focos de insurgencia en forma de terrorismo, que a menudo son violentos y brutales. Los gobiernos, los donantes de ayuda, las organizaciones regionales y los profesionales y las asociaciones de salud mental deben trabajar juntos para abordar estas situaciones.


Introduction: The CAPE Vulnerability Index is a global foreign policy index that identifies the countries to be prioritise for foreign aid. It offers an evidenced, structured and reasoned approach to using aid in bi-lateral agreements with mental health as a foundation. The present version is specifically design for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, which comprises of 33 countries. Objectives: To identify the countries to be prioritized for foreign aid, through the LAC version of the CAPE Vulnerability Index (CAPE VI-LAC). Materials and methods: Like with the CAPE Vulnerability Index global version we consider various indices or measures at country level that indicate health status or what may influence health. For the analysis we score the worst 20 countries. We used 26 internationally available and validated indicators to explore and perform the analysis. Results: The figures and map show the 32 countries that featured in the worst 20 in at least one indicator and also the worst 12 within the CAPE VI-LAC as a whole. Of the 33 LAC countries only St Kitts and Nevis did not feature in any of the worst 20 countries at any time. Conclusion: What we can conclude with a great degree of certainty that the worst 12 scoring countries are possibly fragile states; countries where the Governments do not have complete control or authority, are often repressive and corrupt, participate in serious human rights abuses and are characterised by political instability of various forms, disadvantage by the extremes of climate changes, extreme poverty, inequality, social and ethnic divisions, unable to provide basic services and suffer from pockets of insurgency in the form of terrorism, which are often violent and brutal. Governments, aid donors, regional organizations, and mental health professionals and associations should work together in order to address these situations.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous , Socioeconomic Factors , Mental Health Associations , Control
10.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 51-60, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178618

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Actualmente el tabaquismo es una de las mayores amenazas para la salud pública a nivel mundial. La muerte atribuida al tabaco en Paraguay representa el 12,2% de todas las muertes y el costo de la enfermedad asociada al consumo de tabaco en el sistema de salud es elevado. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características del consumo de tabaco en jóvenes en Paraguay. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal no probabilístico de muestreo estandarizado con representatividad nacional en estudiantes matriculados del 7° al 9° grado de la educación escolar básica, de 13 a 15 años de ambos sexos que incluyo a 6.518 estudiantes, correspondiente a 25 escuelas de la capital y 25 escuelas en el resto del país. Resultados: La prevalencia actual de consumo de productos de tabaco fue del 7%, fumadores actuales de 3,9% y fumadores de cigarrillos electrónicos de 3,7%. La prevalencia de fumadores de segunda mano fue más del 20% en todos los escenarios estudiados. Alto porcentaje de adolescentes con acceso fácil a la compra de cigarrillos sin verificación de la edad. Más del 50% con acceso a mensajes publicitarios sobre tabaco. Casi un 30% tenían conocimiento del efecto dañino del tabaco y más del 80% se manifiestan favorables a la prohibición de fumar en espacios cerrados y abiertos. Conclusión: Aunque la prevalencia de fumadores en adolescentes no es muy elevada, es un problema de salud pública creciente. Se requiere fortalecer las medidas de prevención y control.


Introduction: Currently, smoking is one of the greatest threats to public health worldwide. Death attributed to tobacco in Paraguay represents 12.2% of all deaths and the cost of the disease associated with tobacco consumption in the health system is high. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of tobacco consumption in young people in Paraguay. Materials and methods: A non-probabilistic descriptive cross-sectional study of standardized sampling was carried out with national representativeness in students enrolled from 7th to 9th grade of basic school education, from 13 to 15 years old of both sexes that included 6,518 students, corresponding to 25 schools in the capital and 25 schools in the rest of the country. Results: The current prevalence of tobacco product use was 7%, current smokers 3.9%, and electronic cigarette smokers 3.7%. The prevalence of second-hand smokers was more than 20% in all the scenarios studied. High percentage of adolescents with easy access to the purchase of cigarettes without age verification. More than 50% with access to advertising messages about tobacco. Almost 30% were aware of the harmful effect of tobacco and more than 80% are in favor of the prohibition of smoking in closed and open spaces. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of smoking in adolescents is not very high, it is a growing public health problem. It is necessary to strengthen prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Tobacco , Tobacco Use Disorder , Tobacco Use , Students , Disease , Prevalence , Costs and Cost Analysis , Control
11.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 67-76, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178627

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Enfermedades Neuromusculares se caracterizan por la pérdida progresiva de la fuerza muscular, la morbi-mortalidad aumenta con la exageración de la debilidad muscular determinando mayor riesgo de complicaciones respiratorias. Es de suma importancia evaluar e interpretar adecuadamente la función pulmonar y ventilatoria para poder realizar intervenciones que pueda prevenir dichas complicaciones. Objetivos: El objetivo del estudio fue reportar el estado funcional respiratorio de un grupo de pacientes con ENM en control ambulatorio y relacionar estos hallazgos con umbrales clínicamente relevantes de complicaciones respiratorias, reforzando intervenciones basadas en opiniones de expertos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio Descriptivo-Observacional de corte transversal, donde fueron evaluados en forma ambulatoria, de marzo del 2017 a agosto del 2018, 30 niños y adolescentes con enfermedades neuromusculares. Resultados: El 46% del total de pacientes presenta capacidad tusígena no funcional con alto riesgo de complicaciones. No obstante, sólo el 10% del total de pacientes fueron aptos para realizar adecuadamente estudios de espirometría. Durante las pruebas espirométricas, sólo el 50% de los pacientes logró mantener 6 segundos la espiración. Conclusión: Si bien la espirometría es la principal prueba de función pulmonar y una alta proporción de pacientes presentó alteraciones en su morfología, su realización en estados avanzados de enfermedad fue poco factible. Para detectar umbrales de complicaciones respiratorias graves, la medición del flujo generado durante la tos resultó mejor. Conclusión: Si bien la espirometría es la principal prueba de función pulmonar y una alta proporción de pacientes presentó alteraciones en su morfología, su realización en estados avanzados de enfermedad fue poco factible. Para detectar umbrales de complicaciones respiratorias graves, la medición del flujo generado durante la tos resultó mejor.


Introduction: Neuromuscular Diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass, morbidity and mortality increases with the progress of muscle weakness due to the increased risk of respiratory complications, so it is very important to properly evaluate and interpret the measurements of lung functions and ventilation to be able to carry out a specific treatment that can reduce respiratory complications. Objectives: The purpose of this work is to present the results of the measurements of flows, volumes, respiratory capacities and spirometric patterns in outpatients with neuromuscular diseases and to verify their usefulness to detect vital risks. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional Descriptive-Observational study was carried out, where 30 children and adolescents with neuromuscular diseases were evaluated on an outpatient basis, from March 2017 to August 2018. Results: 46% of all patients presented a non-functional cough with a high risk of complications and only 10% of all patients were eligible for spirometry studies. During the spirometric tests, 50% of the patients managed to maintain expiration for 6 seconds. In 70% of the patients, abnormalities in the Flow-Volume curve could be detected. Conclusion: Although spirometry is the main pulmonary function test, its usefulness and efficacy in neuromuscular diseases depends on the findings of specific alterations in the morphology of the flow-volume curve, which in many cases are not possible to distinguish.


Subject(s)
Spirometry , Cough , Lung , Neuromuscular Diseases , Respiratory Function Tests , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Control
12.
San Salvador; MINSAL; mar. 17, 2021. 140 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1178314

ABSTRACT

El presente Plan Estratégico Nacional Multisectorial para el Control de Tuberculosis en El Salvador 2022- 2026 (PENMTB), es el resultado de un diálogo nacional de país, en el que participaron diversos actores y sectores; realizado bajo un proceso sistemático y ordenado que contiene las macro estrategias que deberán seguirse durante los próximos cinco años (2022-2026), a fin de alinearse con la actual Estrategia mundial "Fin de la TB", de la OMS, que busca alcanzar la meta 3.3 de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) y los compromisos suscritos por el país en la Declaración política de la reunión de alto nivel de la Asamblea General sobre la lucha contra la tuberculosis de la ONU1 , el cual pretende poner fin a las epidemias del SIDA, tuberculosis, malaria y enfermedades tropicales desatendidas y combatir hepatitis, enfermedades transmitidas por agua y otras enfermedades transmisibles para el año 2030, siendo necesario, en específico, para ello, dar cumplimiento a la reducción del indicador 3.3.2 "Incidencia de la tuberculosis por cada 100.000" habitantes


The present Multisectoral National Strategic Plan for Tuberculosis Control in El Salvador 2022-2026 (PENMTB) is the result of a national dialogue in the country, in which various actors and sectors participated; carried out under a systematic and orderly process that contains the macro strategies that should be followed during the next five years (2022-2026), in order to align with the current WHO "End TB" Global Strategy, which seeks to achieve the Target 3.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the commitments signed by the country in the Political Declaration of the high-level meeting of the UN General Assembly on the fight against tuberculosis1, which aims to put an end to epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases by the year 2030, being necessary, specifically, for this, to comply with the reduction of indicator 3.3.2 "Incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 "inhabitants


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Health Programs and Plans , Control
14.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1292916

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Infection prevention and control (IPC) practice in health facility (HF) is abysmally low in developing countries, resulting in significant preventable morbidity and mortality. This study assessed and compared health workers' (HWs) practice of IPC strategies in public and private secondary HFs in Kaduna State. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was employed. Using multistage sampling, 227 participants each were selected comprising of doctors, midwives, and nurses from public and private HF. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire and observation checklist and analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Statistical significance determined at P < 0.05. Results: The practice of infection prevention was poor. Overall, 42.3% of the HWs did not change their gowns in-between patients, with the significantly higher rates in 73.1% of private compared to 42.3% of public HF workers (P < 0.001). In addition, 30.5% and 10.1% of HWs do not use face mask and eye goggle, respectively, when conducting procedures likely to generate splash of body fluids, however, there was no significant difference in these poor practices in public compared to private HFs. The mean IPC practice was 51.6 ± 12.5%, this was significantly lower among public (48.8 ± 12.5%) compared to private (54.5 ± 11.9%) HF workers (P < 0.0001). Private HF workers were 3 times more likely to implement IPC interventions compared to public HF workers. Conclusion: IPC practice especially among public HF workers was poor. Keywords: Hospital-acquired infection, Infection prevention and control, Maternity unit, Practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Community-Acquired Infections , Disease Prevention , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Control , Hospitals , Hospitals, Maternity , Infections
15.
Malar. j. (Online) ; 20(293): 1-10, 2021. Tab.
Article in English | AIM, RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1353124

ABSTRACT

Background: In Mozambique, socio-economic and cultural factors influence the wide adoption of disease preventive measures that are relevant for malaria control strategies to promote early recognition of disease, prompt seeking of medical care, sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), and taking intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women. However, there is a critical information gap regarding previous and ongoing malaria social and behavioural change (SBC) interventions. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices of beneficiaries of SBC interventions. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2018 in two rural districts of Zambezia Province, Mozambique. A structured questionnaire was administered to 773 randomly selected households. Respondents were the adult heads of the households. Descriptive statistics were done. Results: The main results show that 96.4% of respondents recalled hearing about malaria in the previous 6 months, 90.0% had knowledge of malaria prevention, and 70.0% of preventive measures. Of the 97.7% respondents that had received ITNs through a mass ITN distribution campaign, 81.7% had slept under an ITN the night before the survey. In terms of source of health information, 70.5% mentioned the role of community volunteers in dissemination of malaria prevention messages, 76.1% of respondents considered worship places (churches and mosques) to be the main places where they heard key malaria prevention messages, and 79.1% asserted that community dialogue sessions helped them better understand how to prevent malaria. Conclusions: Results show that volunteers/activists/teachers played an important role in dissemination of key malaria prevention messages, which brought the following successes: community actors are recognized and people have knowledge of malaria transmission, signs and symptoms, preventive measures, and where to get treatment. There is, however, room for improvement on SBC messaging regarding some malaria symptoms (anaemia and convulsions) and operational research is needed to ascertain the drivers of malaria prevalence and inform the SBC approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Malaria , Socioeconomic Factors , Therapeutics/methods , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Strategies , Knowledge , Cultural Factors , Control , Information , Malaria/prevention & control , Medical Assistance , Mozambique
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41: e222369, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340418

ABSTRACT

Resumo O desafio de traduzir e analisar uma experiência estética, vivenciada na condição de espectadora da peça Protocolo Elefante, motiva a escrita deste artigo. O espetáculo integra o projeto homônimo do grupo de dança contemporânea Cena 11, que se dedica a pesquisar o modo de controle do corpo, partindo da noção de um corpo que é, ao mesmo tempo, singular e coletivo. Com a figura do elefante, protagonista do espetáculo, objetivamos discutir a condição de pessoas em situação de rua e algumas das tensões que emergem do encontro de seus corpos com o corpo da cidade. Concluímos, por meio dessa experiência estética, que Protocolo Elefante explicitou violências protocolares que aviltam a vida de maneiras variadas, como vemos acontecer cotidianamente com pessoas em situação de rua nas cidades.(AU)


Abstract This study was prompted by the challenge of translating and analyzing an aesthetic experience, as an Elephant Protocol dance show spectator. The performance is part of the homonymous project by contemporary dance group Cena 11, dedicated to researching how the body is controlled, based on a body that is, at the same time, singular and collective. Using the image of the elephant, main of the show, we discuss the condition of homeless people and some of the tensions that emerge when their bodies encounter the city's body. Through this aesthetic experience, we conclude that Elephant Protocol specifies the protocol violence that demeans life in various ways, as we see happen daily with homeless people living in the cities.(AU)


Resumen El desafío de traducir y analizar una experiencia estética vivenciada en la condición de espectadora de la pieza Protocolo Elefante es lo que motiva la escritura de este artículo. El espectáculo integra el proyecto homónimo del grupo de danza contemporánea Cena 11, grupo que se dedica a investigar el modo de control del cuerpo partiendo de la noción de un cuerpo que es a la vez singular y colectivo. Con la figura del elefante, protagonista del espectáculo, nos proponemos discutir la condición de personas en situación de calle y algunas de las tensiones que emergen del encuentro de sus cuerpos con el cuerpo de la ciudad. A partir de esa experiencia estética, concluimos que el Protocolo Elefante explicitó violencias de protocolos que degradan la vida de variadas maneras como sucede cotidianamente con las personas en situación de calle en las ciudades. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Art , Psychology, Social , Homeless Persons , Human Body , Urban Area , Dancing , Violence , Writing , Cities , Life , Social Vulnerability , Control , Frailty
17.
Revista Areté ; 21(1): 1-19, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354616

ABSTRACT

La posturografía permite evaluar la integración de los tres sistemas sensoriales que intervienen en el control postural y del equilibrio: el vestibular, el visual y el somatosensorial (Ronda, 2002). La presente investigación describe y analiza los resultados de la posturografía en niños entre seis y once años con pérdida auditiva quienes no han compensado su edad auditiva con respecto a su edad cronológica. Fueron evaluados dos grupos: el grupo control conformado por 32 niños con sensibilidad auditiva periférica normal y el grupo de estudio, conformado por 16 niños con pérdida auditiva, quienes usan amplificación auditiva y asisten a la Fundación CINDA para terapia auditiva con el fin de cerrar el GAP existente entre su edad cronológica y su edad auditiva. En la evaluación audiológica se aplicó anamnesis, revisión de historia clínica, audiometría tonal para la verificación de la sensibilidad auditiva periférica y posturografía, con un equipo de la marca NeuroCom, se realizaron las siguientes pruebas: Integración sensorial en balance-modificado (CTSIB), límites de estabilidad (LOS) y distribución de peso (WHT). En los resultados se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos de estudio para las tres pruebas en distintas variables. Como conclusión se pudo determinar que existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo control y el grupo de estudio. La intervención con terapia ocupacional influenció positivamente los resultados en la posturografía, sobre todo en el grupo de 10 a 11 años. Se observaron diferencias sucesivas en los tres grupos de edad, indicando un componente de neuromaduración.


Posturography allows evaluating the integration of the three sensory systems involved in postural and balance control: vestibular, visual and somatosensory (Ronda, 2002). This research describes and analyzes the results of posturography in children between six and eleven years old with hearing loss who have not compensated their hearing age with respect to their chronological age. Two groups were evaluated: the control group made up of 32 children with normal peripheral hearing sensitivity and the study group, made up of 16 children with hearing loss, who use hearing amplification and attend the CINDA Foundation for hearing therapy in order to close the hearing loss. GAP between your chronological age and your hearing age. In the audiological evaluation, anamnesis, review of clinical history, tonal audiometry were applied to verify peripheral hearing sensitivity and posturography, with a NeuroCom brand equipment, the following tests were performed: Modified-balance sensory integration (CTSIB), stability limits (LOS) and weight distribution (WHT). In the results, statistically significant differences were found between the two study groups for the three tests in different variables. In conclusion, it was possible to determine that there are statistically significant differences between the control group and the study group. The occupational therapy intervention positively influenced the results in posturography, especially in the 10 to 11-year-old group. Successive differences were observed in the three age groups, indicating a neuromaturation component.


Subject(s)
Audiometry , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Research , Case-Control Studies , Medical Records , Sensitivity and Specificity , Equipment and Supplies , Control , Medical History Taking , Age Groups
18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 188 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353848

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Tem se recomendando que a produção científica em saúde esteja ao alcance da população por ser uma fonte segura de informações. No caso da leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC), a divulgação de métodos de controle da doença é necessária, pois a população de cães no Brasil ultrapassa os 50 milhões. A LVC é causada principalmente pelo protozoário flagelado Leishmania (L.) infantum que tem como vetor o mosquito Lutzomyia longipalpis. O gerenciamento do vetor é essencial no controle da doença, além do desenvolvimento de políticas para educação da população, métodos de controle químico e não químico. A divulgação do conhecimento no controle e prevenção da doença, em cães domésticos e em humanos, via mídias sociais permite à população o acesso a informações de forma rápida e em linguagem adequada. Uma dessas fontes é a Wikipédia, enciclopédia multilíngue de acesso e licença livres, cujo conteúdo é elaborado de forma colaborativa. Objetivo: Descrever as medidas de controle da leishmaniose visceral canina a fim de produzir um texto educativo para ser publicado na Wikipédia Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo descritivo, baseado na literatura científica produzida sobre a LVC. O estudo foi conduzido em duas partes: uma de levantamento da produção bibliográfica sobre a patologia da doença, como descrição, diagnóstico, tratamento, sintomas, e medidas de controle, e outra, de produção e criação do texto para constituir o verbete para a Wikipédia em língua portuguesa. Resultados: Foram obtidos 74 documentos que embasaram a atualização das informações sobre a LVC e a criação do verbete na Wikipédia. Considerações: Verificou-se que mesmo o Brasil sendo o país com o maior número de casos de leishmaniose visceral das Américas, não tinha um verbete especifico na Wikipédia. Também verificamos que há notícias sendo veiculadas na mídia popular. Espera-se contribuir com o maior alcance das informações sobre a doença LVC para a população.


Introduction: It has been recommended that scientific production in health is available to the population as it is a safe source of information. In the case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), the dissemination of disease control methods is necessary, as the population of dogs in Brazil exceeds 50 million. CVL is mainly caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania (L.) infantum, which is vector by the mosquito Lutzomyia longipalpis. Vector management is an essential part of disease control, in addition to the development of policies to educate the population, chemical and non-chemical control methods. The dissemination of knowledge and advances in the control, treatment and prevention of the disease, in domestic dogs and in humans, via social media allows the population to access information quickly and in appropriate language. One of those sources is Wikipedia, a multilingual, free-to-access and licensed encyclopedia whose content is collaboratively designed. Objective: To describe the control measures for canine visceral leishmaniasis in order to produce an educational text to be published in Wikipedia Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive study, based on the scientific literature produced about the CVL. The study was conducted in two parts: a survey of the bibliographic production on the pathology of the disease, such as description, diagnosis, treatment, symptoms, and control measures, and another, for the production and creation of the text to constitute the entry for Wikipedia in Portuguese. Results: 74 documents were obtained that supported the updating of information about the CVL and the creation of the Wikipedia entry. Considerations: It was found that even Brazil being the country with the highest number of cases of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas, it did not have a specific entry in Wikipedia. We also notice that there is news being reported in the popular media. It is expected to contribute to the greatest reach of information about the CVL disease to the population.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Population Education , Scientific Communication and Diffusion , Control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral
19.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 33: e219735, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1155193

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa os sentidos que a ideia de controle do corpo e da vida adquire nos discursos acerca da decisão sobre o parto, a partir das falas de mulheres que realizaram cirurgia cesariana em maternidades privadas da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro e do município de São Paulo. A abordagem teórico-metodológica é da análise das práticas discursivas e produção de sentidos. Dor, integridade corporal, controle dos riscos, estética do parto e os tempos (social e reprodutivo) são acionados como elementos contidos no ideário de controle que circunda a cesárea como uma prática de nascimento. Esse controle seria exercido em redes de interações entre mulheres, familiares, profissionais, objetos tecnológicos médicos e não médicos e instituições.


Resumen El artículo analiza los sentidos que la idea de control del cuerpo y de la vida adquiere en los discursos acerca de la decisión sobre el parto a partir de las palabras de mujeres que realizaron cirugía cesárea en maternidades privadas de la región metropolitana de Río de Janeiro y del municipio de São Paulo. El enfoque teórico-metodológico es del análisis de las prácticas discursivas y la producción de sentidos. El dolor, integridad corporal, control de los riesgos, estética del parto y los tiempos (social y reproductivo) son accionados como elementos contenidos em el ideario de control que circunda la cesárea como una práctica de nacimiento. Este control se ejerceren redes de interacción entre mujeres, familiares, profesionales, objetos tecnológicos médicos y no médicos, e instituciones.


Abstract This paper analyses the way that the idea of control of body and life gets in the discourse about the decision on childbirth from the speech of women who underwent cesarean surgery in private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The theoretical-methodological approach is the analysis of discursive practices and the production of meanings. Pain, body integrity, risk control, birth aesthetics and times (social and reproductive) are triggered as elements contained in the control idea that surrounds cesarean delivery as a birth practice.This control would be exercised in interaction networks among women, family, professional, medical and non-medical technological objects, and institutions.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Hospitals, Private , Human Body , Parturition , Labor Pain/psychology , Control , Body Constitution , Choice Behavior , Decision
20.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353057

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the progression of COVID-19 in the State of Espírito Santo, identifying the areas where the disease spread furthest. Temporal and spatial analysis were performed based on confirmed cases of the disease reported in the eSUS/VS System - State Health Department, from March 2020 to February 2021. The highest incidence was noted in July (ranging from 146.1 to 2,099.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the municipalities of Espírito Santo State), with the majority being females, people aged 20 to 39 years and residents in cities in the metropolitan region. A positive and complete high association (p < 0.05) was identified in all months, with clusters containing a greater number of municipalities in April, May and June 2020 in the Central region of the state. The results of the present study indicated a continuous spread of COVID-19 since its introduction, especially in the cities in the Central region of the State of Espírito Santo. These findings present an important aid for decision making regarding the most effective strategies to control the disease. Furthermore, individual and collective protection measures against the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 must be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Health Strategies , Decision Making , Control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL