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3.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253834

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: O fluxo coronariano com predomínio diastólico aumenta duas a cinco vezes na hiperemia, mediada por vasodilatação (reserva de fluxo coronariano), podendo, na hipertrofia, ocorrer isquemia relativa. Na hipertrofia secundária, o fluxo em repouso torna-se isquêmico pelo aumento da demanda. Na cardiomiopatia hipertrófica com fibrose perivascular, há funcionalização de vasos colaterais, para aumentar a irrigação dos segmentos hipertrofiados. Objetivo: Determinar o padrão do fluxo coronariano em pacientes com hipertrofia secundária e cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, avaliando a reserva de fluxo coronariano. Métodos: Avaliamos o fluxo coronariano em 34 pacientes com hipertrofia secundária, em 24 com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica e em 16 controles. A artéria descendente anterior foi detectada com Doppler transtorácico com calibração adequada do equipamento. Nos grupos controle e com hipertrofia secundária, foi calculada a reserva de fluxo coronariano com dipiridamol (0,84 mg/kg) endovenoso. O mesmo procedimento foi realizado em seis pacientes do grupo com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, nos quais também foi avaliado o fluxo das colaterais da região hipertrófica. Os dados foram comparados por variância com significância de 5%. Resultados: Na hipertrofia secundária, houve aumento do índice de massa e, na cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, predominou o aumento da espessura relativa. A fração de ejeção e a disfunção diastólica foram maiores no grupo com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica. A reserva de fluxo coronariano foi menor no grupo com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, sendo detectado, também, fluxo de colaterais com redução da reserva de fluxo coronariano. Conclusão: A análise da circulação coronariana com Doppler transtorácico é possível em indivíduos normais e hipertróficos. Pacientes com hipertrofia secundária e cardiomiopatia hipertrófica apresentam diminuição da reserva de fluxo coronariano, e aqueles com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica mostram fluxo de vasos colaterais dilatados observados na região hipertrófica, com diminuição da reserva de fluxo coronariano.(AU)


Background: Coronary flow with a diastolic predominance increases two to five times in hyperemia, mediated by vasodilation (coronary flow reserve, CFR) and, in hypertrophy, relative ischemia may occur. In secondary hypertrophy (LVH), the flow, normal at rest, becomes ischemic due to increased demand. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with perivascular fibrosis, collateral vessels appear to increase the irrigation of hypertrophied segments. Objective: To determine the coronary flow pattern in patients with secondary hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, evaluating the coronary flow reserve. Methods: Coronary flow was evaluated in 34 patients with secondary hypertrophy, 24 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in 16 controls. The anterior descending artery was detected with transthoracic Doppler with adequate equipment calibration. In the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group, the flow of collaterals from the hypertrophic region was evaluated. In the control and secondary hypertrophy groups and in six patients in the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group, the intravenous dipyridamole (0.84 mg) coronary flow reserve was calculated. The data were compared by variance with a significance of 5%Results: In secondary hypertrophy there was an increase in mass index and blood pressure, and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy an increase in relative thickness predominated. Ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction were higher in the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group. The coronary flow reserve was lower in the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group, and flow of collaterals was also detected, with a reduction in the coronary flow reserve. Conclusion: the analysis of coronary circulation with transthoracic Doppler is possible in normal and hypertrophic individuals. Patients with secondary hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a decrease in the coronary flow reserve, and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy show a hyper flow of dilated collateral vessels observed in the hypertrophic region, with a decrease in the coronary flow reserve.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Angiography/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color/methods , Dipyridamole/administration & dosage , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Aminophylline/administration & dosage
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1797-1802, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134513

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Thorough knowledge and understanding of coronary arteries and their anatomy is essential when performing cardiac surgery such as a coronary bypass. Coronary angiography is a minimally invasive method used to evaluate the anatomy and obtain different measurements of the coronary arteries. This study was designed to evaluate the endoluminal diameter, trunk length and anatomical distribution of coronary arteries in Chilean subjects without apparent angiographic lesions. Measurements were carried out by 3 trained examiners using Leonardo® software program in 238 Chilean subjects of both sexes with an age-range of 45 to 78 years. Ostium and the distal luminal segments diameters were measured, as well as trunk length of both right and left coronary arteries. Ostium of the anterior interventricular artery, dominance and tortuosity were also registered. In the right coronary artery, the diameters (3.8 ± 1.2 mm and 3.6 ± 1.0 mm) differed according to sex and dominance, and the length (35.2 ± 12.5 mm) differed according to age. In the left coronary artery, the diameters (4.9 ± 1.1 mm and 4.7 ± 1.0 mm) were greater in males than in females. The left coronary artery showed greater diameters and length than the right coronary artery. The prevalence of right arterial dominance was 88.0 %. Patients with right arterial dominance presented greater distal caliber in the right coronary artery than those with left arterial dominance (p<0.05), especially in older patients. Significant arterial tortuosity was observed in seven subjects.


RESUMEN: Un factor clave durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos cardiacos tal como el bypass coronario, es el conocimiento exhaustivo de las arterias coronarias y su anatomía. La angiografía coronaria es un método mínimamente invasivo que se utiliza para evaluar la anatomía y obtener diferentes medidas. El presente estudio fue diseñado para evaluar el diámetro endoluminal, la longitud del tronco y la distribución anatómica de las arterias coronarias en sujetos chilenos sin lesiones angiográficas significativas. Las mediciones fueron realizadas en 238 sujetos chilenos de ambos sexos con un rango etario entre 45 a 78 años. Tres examinadores preparados llevaron a cabo las mediciones utilizando el software Leonardo®. Se midieron los ostios y los diámetros luminales distales de los troncos coronarios derecho e izquierdo, como también las longitudes del tronco de las arterias coronarias derecha e izquierda. Además, se identificaron los ostios de la arteria interventricular anterior, dominancia y tortuosidad. En la arteria coronaria derecha, los diámetros (3,8 ± 1,2 mm y 3,6 ± 1,0 mm) se observaron variaciones según el sexo y la dominancia, y la longitud (35,2 ± 12,5 mm) difirió según la edad. En la arteria coronaria izquierda, los diámetros (4,9 ± 1,1 mm y 4,7 ± 1,0 mm) fueron mayores en los hombres que en las mujeres. La arteria coronaria izquierda mostró mayor diámetro y longitud que la arteria coronaria derecha. La prevalencia de dominancia arterial derecha fue del 88,0 %. Los pacientes con dominancia arterial derecha presentaron mayor calibre distal en la arteria coronaria derecha que aquellos con dominancia arterial izquierda (p <0,05), especialmente en pacientes mayores. En siete sujetos se observó una tortuosidad arterial significativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Chile , Retrospective Studies
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 253-270, jun. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125077

ABSTRACT

Una de cada 4 coronariografías realizadas por isquemia miocárdica presenta lesiones menores al 50% Este dato desencadenó un creciente interés en la comunidad médica. La Sociedad Americana de Cardiología publicó recientemente un artículo que describe la posición consensuada de un grupo de expertos sobre la fisiopatología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta entidad. Nuestro trabajo refleja una revisión narrativa y la posición de un grupo de expertos pertenecientes a diferentes instituciones con servicios de Cardiología jerarquizados. Aborda aspectos fisiopatológicos y diagnósticos para comprender el enfoque actual del tratamiento, tanto en pacientes que ingresan con diagnóstico de MINOCA (infa rto de miocardio con lesiones angiográficas no graves) o de INOCA (angina e isquemia demostradas, pero sin lesiones coronarias que justifiquen este síndrome).


One in every four coronarographies performed to study myocardial ischemia shows coronary angiographic stenosis less than 50%. This data triggered an increasing interest in the medical community. The American Society of Cardiology recently published a position paper about the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this entity. Our group performed a narrative review reflecting the opinion of cardiology experts from different centers in Argentina. It aims physiopatologic and diagnostic aspect to understand the current approach in patients with MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries) e INOCA (demonstrated angina and ischemia but without coronary lesions that justify this syndrome).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Decision-Making , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cineangiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging
6.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(2): e441, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126591

ABSTRACT

Objective: to share our experience in the radial distal approach to perform coronary angiography and / or dilation of coronary stenosis. The initial results are exposed in the access of the distal radial artery or in the so-called anatomical "snuff box". Methods: The left or right radial distal artery was used as an access site in 6 patients admitted to the Institute of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery for coronary angiography and dilatation of coronary stenosis between May 6 and June 6 of 2019. All with pulse present in their distal radial artery. In the laboratory, they had the access arm flexed with respect to the homolateral shoulder so that the hand was placed on their contralateral groin. In all cases, the operator was placed on the right side of the patient, to perform coronary angiography and / or dilation of coronary stenosis. During the hospital stay, the main demographic characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: the average age of the patients was 72 +/- 10 years and 83.3 percent were men. We use the Judkins and Amplatz 6 and 5 French catheters for the procedures. Five admitted with the diagnosis of angina and one with severe aortic valve stenosis. In 5 patients, distal transradial coronary angiography was successfully performed. Only one patient experienced distal radial spasm, using in this case the ipsilateral proximal radial access, without making it necessary to approach the femoral artery. In total, 4 patients had coronary intervention, performing successfully in the 4 patients. The right coronary artery was the artery that required most of the intervention (3 patients). There were no cases of occlusion of the radial arteries, no hematoma of the hand, of the B.A.R.C scale greater than 1 was observed in any patient. Numbness of the hand was documented in none. The radial introducer was removed at the end of the procedure. Hemostasis was achieved with manual compression. Conclusion: the distal radial approach is feasible in a selected group of patients as a procedure for coronary angiography and dilatation of coronary stenosis(AU)


Objetivo: compartir nuestra experiencia en el abordaje radial distal para realizar la angiografía coronaria y/o la dilatación de la estenosis coronaria. Se exponen los resultados iniciales en el acceso de la arteria radial distal o en la llamada "tabaquera" anatómica. Métodos: se utilizó la arteria radial distal izquierda o derecha como sitio de acceso en 6 pacientes ingresados en el Instituto de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular para angiografía coronaria y dilatación de estenosis coronaria del 6 de mayo al 6 de junio de 2019. Todos los pacientes tenían pulso en la arteria radial distal. En el laboratorio, se les flexionó el brazo de acceso con respecto al hombro homolateral de modo que la mano descansara sobre la ingle contralateral. En todos los casos, el técnico se situó a la derecha del paciente para realizar la angiografía coronaria y/o dilatación de la estenosis coronaria. Durante la estancia de los pacientes en el hospital, se registraron sus principales características demográficas y complicaciones. Resultados: la edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 72 +/- 10 años y 83,3 por ciento eran hombres. Usamos catéteres franceses Judkins y Amplatz 6 y 5 para los procedimientos. Cinco pacientes habían sido ingresados con un diagnóstico de angina y uno con estenosis valvular aórtica severa. La angiografía coronaria transradial distal fue exitosa en 5 pacientes. Solo un paciente experimentó un espasmo distal radial, usándose en ese caso el acceso radial proximal ipsilateral sin que fuera necesario abordar la arteria femoral. Un total de 4 pacientes se sometieron a intervención coronaria, la que fue exitosa en los 4. La arteria coronaria derecha fue la que requirió la mayor parte de la intervención (3 pacientes). No hubo ningún caso de oclusión de las arterias radiales ni de hematoma de la mano. Tampoco se observó un valor de la escala BARC mayor de 1 en ningún paciente. No se documentó entumecimiento de la mano en ningún paciente. El introductor radial se retiró al final del procedimiento. La hemostasia se alcanzó mediante compresión manual. Conclusión: el abordaje radial distal es factible en un grupo seleccionado de pacientes como procedimiento para la angiografía coronaria y la dilatación de la estenosis coronaria(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pulse , Coronary Angiography/methods , Aortic Valve Stenosis/therapy
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 256-264, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088857

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio (iFR) is an invasive functional evaluation method that does not require vasoactive drugs to induce maximum hyperemia Objective: To evaluate the contribution of the iFR to the therapeutic decision-making of coronary lesions in the absence of non-invasive diagnostic methods for ischemia, or in case of discordance between these methods and coronary angiography. Method: We studied patients older than 18 years, of both sexes, consecutively referred for percutaneous treatment between May 2014 and March 2018. Coronary stenotic lesions were classified by visual estimation of the stenosis diameter into moderate (41-70% stenosis) or severe (71%-90%). An iFR ≤ 0.89 was considered positive for ischemia. Logistic regression was performed using the elastic net, with placement of stents as outcome variable, and age, sex, arterial hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, family history, obesity and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as independent variables. Classification trees, ROC curves, and Box Plot graphs were constructed using the R software. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty-two patients with 96 stenotic lesions (56 moderate, 40 severe) were evaluated. The iFR cut-off point of 0.87 showed a sensitivity of 0.57 and 1-specificity of 0.88, demonstrating high accuracy in reclassifying the lesions. Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and presence of moderate lesions with an iFR < 0.87 were predictors of stent implantation. Stents were used in 32% of lesions in patients with stable coronary artery disease and AMI with or without ST elevation (non-culprit lesions). Conclusion: The iFR has an additional value to the therapeutic decision making in moderate and severe coronary stenotic lesions, by contributing to the reclassification of lesions and decreasing the need for stenting.


Resumo Fundamento: Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio (iFR) é um método de avaliação funcional invasiva sem necessidade de droga vasoativa para indução de hiperemia máxima. Objetivo: Analisar a contribuição do iFR na terapêutica das lesões coronarianas com ausência ou discrepância entre os métodos diagnósticos não invasivos para isquemia e a angiografia coronária. Método: Foram estudados pacientes consecutivos com 18 anos ou mais, ambos os sexos, no período de maio de 2014 a março de 2018, com lesões coronarianas classificadas, por medição da porcentagem de diâmetro da estenose através de estimativa visual, em estenoses moderadas (41-70%) ou graves (71%-90%). O iFR ≤ 0,89 foi considerado positivo para isquemia. Empregou-se regressão logística com elastic net, tendo como variável desfecho o emprego de stent, e variáveis independentes: idade, sexo, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, dislipidemia, tabagismo, história familiar, obesidade e infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) prévio. Foram construídas Árvores de Classificação, Curva Roc, e gráficos Box Plot com o software R. O valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Foram avaliados 52 pacientes com 96 lesões obstrutivas (56 moderadas, 40 graves). O ponto de corte do iFR de 0,87 apresentou sensibilidade de 0,57 e 1-especificidade de 0,88, demonstrando boa acurácia para a reclassificação das lesões. Diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia, e presença de lesão moderada, com iFR < 0,87 foram preditores do implante de stents. Foram empregados stents em 32% das lesões de portadores de doença arterial coronariana estável e IAM com e sem supra de ST (lesões não culpadas). Conclusão: O iFR contribui para a reclassificação das lesões e diminuição do emprego de stents, auxiliando na abordagem das lesões moderadas e severas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Logistic Models , Stents , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronary Angiography/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Clinical Decision-Making
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(6): 461-467, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056754

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento del síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) puede diferir segó;ºn la cobertura de salud. El objetivo fue comparar características demográficas de pacientes con SCA atendidos en instituciones del sector pó;ºblico, o en el no-pó;ºblico de Argentina, las terapó;©uticas y su relació;n con los recursos de cada sector. Analizamos internaciones en instituciones de un registro nacional, voluntario, prospectivo y multicó;©ntrico. Entre marzo 2006 y mayo 2016 ingresaron 11 072 SCA en 64 instituciones, 39% pó;ºblicas (44% con laboratorio de hemodinamia) y 61% no pó;ºblicas (82% con hemodinamia). Los centros pó;ºblicos presentaron menos estructura y atendieron mayor proporció;n de SCA con elevació;n del segmento ST (SCACEST) (52.5% vs. 36.1%, p < 0.001). Los pacientes del sector pó;ºblico fueron más jó;venes, más frecuentemente hombres, fumadores, y menos dislipó;©micos. La proporció;n de reperfundidos entre SCA con elevació;n del ST (SCACEST) fue similar en ambos sectores. La utilizació;n de coronariografía en SCA sin elevació;n del ST (SCASEST) fue mayor en el sector pó;ºblico, cuyos pacientes presentaron más frecuentemente cambios electrocardiográficos y biomarcadores elevados. Un 80.2% de los SCA en instituciones pó;ºblicas y 90.1% en las no pó;ºblicas fueron incorporados por centros con hemodinamia. La disponibilidad de hemodinamia fue la variable más asociada a reperfusió;n entre SCACEST y al tratamiento invasivo entre SCASEST. Se demuestra la complejidad del análisis comparativo de sectores de salud, por la relevancia que adquieren los recursos instalados y las diferencias demográficas de la població;n, por encima de la simple diferencia de pertenecer al sistema pó;ºblico o al no pó;ºblico.


Treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may differ according to the health system coverage. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic characteristics of patients with ACS assisted in public sector institutions compared to the non-public sector of Argentina, as well as the therapeutic and its relationship with the resources of each sector. We analyzed patients hospitalized in institutions of a national, voluntary, prospective and multicenter registry. Between March 2006 and May 2016, 11 072 ACSs were registered in 64 institutions, 39% public (44% have hemodynamic laboratory) and 61% non-public (82% with hemodynamic). Public centers presented less structure and assisted a higher proportion of ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS). (52.5% vs. 36.1%, p < 0.001). Public sector patients were younger, more frequently men, smokers, and less dyslipemics. The proportion of patients reperfused in the STE-ACS was similar in both sectors. The use of coronary angiography in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) was higher in the public sector, whose patients presented more frequently electrocardiographic changes and biomarker elevation. Considering all ACS, 80.2% of patients in public and 90.1% in non-public institutions were incorporated by haemodynamic centers. The availability of hemodynamics was the variable most associated with reperfusion in NSTE-ACS, and invasive treatment in NSTE-ACS. This research demonstrates the complexity of a comparative analysis of health sectors, due to the relevance acquired by the level of resources installed and the demographic differences of the inpatient population, above the simple difference of belonging to the public or non-public system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hemodynamics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1092-1101, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055064

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Functional assessment to rule out myocardial ischemia using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is extremely important and data on the Brazilian population are still limited. Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance of myocardial perfusion by CCTA in the detection of severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). To analyze the importance of anatomical knowledge to understand the presence of myocardial perfusion defects on SPECT imaging that is not identified on computed tomography (CT) scan. Method: A total of 35 patients were evaluated by a simultaneous pharmacologic stress protocol. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions. The patients were grouped according to the presence or absence of significant CAD. The area under the ROC curve was used to identify the diagnostic performance of CCTA and SPECT in perfusion assessment. P < 0.05 values were considered statistically significant. Results: For detection of obstructive CAD, CT myocardial perfusion analysis yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.84 [a 95% confidence interval (CI95%): 0.67-0.94, p < 0.001]. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging, on the other hand, showed an AUC of 0.58 (95% CI 0.40 - 0.74, p < 0.001). In this study, false-positive results with SPECT are described. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion analysis by CTA displays satisfactory results compared to SPECT in the detection of obstructive CAD. CCTA can rule out false-positive results of SPECT.


Resumo Fundamento: A avaliação funcional para descartar a isquemia miocárdica utilizando a angiotomografia computadorizada (angio-TC) de coronárias é de extrema importância e dados na população brasileira ainda são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho diagnóstico da perfusão miocárdica pela angio-TC de coronárias na detecção de doença arterial coronariana (DAC) obstrutiva significativa em comparação com a tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT; do inglês, single photon emission computerized tomography). Analisar a importância do conhecimento anatômico para entender a presença de defeito de perfusão miocárdica pela SPECT que não é identificado pela tomografia computadorizada (TC). Método: Trinta e cinco pacientes foram avaliados por um protocolo de estresse farmacológico simultâneo. O teste exato de Fisher foi utilizado para comparação entre as proporções. Os pacientes foram agrupados de acordo com a presença ou não de DAC significativa. A área sob a curva foi utilizada para identificar o desempenho diagnóstico da avaliação da perfusão pela angio-TC de coronárias e pela SPECT. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: Para detecção de DAC obstrutiva a avaliação da perfusão miocárdica pela TC teve uma área sob a curva de 0,84 [intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%): 0,67 a 0,94, p < 0,001]. Já o estudo da perfusão miocárdica pela SPECT foi de 0,58 (IC95%: 0,40 a 0,74, p < 0,001). Neste estudo, foram descritos falso-positivos pela SPECT. Conclusão: A avaliação da perfusão miocárdica pela angio-TC apresenta resultados satisfatórios em comparação com os da SPECT na detecção de DAC obstrutiva. A angio-TC de coronárias tem capacidade de afastar falso-positivos da SPECT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Cineangiography/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Computed Tomography Angiography
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 960-968, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055049

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Coronary angiography with two catheters is the traditional strategy for diagnostic coronary procedures. TIG I catheter permits to cannulate both coronary arteries, avoiding exchanging catheters during coronary angiography by transradial access. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of one-catheter strategy, by avoiding catheter exchange, on coronary catheterization performance and economic costs. Methods: Transradial coronary diagnostic procedures conducted from January 2013 to June 2017 were collected. One-catheter strategy (TIG I catheter) and two-catheter strategy (left and right Judkins catheters) were compared. The volume of iodinated contrast administered was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included radial spasm, procedural duration (fluoroscopy time) and exposure to ionizing radiation (dose-area product and air kerma). Direct economic costs were also evaluated. For statistical analyses, two-tailed p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: From a total of 1,953 procedures in 1,829 patients, 252 procedures were assigned to one-catheter strategy and 1,701 procedures to two-catheter strategy. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. One-catheter strategy required less iodinated contrast [primary endpoint; (60-105)-mL vs. 92 (64-120)-mL; p < 0.001] than the two-catheter strategy. Also, the one-catheter group presented less radial spasm (5.2% vs. 9.3%, p = 0.022) and shorter fluoroscopy time [3.9 (2.2-8.0)-min vs. 4.8 (2.9-8.3)-min, p = 0.001] and saved costs [149 (140-160)-€/procedure vs. 171 (160-183)-€/procedure; p < 0.001]. No differences in dose-area product and air kerma were detected between the groups. Conclusions: One-catheter strategy, with TIG I catheter, improves coronary catheterization performance and reduces economic costs compared to traditional two-catheter strategy in patients referred for coronary angiography.


Resumo Fundamento: A cineangiocoronariografia com dois cateteres é a estratégia tradicional para procedimentos coronarianos de diagnóstico. O cateter TIG I permite canular ambas as artérias coronárias, evitando a troca de cateteres durante a cineangiocoronariografia por acesso transradial. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o impacto da estratégia de um cateter, evitando a troca de cateter, no desempenho da coronariografia por cateterismo e nos seus custos econômicos. Métodos: Foram coletados os procedimentos diagnósticos coronarianos transradiais realizados entre janeiro de 2013 e junho de 2017. A estratégia de um cateter (cateter TIG I) e a estratégia de dois cateteres (cateteres coronários direito e esquerdo de Judkins) foram comparadas. O volume de contraste iodado administrado foi o endpoint primário. Os endpoints secundários eram espasmo radial, duração do procedimento (tempo de fluoroscopia) e exposição a radiações ionizantes (produto dose-área e kerma no ar). Os custos econômicos diretos também foram avaliados. Para as análises estatísticas, valores de p < 0,05 bicaudais foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: De um total de 1.953 procedimentos em 1.829 pacientes, 252 procedimentos foram atribuídos à estratégia de um cateter e 1.701 procedimentos à estratégia de dois cateteres. Não houve diferenças nas características basais entre os grupos. A estratégia de um cateter exigiu menos contraste iodado [endpoint primário; (60-105) -mL vs. 92 (64-120) -mL; p < 0,001] em comparação com a estratégia de dois cateteres. Além disso, o grupo da estratégia de um cateter apresentou menos espasmo radial (5,2% vs. 9,3%, p = 0,022) e menor tempo de fluoroscopia [3,9 (2,2-8,0) -min vs. 4,8 (2,9-8,3) -min, p = 0,001] e economia de custos [149 (140-160)-€/procedimento vs. 171 (160-183) -€/procedimento; p < 0,001]. Não foram detectadas diferenças no produto dose-área e kerma no ar entre os grupos. Conclusões: A estratégia de um cateter, com cateter TIG I, melhora o desempenho da coronariografia por cateterismo e reduz os custos econômicos em comparação com a estratégia tradicional de dois cateteres em pacientes encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Angiography/methods , Cardiac Catheters/economics , Radiation Dosage , Radiation, Ionizing , Spasm , Time Factors , Fluoroscopy , Cardiac Catheterization/economics , Cardiac Catheterization/instrumentation , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Retrospective Studies , Cost Savings/economics , Coronary Angiography/economics , Coronary Angiography/instrumentation , Radial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 758-767, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1038568

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has gained a prominent role in the evaluation of coronary artery disease. However, its anatomical nature does not allow the evaluation of the functional repercussion of coronary obstructions. It has been made possible to evaluate Myocardial computed tomography perfusion (Myocardial CTP) recently, based on myocardial contrast changes related to coronary stenoses. Several studies have validated this technique against the anatomical reference method (cardiac catheterization) and other functional methods, including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and fractional flow reserve. The Myocardial CTP is performed in conjunction with the CCTA, a combined analysis of anatomy and function. The stress phase (with assessment of myocardial perfusion) can be performed before or after the resting phase (assessment of resting perfusion and coronary arteries), and different acquisition parameters are proposed according to the protocol and type of equipment used. Stressors used are based on coronary vasodilation (e.g. dipyridamole, adenosine). Image interpretation, similar to other perfusion assessment methods, is based on the identification and quantification of myocardial perfusion defects. The integration of both perfusion and anatomical findings is fundamental for the examination interpretation algorithm, allowing to define if the stenoses identified are hemodynamically significant and may be related to myocardial ischemia.


Resumo A angiografia coronariana por tomografia computadorizada (ACTC) assumiu um papel de destaque na avaliação da doença arterial coronariana. Entretanto, sua natureza anatômica não permitia a avaliação da repercussão funcional das obstruções coronarianas. Recentemente, tornou-se possível a avaliação da perfusão miocárdica por tomografia computadorizada (PMTC), baseando-se nas alterações de contrastação miocárdicas relacionadas às estenoses coronarianas. Diversos estudos permitiram validar esta técnica perante o método anatômico de referência (cateterismo cardíaco) e outros métodos funcionais, incluindo cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica e a reserva de fluxo fracionada. A PMTC é realizada conjuntamente com a ACTC, em uma análise combinada de anatomia e função. A fase de estresse (com avaliação da perfusão miocárdica) pode ser realizada antes ou depois da fase de repouso (avaliação da perfusão de repouso e artérias coronárias), e diferentes parâmetros de aquisição são propostos conforme o protocolo e o tipo de equipamento utilizados. Os agentes estressores utilizados baseiam-se na vasodilatação coronariana (ex: dipiridamol, adenosina). A interpretação das imagens, semelhante a outros métodos de avaliação perfusional, baseia-se na identificação e quantificação de defeitos de perfusão miocárdicos. A integração dos achados perfusionais e anatômicos é parte fundamental do algoritmo de interpretação do exame, permitindo definir se as estenoses identificadas são hemodinamicamente significativas, podendo se relacionar com isquemia miocárdica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Angiography/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Angiography/standards , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/standards , Computed Tomography Angiography/standards
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 560-564, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Angiographically visible plaques in patent vein grafts are usually detected years after surgery. Our aim was to examine early plaque formation in vein grafts. Methods: Bypass angiography and intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) examination were performed on 77 aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) implanted in 36 patients during the first 2 years after CABG. In each graft, a good quality 25 mm ultrasound image was analyzed. We measured: plaque area, lumen area, external elastic membrane (EEM) area, graft area and wall area. For the comparative assessment of SVGs, the index plaque area/EEM area was calculated. Data were analyzed for the following 4 time periods: I - 0-4 months (22 grafts), II - 5-8 months (23 grafts), III - 9-12 months (19 grafts) and IV - 13-16 months (13 grafts) after CABG. Student's t and Fisher-Snedecor tests were used for the purpose of statistical analysis in this retrospective study. Results: In period I, plaque formation (neointimal) was observed in 10 grafts (45%), with a mean plaque area of 1.59 mm., in 6 grafts (26%) in period II, with a mean plaque area of 1.03 mm. and in 15 grafts (71%) in period III, with a mean plaque area of 1.41 mm., and in all (100%) grafts in period IV, with mean plaque area of 2,3 mm.. Average index plaque area/EEM area in periods I, II, III and IV were 0.12, 0.08, 0.13 and 0.22. We have showed a significant plaque increase between periods II and IV(P=0.038). Conclusion: IVUS showed plaque in about 40% of venous grafts during the first year after CABG. Between 13-16 months plaque was visible in all studied grafts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Early Diagnosis
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 449-456, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040108

ABSTRACT

There is limited evidence in the literature regarding the administration of clopidogrel to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients over 75 years of age. Most studies excluded this age group, making the subject controversial due to the increased risk of bleeding in this population. Objective: This is a retrospective, unicentric, and observational study aimed at assessing whether the administration of clopidogrel loading dose increases bleeding rates in patients over 75 years of age. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: group I: 75 mg of clopidogrel; group II: 300-to 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel. A total of 174 patients (129 in group I and 45 in group II) were included between May 2010 and May 2015. Statistical analysis: The primary outcome was bleeding (major and/or minor). The secondary outcome was combined events (cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, death, stroke and bleeding). The comparison between groups was performed through Q-square and T-test. The multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression, being considered significant p < 0.05. Results: Comparisons between groups I and II showed differences in the prevalence of diabetes (46.5% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.01), arterial hypertension (90.7% vs. 75, p = 0.01), dyslipidemia (62% vs. 42.2%, p = 0.021), ST segment elevation (11.6% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.016) and coronary intervention percutaneous (16.5% vs. 62.2%, p < 0.0001), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, significant differences were observed between groups I and II in relation to the occurrence of bleeding (8.5% vs. 20%, OR = 0.173, 95% CI: 0.049 - 0.614, p = 0.007). Conclusion: A loading dose of 300 mg or more of clopidogrel


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged , Treatment Outcome , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , /therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stents , Statistical Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Angiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Hemorrhage/complications
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 326-330, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012346

ABSTRACT

Despite the health benefits of routine exercise, coronary artery disease (CAD) is common among older competitive athletes and is an important cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes with suspected or confirmed CAD routinely undergo conventional coronary angiography involving the performance of invasive coronary physiological assessment using the fractional flow reserve (FFR) or the instantaneous-wave free ratio (iFR). Data defining the role of invasive coronary physiological assessment, while robust in general clinical populations, are untested among older competitive athletes with CAD. The paper discusses the challenges and uncertainties surrounding the use of the FFR and iFR in this unique population with an emphasis on the need for future work to better define this approach


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease , Athletes , Middle Aged/physiology , Physical Fitness , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Coronary Angiography/methods , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 488-490, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an ultra-orphan disease. We report the first case in the literature of Off-Pump Coronary Revascularization Using Bilateral Internal Thoracic Arteries in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. A 36-year-old man came to the emergency department with acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). He presented paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria diagnosed in 2016. Coronary angiography revealed tripple vessel disease. The conduits used for coronary revascularization were both internal thoracic arteries (left ITA-right ITA [LITA-RITA]). We consider that off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) using Bilateral Internal Thoracic Arteries (BITA) can be safely performed with low in-hospital mortality and complications rates, even in patient with PNH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/complications , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Disease/complications , Mammary Arteries/transplantation
18.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(3 Supl): 291-296, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023081

ABSTRACT

Avaliar a eficácia diagnóstica da angiotomografia coronariana (AC) comparada com a cineangiocoronariografia (CAT). Material e Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente 146 pacientes submetidos a AC e CAT com angiografia coronariana quantitativa (ACQ), com intervalo médio de um mês entre os exames. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital Cardiológico Costantini. Foram avaliados os fatores de risco da amostra, a localização das lesões e o grau de severidade da obstrução coronariana nos grandes vasos (TCE, DA, CX e CD). Os resultados dos métodos diagnósticos foram comparados pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. A partir dos achados positivos foi realizada a avaliação de correlação entre os métodos perante a severidade das lesões. Resultados: A amostra foi composta predominantemente por homens (73,97%), sendo a hipertensão arterial (HAS) (71,91%) o fator de risco mais frequente. A artéria mais acometida foi a DA. Quanto ao grau de severidade das lesões, os resultados foram os seguintes na comparação entre AC e CAT: lesões discretas com correlação r = 0,23; moderadas com r = 0,53 e severas com r = 0,70. Na comparação entre AC e ACQ: lesões discretas com correlação r = 0,45; moderadas com r = 0,70 e severas com r = 0,67. Conclusão: A AC apresentou moderada com ACQ e CAT em lesões moderadas e severas, e forte correlação na ausência de lesões quando comparada com ACQ


To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of multislice CT coronary angiotomography compared with coronary cineangiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 146 patients submitted to MSCT and CA with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), with a mean interval of one month between the exams. The study was carried out at the Costantini Cardiology Hospital. The risk factors for the sample, the location of the lesions and the degree of severity of the coronary obstruction in the large vessels (LCT, AD, CX and RC).The results of the diagnostic methods were compared using Pearson correlation coefficient. From the positive findings, a correlation evaluation was performed between the methods for the severity of the lesions. Results: The sample consisted predominantly of men (73.97%), and hypertension (SAH) (71.91%) was the most frequent risk factor. The most affected artery was AD. Regarding the degree of severity of the lesions, the results were as follows in the comparison between MSCT and CA: mild lesions with correlation r = 0.23, moderate with r = 0.53 and severe with r = 0.70. In the comparison between MSCT and QCA: mild lesions with correlation r = 0.45, moderate with r = 0.70 and severe with r = 0.67. Conclusion: MSCT showed moderate correlation with QCA and CA in moderate and severe lesions, and a strong correlation in the absence of lesions when compared with QCA


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Angiography/methods , Angiography, Digital Subtraction/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Magnetic Resonance Angiography/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Hypertension
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 297-304, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013476

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To investigate the association between clinical hematologic parameters and saphenous vein graft failure after on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: A total of 1950 consecutive patients underwent isolated on-pump coronary artery surgery between November 2010 and February 2013. Of these, 284 patients met our inclusion criteria; their preoperative clinical hematological parameters were retrospectively obtained for this cohort study. And of them, 109 patients underwent conventional coronary angiography after graft failure was revealed by coronary computed tomography angiography. The primary endpoint was to catch at least one saphenous vein graft stenosis or occlusion following the coronary angiogram. We then analyzed risk factors for graft failure. In sequential or T grafts, each segment was analyzed as a separate graft. Results: In logistic regression analysis, older age, platelet distribution width, and diabetes mellitus were identified as independent predictors of saphenous vein graft failure (P<0.). In contrast, preserved ejection fraction value favored graft patency (P<0.001). Conclusion: Increased platelet distribution width is easily measurable and can be used as a simple and valuable marker in the prediction of saphenous vein graft failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Blood Platelets/physiology , Vascular Patency/physiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Platelet Count , Reference Values , Saphenous Vein/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Echocardiography , Logistic Models , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Age Factors , Coronary Angiography/methods , Treatment Failure , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hematologic Tests
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(2): 165-172, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990563

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel method enabling efficient computation of FFR from three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D QCA) and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame counting. We decided to perform a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis of the literature to determine the correlation between the diagnosis of functionally significant stenosis obtained by QFR versus FFR and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of QFR for intermediate coronary artery stenosis. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies concerning the diagnostic performance of QFR. Our meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). The sROC was used to determine diagnostic test accuracy. Results: Nine studies consisting of 1175 vessels in 1047 patients were included in our study. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, LR+, LR-, and DOR for QFR were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.86-0.92), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86-0.91), 6.86 (95% CI,: 5.22-9.02), 0.14 (95% CI: 0.10-0.21), and 53.05 (95% CI: 29.75-94.58), respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve for QFR was 0.94. Conclusion: QFR is a simple, useful, and noninvasive modality for diagnosis of functional significance of intermediate coronary artery stenosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Stenosis/physiopathology , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial/physiology , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods
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