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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879874


OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of serum levels of trace elements with core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#From September 2018 to September 2019, an investigation was performed for 1 020 children with ASD and 1 038 healthy children matched for age and sex in the outpatient service of grade A tertiary hospitals and special education institutions in 13 cities of China. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) were used to assess the core symptoms of the children with ASD. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure serum levels of trace elements magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc.@*RESULTS@#The children with ASD had significantly lower serum levels of magnesium, copper, and zinc than the healthy children (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The serum levels of magnesium and zinc may be associated with core symptoms in children with ASD, which requires further studies. The nutritional status of trace elements should be monitored for children with ASD in clinical practice.

Autism Spectrum Disorder , Child , China , Copper/analysis , Humans , Trace Elements/analysis , Zinc
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 511-517, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042690


RESUMEN La leche humana materna tiene una composición única para proporcionar a los recién nacidos todos los nutrientes esenciales como proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono, minerales, vitaminas y otras substancias fisiológicamente activas, con el fin de suplir en cantidad y calidad las necesidades calóricas y nutricionales del lactante. El objetivo fue establecer las concentraciones totales de cobre y zinc en la leche materna en sus distintas etapas: calostro, de transición y madura, determinadas espectrométricamente y la influencia del estado nutricional de madres lactantes; estudio descriptivo transversal en madres entre 18 y 35 años, sanas y no fumadoras; los resultados evidencian una disminución en las concentraciones de cobre y zinc a medida que la lactancia va evolucionando, además, el promedio de índice de masa corporal de las madres en período de lactancia reflejaron sobrepeso. Concluimos que el contenido calórico de los oligoelementos de la leche materna es esencial para el crecimiento de los niños por los beneficios nutricionales e inmunológicos que proporciona, por lo que es importante que la madre se encuentre en un estado nutricional adecuado que permita suministrar los requerimientos adecuados al niño para su crecimiento y desarrollo.

ABSTRACT Human milk has a unique composition and provides newborns with all essential nutrients such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other physiologically active substances, in order to supply in quantity and quality the caloric and nutritional needs of the infant. The objective of this study was to establish the total concentration of copper and zinc in breast milk in its different stages: colostrum, transitional and mature milk, determined spectrometrically and the influence of the nutritional status of nursing mothers. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in healthy non-smoking mothers between 18 and 35 years of age. Lower concentrations of copper and zinc as lactation progressed were observed. The average of body mass index of nursing mothers reflected overweight. We concludes that the caloric content of the trace elements of breast milk is essential for the growth of children because of the nutritional and immunological benefits that it provides, so it is important that the mother has an adequate nutritional state that allows to supply the adequate requirements for the child to grow and develop.

Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Zinc/analysis , Nutritional Status , Copper/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , Cross-Sectional Studies
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889196


ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and iron (Fe). The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2) regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd), (0-1000 Cu), (0-400 Pb), (0-500 As) and (0-800 Fe) concentrations (mgkg-1) incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA) in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1), not differing significantly (p > 0.05) from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05) difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.

Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/metabolism , Copper/analysis , Copper/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Gold/analysis , Gold/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Mining , Phylogeny , Soil Pollutants/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 133-139, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888829


Abstract Aquatic macrophytes have properties and mechanisms which are useful for the removal of substances in solution, commonly used in phytoremediation processes in aquatic environments. This study evaluated the performance of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salvinia biloba Raddi (Salviniaceae) in different metal concentrations (1, 3 and 5 µg mL-1), as well as the control treatment, measured at intervals of 0, 7 and 14 days under laboratory conditions, with control as to pH and luminosity. After the experiment, the S. biloba biomass was washed, kiln dried, crushed and subjected to the process of digestion, and subsequently the accumulated copper content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that S. biloba is apt at accumulating copper, varying significantly between different treatments and days of exposure to the contaminant, as well as its interaction (treatment × days). The highest accumulation values were observed in treatment with 5 µg mL-1, which at 14 days, with 11,861 µg g-1 of copper. We observed symptoms of toxicity and mortality in plants, probably indicating the effect of copper on the species when at high levels. Salvinia biloba is an efficient species in the removal of copper in solution, its recommendation as a remediating agent in aquatic ecosystems being possible.

Resumo Macrófitas aquáticas apresentam propriedades e mecanismos úteis à remoção de substâncias presentes em solução, comumente, utilizadas em processos de fitorremediação de ambientes aquáticos. Este estudo avaliou o desempenho de acumulação de cobre (Cu) por Salvinia biloba Raddi (Salviniaceae) em diferentes concentrações do metal (1, 3 e 5 µg mL-1), além do tratamento controle, avaliados em intervalos de 0, 7 e 14 dias, sob condições laboratoriais, com controle de pH e luminosidade. Após o experimento a biomassa de S. biloba, foi lavada, seca em estufa, triturada e submetida ao processo de digestão, sendo, posteriormente, o teor de cobre acumulado determinado por espectroscopia de absorção atômica. Os resultados evidenciaram que S. biloba é hábil em acumular cobre em sua biomassa, variando significativamente entre os diferentes tratamentos e dias de exposição ao contaminante, bem como por sua interação (tratamentos × dias). Os maiores teores de acúmulo foram observados no tratamento com 5 µg mL-1, que aos 14 dias apresentou até 11.861 µg g-1 de Cu. Observamos sintomas de toxicidade e mortalidade nas plantas, evidenciando, provavelmente, o efeito do cobre sobre a espécie quando em elevados níveis. Salvinia biloba é uma espécie eficiente na remoção do cobre em solução, sendo possível sua recomendação como agente de remediação em ecossistemas aquáticos.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Copper/analysis , Copper/metabolism , Aquatic Organisms/metabolism , Aquatic Organisms/chemistry , Tracheophyta/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Biomass , Tracheophyta/metabolism
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1881-1893, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886722


ABSTRACT There is a huge lack of researches that evaluate the nutritional limits in tree species used in urban forestry, especially in terms of micronutrients. This study aimed to establish limits and range of micronutrients levels for the proper development of tree species utilized in urban forestry. The study was conducted in the city of Santa Maria-RS-Brazil. Through forest inventory, 23 forest species present in urban forest were selected, and 05 vegetative branches of each tree were collected, in which the contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were analyzed. Ranges of micronutrients' contents were developed for class limits criteria. Nutritional problems were detected for B, Cu and Zn in G. robusta and S. cumini, indicating a need of fertilization and management of these trees. The levels of Mn were within an adequate range only for the species C. illinoensis and H. chrysotrichus. The contents of B were higher than the level considered adequate for H. chrysotrichusand M. nigra. The rates of Fe showed high levels for E. japonica, H. chrysotrichusand S. babylonica. The estimated nutritional limits enable a greater control in the classification of the results for each tree species utilized in urban forestry.

Forests , Micronutrients/analysis , Urban Population , Zinc/analysis , Cobalt/analysis , Copper/analysis , Iron/analysis , Manganese/analysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 530-536, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889139


Abstract Mangrove is an important ecosystem in the world. Mangrove ecosystems have a large capacity in retaining heavy metals, and now they are usually considered as sinks for heavy metals. However, the mechanism of why the soil of mangrove ecosystems can retain heavy metal is not certain. In this research, endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 was isolated and identified from the roots of Kandelia candel. When this fungus was added, it protected the growth of K. candel under Cu stress. This can be illustrated by analyzing chlorophyll A and B, RWC and WSD to leaves of K. candel. Purpureocillium sp. A5 reduces uptake of Cu in K. candel and changes the pH characterization of soil. Furthermore, A5 increase the concentration of Cu complexes in soil, and it enhanced the concentration of carbonate-bound Cu, Mn-Fe complexes Cu and organic-bound Cu in soil. Nevertheless, a significant reduction of the Cu ion was noted among A5-treated plants. This study is significant and illustrates a promising potential use for environmental remediation of endophytes, and also may partially explain the large capacity of mangrove ecosystems in retaining heavy metals.

Copper/metabolism , Rhizophoraceae/metabolism , Rhizophoraceae/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Hypocreales/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Copper/analysis , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Hypocreales/isolation & purification , Hypocreales/genetics
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 396-401, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781383


Abstract The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, “intelligent” collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer’s test to compare the mean values (p<0.05). The results showed that seasonal variations influence the contents of 5 minerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca).

Resumo A influência da sazonalidade e de métodos de produção de própolis por abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, sobre a concentração de magnésio (Mg), zinco (Zn), ferro (Fe), sódio (Na), cálcio (Ca), cobre (Cu) e potássio (K) foram avaliados. 25 colmeias foram utilizadas, e a colheita de propolis ocorreu por raspagem ou a partir de coletores (tela, coletor de própolis “inteligente” – CPI, abertura lateral da melgueira – ALM e calço). Durante um ano a própolis foi colhida mensalmente, homogeneizada e armazenada em freezer a -10 ºC. A análise sazonal de minerais foi realizada por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica e os resultados avaliados por análise de variância (ANOVA) seguida do teste de Tukey-Kramer para comparação de médias (p<0,05). Os resultados demostraram que a sazonalidade afetou o conteúdo de cinco minerais (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca e Cu) e os métodos de coleta afetaram o conteúdo de quatro minerais (Mg, Zn, Fe e Ca).

Animals , Propolis/chemistry , Seasons , Bees , Minerals/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Sodium/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Zinc/analysis , Calcium/analysis , Copper/analysis , Iron/analysis , Magnesium/analysis
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(5): 407-410, Sept.-Oct. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766263


Summary Menkes disease is a congenital disorder caused by changes in copper metabolism derived from mutations in the ATP7A gene. It is characterized by physical and neurological alterations. In the neonatal period, these alterations can be nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis a challenge. Diagnosis can be suspected when there are low levels of ceruloplasmin and serum copper. Molecular analysis confirms the diagnosis. Treatment is parenteral administration of copper histidine. We report a familial case with molecular confirmation. The proband had clinical and biochemical suspicious. Treatment with copper histidine was indicated, but initiated at the age of 2 months and 27 days only. He did not present improvements and died at 6 months. The mother became pregnant again, a male fetus was identified and copper histidine was manufactured during pregnancy. He was born healthy, biochemical markers were reduced and treatment was indicated. Molecular analysis was performed confirming mutation in both the mother and the proband, while the other son did not have mutation, so treatment was discontinued. We support the clinical relevance of molecular confirmation for the correct diagnosis and genetic counseling, once clinical findings in the neonatal period are nonspecific and early treatment with parenteral copper histidine must be indicated.

Resumo A doença de Menkes é causada por uma alteração genética no metabolismo do cobre, por mutações no gene ATP7A. Caracteriza-se por alterações neurológicas e no exame físico. No período neonatal, essas alterações podem ser inespecíficas, o que torna o diagnóstico precoce um desafio. O diagnóstico pode ser suspeitado quando há baixos níveis séricos de cobre e ceruloplasmina. A análise molecular confirma o diagnóstico, e o tratamento deve ser feito com histidina de cobre. Nós relatamos um caso familial de doença de Menkes. O probando apresentava quadro clínico e alterações bioquímicas compatíveis com a doença de Menkes, em consulta com 1 mês de vida. O tratamento foi indicado, mas apenas iniciado com 2 meses e 27 dias. Ele não apresentou melhora clínica e veio a óbito com 6 meses. A mãe teve uma nova gestação, foi identificado um feto do sexo masculino e foi solicitada a manipulação da histidina de cobre ainda durante a gestação. O bebê nasceu saudável, os marcadores bioquímicos estavam diminuídos e o tratamento com histidina de cobre foi indicado. Realizamos a análise molecular, que confirmou mutação no gene ATP7A na mãe e no probando; porém, o outro filho não apresentava mutação e o tratamento foi interrompido. Nós defendemos a importância clínica da confirmação molecular para o correto diagnóstico e o aconselhamento genético da doença de Menkes, uma vez que os achados clínicos e as alterações bioquímicas no período neonatal são inespecíficos, e o tratamento com histidina de cobre parenteral deve ser rapidamente instituído.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Histidine/analogs & derivatives , Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Ceruloplasmin/analysis , Copper/analysis , Fatal Outcome , Hair Diseases/diagnosis , Histidine/therapeutic use , Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome/diagnosis , Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome/drug therapy
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157696


The study aims to understand the relationship between increased serum levels of acute- phase reactants like Sialic Acid (SA) and transitional metals like Copper (Cu) which are indicated to be associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its various chronic complications. Serum SA and Cu levels, measured colorimetrically using Ehrilch’s reagent and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) respectively among 30 cases each of type 2 DM with and without long-term complications, were significantly higher in all the cases compared to controls. The values are even higher in cases with complications, compared to diabetics without complications. Serum lipid profile was significantly altered in both the experimental groups. Serum SA and Cu levels are positively correlated to duration and degree of impaired glycemic status and altered lipid profile in type 2 DM. Measurement of these new serum markers can explain the inflammatory process, implicated towards the development of diabetic complications like cardiovascular diseases and microangiopathies thereby helping in early medical intervention.

Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Copper/analysis , Copper/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/analogs & derivatives , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/analysis , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/blood
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-8, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950767


BACKGROUND: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communisand Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal) and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal) have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC) and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were investigated. RESULTS: Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree(-1)), largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha(-1)) in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant), K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu mineral element concentrations on the pear seedling and BA 29 rootstocks. According to the results, we recommend the seedling rootstock for normal density plantings (400 trees ha(-1)) and BA 29 rootstock for high-density plantings (800 trees ha(-1)) for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar in semi-arid conditions.

Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Pyrus/classification , Pyrus/growth & development , Pyrus/chemistry , Desert Climate , Crop Production/methods , Fruit/metabolism , Phosphorus/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Rain , Soil , Temperature , Turkey , Zinc/analysis , Boron/analysis , Calcium/analysis , Copper/analysis , Rosaceae/physiology , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/physiology , Iron/analysis , Magnesium/analysis , Manganese/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(8): 1045-1048, ago. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686084


O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a atividade sérica dos microminerais ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês em 30 equinos atletas da raça Puro-sangue Lusitano (PSL), antes e depois de exercícios, atestados por avaliações clínicas e laboratoriais. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas, antes e imediatamente após 20 minutos de exercício físico de trote e galope suaves realizados em pista de areia, para a realização das dosagens dos microminerais. A concentração dos microelementos foi determinada por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Observou-se que após o exercício, a atividade sérica de ferro não sofreu variações (P=0,2365), enquanto os valores de cobre se elevaram significativamente após o treinamento (P<0,001). Já o zinco e o manganês diminuíram após o exercício (P<0,001). Pode-se concluir que o exercício físico de curta duração pode gerar sudorese capaz de alterar as concentrações séricas de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês em cavalos atletas da raça Puro-sangue Lusitano.

In order to evaluate the sera concentrations of iron, copper, zinc and manganese trace minerals in thirty Pure-bred Lusitano athlete horses before and after exercise certified by clinical and laboratory assessments were studied. Blood samples were taken before and after 20 minutes of a dairy trot and gallop slight training, perfomed in a sandy floor ring, to measure the mineral concentrations, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It was observed that after exercising, the serum activity of iron did not change (P=0.2365), whereas copper values have significantly risen after training (P<0.001). On the other hand, zinc and manganese trace minerals decreased after exercise (P<0.001). In conclusion, it is possible to consider that the short time exercise may trigger sweating and consequently to change the serum concentration of iron, cooper, zinc and manganese in Pure-bred Lusitano athlete horses.

Animals , Copper/analysis , Iron/analysis , Manganese/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Horses/metabolism , Equidae/classification , Spectrophotometry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 153-160, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676901


To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium...

Cattle , Copper/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium Infections , Mycobacterium avium/enzymology , Mycobacterium avium/isolation & purification , Paratuberculosis , Selenium/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Methods , Minerals/analysis , Minerals/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2013; 7 (4): 989-994
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138334


The main sources of human exposure to trace metals for non-occupationally exposed individuals are inhalation and ingestion. Because the absorption rates of the metals by inhalation are significantly higher [up to 50-60%] than those by ingestion [between 3% and 10%], determination of trace metals in ambient air samples is of special interest. The main purpose of this study was to determine Fe, Zn and Cu in ambient air by combining pre-concentration methods and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer [FAAS]. In the pre-concentration step, adsorption reagents including 4-[2-pyridyl-azo] Resorcinol [PAR]-loaded XAD-7, thioureasulphonamide polymeric resin and cupferron-activated carbon were used sequentially. Under the optimum conditions, seasonal distributions of Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations in ambient air of Elazig City, Turkey, were determined. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu were found to be in the ranges of 154-416, 101-323 and 12-75 ng/m[3], respectively. High Zn levels determined in March and April can be attributed to the burning of coal at the beginning of spring

Iron/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Copper/analysis , Particulate Matter , Spectrophotometry
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 43(2): 39-50, dic. 2012. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: lil-702800


El presente estudio tiene por objetivo comparar los niveles séricos de cobre (Cu), cinc (Zn) y el cociente molar Cu/Zn en 129 pacientes con artritis reumatoide (RA), en 94 individuos sanos como grupo control (GC) y 21 pacientes con enfermedades reumáticas no artríticas (NER), como la fibromialgia, espondilitis anquilosante entre otras. Las concentraciones séricas de Cu y Zn fueron analizadas por espectroscopía de absorción atómica en llama acoplada a un sistema de inyección en flujo continuo (EAA/FIA). Los resultados muestran un incremento significativo (p<0,05), del cobre sérico en los pacientes con AR en comparación con los otros grupos (NER y GC), este aumento fue directamente proporcional a la actividad inflamatoria de la enfermedad. El nivel medio de cinc sérico mostró una disminución progresiva. Asimismo, el detrimento sérico del cinc está relacionado con la evolución de la enfermedad o la pérdida de capacidad funcional del paciente con los niveles alterados de cobre observados en pacientes con AR activo y en etapa temprana de la enfermedad (p<0,05). Los cocientes molares de Cu/Zn fueron de 1,88; 1,14 y 1,18 para la AR, GC, y NER, respectivamente, demostrando que su modificación es más notoria que evaluar cada oligoelemento por separado. Estos hallazgos sugieren que existe una redistribución tanto del cobre como del cinc en muchos compartimientos del cuerpo, como respuesta inflamatoria. Por lo que niveles séricos de Cu, Zn y Cu/Zn molar puede ser un criterio valioso para la evaluación clínica y posiblemente, para el estudio y seguimiento de los pacientes con AR.

The aim of this study was to measure the serum levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in 129 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in 94 healthy subjects (HS) and in 21 patients with non-rheumatic diseases (NRD) such as osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and ankylosing spondylitis. Serum concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured by flow injection analysis/flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FIA/FAAS). The Cu/Zn molar ratio in serum also was evaluated in these patients. The result shown that the average concentration of serum copper in patients with RA was significantly increased (p <0.05), on comparing with other patients. This increase was directly proportional to staging or disease progression while zinc concentration was significantly lower in patients with RA, but no differences were found between the stages of the disease. The values of Cu/Zn ratio were 1.88, 1.14 and 1.18, for AR, HS, and NRD patients, respectively. In conclusion, in patients with RA serum copper tend to increase and serum Zn tend to decrease and Cu/Zn molar ratio increases significantly (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that serum Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn molar ratio could be valuable criteria for clinical evaluation and possibly follow-up study of patients with RA.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Zinc/analysis , Copper/analysis , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy/methods , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , Public Health
Invest. clín ; 53(4): 342-352, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687427


En este trabajo se evaluó un nuevo microinyector de inyección en flujo para la determinación de Cu, Mg y Zn en células mononucleares de la sangre. Este dispositivo permitió analizar muestras en el orden de microlitros mediante espectrometría de absorción atómica con llama, es fácil de construir y adaptar al inyector convencional del espectrofotómetro de absorción atómica. En la determinación de Cu, Mg y Zn se obtuvieron límites de detección de 106, 65 y 37 µg L-1,respectivamente. En las pruebas de recuperación de estos elementos en leucocitos mononucleares se encontraron porcentajes de recuperación entre 98 y 110%.

In this paper we evaluated a new micro-flow injector for the determination of the concentrations of Cu, Mg and Zn in mononuclear blood cells. This device analyzed sample volumes in the order of microliters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry; it is inexpensive, and easy to build and to adapt to the conventional injector of the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Detection limits of 106, 65 and 37 µg L-1 for Cu, Mg and Zn were obtained, respectively. The percentages of recovery tests were found between 98 and 110%.

Humans , Copper/analysis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/chemistry , Magnesium/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Zinc/analysis
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(5): 1232-1238, out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-655897


Os efeitos do uso de minerais complexados durante o pré-parto sobre a ocorrência de retenção de placenta foram avaliados em 135 vacas Holandesas de dois ou mais partos: grupo mineral iônico (69 animais) e grupo mineral complexado (66 animais). Em 55 desses animais foram também avaliadas as concentrações séricas da imunoglobulina G (IgG), Zn, Cu e a qualidade do colostro. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo em parcelas subdivididas. As concentrações séricas de IgG e dos microminerais foram avaliadas por análise de variância, sendo utilizados, respectivamente, os testes de Duncan e Fisher. A taxa de erro α admitida foi de 7%. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos para ocorrência de retenção de placenta, qualidade do colostro, concentrações séricas de Zn e IgG (P>0,07), sendo observada diferença para a concentração de Cu (P<0,07). As concentrações de IgG foram diferentes nas semanas pré-parto avaliadas (P<0,07).

The effects of the use of complex minerals on the occurrence of retained placenta during pre-partum were valued on 135 Holstein cows from two or more deliveries. The animals were divided in two groups: ionic mineral (69 animals) and complexed mineral (66 animals). In 55 of these animals serum concentrations of imunoglobulin G (IgG), Zn and Cu and colostrum quality were also evaluated. The experiment was conducted in complete randomized split-plot design, serum IgG and trace minerals were evaluated by analysis of variance and used, respectively, Duncan's test and Fisher. The α error rate of 7% was accepted. There were no differences between groups for the occurrence of retained placenta, colostrum quality and serum concentrations of Zn and IgG (P>0.07), a difference was observed for Cu (P<0.07) concentrations. The IgG concentrations were different on the weeks pre partum evaluated (P <0.07).

Animals , Cattle , Cattle/metabolism , Colostrum/analysis , Minerals , Placenta, Retained/veterinary , Copper/analysis , Zinc/analysis
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(3): 1019-1116, Sept. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659573


Nutrients cycling is a fundamental component in the functioning of forest ecosystems. Leaves of different forest species observe specific chemical composition, and some seasonal differences in biomass production, may be related to climate fluctuations and/or changes in plant phenology and the variation on nutrient contents. The objective of this study was to analyze the seasonal variability of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations in leaves of Gleditsia amorphoides (Ga); Patagonula americana (Pa); Maclura tinctoria (Mt) and Astronium balansae (Ab) from Colonia Benítez Strict Nature Reserve (Chaco, Argentina). The leaves of each forest species were collected monthly, dried at 70ºC and their weight by tree species were recorded. Samples for analytical determinations were prepared by humid oxidation of organic substances from vegetal nets, using oxidant acids such as ternary mixture of HNO3-H2SO4-HClO4. After digestion, total micronutrients leaves concentrations were determined by atomic absortion spectrophotometry. Leaves Fe highest values were detected during fall in Mt (76.1mg/kg), Pa (75.2mg/kg), Ab (59.5mg/kg) and Ga (45.3mg/kg). Highest foliar concentrations of Mn were detected in Pa (54.0mg/kg), Ga (50.0mg/kg), Mt (48.0mg/kg), and Ab with the lower Mn concentration (39.7mg/ kg). No significant differences were found for Cu between the different forest species, standing for Pa (11.3mg/ kg), Ga and Mt (11.0mg/kg) and Ab (10.4mg/kg). With regard to leaves Zn, highest concentrations were found in Mt (347.4mg/kg), Ga (319.9mg/kg), Pa (280.2mg/kg) and Ab (255.7mg/kg). Generally, a marked seasonal variation was observed for Mn and Cu concentrations (except in Ga) and Zn (except in Pa), with no statistical differences for Fe. in the species studied, the concentration of micronutrients analyzed showed a marked and erratic seasonal variation, attributed to the relationship established between the native species, and the strong influence of the environment over a long period of time, especially temperature and rainfall.

El ciclo de nutrientes es uno de los componentes fundamentales en el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas forestales. Las hojas de diferentes especies forestales muestran distinta composición química y diferencias estacionales en la producción de biomasa atribuidas a las fluctuaciones climáticas y/o cambios en la fenología de las plantas y a la variación en el contenido de nutrientes. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la variación estacional de las concentraciones de Fe, Mn, Cu y Zn en hojas de: Gleditsia amorphoides (Ga), Patagonula americana (Pa), Maclura tinctoria (Mt) and Astronium balansae (Ab). El sitio de estudio fue localizado en la Reserva Natural Estricta de Colonia Benítez (Chaco, Argentina). Las hojas de cada especie forestal fueron recogidas mensualmente, secadas a 70ºC, se determinó su peso seco y posteriormente se molió. El análisis foliar se realizó por oxidación húmeda empleando una mezcla ternaria HNO -H SO -HclO. Después de la digestión la concentración total de micronutrientes foliares fue determinada por espectrometría de absorción atómica. Las mayores concentraciones de Fe fueron para Mt (76.1mg/kg), Pa (75.2mg/kg), Ab (59.5mg/ kg) y Ga (45.3mg/kg). En Mn las más altas concentraciones se detectaron en Pa (54.0mg/kg), Ga (50.0mg/kg), Mt (48.0mg/kg), y la menor en Ab (39.7mg/kg). No se hallaron diferencias significativas entre las especies forestales para Cu foliar en Pa (11.3mg/kg), Ga y Mt (11.0mg/kg) y Ab (10.4mg/kg). Las mayores concentraciones foliares de Zn fueron en Mt (347.4mg/kg), Ga (319.9mg/kg), Pa (280.2mg/kg) y Ab (255.7mg/kg). En las especies forestales estudiadas, la concentración de los micronutrientes analizados mostraron una errática variación estacional, que puede ser atribuida a las relaciones establecidas entre las especies nativas bajo la fuerte influencia del ambiente, especialmente temperaturas y precipitaciones, durante un largo período de tiempo.

Metals, Heavy/analysis , Micronutrients/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Trees/chemistry , Argentina , Copper/analysis , Iron/analysis , Manganese/analysis , Seasons , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Zinc/analysis
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 25 (3): 639-644
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144418


In the present study, Viola betonicifolia [whole plant] and solvent fractions obtained thereof were evaluated for various micronutrients such as lead, copper, chromium, iron, nickel, zinc, cadmium, cobalt and macronutrients such as sodium, potassium and calcium using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and flame photometry respectively. It was observed that cobalt and cadmium were not detectible in tested samples while remaining nutrients were present in variable concentrations. The concentrations of all metals were compared with the recommended limits for plants and the daily consumption of all the nutrients were calculated on the basis of dose [15 g/70 kg/day or 214 mg/Kg body weight] prescribed by hakims in their practice. The concentration of chromium was far beyond the recommended limits in almost all the samples. Proximate analysis was carried out in the powdered form of the plant. Viola betonicifolia appeared as a good source of life essential nutrients like fats [18.70%], proteins [15.70%], carbohydrates [21.42%], fiber [39.01%] and vitamin C [150 mg/100 g]. In conclusion, Viola betonicifolia is an excellent source of various micro and macronutrients for human being and can be used safely as a nutritional supplement

Nutritive Value , Chromium/analysis , Copper/analysis , Iron/analysis , Lead/analysis , Metals/analysis , Micronutrients/analysis , Photometry
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119899


We measured selenium, zinc, copper and manganese concentrations in the human milk of Korean mothers who gave birth to preterm infants, and compared these measurements with the recommended daily intakes. The samples of human milk were collected postpartum at week-1, -2, -4, -6, -8, and -12, from 67 mothers who gave birth to preterm infants (< 34 weeks, or birth weight < 1.8 kg). All samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations of selenium were 11.8 +/- 0.5, 11.4 +/- 0.8, 12.7 +/- 0.9, 11.4 +/- 0.8, 10.8 +/- 0.9, and 10.5 +/- 1.3 microg/L, zinc were 7.8 +/- 0.5, 9.1 +/- 0.8, 7.2 +/- 0.9, 8.0 +/- 0.8, 7.4 +/- 0.9, and 6.6 +/- 1.2 mg/L, copper were 506 +/- 23.6, 489 +/- 29.4, 384 +/- 33.6, 356 +/- 32.9, 303 +/- 35.0, and 301 +/- 48.0 microg/L and manganese were 133 +/- 4.0, 127 +/- 6.0, 125 +/- 6.0, 123 +/- 6.0, 127 +/- 6.0, and 108 +/- 9.0 microg/L at week-1, -2, -4, -6, -8, and -12, respectively. The concentrations of selenium and zinc meet the daily requirements but that of copper is low and of manganese exceeds daily requirements recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition.

Adult , Copper/analysis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Longitudinal Studies , Manganese/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , Postpartum Period , Republic of Korea , Selenium/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Trace Elements/analysis , Zinc/analysis
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 61(3): 247-253, sep. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-698148


En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de la administración subcutánea de 250, 500 y 750 μg (10.000, 20.000 y 30.000 UI, respectivamente) de vitamina D3 (calciferol)/día durante 8 días, sobre las concentraciones séricas de vitamina D3 y de 25-hidroxivitamina D3 (25-OH-D3) y sobre las concentraciones séricas y tisulares de Ca, Zn, Cu y Fe en 45 ratas macho Wistar, de 12 semanas de edad y con pesos entre 180 y 200 gramos. El grupo control estuvo integrado por 15 ratas Wistar sanas, con género, edad y peso similares a los animales tratados. La administración del calciferol a dosis altas produjo una hipervitaminosis D que se caracterizo por un aumento en el contenido sérico de la vitamina D3 y de 25-OH-D3, diversos signos clínicos (por ejemplo, anorexia, pérdida marcada de peso, diarreas sanguinolentas, conjuntivitis bilateral y muerte), hipercalcemia, hipocincemia, hipercupremia, hipoferremia y una alteración en la distribución tisular de Ca, Zn, Cu y Fe en comparación con los controles no tratados. La hipercalcemia y la inflamación son un hallazgo prominente en la hipervitaminosis D. La inflamación o la infección inducen cambios sistémicos, conocidos colectivamente como la respuesta de fase aguda. Entre las variadas alteraciones que produce esta respuesta encontramos hipoferremia, hipocincemia e hipercupremia. Es probable que estas respuestas estén mediadas, en parte, por la producción y liberación de citocinas como la interleucina 1, interferones (IFN-alfa), la interleucina 6 (Il-6) y el factor de necrosis tumoral (TNF). El desarrollo de la hipoferremia durante la inflamación requiere de hepcidina, un péptido rico en enlaces disulfuro, regulador del metabolismo del hierro, sintetizado en el hígado en respuesta a la liberación de Il-6 durante la inflamación/infección. En conclusión, nuestros resultados proporcionan evidencias que la administración de altas dosis de vitamina D, a corto plazo, determina diversos signos clínicos, produce un marcado aumento de las concentraciones séricas de la vitamina D3 y de 25-OH-D3 y una marcada alteración en las concentraciones séricas y tisulares de Ca, Zn, Cu y Fe, que dependen de las dosis inyectadas de vitamina D.

In the present work the effect of subcutaneous administration of 250, 500 and 750 ìg (10.000, 20.000 and 30.000 IU, respectively) of vitamin D3 (calciferol) daily for eight days, on serum concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25- hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) and on serum and tissue concentrations of Ca, Zn, Cu and Fe in 45 white male Wistar rats, aged 12 weeks and weighing 180-200 g, have been studied. The group control was integrated by 15 healthy rats with similar characteristics (strain, gender, age and weight) that treated animals. Administration of high doses of calciferol produced a hypervitaminosis D characterized by a significant (p3 and 25-OH-D3, diverse clinical signs (such as, anorexia, marked loss of body weight, bloody diarrhea, bilateral conjunctivitis, and death), hypercalcemia, hypozincaemia, hypercupremia, hypoferraemia and an alteration in the tissue distribution of Ca, Zn, Cu and Fe as compared with untreated controls. Hypercalcemia and inflammation are prominent findings in hypervitaminosis D. Inflammation or infection induce systemic changes, collectively known as the acute phase response. Among the varied alterations that together produce this response are hypoferraemia, hypozincaemia and hypercupremia. It is likely that these responses are mediated, in part, by production and release of cytokines such as interleukin 1, interferons (IFN-alpha), interleukin 6 (Il-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The development of hypoferraemia during inflammation requires hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, a disulfide-rich peptide, produced in the liver in response to the release of Il-6 during inflammation/ infection. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that short-term administration of high doses of vitamin D determined diverse clinical signs and produced a marked increase of serum vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 and a marked alteration in the serum and tissue concentrations of Ca, Zn, Cu, and Fe. These changes depend on the doses given of vitamin D.

Animals , Male , Rats , Calcifediol/analogs & derivatives , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Kidney/chemistry , Liver/chemistry , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Calcifediol/blood , Calcium/analysis , Cholecalciferol/adverse effects , Cholecalciferol/pharmacokinetics , Copper/analysis , Hypercalcemia/blood , Hypercalcemia/chemically induced , Injections, Subcutaneous , Iron/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Vitamins/adverse effects , Vitamins/pharmacokinetics , Zinc/analysis