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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256905, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360212


During present study, the copper (Cu) mediated oxidative stress was measured that induced DNA damage by concentrating in the tissues of fish, Catla catla (14.45±1.24g; 84.68±1.45mm) (Hamilton,1822). Fish fingerlings were retained in 5 groups for 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 days of the exposure period. They were treated with 2/3, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/5 (T1-T4) of 96h lethal concentration of copper. Controls were run along with all the treatments for the same durations. A significant (p < 0.05) dose and time dependent concentration of Cu was observed in the gills, liver, kidney, muscles, and brain of C. catla. Among organs, the liver showed a significantly higher concentration of Cu followed by gills, kidney, brain, and muscles. Copper accumulation in these organs caused a significant variation in the activities of enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). The SOD activity varied significantly in response to the exposure time of Cu as 56 > 70 > 42 > 84 > 28 > 14 days while CAT activity exhibited an inverse relationship with the increase in Cu concentration. POD activity showed a significant rise with an increase in Cu exposure duration. Comet assay exhibited significant DNA damage in the peripheral erythrocytes of Cu exposed C. catla. Among four exposure concentrations, 2/3rd of LC50 (T1) caused significantly higher damage to the nuclei compared to control. Increased POD and SOD activity, as well as a decrease in CAT activity in response to Cu, demonstrates the involvement of a protective mechanism against reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas increased ROS resulted in higher DNA damage. These above-mentioned molecular markers can be efficiently used for the biomonitoring of aquatic environments and conservation of edible fish fauna.

Durante o presente estudo, o estresse oxidativo mediado pelo cobre (Cu) foi medido que induziu danos ao DNA por concentração nos tecidos de peixes, Catla catla (14,45 ± 1,24g; 84,68 ± 1,45mm) (Hamilton, 1822). Os alevinos foram retidos em 5 grupos por 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 e 84 dias do período de exposição. Eles foram tratados com 2/3, 1/3, 1/4 e 1/5 (T1-T4) de 96h de concentração letal de cobre. Os controles foram executados junto com todos os tratamentos para as mesmas durações. Uma significativa (p <0,05) concentração dependente do tempo e da dose de Cu foi observada nas brânquias, fígado, rim, músculos e cérebro de C. catla. Entre os órgãos, o fígado apresentou uma concentração significativamente maior de cobre, seguido por guelras, rins, cérebro e músculos. O acúmulo de cobre nesses órgãos causou uma variação significativa nas atividades das enzimas viz. superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e peroxidase (POD). A atividade de SOD variou significativamente em resposta ao tempo de exposição de Cu como 56> 70> 42> 84> 28> 14 dias, enquanto a atividade de CAT exibiu uma relação inversa com o aumento na concentração de Cu. A atividade POD mostrou um aumento significativo com um aumento na duração da exposição ao Cu. O ensaio do cometa exibiu dano significativo ao DNA induzido por Cu nos eritrócitos periféricos de C. catla. Entre as quatro concentrações de exposição, 2/3 do LC50 (T1) causou danos significativamente maiores aos núcleos em comparação com o controle. O aumento da atividade de POD e SOD, bem como uma diminuição na atividade de CAT em resposta ao Cu, demonstra o envolvimento de um mecanismo protetor contra espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), enquanto o aumento de ROS resultou em maior dano ao DNA. Esses marcadores moleculares mencionados acima podem ser usados ​​de forma eficiente para o biomonitoramento de ambientes aquáticos e conservação da ictiofauna comestível.

Animals , Copper , Fishes , Fresh Water , Bioaccumulation
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21: 67-84, June 20, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396376


Homeopathy is highly controversial. The main reason for this is its use of very highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP), diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Research using Nano Tracking Analysis has demonstrated the presence of particles in HHPs. This study aims to verify the results of a previous publication that identified the ionic composition of these particles in all dilutions. We used Scanning Electron Microscopy & Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to examine dilutions of a commonly used homeopathic medicine, an insoluble metal, Cuprum metallicum, for the presence of particles (NPs). The homeopathic medicines tested were specially prepared according to the European pharmacopoeia standards. We compared the homeopathic dilutions/dynamizations of copper with simple dilutions and dynamized lactose controls. We observed an ionic diversity common to all preparations including HHPs but also significant differences in the relative quantity of each ion between manufacturing lines of homeopathic copper and lactose controls. The probability that the observed differences could have occurred chance alone (especially above Avogadro limit) can be rejected at p < 0.001. The essential component of these homeopathic medicines is sodium hydrogen carbonate, modulated by some other elements and by its quantity, size and shape. Homeopathic medicines made of Cuprum metallicum do contain material with a specific ionic composition even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing process. This material demonstrates that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations of a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influences the nature of these NPs. Further measurements are needed on other raw materials using the same controls (solvent and simply diluted manufacturing lines) to support these findings. The role of sodium bicarbonate must be carefully studied in the future.

Dynamization , Homeopathic Pharmacotechniques , Nanoparticles , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cuprum Metallicum , Sodium Bicarbonate , Copper , Lactose
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e29-e33, feb 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353754


La purpurina es un pigmento en polvo de cobre, que se utiliza con frecuencia en actividades artesanales y manualidades escolares. La ingestión o inhalación de esta sustancia provoca un cuadro de intoxicación por cobre potencialmente fatal en niños. Se describe el caso de un niño de 15 meses con intoxicación por cobre, que se presenta con dificultad respiratoria aguda, alteración del sensorio y anemia hemolítica. El inicio temprano del tratamiento mediante broncoscopia y lavado bronquial con posterior intubación endotraqueal y ventilación mecánica, lograron la remisión completa del cuadro respiratorio sin secuelas. Ante una ingestión y/o inhalación de purpurina, debe indicarse de inmediato la broncoscopia con lavado bronquial, aún en ausencia de síntomas respiratorios.

Glitter is a powdered copper pigment frequently used in craft and decorative activities especially in schools and kindergartens.Ingestion or inhalation of this substance can cause acute, potentially fatal copper poisoning in children. We describe a case of a 15-month-old child with copper poisoning, presenting with acute respiratory distress, neurological impairment, and hemolytic anemia. Early onset of treatment by bronchoscopy and bronchial lavage with subsequent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, achieved complete remission of the respiratory symptoms without sequelae. In presence of glitter ingestion or inhalation, bronchoscopy with bronchial lavage should be indicated early even in the absence of respiratory symptoms.

Humans , Male , Infant , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Poisoning , Powders , Respiration, Artificial , Bronchoscopy , Copper , Eating
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 10-17, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385564


SUMMARY: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are part of the functional balance of various systems, they can generate cellular damage by oxidative stress associated with disease processes such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and aging. Some studies report that copper induces damage to the endothelium, which could be associated with cardiovascular pathologies. This study was an experimental comparative, prospective, longitudinal, and controlled clinical trial in a murine animal model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were included, the distribution of the groups was time-depending chronic exposition to copper, and a control group. Results show gradual alterations in the groups treated with copper: areas with loss of the endothelium, signs of disorganization of smooth muscle fibers in the tunica media, as well as areas with the fragmentation of the elastic sheets. A significant statistical difference was observed in the active- Caspase-3 analysis expression in the aortic endothelium and endothelium of the capillaries and arterioles of the lung between the control group vs 300 ppm of copper. Expression of eNOS was detected in the endothelium of the aorta and vessels of the lung. Our study shows histological changes in the walls of the great vessels of intoxicated rats with copper, and the increment of inflammatory cells in the alveoli of the study model, mainly at a high dose of copper exposition. These results will be useful to understand more about the mediators involved in the effect of copper over endothelium and cardiovascular diseases in chronic intoxication in humans.

RESUMEN: Las Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno (ROS) son parte del equilibrio funcional de varios sistemas, pueden generar daño celular por estrés oxidativo asociado a procesos patológicos como aterosclerosis, enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes y envejecimiento. Algunos estudios informan que el cobre induce daños en el endotelio, lo que podría estar asociado a patologías cardiovasculares. Este estudio fue un ensayo clínico experimental comparativo, prospectivo, longitudinal y controlado en un modelo animal murino. Se incluyeron veinticuatro ratas Wistar macho, la distribución de los grupos fue la exposición crónica al cobre en función del tiempo y un grupo de control. Los resultados muestran alteraciones graduales en los grupos tratados con cobre: áreas con pérdida del endotelio, signos de desorganización de las fibras musculares lisas en la túnica media, así como áreas con la fragmentación de las láminas elásticas. Se observó una diferencia estadística significativa en la expresión del análisis de caspasa-3 activa en el endotelio aórtico y el endotelio de los capilares y arteriolas del pulmón entre el grupo de control frente a 300 ppm de cobre. Se detectó expresión de eNOS en el endotelio de la aorta y los vasos del pulmón. Nuestro estudio muestra cambios histológicos en las paredes de los grandes vasos de ratas intoxicadas con cobre, y el incremento de células inflamatorias en los alvéolos del modelo de estudio, principalmente a una alta dosis de exposición de cobre. Estos resultados serán útiles para comprender más sobre los mediadores involucrados en el efecto del cobre sobre el endotelio y las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la intoxicación crónica en humanos.

Animals , Rats , Copper/toxicity , Endothelium/drug effects , Cell Death/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928864


This paper introduces the basic content of the compulsory national standard ISO 7439:2015 Copper-bearing contraceptive intrauterine devices--Requirements and tests standard analysis, and expounds the reasons for revising part of the standard during the conversion process according to the actual market situation of intrauterine contraceptive device containing copper in China. As a compulsory basic universal standard, it has a guiding significance for the manufacturers of IUD and can promote the improvement of product quality.

China , Contraceptive Agents , Copper , Female , Humans , Intrauterine Devices
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 107-109, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935918


Hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease, WD) is a kind of autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by disorders of copper metabolism. It is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene, resulting in impaired excretion of copper into the bile, and then pathological deposition in the liver, brain, and other organs. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with WD. However, there is still no clear consensus on the treatment and management of WD during pregnancy. Herein, the clinical management of WD during pregnancy is summarized for clinicians' reference.

Copper , Copper-Transporting ATPases/genetics , Female , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/therapy , Humans , Mutation , Pregnancy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935808


Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the content differences of trace elements in workers with occupational exposure to lead. Methods: In January 2021, relevant literatures on the contents of trace elements in workers with occupational exposure to lead published from 1990 to 2020 were searched through CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, web of science and Embase. Screened and extracted the literatures, and evaluated the quality of the included literatures with Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Meta analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3 software, and standardized mean difference (SMD) and its 95% confidence interval were used as effect indicators. Results: A total of 20 literatures were included, and the quality scores were 5-7. The results of Meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, the contents of blood zinc (SMD=-1.01, 95%CI: -1.53, -0.49) , hair zinc (SMD=-0.17, 95%CI: -0.33, -0.01) , hair copper (SMD=-0.50, 95%CI: -1.01, 0) , hair iron (SMD=-3.91, 95%CI: -5.80, -2.03) and hair manganese (SMD=-1.09, 95%CI: -2.02, -0.15) in occupational lead exposure group were significantly lower (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the content of cobalt in hair of occupational lead exposure group (SMD=1.41, 95%CI: 0.72, 2.10) was higher, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . There was no significant difference in the contents of blood chromium, blood copper, blood iron, blood manganese, blood selenium and hair nickel between the two groups (P>0.05) . Conclusion: Workers with occupational exposure to lead have abnormal trace elements.

Copper , Humans , Iron , Lead , Manganese , Occupational Exposure , Trace Elements , Zinc
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 452-456, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935719


Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of Wilson's disease (WD) with onset of acute liver failure (ALF) in children. Methods: Clinical data of 19 children diagnosed with WD presented with ALF in Xi'an Children's Hospital from January 2016 to April 2021 were retrospectively analyzed, including general condition, clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, and gene detection. The children were divided into the death group and survival group according to the clinical outcome. The children who had hepatic WD with non-ALF onset during the same period were selected as the control. The general conditions and laboratory indexes were compared between death group and survival group, ALF group and non-ALF group. T-test, Mann Whitney U test or χ2 test were used to compare the differences between the two groups. Results: Of the 19 WD children with ALF onset, 10 were females and 9 were males. The age of admission was (10.1±2.6) years and time to onset of first visit was 9 (4, 15) days. Among the WD children with ALF onset, 4 children were lost to follow-up, 5 cases death (death group) and 10 cases survived (survival group). The ceruloplasmin in the death group was higher than that in the survival group (0.078 (0.055, 0.105) vs. 0.033 (0.027, 0.058) g/L, Z=-2.33, P=0.020). There were 95 children who had hepatic WD with non-ALF onset. The WD patients with ALF onset were older at admission (9.9 (8.0, 11.1) vs. 5.4 (3.7, 6.9) years, Z=-5.25, P<0.001), had higher ceruloplasmin (0.060 (0.030, 0.078) vs. 0.024 (0.006, 0.060) g/L, Z=-3.11, P=0.002), 24 h urinary copper (674 (205, 1 803) vs. 149 (108, 206) μg, Z=-4.25, P<0.001), and positive rate of K-F ring [17/19 vs. 7%(7/95), χ2=50.17, P<0.001] while shorter onset time at initial visit (0.3 (0.1, 0.5) vs. 1.0 (0.7, 6.0) months, Z=-4.28, P<0.001). There was no gender difference between the two groups [9/19 vs. 61%(58/95), χ2=1.22, P=0.269]. Of the 19 WD children with ALF onset, 13 had the ATP7B gene tested, and 15 reported variants were detected. The main variations were c.2333G>T (p. Arg778Leu), c.2621C>T (p. Ala874Val) and c.2975C>T (p. Pro992Leu). The allele frequencies were 6/26(23%), 4/26(15%) and 3/26(12%), respectively. Conclusions: Children of WD onset with ALF are school-aged and above. They have an acute onset, a short course of the disease, and poor prognosis. The positive rate of K-F ring, ceruloplasmin and urinary copper are higher than those of the hepatic WD children with non-ALF onset.

Ceruloplasmin/metabolism , Child , Copper/metabolism , Female , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/genetics , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/therapy , Male , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 317-322, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935694


Objectives: To summarize the clinical phenotypes and the variation spectrum of ATP7B gene in Chinese children with Wilson's disease (WD) and to investigate their significance for early diagnosis. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 316 children diagnosed as WD in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center during the period from January 2010 to June 2021. The general situations, clinical manifestations, lab test results, imaging examinations, and ATP7B gene variant characteristics were collected. The patients were divided into asymptomatic WD group and symptomatic WD group based on the presence or absence of clinical symptoms at the time that WD diagnosis was made. The χ2 test, t test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the differences between groups. Results: Among the 316 children with WD, 199 were males and 117 were females, with the age of 5.4 (4.0, 7.6) years at diagnosis; 261 cases (82.6%) were asymptomatic with the age of 4.9 (3.9, 6.4) years; whereas 55 cases (17.4%) were symptomatic with the age of 9.6 (7.3, 12.0) years. The main symptoms invloved liver, kidney, nervous system, or skin damage. Of all the patients, 95.9% (303/316) had abnormal liver function at diagnosis; 98.1% (310/316) had the serum ceruloplasmin lever lower than 200 mg/L; 97.7% (302/309) had 24-hour urine copper content exceeding 40 μg; only 7.4% (23/310) had positive corneal K-F rings, 8.2% (23/281) had abnormal MRI signals in the lenticular nucleus, and all of them had symptoms of damage in liver, kidney or nervous system. Compared with the group of symptomatic WD, asymptomatic group had higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and lower levels ceruloplasmin and 24-hour urine copper [(208±137) vs. (72±78) U/L, (55±47) vs. (69±48) mg/L, 103 (72, 153) vs. 492 (230, 1 432) μg; t=9.98, -1.98, Z=-4.89, all P<0.001]. Among the 314 patients completing genetic sequencing, a total of 107 mutations in ATP7B gene were detected, of which 10 are novel variants, and 3 cases (1.0%) had large heterozygous deletion (exons 10 to exon 11) in ATP7B gene. The percentage of missense mutation in asymptomatic WD children was significantly higher than that in symptomatic WD (81.5% (422/518) vs. 69.1% (76/110), χ²=8.47, P<0.05). WD patients carrying homozygous variant of c.2 333G>T had significantly low levels of ceruloplasmin than those not carrying this variant ((23±5) vs. (61±48) mg/L, t=-2.34, P<0.001). Conclusions: The elevation of serum ALT is an important clue for early diagnosis of WD in children, while serum ceruloplasmin and 24-hour urine copper content are specific markers for early diagnosis of WD. In order to confirm the diagnosis of WD, it is necessary to combine the Sanger sequencing with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or other testing technologies.

Ceruloplasmin/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Copper/metabolism , Copper-Transporting ATPases/genetics , Female , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/genetics , Humans , Male , Mutation , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies
Int. j. high dilution res ; 20(4): 11-28, Dec. 31, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396371


Homeopathy is highly controversial. The main reason for this is its use of very highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP), diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Research using several different methods has demonstrated the presence of particles, including nanoparticles of source material, in HHPs. This study aims to verify the results of a previous publication that detected the presence of particles in all dilutions. We used the Nano Tracking Analyzer (NTA) to examine dilutions of a commonly used homeopathic medicine, an insoluble metal, Cuprum metallicum, for the presence of particles. The homeopathic medicines tested were specially prepared according to the European pharmacopoeia standards. We compared the homeopathic dilutions/dynamizations with simple dilutions and controls including a soluble medicine. We observed the presence of solid material in all preparations including HHPs (except for pure water). The measurements showed significant differences in particle sizes distribution between homeopathic manufacturing lines and controls. Homeopathic medicines do contain material with a specific size distribution even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing and potentization process. This material demonstrates that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations in a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influences the nature and concentration of these NPs.

Dynamization , Homeopathic Pharmacotechniques , Nanoparticles , Potassium Chloride , Cuprum Metallicum , Kali Muriaticum , Copper , Lactose
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1225-1236, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345275


As an essential trace element for animals, copper significantly contributes to the growth and health of animals. Compared to inorganic trace elements, organic trace elements are better supplements; notably, they are acquired through microbial transformation. Therefore, we screened for copper-enriched microorganisms from high copper content soil to obtain organic copper. Sodium diethyldithio carbamate trihydrate was applied as a chromogenic agent for determining micro amounts of intracellular copper through spectrophotometry. In total, 50 fungi were isolated after the successful application of the screening platform for copper-rich microbes. Following morphological and molecular biology analyses, the N-2 strain, identified as Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrated showed better copper enrichment potential than others. Notably, the strain tolerance to copper was nearly thrice that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, up to 1600mg/L. The content of the organic bound copper was 22.84mg Cu/g dry cell. Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) response surface method, we optimized the fermentation condition (inoculation amount, 13%; temperature, 28(C; pH, 5.0). Compared to the original strain results under the single factor fermentation condition, we reported an increase by 24.18% under the optimized conditions. Collectively, these findings provide a reference for uncovering new and low-cost organic copper additives.(AU)

Como elemento traço essencial para os animais, o cobre contribui significativamente para o crescimento e saúde dos animais. Comparado aos oligoelementos inorgânicos, os oligoelementos orgânicos são melhores suplementos; notavelmente, eles são adquiridos através de transformação microbiana. Portanto, nós selecionamos microorganismos enriquecidos com cobre de solos com alto teor de cobre para obter cobre orgânico. O carbamato de sódio diethyldithio trihidratado foi aplicado como agente cromogênico para a determinação de micro quantidades de cobre intracelular através da espectrofotometria. No total, 50 fungos foram isolados após a aplicação bem sucedida da plataforma de triagem para micróbios ricos em cobre. Após análises morfológicas e de biologia molecular, a cepa N-2, identificada como Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrou um melhor potencial de enriquecimento de cobre do que outras. Notavelmente, a tolerância da estirpe ao cobre foi quase três vezes maior que a da Saccharomyces cerevisiae, até 1600mg/L. O conteúdo de cobre ligado orgânico era de 22,84mg Cu/g de célula seca. Usando o método de superfície de resposta Central Composite Design (CCD), nós otimizamos a condição de fermentação (quantidade de inoculação, 13%; temperatura, 28C; pH, 5,0). Em comparação com os resultados da deformação original sob a condição de fermentação de fator único, relatamos um aumento de 24,18% sob as condições otimizadas. Coletivamente, estas descobertas fornecem uma referência para descobrir novos aditivos de cobre orgânico de baixo custo.(AU)

Animals , Soil Analysis , Copper , Food Additives , Aspergillus , Soil Microbiology , Soil Treatment , Sus scrofa
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 955-965, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285270


The aim of this study was to evaluate the reasons of quality deviation of a concentrate from a predefined standard. Five treatments were established: T1 - Control, standard concentrate formulation (SCF); T2 - PXMore5, SCF with more 5% vitamin-mineral premix (VMP); T3 - PXLess5, SCF with less 5% VMP. All three treatments used a 400kg batches in an INTECNIAL mixer; T4 - FeedMixer, SCF using a 4,000kg batch in an IMOTO mixer; T5 - PremixMixer, SCF using a 1,200kg batch in an MUYANG mixer. For each treatment, bags of 20 kg were stored in three storage places for four months. Water activity of concentrate was affected by temperature and air relative humidity in different storage places. Regarding the kind of mixer, the greatest variation in concentration of crude protein, mineral residue, copper, zinc, and selenium was observed in the PremixMixer. Adjustments are imperative in the handling and use procedures of this kind of mixer to meet the quality requirements required in the concentrate production. Analyzing the effect of the mineral-vitamin premix level, no difference could be defined with the evaluated parameters.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as razões do desvio de qualidade de um concentrado de um padrão predefinido. Foram estabelecidos cinco tratamentos: T1 - controle, concentrado com formulação padrão (CFP); T2 - PXMais5, CFP com 5% a mais de vitaminas e minerais da pré-mistura (PVM); T3 - PXMenos5, CFP com 5% a menos de PVM. Todos esses três tratamentos utilizaram lotes de 400kg em um misturador INTECNIAL; T4 - FeedMixer, CFP usando um lote de 4.000kg em um misturador IMOTO; T5 - PremixMixer, CFP usando um lote de 1.200kg em um misturador MUYANG. Para cada tratamento, sacos de 20kg foram armazenados em três ambientes distintos por quatro meses. A atividade de água do concentrado foi afetada pela temperatura e umidade relativa do ar em diferentes locais de armazenamento. Em relação ao tipo de misturador, a maior variação na concentração de proteína bruta, resíduo mineral, cobre, zinco e selênio foi devido ao PremixMixer. Ajustes são imperativos nos procedimentos de manuseio e uso desse tipo de misturador para atender aos requisitos de qualidade exigidos na produção de concentrado. Ao se analisar o efeito do nível da pré-mistura de vitaminas e minerais, nenhuma diferença pôde ser definida com os parâmetros avaliados.(AU)

Animals , Swine , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/analysis , Selenium , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Vitamins , Zinc , Copper
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 51-57, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251521


Resumen Introducción: la enfermedad de Wilson es una enfermedad heterogénea causada por mutaciones en el gen ATP7B. La presentación clínica es variable, en fenotipos hepáticos y neuropsiquiátricos. El objetivo de este estudio es describir una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes. Materiales y métodos: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe desde enero de 2004 a septiembre de 2017. Resultados: se reportaron 27 pacientes, 17 hombres y 10 mujeres. El tiempo de seguimiento medio fue de 2,18 años, el 40% presentó síntomas neurológicos; el 29%, psiquiátricos; y el 85%, alteración hepática. En el laboratorio, el 85% presentó ceruloplasmina baja; 55%, cobre urinario alto; en casos con biopsia hepática, 7 tenían depósito de cobre en coloraciones especiales. En neuroimágenes, el 84% presentó hallazgos sugestivos de enfermedad de Wilson y en 3 casos se documentó una mutación genética patogénica. Durante el seguimiento, el 51% mejoró clínica o bioquímicamente, el 11% se mantuvo estable y el 18% se deterioró. El 88% de los casos sobrevivió al final del seguimiento. Conclusiones: este estudio es la cohorte retrospectiva más grande de Colombia. Los resultados son base para nuevos estudios poblacionales buscando de manera activa la enfermedad para documentarla en su fase preclínica y, de este modo, impactar en el pronóstico.

Abstract Introduction: Wilson's disease is a heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. Its clinical presentation is variable in hepatic and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. The aim of this study is to describe a retrospective cohort of patients. Materials and methods: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out in patients treated at the Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe from January 2004 to September 2017. Results: 27 patients were reported, 17 men and 10 women. The mean follow-up time was 2.18 years. 40% of the patients had neurological symptoms, 29% psychiatric symptoms, and 85% hepatic impairment. Lab tests showed that 85% had low ceruloplasmin and 55% had increased urinary copper. In cases that underwent liver biopsy, 7 had special copper colorations. Neuroimaging revealed that 84% had findings suggestive of Wilson's disease and a pathogenic genetic mutation was documented in 3 cases. During follow-up, 51% improved clinically or biochemically, 11% remained stable, and 18% deteriorated. 88% of cases survived at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: This study is the largest retrospective cohort carried out in Colombia. The results are the basis for new population-based studies actively seeking this disease to describe its preclinical development and thus impact prognosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Copper , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Signs and Symptoms , Disease , Retrospective Studies , Genetics , Liver
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 150 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379876


Neste trabalho foram sintetizados e caracterizados três complexos de cobre com ligantes imínicos, com o objetivo de avaliar sua atividade tripanocida. Esses complexos foram caracterizados por diversas técnicas espectroscópicas, como UV-Vis, Infravermelho e EPR, além de análise elementar e espectrometria de massa. Juntamente com outros complexos similares previamente sintetizados pelo nosso grupo, tiveram suas atividades avaliadas frente à forma tripomastigota do parasita T. cruzi, responsável pela fase aguda da doença de Chagas, por ensaios de viabilidade celular, com determinação do valor de seus IC50, concentração em que observamos a morte de 50% da cultura celular, pela metodologia denominada MTT. Todos os complexos mostraram-se eficientes frente a tripomastigotas, apresentando valores de IC50 abaixo de 10 µM, com quatro deles obtendo índice de seletividade maior que 10, fator importante para definir agentes promissores antichagásicos. Complexos selecionados também tiveram sua atividade verificada frente à forma amastigota do parasita, responsável pela fase crônica da doença, utilizando método de imageamento por microscópio de fluorescência e contagem celular. Estudos de inibição da cruzaína, uma cisteíno-protease importante para o metabolismo do parasita foram conduzidos em colaboração com o laboratório do Prof. Wagner Alves de Souza Júdice, da Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes. Quatro dos compostos testados apresentaram atividade inibitória frente a cruzaína, sendo dois de cobre, um de zinco e um ligante livre. Os estudos também permitiram diferenciar os mecanismos de inibição dos compostos, com os complexos de cobre apresentando um mecanismo de inibição clássico e o composto de zinco e o ligante livre apresentando o mecanismo de inibição competitiva parabólica com cooperatividade

In this work, three copper complexes with iminic ligands were synthesized and characterized, with the objective of evaluating their trypanocidal activity. These complexes were characterized by several spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-Vis, Infrared and EPR, in addition to elementary analysis and mass spectrometry. Together with other similar complexes previously synthesized by our group, their activities were evaluated against the trypomastigote form of the parasite T. cruzi, responsible for the acute phase of Chagas disease, by cell viability tests, with determination of the value of their IC50, concentration in that we observed the death of 50% of the cell culture, by the methodology called MTT, all presenting IC50 values below 10 µM, with four of them obtaining a selectivity index greater than 10, important factor for defining promising antichagasic agents. Selected complexes also had their activity verified against the amastigote form of the parasite, responsible for the chronic phase of the disease, using a fluorescence microscope and cell counting imaging method. Inhibition studies of cruzain, a cysteine protease important for the metabolism of the parasite, were conducted in collaboration with the laboratory of Professor Wagner Alves de Souza Júdice at the University of Mogi das Cruzes. Four of the tested compounds showed inhibitory activity against cruzain, two of copper, one of zinc and a free ligand. The studies also allowed to differentiate the mechanisms of inhibition of the compounds, with the copper complexes presenting a classic inhibition mechanism and the zinc compound and the free ligand presenting the competitive parabolic inhibition mechanism with cooperativity

Chagas Disease/pathology , Copper/chemistry , Imines/agonists , Antiparasitic Agents , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Cell Culture Techniques/instrumentation , Cysteine Proteases/chemistry , Ligands
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(2): e212020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249707


ABSTRACT Introduction: After debonding, white spot may appear on the area below the bracket, which is the early clinical sign of carious lesion. There is increased caries risk underneath and adjacent to orthodontic bands and brackets, which call for maximum use of caries preventive procedures using various fluoride application methods. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate alterations in the mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity and yield strength) in loading and unloading phases for different orthodontic archwires (nickel-titanium [NiTi] and copper-nickel-titanium [CuNiTi]) when exposed routinely to fluoride prophylactic agents for a predetermined period of time. Methods: Preformed rectangular NiTi and CuNiTi wires were immersed in fluoride solution and artificial saliva (control) for 90 minutes at 37ºC. After immersion, specimens were tested using a 3-point bend test on a universal testing machine. Results: There is a significant reduction in the unloading yield strength when the NiTi and CuNiTi wires were exposed to APF gel. Conclusion: The result suggests that use of topical fluoride agents affect the mechanical properties of the wires, leading to increase in treatment duration. Fluoride prophylactic agents must be used with caution in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Injudicious use of these agents may cause corrosive effects on the orthodontic wire surfaces, with alteration in their mechanical properties.

RESUMO Introdução: Após a remoção dos braquetes, manchas brancas podem aparecer na área embaixo deles, as quais são o sinal clínico inicial da lesão cariosa. Existe um maior risco de cáries embaixo e ao redor das bandas e braquetes ortodônticos, o que exige a máxima utilização de procedimentos preventivos de cárie, usando diferentes métodos com aplicação de flúor. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar alterações nas propriedades mecânicas (módulo de elasticidade e resistência ao escoamento), nas fases de carregamento e descarregamento de diferentes fios ortodônticos (níquel-titânio [NiTi] e níquel-titânio com adição de cobre [CuNiTi]), quando expostos rotineiramente a agentes profiláticos fluoretados, utilizados durante um período de tempo predeterminado. Métodos: Os fios pré-contornados retangulares de NiTi e CuNiTi foram imersos em solução fluoretada e saliva artificial (controle) durante 90 minutos a 37°C. Após a imersão, as amostras foram testadas utilizando-se um teste de flexão em três pontos, em uma máquina universal de testes. Resultados: Houve uma redução significativa na resistência ao escoamento na fase de descarregamento quando os fios de NiTi e CuNiTi foram expostos ao gel fluoretado. Conclusão: O resultado sugere que o uso tópico de agentes fluoretados afeta as propriedades mecânicas dos fios, levando a um aumento na duração do tratamento. Os agentes profiláticos fluoretados devem ser utilizados com cautela em pacientes submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico. O uso indiscriminado desses agentes pode causar efeitos corrosivos na superfície dos fios ortodônticos e consequente alteração das suas propriedades mecânicas.

Humans , Orthodontic Wires , Copper , Dental Alloys , Fluorides , Nickel , Surface Properties , Titanium , Materials Testing , Nickel/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e181084, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350225


Some antioxidant compounds have a pro-oxidant effect in the presence of transition metal ions, due to the reduction of Mn+ to M(n-1)+ with simultaneous formation of free radicals, which then promote DNA damage. In the present study, we evaluated the pUC19 DNA damage in a solution containing Cu(II) and ascorbic acid (AA) or S(IV) saturated with air by agarose gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that this damage decreases if AA and S(IV) are simultaneously added. This study also illustrates the importance of Cu(II) in this process, as no DNA damage was observed when AA or S(IV) were present in the absence of this metallic ion. Our data showed that DNA preservation depends on the concentration of AA and S(IV) and occurs when the [S(IV)]:[AA] ratio ranges from 1:1 to 20:1. Absorbance measurements and thermodynamic data show that no reaction occurs between AA and S(IV) when this mixture (pH 5.5) is added to pUC-19 DNA. The presence of dissolved oxygen may be the cause of AA consumption in the mixture of these two antioxidants, which subsequently decreases DNA damage.

Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Sulfites , DNA Damage , Copper/pharmacology , Ions/adverse effects , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/instrumentation , Free Radicals/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879874


OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of serum levels of trace elements with core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#From September 2018 to September 2019, an investigation was performed for 1 020 children with ASD and 1 038 healthy children matched for age and sex in the outpatient service of grade A tertiary hospitals and special education institutions in 13 cities of China. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) were used to assess the core symptoms of the children with ASD. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure serum levels of trace elements magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc.@*RESULTS@#The children with ASD had significantly lower serum levels of magnesium, copper, and zinc than the healthy children (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The serum levels of magnesium and zinc may be associated with core symptoms in children with ASD, which requires further studies. The nutritional status of trace elements should be monitored for children with ASD in clinical practice.

Autism Spectrum Disorder , Child , China , Copper/analysis , Humans , Trace Elements/analysis , Zinc
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(4): e2224, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156630


Introducción: La deficiencia de cinc se considera un problema de salud global. Existe escasa información sobre el estado nutricional del cinc en mujeres cubanas en edad reproductiva. Objetivo: Identificar deficiencia de cinc y cobre sérico en mujeres en edad reproductiva, según factores relacionados, como la anemia, inflamación, exceso de peso y adiposidad abdominal. Métodos: Se estudiaron 104 mujeres de 18 a 40 años de edad, de La Habana, aparentemente sanas. Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo. Se realizó la determinación de cinc, cobre, hemoglobina, ferritina, proteína C reactiva, alfa 1 glicoproteína, peso, talla y circunferencia mínima de la cintura, se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Se utilizaron puntos de corte internacionales para la evaluación. Resultados: La prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, estimada por ferritina sérica, cinc y cobre sérico fueron 66,3 por ciento (67/102), 36,2 por ciento (34/94) y 19,1 por ciento (18/94), respectivamente. De las mujeres 23,5 por ciento (24/102) tenían anemia e inflamación 8,8 por ciento (9/102) y 13 por ciento (13/102) estimada por CRP y AGP. Predominaron mujeres con exceso de peso 52,9 por ciento (54/102) y adiposidad abdominal 61,8 por ciento (60/97). Conclusiones: El riesgo de deficiencia de cinc en la muestra es elevado, la prevalencia del Zn sérico disminuido supera el 20 por ciento. No existe criterio para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de cobre como problema de salud pública. Las deficiencias de cinc y cobre no parecen estar asociadas a la anemia, la inflamación y el estado nutricional general. Se requiere realizar pesquisas adicionales para identificar la magnitud de las deficiencias de cinc y cobre y sus posibles causas(AU)

Introduction: Zinc deficiency is considered a global health problem. There is scarce information on zinc's nutritional state in Cuban childbearing-aged women. Objective: Identify zinc and serum copper deficiency in childbearing-aged women, based on related factors, such as anemia, inflammation, excess weight and abdominal adiposity. Methods: 104 seemingly healthy women from Havana, aged 18 to 40 were studied. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The determination of zinc, copper, hemoglobin, ferritin, C-reactive protein, alpha 1 glycoprotein, weight, size and minimum waist circumference was made, and the body mass index was calculated. International breakpoints were used for evaluation. Results: The prevalence of iron deficiency, estimated by serum ferritin, zinc and serum copper was 66.3 percent (67/101), 36.2 percent (34/94) and 19.1 percent (18/94), respectively. Of women, 23.5 percent (24/102) had anemia, and 8.8 percent had inflammation (9/102) and 13 percent (13/100) estimated by CRP and AGP. Women with overweight 52.9 percent (54/102) and abdominal adiposity 61.8% (60/97) predominated. Conclusions: The risk of zinc deficiency in the sample is high, the prevalence of decreased serum Zn exceeds 20 percent. There is no criterion for assessing the risk of copper deficiency as a public health problem. Zinc and copper deficiencies do not appear to be associated with anemia, inflammation and overall nutritional status. Additional tests are required to identify the magnitude of zinc and copper deficiencies and their possible causes(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Women , Copper , Reproductive Health/standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba , Zinc Deficiency
Femina ; 48(9): 574-576, 20200930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122590


Os dispositivos intrauterinos (DIUs) são os métodos contraceptivos reversíveis de longa duração mais utilizados no mundo, apresentando altas taxas de eficácia e segurança. Na presença de gestação, o DIU pode ser retirado com uma leve tração dos fios, quando visíveis. Na impossibilidade de visualização dos fios, há a opção de retirada por histeroscopia, que tem se mostrado segura e eficaz para a retirada de DIU retido na cavidade. Foram pesquisados os termos: "intrauterine device", "pregnancy" e "hysteroscopy". Dos 378 artigos encontrados, foram selecionados 18 artigos que cumpriam os objetivos desta revisão. A presença de DIU durante a gestação se mostra um fator de risco independente para desfechos desfavoráveis como abortamento, corioamnionite, parto prematuro e maior taxa de admissão em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. A histeroscopia ambulatorial se mostra uma alternativa segura e eficaz na retirada do DIU no primeiro trimestre.(AU)

Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are the most widely used reversible contraceptive methods in the world, with high rates of efficacy and safety. In the presence of pregnancy, the IUD can be removed by gently traction of the threads, when visible. If the wires cannot be visualized, we have the option of hysteroscopy removal, which has been shown to be safe and effective for the removal of an IUD retained in the cavity. The terms "intrauterine device", "pregnancy" and "hysteroscopy" were searched. Of the 378 articles found, 18 articles were selected that met the objectives of this review. The presence of IUDs during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for unfavorable outcomes such as abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature birth and a higher rate of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit. Ambulatory hysteroscopy is a safe and effective alternative for IUD removal in the first trimester.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Hysteroscopy , Intrauterine Devices , Intrauterine Devices, Copper , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Copper/therapeutic use , Contraceptive Effectiveness
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 249-253, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131676


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Copper deficiency has been linked to alterations in lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). One of the enzymes that neutralize oxidative stress is Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which depends on the availability of adequate amounts of copper. OBJECTIVE: Correlate the levels of ceruloplasmin and of non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper (NCBC) with clinical, biochemical and histological parameters of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. METHODS: Data from 95 consecutively admitted NAFLD patients who underwent liver biopsy composed the groups based on ceruloplasmin levels lower than 25 mg/dL and on negative NCBC. The risk factors for NAFLD in each group were compared. RESULTS: Body mass index was lower in patients with ceruloplasmin <25 mg/dL (29.1±3.47 vs 32.8±6.24 kg/m2; P=0.005) as were the levels of LDL, HDL and total cholesterol, when compared with their counterparts with ceruloplasmin >25 mg/dL (101±38 vs 116±35 mg/dL, P=0.05; 43±9 vs 51±16 mg/dL, P=0.01; 174±43 vs 197±39 mg/dL, P=0.01, respectively). Mean serum ferritin levels were higher in the ceruloplasmin <25 mg/dL group (343±327 vs 197±190 ng/mL; P=0.02). Otherwise, patients with negative NCBC had higher HOMA-IR (8.2±14.7 vs 4.6±3.7; P=0.03). Age, gender, hypertension and diabetes showed no statistical difference. CONCLUSION: Patients with NAFLD had different clinical and biochemical markers according to the levels of NCBC and ceruloplasmin.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A deficiência de cobre tem sido relacionada a alterações no metabolismo lipídico e esteatose hepática. O estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel fundamental na fisiopatologia da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica. Uma das enzimas que neutralizam o estresse oxidativo é a Cobre/Zinco superoxido dismutase, que depende da disponibilidade de quantidades adequadas de cobre. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os níveis de ceruloplasmina e de cobre não ligado à ceruloplasmina (NCBC) com parâmetros clínicos, bioquímicos e histológicos de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). MÉTODOS: Dados de 95 pacientes com DHGNA internados consecutivamente e submetidos à biópsia hepática compuseram os grupos com base em níveis de ceruloplasmina inferiores a 25 mg/dL e em NCBC negativo. Os fatores de risco para DHGNA em cada grupo foram comparados. RESULTADOS: O índice de massa corporal foi menor nos pacientes com ceruloplasmina <25 mg/dL (29,1±3,47 vs 32,8±6,24 kg/m2; P=0,005), assim como os níveis de LDL, HDL e colesterol total, quando comparados aos seus pares com ceruloplasmina >25 mg/dL (101±38 vs 116±35 mg/dL, P=0,05; 43±9 vs 51±16 mg/dL, P=0,01; 174±43 vs 197±39 mg/dL, P=0,01, respectivamente). Os níveis médios de ferritina sérica foram maiores no grupo ceruloplasmina <25 mg/dL (343±327 vs 197±190 mg/mL; P=0,02). Os pacientes com NCBC negativo apresentaram maior HOMA-IR (8,2±14,7 vs 4,6±3,7; P=0,03). Idade, sexo, hipertensão e diabetes não mostraram diferença estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com DHGNA apresentaram diferentes marcadores clínicos e bioquímicos de acordo com os níveis de NCBC e ceruloplasmina.

Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Phenotype , Ceruloplasmin/analysis , Ceruloplasmin/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Copper