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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888183

ABSTRACT

In this study, data of amino acids of Cordyceps samples from Qinghai and Tibet was analyzed with self-organizing map neural network. A model of XY-Fused network was established with the content of 8 major amino acids and total amino acids for the identification of geographical origins of Cordyceps from Qinghai and Tibet. It had the prediction accuracy of 83.3% for the test set. In addition, data mining indicated that methionine was a special kind of amino acid in Cordyceps which could serve as a marker to identify its geographical origins. On this basis, the content ratio of methionine to total amino acids was proposed to be a quantifiable indicator to distinguish Cordyceps from Qinghai and Tibet.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Cordyceps/genetics , Geography , Neural Networks, Computer , Tibet
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3334-3347, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921429

ABSTRACT

Cordycepin is the key active component of medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris, and it shows multiple functional activities such as anti-tumor and anti-virus. Cordycepin was conventionally produced by liquid fermentation of C. militaris, but the long production cycle and the low productivity constrained its development and application. In this study, two key genes for cordycepin biosynthesis (ScCNS1 and ScCNS2) were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C, producing 67.32 mg/L cordycepin at 240 h. Analysis of gene expression profiles indicated that ZWF1, PRS4, ADE4, ScCNS1 and ScCNS2 which encode enzymes involved in pentose phosphate pathway, purine metabolism and cordycepin biosynthesis pathway, were significantly up-regulated in the late phage of fermentation. Optimization of fermentation medium determined that 50 g/L initial glucose followed by feeding, supplemented with 5 mmol/L Cu²⁺ and 1.0 g/L adenine were the best condition. Fed-batch fermentation using the engineered yeast in a 5 L stirred fermenter produced 137.27 mg/L cordycepin at 144 h, with a productivity up to 0.95 mg/(L·h) reached, which was 240% higher than that of the control.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps , Culture Media , Deoxyadenosines , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888050

ABSTRACT

To obtain the difference of the fungal and bacterial community diversity between wild Cordyceps sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil, Illmina Hiseq high-throughput sequencing technology was applied. The results show that Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in C. sinensis, Actinobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in soil microhabitat, Ophiocordyceps sinensis was the predominant dominant fungus of C. sinensis. The α diversity analysis showed that the fungal diversity of stroma was lower than other parts, and the fungal diversity of wild C. sinensis was lower than that of artificial C. sinensis. The β diversity analysis showed that the fungal and bacterial community diversity of soil microhabitat samples was significantly different from that of C. sinensis. The fungal community diversity was less different between wild and artificial C. sinensis, especially in sclerotia. LEfSe analysis showed a lot of species diversity between wild and artificial C. sinensis. Those different species between wild C. sinensis, artificial C. sinensis and their habitat soil provide ideas for further research on breed and components of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Soil , Soil Microbiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922777

ABSTRACT

An eco-friendly and fast HPLC method was developed for the determination of adenosine, inosine, guanosine and uridine in Cordyceps and related products (fermented mycelia of Hirsutella sinensis andPaecilomyces hepiali). The sample was ultrasonically extracted using 0.5% phosphoric acid solutions for 2.5 min. Sample separation was performed on a Poroshell SB-Aq column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm) using eco-friendly mobile phase consisting of formic acid and ammonium formate aqueous solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cordyceps , Nucleosides
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922774

ABSTRACT

This work was aimed to establish a quality control method for evaluating the effects on glucose and lipids of the fruiting body of Isaria cicadae Miquel from strain Ic-17-7 (Ic-17-7fb) using a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence-characterized amplified region, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for the quality control of Ic-17-7fb. The pharmacological effects on streptozocin (STZ)-induced high fat diet (HFD)-fed Albino Wistar rats were evaluated. The rats underwent the following treatments: control, metformin, Ic-17-7fb (0.166 and 0.5 g·kg


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Cordyceps , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Metformin , Quality Control , Rats , Rats, Wistar
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1293-1304, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826847

ABSTRACT

Cordycepin as the main active ingredient of Cordyceps militaris, a traditional medicinal fungus in China, has many physiological functions such as anti-cancer, anti-tumor and anti-virus activity. The most potential route for effective cordycepin production has been considered as liquid fermentation of C. militaris though with low productivity at present. Thus, it is urgent to apply both process engineering strategy and metabolic engineering strategy to enhance the productivity of cordycepin. In this review, the effects of medium components (i.e. the carbon/nitrogen source, precursor substances and metal ions) and operation factors (i.e. pH, dissolved oxygen and light) on cordycepin biosynthesis in liquid fermentation system are summarized. Besides, separation of cordycepin, the gene cluster involved and predicted biosynthesis pathways of cordycepin are also discussed, providing possible solutions of finally realizing efficient production of cordycepin.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , China , Cordyceps , Deoxyadenosines , Genetics , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18470, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142494

ABSTRACT

Docetaxel-loaded acetic acid conjugated Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide (DTX-AA-CSP) nanoparticles were prepared through dialysis and their release rates in vitro, particle sizes, zeta potentials, drug loading capacities, and encapsulation efficiencies were characterized for the synthesis of AA-modified CSPs from traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Then, the AA-modified CSPs were characterized by 1H-NMR and FT-IR. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the delivery carrier (AA-CSP nanoparticles) was assessed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vitro antitumor activity studies on DTX-AA-CSP nanoparticles were conducted on the human liver (HepG2) and colon cancer cells (SW480). The DTX-AA-CSP nanoparticles were spherical and had an average size of 98.91±0.29 nm and zeta potential within the −19.75±1.13 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 80.95%±0.43% and 8.09%±0.04%, respectively. In vitro, DTX from the DTX-AA-CSP nanoparticles exhibited a sustained release, and the anticancer activities of DTX-AA-CSP nanoparticles against SW480 and HepG2 were significantly higher than those of marketed docetaxel injection (Taxotere®) in nearly all the tested concentrations. The AA-CSP nanoparticles showed good biocompatibility. This study provided a promising biocompatible delivery system for carrying antitumor drugs for cancer therapy


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Cordyceps/classification , Nanoparticles/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Antineoplastic Agents
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774562

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis(MCs)improving renal tubular epithelial cells aging induced by D-galactose,the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells(NRK-52E cells)of rats in vitro were divided into the normal group(N),the D-gal model group(D),the low dose of MCs group(L-MCs),the medium dose of MCs group(M-MCs)and the high dose of MCs group(H-MCs),and treated by the different measures,respectively.More specifically,the NRK-52E cells in each group were separately treated by 1%fetal bovine serum(FBS)or D-galactose(D-gal,100 mmol·L~(-1))or D-gal(100 mmol·L~(-1))+MCs(20 mg·L~(-1))or D-gal(100 mmol·L~(-1))+MCs(40 mg·L~(-1))or D-gal(100 mmol·L~(-1))+MCs(80 mg·L~(-1)).After the intervention for24 h or 48 h,firstly,the effects of D-gal on the protein expression levels of klotho,P27 and P16,the staining of senescence-associatedβ-galactosidase(SA-β-gal)and the activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase(AMPK)/uncoordinated 51-like kinase 1(ULK1)signaling in the NRK-52E cells were detected,respectively.Secondly,the effects of MCs on the activation of the NRK-52E cells proliferation were investigated,respectively.Finally,the effects of MCs on the protein expression levels of klotho,P27,P16and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3),the staining of SA-β-gal and the activation of AMPK/ULK1 signaling in the NRK-52E cells exposed to D-gal were examined severally.The results indicated that,for the NRK-52E cells,D-gal could cause aging,induce the protein over-expression levels of the phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK)and the phosphorylated ULK1(p-ULK1)and activate AMPK/ULK1 signaling pathway.The co-treatment of MCs at the medium and high doses and D-gal could significantly ameliorate the protein expression levels of klotho,P27,P16 and the staining of SA-β-gal,suggesting the anti-cell aging actions.In addition,the cotreatment of MCs at the medium and high doses and D-gal could obviously improve the protein expression levels of LC3,p-AMPK,and p-ULK1,inhibit the activation of AMPK/ULK1 signaling and increase autophagy.On the whole,for the renal tubular epithelial cells aging models induced by D-gal,MCs not only has the in vitro actions of anti-aging,but also intervenes aging process by inhibiting autophagy-related AMPK/ULK1 signaling activation,which may be the novel molecular mechanisms of MCs protecting against aging of the renal tubular epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Cordyceps , Epithelial Cells , Galactose , Mycelium , Rats
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774521

ABSTRACT

Commonly used dosage forms of fermented Cordyceps powder products are capsules and tablets. The hygroscopicity of the powder,as one of the important parameters in the tableting process,has important effects on the tabletting process of the tablets. How to improve the hygroscopicity of powder is of great significance for the development of new composite particles. Therefore,particle design technology was used in this study to prepare composite particle powder,and its hygroscopicity was compared with fermented Cordyceps powder and physically mixed powder. By preparing three different types of powders,the equilibrium moisture absorption,particle size,scanning electron micrograph,angle of repose,contact angle and compression degree were compared to observe the effect of traditional Chinese medicine particle design technology on improving the hygroscopicity of the fermented Cordyceps powder. The results showed that the equilibrium moisture absorption was 21. 2%,19. 6%,14. 5% respectively for the fermented Cordyceps powder,physically mixed powder and composite particle powder; the median diameter was(49. 751± 0. 280),(59. 183± 0. 170),(12. 842±0. 080) μm,respectively; the mode diameter was(185. 479±1. 372),(173. 964± 1. 104),(61. 671± 0. 979) μm,respectively. In the scanning electron micrograph of the composite particle powder,it can be clearly seen that the fermented Cordyceps powder had hydrophobic gas phase nano-silica with a fixed shape and uniform size. The angle of repose was(50. 63 ± 0. 75) °,(49. 25 ± 0. 43) °,(48. 33±0. 84) ° respectively; the contact angle was(7. 4±0. 2) °,(8. 2±0. 3) °,(15. 0±2. 6) ° respectively; and the compression degree was(38. 2±1. 3) %,(35. 8±0. 2) %,(32. 5±2. 6) % respectively. This study showed that after treatment by the vibrating ultrafine pulverizer,the fermented Cordyceps powder particles had obvious and uniform small particle hydrophobic gas phase nano-silica adhered to form a partially wrapped coating structure,which reduced the contact surface of fermented Cordyceps powder with the outside world,thereby reducing the hygroscopicity of the composite particle powder. It further demonstrated that the hygroscopicity of fermented Cordyceps powder can be improved by particle design.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps , Fermentation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Particle Size , Powders , Wettability
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 667-676, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771343

ABSTRACT

Cordyceps militaris exopolysaccharides (EPS) have many pharmacological activities such as boosting immunity and antifatigue. To obtain EPS efficiently, we added moderate Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder as inducer to the fermentation medium to promote the production of Cordyceps militaris EPS and studied the infrared absorption spectrum and antioxidant activities of the EPS after optimization. The optimum liquid fermentation conditions were as follows: addition of Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder of 8 g/L, fermentation duration of 9 d, initial pH of 6.5, inoculation quantity of 5.0 mL. Under such a condition, the yield of Cordyceps militaris EPS reached (5.24±0.28) mg/mL, increased by 205.20% compared to the control group without adding Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder. Results of infrared analysis and antioxidant activity showed that the Vernonia amygdalina leaves had little effect on the structure and activities of Cordyceps militaris EPS. The results of this research suggest that Vernonia amygdalina leaf can enhance the production of Cordyceps militaris EPS effectively, and provides a novel method for efficient production of EPS in Cordyceps militaris.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cordyceps , Plant Leaves , Polysaccharides , Vernonia
11.
Zamorano; s.n; 2019. 1-36 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1140534

ABSTRACT

El uso de antioxidantes contribuye a disminuir el deterioro de los alimentos. Una práctica común en la actualidad es el uso de aditivos alimentarios de origen sintético, como el butilhidroxitolueno (BHT) y butilhidroxianisol (BHA). El hongo Cordyceps sinensis es ampliamente usado en la medicina asiática y se ha encontrado que aporta múltiples beneficios. Con el fin de evaluar la capacidad antioxidante de este hongo como aditivo alimentario, se obtuvieron extractos a partir de harina de C. sinensis, utilizando extracto acuoso (T1), etanólico (T2), acuoso-etanólico (T3) y acuoso a 50 °C (T4) (en una relación soluto/solvente de 100 g/900 mL c/u). Para la harina se determinó la composición química proximal, obteniendo alto contenido de carbohidratos (80%), y valores bajos de humedad, proteína, grasa y cenizas (<10%). Se determinó el contenido de fitoquímicos, incluyendo contenido de polisacáridos totales (CPT), fenoles totales (CFT), flavonoides totales (CFvT), flavonas y flavonoles totales (CFFT), flavanonas y dihidroflavonoles totales (CFDT), y ácido clorogénico (CAC). Además, actividad antirradical DPPH y ABTS, así como poder reductor (PR). Los resultados indicaron que el extracto T3, seguido del extracto T1, presentaron la mayor capacidad antioxidante (DPPH. ABTS y PR), lo cual fue asociado con el CFT, CFFT, y CFDT, así como CPT, CFvT y CAC, respectivamente. Se recomienda evaluar el efecto de la adición de los extractos obtenidos de la harina de C. sinensis sobre la estabilidad oxidativa y microbiológica de productos cárnicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenols , Cordyceps/chemistry , Flavanones , Flavonols , Food Additives , Phytochemicals , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Upper respiratory tract infections are major causes of the common cold throughout the world. Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) is a well-known functional food for its anti-fatigue and immunomodulating activities. On the other hand, there are no reports on the protective effect against upper respiratory tract infections (URI). This study was a 12 week randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial in healthy volunteers. METHODS: A total of 100 subjects 20 ~ 70 years of age with a history of at least two colds in the year were enrolled in the study. The participants were required to record any adverse events and rate any cold-related incidents in a diary during the investigation period. The efficacy end point was the symptoms and incidence of URI, and changes in cytokines, IgA and natural killer (NK) cell activity. RESULTS: The Cordyceps militaris group over 12 weeks showed no significant impact on the incidence and symptomatology of URI compared to the placebo group. On the other hand, the experimental group showed significantly higher NK cell activity (p = 0.047) and IgA level (p = 0.035) compared to the placebo group. The NK-cell activity and IgA level were increased significantly by Cordyceps militaris over 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: The results suggest the possible beneficial immunomodulating effects, but the protective effects on URI could not be demonstrated under these conditions. Additional research will be needed to determine the efficacy and mechanisms of Cordyceps militaris function.


Subject(s)
Adult , Common Cold , Cordyceps , Cytokines , Functional Food , Hand , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Incidence , Killer Cells, Natural , Respiratory Tract Infections
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773141

ABSTRACT

Cordyceps is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. There are various counterfeits in markets because of high price and limited output. In this study,116 Cordyceps,146 hosts and 29 related products were collected and detected by using normal DNA barcoding technology and specific PCR method. The results indicated that Cordyceps and its adulterants could be distinguished from each other through DNA barcoding technology based on ITS and COⅠsequences. Two pairs specific primers ITSSF1/ITSSR1 and ITSSF2/ITSSR2 were developed to amplify 297 bp and 136 bp ITS regions of Cordyceps sinensis,respectively. It could be used to identify C. sinensis specifically and rapidly. Furthermore,specific primers ITSSF1/ITSSR1 and ITSSF2/ITSSR2 combined with ITS and COⅠsequences could differentiate powder Cordyceps from fermentation mycelia and could identify related products. Therefore,the method developed from this study could be applied to identify the powder of Cordyceps from fermentation mycelia and related products efficiently.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps , Classification , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA Primers , Mycelium , Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773140

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to compare the influence of freeze-drying and sun-drying on six main nucleosides and nucleobases of Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC. Hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were reference substances. HPLC analysis was performed on a GL Inertsustain AQ-C_(18) column( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),with mobile phase consisting of water( A)-acetonitrile( B) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min~(-1)( 0-10 min,0-1% B; 10-65 min,1%-3% B). The detection wavelength was 260 nm,the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃,and the injection volume was 5 μL. The linear ranges of hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were 1. 025-20. 50( r = 0. 999 8),0. 545-10. 90( r = 0. 999 9),4. 051-81. 02( r = 0. 999 8),4. 044-80. 88( r= 0. 999 9),2. 075-41. 50( r= 0. 999 9),4. 032-80. 64( r = 0. 999 9) mg·L~(-1),respectively. The average recoveries of them( n = 6)were as follows: 102. 3%( RSD 2. 1%),101. 1%( RSD 2. 4%),97. 80%( RSD 1. 7%),101. 8%( RSD 1. 8%),98. 90%( RSD2. 0%) and 98. 10%( RSD 1. 4%),respectively. Each sample was processed by freeze-drying and sun-drying so as to compare the difference between the two drying methods. The contents of six index ingredients were significantly different between freeze-drying and sun-drying sample of C. sinensis. The total contents of six index ingredients in sun-drying sample were higher than that in the corresponding freeze-drying sample. This research results provide the scientific basis for the drying methods and quality evaluation of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cordyceps , Chemistry , Desiccation , Freeze Drying , Nucleosides
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773139

ABSTRACT

Online gradient extraction-high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of high and low polar components in Cordyceps. The sample powder of Cordyceps was uniformly mixed with diatomaceous earth,packed into extraction tank,and installed into the HPLC system. Online gradient extraction was conducted with mobile phase at 70 ℃. The separation was performed on Zorbax SB-AQ( 4. 6 mm×150 mm,5 μm) column with 0. 1% formic acid solution-methanol as the mobile phase for gradient elution at 1. 0 mL·min~(-1). The column temperature was 30 ℃,and detection wavelength was set at 260 nm. The results showed that the high and low polar components in Cordyceps could be simultaneously extracted and separated by the developed method. Meanwhile,six high polar compounds( uracil,uridine,thymine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine) and one low polar compound( ergosterol) were identified by comparison with the reference peaks. The established method is rapid,stable and environment friendly,which is helpful to improve the quality evaluation level for Cordyceps.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cordyceps , Chemistry , Ergosterol , Nucleosides
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773138

ABSTRACT

In this study,the protein in different Cordyceps samples,which include fresh sample( S1),22 ℃ drying sample( S2),37 ℃ drying sample( S3) and 60 ℃ drying sample( S4),were analyzed by sodium dodecylsupinate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis( SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis( 2-DE). The total protein contents in Cordyceps samples were from 1. 655-4. 493 mg·g~(-1) and the protein contents in fresh sample was the highest. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that the mainly ranges of protein molecular weight of Cordyces samples were 10-100 kDa and the numbers of protein bands were 28 to 41,the fresh sample had the maximum number of protein bands. The 2-DE profiles were analyzed by PDQuest software. The resulted indicated that 488-876 protein spots were detected in different Cordyceps samples and the isoelectric point( pI) was distributed between 4. 5 and 6. 5,the protein molecular weight was distributed in 10-20 kDa and 25-100 kDa,the fresh sample had the maximum number of protein spots. Therefore,the drying process could decrease contents and species of protein in Cordyceps,and the different drying conditions had different effects on protein. These results provide a reference for improving the drying process of Cordyceps.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps , Chemistry , Desiccation , Methods , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fungal Proteins , Molecular Weight
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl (·OH), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is reported to induce oxidative stress. ROS generated by oxidative stress can potentially damage glial cells in the nervous system. Cordyceps militaris (CM), a kind of natural herb widely found in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the free radical scavenging activity of the CM extract and its neuroprotective effects in H2O2-induced C6 glial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: The ethanol extract of CM (100–1,000 µg/mL) was used to measure DPPH, ·OH, and NO radical scavenging activities. In addition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced C6 glial cells were treated with CM at 0.5–2.5 µg/mL for measurement of cell viability, ROS production, and protein expression resulting from oxidative stress. RESULTS: The CM extract showed high scavenging activities against DPPH, ·OH, and NO radicals at concentration of 1,000 µg/mL. Treatment of CM with H2O2-induced oxidative stress in C6 glial cells significantly increased cell viability, and decreased ROS production. Cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was down-regulated in CM-treated groups. In addition, the protein expression level of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK), phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) in H2O2-induced C6 glial cells was down-regulated upon CM administration. CONCLUSION: CM exhibited radical scavenging activity and protective effect against H2O2 as indicated by the increased cell viability, decreased ROS production, down-regulation of inflammation-related proteins as well as p-p38, p-JNK, and p-ERK protein levels. Therefore, we suggest that CM could play the protective role from oxidative stress in glial cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Cordyceps , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Down-Regulation , Ethanol , Far East , Free Radicals , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , In Vitro Techniques , Nervous System , Neuroglia , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Reactive Oxygen Species
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 621-631, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951813

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cordyceps militaris 202 is a potential fungus for biotransformation zein, due to its various proteases, high tolerance and viability in nature. In this article, single factor experiment and response surface methodology were applied to optimize the liquid fermentation conditions and improve the ability of biotransformation zein. The optimized fermentation conditions were as follows: inoculum concentration of 19%, volume of liquor of 130 mL/500 mL and pH of 4.7. Under this condition, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 27.31%. The zein hydrolysates from fungi fermentation maintained a high thermal stability. Compared to the original zein, the zein hydrolysates were found to have high solubility, which most likely results in improved foaming and emulsifying properties. Overall, this research demonstrates that hydrolysis of zein by C. militaris 202 is a potential method for improving the functional properties of zein, and the zein hydrolysates can be used as functional ingredients with an increased antioxidant effect in both food and non-food applications.


Subject(s)
Zein/metabolism , Zein/chemistry , Cordyceps/metabolism , Batch Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Protein Hydrolysates/metabolism , Protein Hydrolysates/chemistry , Solubility , Biotransformation , Fermentation , Hydrolysis
19.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 627-634, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689708

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Objective</b>To screen out an effective substitute in the prescription of Shengjing Capsules (SJC), observe the effects of the redeveloped New SJC (NSJC) with cordyceps cephalosporium mycelia (CCM) substituted for the ingredient cordyceps sinensis in the treatment of spermatogenesis impairment (SI), and provide some experimental evidence for its application in the treatment of male infertility and sexual dysfunction.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We equally randomized 192 male mice into 16 groups: normal saline control, SI model, high-, medium- and low-dose fermented cordycepin powder (FCP, 1.60, 0.80 and 0.40 g/kg), high-, medium- and low-dose CCM (1.60, 0.80 and 0.40 g/kg), high-, medium- and low-dose cordyceps mortierella mycelia (CMM, 1.60, 0.80 and 0.40 g/kg), high-, medium- and low-dose fermented cordyceps sinensis (FCS, 1.60, 0.80 and 0.40 g/kg), SJC (0.80 g/kg), and vitamin E (VE, 0.25 g/kg), with the SI model established in all the mice and the normal controls injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide at 60 mg/kg qd for 5 consecutive days. After intragastrical medication with respective drugs, we obtained the body mass index (BMI), sexual organ coefficient, sperm count, sperm motility, and percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm (MAS) of the mice. We also randomly divided 70 male rats into 7 groups of equal number: normal control, SI model, high-, medium- and low-dose NSJC (1.12, 0.56 and 0.28 g/kg), SJC (0.56 g/kg), and VE (0.18 g/kg), the SI model constructed in the latter 6 groups of rats by gavage of adenine at 200 mg/kg qd for 5 consecutive days. After intragastrical medication with respective drugs, we examined the BMI, coefficients of sexual and renal organs, levels of reproductive hormones, testicular morphology, and fertility of the animals.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After medication, the mice in different groups showed different degrees of improvement in the cyclophosphamide-induced slow growth, significant increases in the testicular and epididymal coefficients, sperm count, motility and viability (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and a remarkable reduction in the percentage of MAS (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The effect was particularly significant in the CCM group and therefore CCM was chosen as the best substitute ingredient in the redeveloped NSJC. Compared with the rats in other groups, those treated with NSJC exhibited significant increases in the BMI, coefficients of sexual and renal organs and levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), improvement of the pathologically damaged testicular morphology, elevation of the pregnancy rate and litter size, and recovery from adenine-induced SI.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The redeveloped New Shengjing Capsules with cordyceps cephalosporium mycelia substituted for the ingredient cordyceps sinensis can improve fertility and reverse spermatogenesis impairment in male rats. The new prescription may also be applied to the clinical treatment of male infertility and sexual dysfunction.</p>


Subject(s)
Acremonium , Animals , Capsules , Cordyceps , Cyclophosphamide , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epididymis , Estradiol , Blood , Fertility , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Blood , Infertility, Male , Therapeutics , Luteinizing Hormone , Blood , Male , Mycelium , Random Allocation , Rats , Species Specificity , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatogenesis , Spermatozoa , Testis , Testosterone , Blood
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771714

ABSTRACT

There are five kinds of fermented Cordyceps crude drug and their preparations that have been approved as medicine on the market. Since the initial strains of the crude drug were all isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis, they have similar names, chemical components and even clinical applications. However, because of the different strain species and fermentation processes, there was significant difference in quality. As a result, they should be clearly distinguished in clinical use. Most of the products were researched and developed during the 1980s and 1990s, so there was difference in quality standards for different products, and their quality control levels of some products were not perfect. At present, some of the products are approved as Chinese medicine, others are approved as chemical drugs, with a confusion in products name, management and clinical application. In this paper, the approval numbers, quality standards and clinical applications, and current problems of these products were summarized and compared; some suggestions were put forward, such as standardizing the product name, unifying the management of approval number category, and increasing the specific quality control attributes, in order to provide reference for standard implementation, quality control and drug regulation for fermented Cordyceps crude drugs and their preparations.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Reference Standards , Cordyceps , Chemistry , Fermentation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Quality Control
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