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1.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 122-132, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138525

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir los resultados inmediatos y alejados de la cirugía coronaria sin circulación extracorpórea (CEC) y comparar los resultados de la estrategia de indicación de la técnica en dos períodos. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de 428 pacientes intervenidos de cirugía coronaria sin CEC entre 2004 y 2019 en el Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente. Se dividen en Grupo 1, período 2004-2008 (N=216) y Grupo 2, período 2009-2019 (N=212). Se estudiaron sus características clínicas, resultados quirúrgicos, morbi-mortalidad operatoria y eventos adversos al 31 de junio de 2019 y se compararon los resultados de los grupos a 5 años. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias en la distribución por sexo, edad, factores de riesgo y patologías asociadas entre los grupos. Hubo diferencias en las lesiones coronarias entre los Grupos 1 y 2: lesión de un vaso en 45 (20,4%) versus 125 (59%) y tres vasos en 75 (34,5%) versus 19 (9%) respectivamente (p<0,001). El riesgo operatorio por EuroSCORE logístico fue 3,3±3,95 versus 5,4±7,7 (p<0,001). Se confeccionaron 2,3±0,9 anastomosis distales en el Grupo 1 versus 1,3±0,6 en Grupo 2 (p<0,001). La tasa de complicaciones fueron 17,6% en el Grupo 1 y 5,7% en el 2 (p<0,001). La mortalidad operatoria globral fue 4 pacientes (0,9%). El seguimiento comprendió 9,2±3,8 años. La sobrevida a 10 años fue 76,9% y tasa de eventos cardiovasculares mayores 37,6%. No hubo diferencia entre los grupos a los 5 años. CONCLUSIONES: La selección de pacientes con anatomía más favorables o de mayor riesgo operatorio tuvo tasas de sobrevida y eventos similares a los observados con la estrategia menos selectiva a 5 años de seguimiento.


AIM: To describe the immediate and long-term results of off pump coronary artery surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass (OPCABG) comparing the results observed in two consecutive periods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 428 patients undergoing OPCABG between 2004 and 2019 at the Guillermo Grant Benavente Hospital. Group 1 patients operated between 2004 - 2008 (N = 216) and Group 2 operated between 2009 and 2019 (N = 212). RESULTS: There were no differences in sex, age, risk factors and co morbidities between groups. There were differences in the number of coronary lesions between groups: one vessel disease in 45 (20.4%) versus 125 (59%) and three vessels in 75 (34.5%) versus 19 (9%) in Group 1 vs Group 2, respectively (p <0.001). The operative risk for logistic EuroSCORE was 3.3 ± 3.95 in Group 1 versus 5.4 ± 7.7 in Group 2 (p <0.001). 2.3 ± 0.9 distal anastomoses were performed in Group 1 compared to 1.3 ± 0.6 in Group 2 (p<0.001). Adverse events occurred in 17.6% o patients in Group 1 compared to 5.7% in Group 2 (p<0.001). Overall, 4 patients died (0.9%). Mean overall survival at 10 years was 76.9% and the rate of major cardiovascular events was 37.6%, no differences being observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: At 5 years of follow-up the selection of patients with more favorable anatomy or greater operative risk had similar survival rates and events than those observed with the least selective strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Time Factors , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Cause of Death , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/mortality
2.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(4): 299-306, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058276

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cirugía sin circulación extracorpórea (CEC) es una variante de la técnica convencional. Existe controversia sobre sus beneficios, seguridad y resultados a largo plazo. OBJETIVO: Describir resultados inmediatos y alejados (a 5 años) de cirugía sin CEC y compararlos a cirugía con CEC. MATERIALES y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo-analítico, con revisión de base de datos del equipo, protocolos quirúrgicos, fichas clínicas, seguimiento clínico y/o entrevista telefónica y en registro civil de pacientes operados entre enero de 2006 y diciembre de 2008. Total 658 cirugías coronarias aisladas, 466 (70,8%) con CEC y 192 (29,2%) sin CEC. Se realizó técnica de Propensity Score Matching para identificar grupos de pacientes similares y comparar resultados entre ambas técnicas. RECSULTADOS: Mortalidad operatoria en 1,0% en el grupo sin CEC y 2,1% en el grupo con CEC (p = 0,411). En seguimiento alejado: Supervivencia a 1, 3 y 5 años de 97,4%, 95,3% y 92,2% respectivamente sin CEC vs 97,9%, 96,3% y 92,7% respectivamente con CEC (p = 0,824). Mayor-Adverse-Cardiac-and-Cerebrovascular-Events (MACCE) 28 (17,3%) sin CEC vs 26 (16,0%) (p = 0,71). Infarto agudo al miocardio (IAM) 3 (1,9%) sin CEC vs 6 (3,7%) (p = 0,33), accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) 6 (3,7%) sin CEC vs 3 (1,9%) (p = 0,3) y reintervención 4 (2,5%) sin CEC vs 3 (1,9%) (p = 0,703). Recurrencia de angina 9 (5,6%) sin CEC vs 10 (6,2%) (p = 0,813). CONCLUSIONES: En nuestra serie de paciente ambas técnicas fueron comparables en resultados inmediatos y alejados.


INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) without extracorporeal circulation (off pump) is a technical alternative to conventional surgery. There is ongoing controversy about its benefits, safety and results. AIM: To describe immediate and late results of off pump CABG and compare it with conventional surgery. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Descriptive-analytic, study with review of surgical protocols, clinical charts, civil registry for survival and telephonic follow up of patient who underwent CABG in our center between January 2006 and December 2008. In total 658 isolated CABG cases, 466 (70.8%) on pump and 192 (29.2%) off pump. A Propensity Score Matching was used to match off pump CABG patients with those undergoing On Pump CABG. RESULTS: Mortality was 1.0% in off pump and 2.1% in on pump patients (p = 0.411). At follow up: 1.3 and 5 year survival was 97.4%, 95.3% and 92.2% respectively in off pump patients and 97.9%, 96.3% and 92.7% respectively in On Pump patients (p = 0.824). Mayor-adverse-Cardiac-and-Cerebrovascular-events (MACCE) in 28 (17.3%) off pump vs 26 (16.0%) (p = 0.71) on pump, myocardial infarction in 3 (1.9%) off pump vs 6 (3.7%) on pump (p = 0.33), stroke in 6 (3.7%) off pump vs 3 (1.9%) on pump (p = 0.3) and coronary reintervention in 4 (2.5%) off pump vs 3 (1.9%) on pump patients (p = 0.703). Recurrence of angina in 9 (5.6%) off pump vs 10 (6.2%). CONCLUSIONS: In our experience both techniques had similar results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Propensity Score , Survival Analysis , Interviews as Topic , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/mortality , Extracorporeal Circulation , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Myocardial Revascularization/mortality
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 488-490, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an ultra-orphan disease. We report the first case in the literature of Off-Pump Coronary Revascularization Using Bilateral Internal Thoracic Arteries in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. A 36-year-old man came to the emergency department with acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). He presented paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria diagnosed in 2016. Coronary angiography revealed tripple vessel disease. The conduits used for coronary revascularization were both internal thoracic arteries (left ITA-right ITA [LITA-RITA]). We consider that off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) using Bilateral Internal Thoracic Arteries (BITA) can be safely performed with low in-hospital mortality and complications rates, even in patient with PNH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/complications , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Disease/complications , Mammary Arteries/transplantation
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 311-317, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013477

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of preoperative anxiety relieving on electrophysiological changes in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: A total of 61 patients at ASA III risk group in the age range of 18-65 years were enrolled in the present study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group S (Sedation group) was administered 0.04 mg/kg lorazepam per os (PO) twice before the operation. Group C (control group) was not administered with any anxiolytic premedication. State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-I) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to evaluate the level of anxiety. Electrocardiography (ECG), pulse oximeter and standard monitoring were performed for each patient. QT and P dispersions in each derivation of all ECGs were calculated. Results: Preoperative STAI-I scores were significantly lower in sedation group compared to the controls. Mean values of QT dispersion measured before induction, at the 1st minute of induction, 30th second of intubation and 4th minute of intubation in sedation group were significantly reduced compared to controls (P=0.024; P=0.027; P=0.001; P=0.033, respectively). The mean values of P dispersion measured before induction, at the 3rd minute of induction, 30th second of intubation and 4th minute of intubation in sedation group were significantly reduced compared to controls (P=0.001; P=0.020; P=0.023; P=0.005, respectively). Conclusion: Elevated anxiety levels in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery have a negative effect through prolonged QT and P-wave dispersion times. Anxiolytic treatment before surgery may be useful to prevent ventricular and atrial arrhythmias and associated complications through decreasing the QT and P-wave dispersion duration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety/physiopathology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Preoperative Care/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/psychology , Electrocardiography/psychology , Lorazepam/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/psychology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 62-69, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985230

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare the early and medium outcomes of on-pump beating-heart (OPBH) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and off-pump CABG (OPCABG) in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between 30% and 40%. Methods: This is a retrospective study of ischemic heart disease patients with LVEF between 30% and 40% who underwent surgical revascularization from January 2013 to December 2017. Patients were divided into OPBH group (n=44) and OPCABG group (n=68), according to the surgical method. Clinical material with early and medium outcomes were investigated and compared between these groups. Results: The two groups had similar baseline. Two OPBH patients and 3 OPCABG patients died in the hospital, which had no statistical significance (P>0.05). OPBH patients received a greater number of grafts (3.74±0.84) and presented more improved LVEF (45.92±7.11%) than OPCABG patients (3.36±0.80) and (42.81±9.29%), respectively, which had statistical significance (P<0.05). An increased amount of drainage during the first 12 hours was found in the OPBH group (P<0.05). Reoperation for bleeding, duration of mechanic ventilation, and other early outcomes had no statistical significance between the two groups. During the medium-time follow-up, OPBH patients showed significantly lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE)-free survival time (P=0.049) than OPCABG patients. Conclusion: The OPBH technique was a safe and an acceptable alternative for surgical revascularization in patients with moderate left ventricular dysfunction which provided better mid-term MACE-free survival compared with OPCABG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Stroke Volume , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Echocardiography/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Ischemia/surgery , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Hemodynamics
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 535-541, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the inflammation resulting from myocardial revascularization techniques with and without cardiopulmonary bypass, based on ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP) behavior. Methods: A prospective non-randomized clinical study with 136 patients was performed. Sixty-nine patients were enrolled for Group 1 (on-pump coronary artery bypass - ONCAB) and 67 patients were assigned to Group 2 (off-pump coronary artery bypass - OPCAB). All study participants had blood samples collected for analysis of glucose, triglycerides, creatinine, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and creatinephosphokinase (CPK) in the preoperative period. The samples of creatinephosphokinase MB (CKMB), troponin I (TnI) and US-CRP were collected in the preoperative period and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours after surgery. We also analyzed the preoperative biological variables of each patient (age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, left coronary trunk lesion, body mass index, previous myocardial infarction, myocardial fibrosis). All angiographically documented patients with >70% proximal multiarterial stenosis and ischemia, documented by stress test or classification of stable angina (class II or III), according to the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, were included. Reoperations, combined surgeries, recent acute myocardial infarction, recent inflammatory disease, deep venous thrombosis or recent pulmonary thromboembolism, acute kidney injury or chronic kidney injury were not included. Results: Correlation values between the US-CRP curve and the ONCAB group, the treatment effect and the analyzed biological variables did not present expressive results. Laboratory variables were evaluated and did not correlate with the applied treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion: The changes in the US-CRP at each moment evaluated from the postoperative period did not show any significance in relation to the surgical technique applied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Postoperative Period , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/blood
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 309-311, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958415

ABSTRACT

Abstract Moyamoya disease is a rare, idiopathic, progressive, occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery characterized by the development of collateral vasculature in the brain base. In patients with accompanying coronary artery disease, cardiopulmonary bypass posses a potential risk for perioperative cerebral ischemic complication. Herein, we report a 53-year-old male case of Moyamoya disease and coronary artery disease who was treated with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Stenosis/complications , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Moyamoya Disease/surgery , Angiography, Digital Subtraction/methods , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Moyamoya Disease/diagnostic imaging
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 321-330, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888057

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) is one of the standard treatments for coronary artery disease (CAD) while hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) represents an evolving revascularization strategy. However, the difference in outcomes between them remains unclear. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the short-term and mid-term outcomes of HCR versus OPCAB for the treatment of multivessel or left main CAD. Methods: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases to identify related studies and a routine meta-analysis was conducted. Results: Nine studies with 6121 patients were included in the analysis. There was no significant difference in short-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) rate (RR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.30-1.03, p = 0.06) or mortality (RR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.17-1.48, p = 0.22). HCR required less ventilator time (SMD: -0.36, 95% CI: -0.55- -0.16, p < 0.001), ICU stay (SMD: -0.35, 95% CI: -0.58 - -0.13, p < 0.01), hospital stay (SMD: -0.29, 95% CI: -0.50- -0.07, p < 0.05) and blood transfusion rate (RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.49-0.67, p < 0.001), but needed more operation time (SMD: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.54-2.05, p < 0.001) and hospitalization costs (SMD: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.45-1.66, p < 0.001). The HCR group had lower mid-term MACCE rate (RR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.92, p < 0.05) but higher rate in mid-term target vessel revascularization (TVR, RR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.32-3.67, p < 0.01). Conclusions: HCR had similar short-term mortality and morbidity comparing to OPCAB. HCR decreased the ventilator time, ICU stay, hospital stay, blood transfusion rate and increased operation time and hospitalization costs. HCR has a lower mid-term MACCE rate while OPCAB shows better in mid-term TVR.


Resumo Fundamentos: A revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea (CRM sem CEC) é um dos tratamentos padrão para a doença arterial coronária (DAC), enquanto que a revascularização coronária híbrida (RCH) é uma estratégia de revascularização em evolução. No entanto, a diferença nos resultados entre eles ainda não está clara. Objetivo: Realizamos uma meta-análise para comparar os resultados a curto e médio prazo da RCH versus a CRM sem CEC para o tratamento de DAC de múltiplos vasos ou artéria principal esquerda. Métodos: Pesquisamos as bases de dados PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science e Cochrane para identificar estudos relacionados e realizamos uma meta-análise de rotina. Resultados: Nove estudos com 6121 pacientes foram incluídos na análise. Não houve diferença significativa na taxa de eventos cardíacos e cerebrovasculares adversos maiores de curto prazo (ECCAM) (RR de 0,55, IC de 95% 0,30-1,03, p = 0,06) ou mortalidade (RR: 0,51, IC 95%: 0,17-1,48, p = 0,22). A RCH requereu menos tempo de ventilação (DMP -0,36; IC de 95%: -0,16 -0,55-, p < 0,001), tempo de UTI (DMP: -0,35, IC de 95%: -0,58- -0,13, p < 0,01), estadia hospitalar (DMP: -0,29; IC de 95%: -0.50 - -0,07, p < 0,05) e taxa de transfusão de sangue (RR: Cl 0,57, 95% de 0,49-0,67, p < 0,001), mas necessitou mais tempo de cirurgia (DMP): 1,29, IC de 95% 0,54-2,05, p < 0,001) e custos de hospitalização (DMP: 1,06, 95 %: 0,45-1,66, p < 0,001). O grupa RCH tinha uma taxa mais baixa de ECCAM a médio prazo (RR de 0,49, IC de 95% 0,26-0,92, p < 0,05), mas uma taxa mais elevada a médio prazo em revascularização de vaso alvo (RVA, RR: 2,20, IC 95%: 1,32). 3,67, p < 0,01). Conclusões: A RCH teve mortalidade e morbidade semelhantes no curto prazo comparada ao CRM sem CEC. A RCH diminuiu o tempo de ventilação, a internação na UTI, a internação hospitalar, a taxa de transfusão de sangue e o aumento do tempo de operação e os custos de hospitalização. A RCH tem uma taxa ECCAM mais baixa no médio prazo, enquanto a CRM sem CEC se mostra melhor em RVA a médio prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Length of Stay
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 15-22, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897984

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the early and late outcomes of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair in elderly patients with moderate chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation. Methods: One hundred and fifty elderly (age > 70 years) patients with moderate chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (n=95) or coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair (n=55) between January 2007 and December 2014 were studied. They were subdivided according to presence or absence of high operative risk. Peri-operative variables and early operative outcomes were retrospectively studied. Survival, mitral regurgitation grade, and functional outcomes were prospectively analysed. Results: Both groups were comparable in terms of age (P=0.23), sex (P=0.74), left ventricle ejection fraction (P=0.6) and preoperative functional class (P=0.52). The mean number of grafts for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group was 3.14 and coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair was 3.21. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group had statistically significant better early operative outcomes i.e perioperative blood transfusions, intraaortic balloon pump usage, arrhythmias, renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction, sepsis, mean hours of ventilation, intensive care unit stay and operative mortality. On a prospective follow up of 5±2.33 years (1-9 years), coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair in low operative risk subgroup had better improvements in mitral regurgitation grade than off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Both groups had similar improvements in functional class and cumulative survival was also comparable (63.2% vs. 54.5%). Conclusion: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is a safer alternative to coronary artery bypass graft + mitral valve repair with better early operative outcomes and comparable late survival and functional outcomes in elderly patients with moderate chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation, especially those with higher operative risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Mitral Valve Annuloplasty/methods , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Severity of Illness Index , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
Clinics ; 73: e178, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to apply a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach to investigate the free propofol plasma levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions compared with the off-pump procedure. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions (n=10) or the equivalent off-pump surgery (n=9) were anesthetized with sufentanil and propofol target-controlled infusion (2 μg/mL) during surgery. The propofol concentration was then reduced to 1 μg/mL, and a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis using the maximum-effect-sigmoid model obtained by plotting the bispectral index values against the free propofol plasma levels was performed. RESULTS: Significant increases (two- to five-fold) in the free propofol plasma levels were observed in the patients subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting under hypothermic conditions. The pharmacokinetics of propofol varied according to the free drug levels in the hypothermic on-pump group versus the off-pump group. After hypothermic coronary artery bypass was initiated, the distribution volume increased, and the distribution half-life was prolonged. Propofol target-controlled infusion was discontinued when orotracheal extubation was indicated, and the time to patient extubation was significantly higher in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group (459 versus 273 min, p=0.0048). CONCLUSIONS: The orotracheal intubation time was significantly longer in the hypothermic on-pump group than in the off-pump group. Additionally, residual hypnosis was identified through the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics approach based on decreases in drug plasma protein binding in the hypothermic on-pump group, which could explain the increased hypnosis observed with this drug in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Propofol/pharmacokinetics , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacokinetics , Hypothermia, Induced , Propofol/blood , Anesthetics, Intravenous/blood , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Consciousness Monitors , Operative Time , Hypnosis, Anesthetic/standards
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(5): 428-434, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-897942

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Advances in modern medicine have led to people living longer and healthier lives. Frailty is an emerging concept in medicine yet to be explored as a risk factor in cardiac surgery. When it comes to CABG surgery, randomized controlled clinical trials have primarily focused on low-risk (ROOBY, CORONARY), elevated-risk (GOPCABE) or high-risk patients (BBS), but not on frail patients. Therefore, we believe that off-pump CABG could be an important technique in patients with limited functional capacity to respond to surgical stress. In this study, the authors introduce the new national, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial "FRAGILE", to be developed in the main cardiac surgery centers of Brazil, to clarify the potential benefit of off-pump CABG in frail patients. Methods: FRAGILE is a two-arm, parallel-group, multicentre, individually randomized (1:1) controlled trial which will enroll 630 patients with blinded outcome assessment (at 30 days, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years), which aims to compare adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events after off-pump versus on-pump CABG in pre-frail and frail patients. Primary outcomes will be all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest with successful resuscitation, low cardiac output syndrome/cardiogenic shock, stroke, and coronary reintervention. Secondary outcomes will be major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, operative time, mechanical ventilation time, hyperdynamic shock, new onset of atrial fibrillation, renal replacement therapy, reoperation for bleeding, pneumonia, length of stay in intensive care unit, length of stay in hospital, number of units of blood transfused, graft patency, rate of complete revascularization, neurobehavioral outcomes after cardiac surgery, quality of life after cardiac surgery and costs. Discussion: FRAGILE trial will determine whether off-pump CABG is superior to conventional on-pump CABG in the surgical treatment of pre-frail and frail patients. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02338947. Registered on August 29th 2014; last updated on March 21st 2016.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Follow-Up Studies , Frail Elderly , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/mortality
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5711, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839262

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze if off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is associated with better treatment outcomes in elderly patients (>70 years of age) than on-pump CABG, using meta-analysis. Medline, PubMed, Cochrane and Google Scholar databases were searched until September 13, 2016. Sensitivity and quality assessment were performed. Twenty-two studies, three randomized control trials (RCTs) and 20 non-RCTs were included with 24,127 patients. The risk of death associated with on-pump or off-pump CABG in the RCTs were similar (pooled OR=0.945, 95%CI=0.652 to 1.371, P=0.766). However, in the non-RCTs, mortality risk was lower in patients treated with off-pump CABG than on-pump CABG (pooled OR=0.631, 95%CI=0.587 to 0.944, P=0.003). No differences were observed between the two treatment groups in terms of the occurrence of 30-day post-operative stroke or myocardial infarction (P≥0.147). In the non-RCTs, off-pump CABG treatment was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (pooled standardized difference in means=-0.401, 95%CI=-0.621 to -0.181, P≤0.001). The meta-analysis with pooled data from non-RCTs, but not RCTs, found that mortality was lower with off-pump compared with on-pump CABG, and suggested that there may be some benefit of off-pump CABG compared with on-pump CABG in the risk of mortality and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Stroke/etiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(2): 198-202, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792645

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 76-year-old man with situs inversus totalis underwent a successful off-pump three-vessel coronary artery bypass surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 8 days later. At 9-month follow-up a coronary computed tomography angiography confirmed the viability of all of the grafts, and one year after the operation the patient remained asymptomatic. It comprises the fifth Brazilian case of a coronary surgery in a patient with situs inversus totalis and the first one of the country of a coronary artery bypass surgery without the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass in this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Situs Inversus/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Dextrocardia/surgery , Brazil , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(2): 120-126, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792658

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: We investigated the effects of pedicled and semiskeletonized left internal mammary artery (LIMA) harvesting techniques on postoperative drainage in patients subjected to off-pump CABG, ignoring other advantages or disadvantages of those techniques. Methods: The present study comprises a total of 160 subjects that underwent coronary artery bypass surgery in our clinic. Data were collected consecutively and retrospectively. An attempt was made to have similar groups in terms of demographic characteristics. Patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery by two surgical teams which differed only in LIMA harvesting technique were dichotomized and compared according to these techniques. The first group (Group 1) consisted of patients in whom LIMA was harvested with surrounding tissues using the pedicled technique. The second group (Group 2) consisted of patients in whom LIMA was harvested using the semiskeletonized technique, with the veins separated from surrounding connective tissues. Results: The mean amount of drainage in the first 24 hours was 706.1±234.2 ml vs. 591±258.8 ml (Group 1 vs. Group 2; P=0.005), the mean amount of drainage in the second 24 hours was 270±133.6 ml vs. 189.4±140.4 ml (Group 1 vs. Group 2; P<0.001), and the mean amount of total drainage was determined to be 976.1±306.9 ml vs. 781.2±335.5 ml (Group 1 vs. Group 2; P<0.001). Conclusion: It was observed that semiskeletonized LIMA presents reduced amount of postoperative drainage in the first and second 24-hour periods and total amount of drainage than pedicled LIMA, independent of pleural integrity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drainage/methods , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis/methods , Mammary Arteries/surgery , Postoperative Care/methods , Postoperative Period , Drainage/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(4): 482-488, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763152

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective:Coronary artery bypass grafting is currently the best treatment for dialysis patients with multivessel coronary artery involvement. Vasoplegic syndrome of inflammatory etiology constitutes an important postoperative complication, with highly negative impact on prognosis. Considering that these patients have an intrinsic inflammatory response exacerbation, our goal was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of vasoplegic syndrome after myocardial revascularization in this group.Methods:A retrospective, single-center study of 50 consecutive and non-selected dialysis patients who underwent myocardial revascularization in a tertiary university hospital, from 2007 to 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass or not (off-pump coronary artery bypass). The incidence and mortality of vasoplegic syndrome were analyzed. The subgroup of vasoplegic patients was studied separately.Results:There were no preoperative demographic differences between the cardiopulmonary bypass (n=20) and off-pump coronary artery bypass (n=30) group. Intraoperative data showed a greater number of distal coronary arteries anastomosis (2.8 vs. 1.8, P<0.0001) and higher transfusion rates (65% vs. 23%, P=0.008) in the cardiopulmonary bypass group. Vasoplegia incidence was statistically higher (P=0.0124) in the cardiopulmonary bypass group (30%) compared to the off-pump coronary artery bypass group (3%). Vasoplegia mortality was 50% in the cardiopulmonary bypass group and 0% in the off-pump coronary artery bypass group. The vasoplegic subgroup analysis showed no statistically significant clinical differences.Conclusion:Cardiopulmonary bypass increased the risk for developing postoperative vasoplegic syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure.


ResumoObjetivo:O melhor tratamento atual para os pacientes dialíticos com acometimento coronariano multiarterial é a revascularização cirúrgica do miocárdio. Dentre as complicações pós-operatórias, a síndrome vasoplégica de etiopatogenia inflamatória torna-se importante pelo impacto altamente negativo no prognóstico. Considerando que esses pacientes possuem uma exacerbação intrínseca da resposta inflamatória, nosso objetivo foi avaliar a incidência e a mortalidade da síndrome vasoplégica no pós-operatório de revascularização miocárdica nesse grupo.Métodos:Estudo retrospectivo, unicêntrico, de 50 pacientes dialíticos consecutivos e não selecionados, submetidos à revascularização miocárdica, em um hospital terciário universitário, no período de 2007 a 2012. Esses pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos, de acordo com o emprego ou não da circulação extracorpórea. A incidência e a mortalidade da vasoplegia foram analisadas nos grupos. Após a identificação dos pacientes quanto à presença de vasoplegia, este subgrupo foi estudado separadamente.Resultados:Não houve diferenças demográficas pré-operatórias entre os grupos com circulação extracorpórea (n=20) e sem circulação extracorpórea (n=30). Dados intraoperatórios demonstraram maior número de artérias coronárias revascularizadas (2,8 vs. 1,8; P<0,0001) e maior necessidade de transfusão (65% vs. 23%; P=0,008) no grupo circulação extracorpórea. A incidência de vasoplegia foi estatisticamente maior (P=0,0124) no grupo circulação extracorpórea (30%) em comparação ao grupo sem circulação extracorpórea (3%). A mortalidade dos pacientes com vasoplegia foi 50% no grupo circulação extracorpórea e 0% no grupo sem circulação extracorpórea. A análise do subgrupo vasoplégico não demonstrou diferenças clínicas estatisticamente significantes.Conclusão:O emprego da circulação extracorpórea na revascularização cirúrgica do miocárdio em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica dialítica aumentou o risco para desenvolvimento de síndrome vasoplégica pós-operatória.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Vasoplegia/mortality , Anastomosis, Surgical/statistics & numerical data , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Incidence , Myocardial Revascularization/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Vasoplegia/etiology
16.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 385-391
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162341

ABSTRACT

Objective: Epidural anesthesia is a central neuraxial block technique with many applications. It is a versatile anesthetic technique, with applications in surgery, obstetrics and pain control. Its versatility means it can be used as an anesthetic, as an analgesic adjuvant to general anesthesia, and for postoperative analgesia. Off pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery triggers a systemic stress response as seen in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA), combined with general anesthesia (GA) attenuates the stress response to CABG. There is Reduction in levels of Plasma epinephrine, Cortisol and catecholamine surge, tumor necrosis factor-Alpha( TNF ά), interleukin-6 and leucocyte count. Design: A prospective randomised non blind study. Setting: A clinical study in a multi specialty hospital. Participants: Eighty six patients. Material and Methods/intervention: The study was approved by hospital research ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients were randomised to receive either GA plus epidural (study group) or GA only (control group). Inclusion Criteria (for participants) were -Age ≥ 70 years, Patient posted for OPCAB surgery, and patient with comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, renal dysfunction). Serum concentration of Interlukin: – 6, TNF ά, cortisol, Troponin – I, CK-MB, and HsCRP (highly sensitive C reactive protein), was compared for both the group and venous blood samples were collected and compared just after induction, at day 2, and day 5 postoperatively. Time to mobilization, extubation, total intensive care unit stay and hospital stay were noted and compared. Independent t test was used for statistical analysis. Primary Outcomes: Postoperative complications, total intensive care unit stay and hospital stay. Secondary Outcome: Stress response. Result: Study group showed decreased Interlukin – 6 at day 2, TNF ά at day 2 and 5,troponin I at day 5, and decreased total hospital stay ( p < 0.05). Conclusion: Thoracic epidural anesthesia decreases stress and inflammatory response to surgery and decreases hospital stay. However a large multicentre study may be needed to confirm it.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Biomarkers , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Risk
17.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 380-384
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162339

ABSTRACT

Aims and Objectives: Physiologically coronary sinus (CS) drains the left coronary artery (LCA) territory. Stenosis of the branches of LCA may decrease the coronary sinus blood flow (CSBF). Any intervention that aims at restoring the flow of the stenosed vessel increases coronary artery flow that should consequently increase the CSBF. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the CSBF before and after each branch of LCA to determine the adequacy of surgical revascularization in patients undergoing elective off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive patients scheduled for elective OPCAB were enrolled. CSBF was assessed before and after each branch of LCA revascularization using TEE. Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) Doppler was also obtained post LIMA to left anterior descending (LAD) grafting. Results: Hemodynamic and echocardiographic variables were compared by means of Student’s t-test for paired data before and after revascularization. The CSBF per beat (1.28 ± 0.71), CSBF per minute (92.59 ± 59.32) and total velocity time integral (VTI) (8.93 ± 4.29) before LAD grafting showed statistically significant increase to CSBF per beat (1.70 ± 0.89), CSBF per minute (130.72 ± 74.22) and total VTI (11.96 ± 5.68) after LAD revascularization. The CSBF per beat (1.67 ± 1.03), CSBF per minute (131.91 ± 86.59) and total VTI (11.00 ± 5.53) before obtuse marginal (OM) grafting showed statistically significant increase to CSBF per beat (1.91 ± 1.03), CSBF per min (155.20 ± 88.70) and total VTI (12.09 ± 5.43) after OM revascularization. In 9 patients, color flow Doppler of LIMA could be demonstrated which showed diastolic predominant blood flow after LIMA to LAD grafting. Conclusion: Demonstration of CSBF was simple and monitoring the trend of CSBF values before and after each graft of LCA territory will guide to determine the adequacy of surgical revascularization.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity/analysis , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Circulation , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Humans , Mammary Arteries/physiology , Myocardial Revascularization/methods
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(4): 588-594, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741745

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the lung function and clinical outcome in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting with left internal thoracic artery graft, comparing the pleural drain insertion in the intercostal versus subxyphoid region. Methods: A randomized controlled trial. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were randomized into two groups according pleural drain site: II group (n=27) - pleural drain in intercostal space; SI group (n=29) - pleural drain in the subxyphoid region. Spirometry values (Forced Vital Capacity - and Forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were obtained on preoperative and 1, 3 and 5 postoperative days. Chest x-ray from preoperative until postoperative day 5 (POD5) was performed for monitoring respiratory events, such as atelectasis and pleural effusion. Pulmonary shunt fraction and pain score was evaluate preoperatively and on postoperative day 1. Results: In both groups there was a significant decrease of the spirometry values (Forced Vital Capacity and Forced expiratory volume in 1 second) until POD5 (P<0.05). However, when compared, SI group presented less decrease in these parameters (P<0.05). Pulmonary shunt fraction was significantly lower in SI group (P<0.05). Respiratory events, pain score, orotracheal intubation time and postoperative length of hospital stay were lower in the SI group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Subxyphoid pleural drainage in severe Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients determined better preservation and recovery of pulmonary capacity and volumes with lower pulmonary shunt fraction and better clinical outcomes on early postoperative off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. .


Objetivo: Avaliar a função pulmonar e os resultados clínicos em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica grave submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea, com enxerto da artéria torácica interna esquerda, comparando a inserção do dreno pleural intercostal versus subxifoide. Métodos: Estudo clínico, controlado e randomizado. Pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica foram randomizados em dois grupos de acordo com a posição do dreno pleural: grupo II (n=27) - dreno pleural intercostal; grupo IS (n=29) - dreno pleural na região subxifóide. Os valores espirométricos (Capacidade Vital Forçada e Volume expiratório forçado no 1 segundo) foram obtidos no pré-operatório, e no 1º, 3º e 5º dias de pós-operatório. Foi realizada radiografia de tórax no préoperatório até o 5º dia pós-operatório (5PO) para monitoração de eventos respiratórios, como atelectasia e derrame pleural. A fração de shunt pulmonar e a escala de dor foram avaliadas no 1º dia pós-operatório. Resultados: Em ambos os grupos houve queda significativa dos valores espirométricos (Capacidade Vital Forçada e Volume expiratório forçado no 1 segundo) até o 5PO (P<0.05), porém, quando comparados, o grupo IS apresentou menor queda destes parâmetros (P<0.05). A fração de shunt pulmonar foi significativamente menor no grupo IS (P<0.05). Os eventos respiratórios, escala da dor, tempo de intubação orotraqueal e dias internação hospitalar no pós-operatório foram menores no grupo IS (P<0.05). Conclusão: Drenagem pleural subxifoide em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica grave determinou melhor preservação e recuperação dos volumes e capacidades pulmonares, com menor fração de shunt pulmonar e melhores resultados clínicos no pós-operatório precoce de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Drainage/methods , Lung/physiology , Mammary Arteries/surgery , Pleura , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/adverse effects , Forced Expiratory Volume , Length of Stay , Postoperative Period , Pleural Effusion/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/rehabilitation , Pulmonary Atelectasis/prevention & control , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Spirometry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Vital Capacity
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200224

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the outcomes of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) with severe left ventricular dysfunction using composite bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting. From January 2001 to December 2008, 1,842 patients underwent primary isolated OPCAB with composite bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting. A total of 131 of these patients were diagnosed with a severely depressed preoperative left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (0.6). The early mortality for patients with severe LVEF was 2.3%. The 3-yr and 7-yr survival rate for patients with severe LV dysfunction was 86.0% and 82.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that severe LV dysfunction EF increased the risk of all-cause death (P=0.012; hazard ratio [HR],2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.19-3.88) and the risk of cardiac-related death (P=0.008; HR,3.38; 95% CI, 1.37-8.341). The study identified positive surgical outcomes of OPCAB, although severe LVEF was associated with two-fold increase in mortality risk compared with patients who had normal LVEF.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Female , Heart , Humans , Male , Mammary Arteries/transplantation , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Grafting/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Ventricular Function, Left
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 224-231, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50978

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypothermia adversely affects the coagulation that could be of clinical significance in patients receiving clopidogrel. We evaluated the influence of hypothermia on transfusion requirements in patients undergoing isolated off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) who continued clopidogrel use within 5 days of surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Protocol-based, prospectively entered data of 369 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The time-weighted average of intraoperative temperatures and the temperature upon ICU admission (TWA-temp) was assessed. Patients were divided into normothermia (> or =36degrees C, n=224) and hypothermia (<36degrees C, n=145) group. The transfusion requirement for perioperative blood loss was assessed and compared. RESULTS: Patients with hypothermia were older and had lower body surface area (BSA) than patients with normothermia. Age and BSA adjusted transfusion requirement was significantly larger in the hypothermia group [patients requiring transfusion: 64% versus 48%, p=0.003; number of units: 0 (0-2) units versus 2 (0-3) units, p=0.002]. In multivariate analysis of predictors of perioperative multiple transfusion requirements, hypothermia was identified as an independent risk factor along with age, female gender, BSA, chronic kidney disease, and congestive heart failure. CONCLUSION: Hypothermia was associated with increased transfusion requirement in patients undergoing OPCAB who received clopidogrel in proximity to surgery. Considering the high prevalence and the possibility of hypothermia being a modifiable risk factor, aggressive measures should be undertaken to maintain normothermia in those patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Female , Humans , Hypothermia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives
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