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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384


Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.

Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence , Antibodies, Bacterial , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 434-443, July-Aug. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385265


Abstract Background: The 9p21 region is the most relevant locus associated with coronary heart disease in different populations. However, there are no studies that prove that this region is a risk factor in the Venezuelan population. Objectives: To analyze whether or not the 9p21 rs1333049 polymorphism is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Venezuelan patients, as well as to investigate its correlation with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), age of occurrence, type and severity of infarction, and the correlation of the rs10757274 polymorphism with severity of coronary artery disease. Methods: This was an association study, including 487 unrelated Venezuelan individuals, grouped in 354 patients with AMI and 133 controls. The rs1333049 and rs10757274 polymorphisms were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with sequence-specific primers. The analysis of association was determined using the SNPStats tool. The continuous variable description and the correlations were performed using the SPSS statistical software. Significance was established at p<0.05. Results: A positive correlation was observed between the rs1333049 polymorphism and the presence of hypertension ( r: 0.145, p: 0.006), and between hypertension and heart infarction ( r: 0.318, p: <0.0001). A positive correlation was found between the rs10757274 polymorphism and the number of coronary vessels that presented obstructive lesions in patients aged ≤ 55 years ( r: 0.276, p: 0.0078). Conclusion: The rs1333049 polymorphism at the 9p21 locus is correlated with hypertension in Venezuelan patients, while the rs10757274 polymorphism is associated with the progression of coronary atherosclerosis, suggested by the correlation with the number of coronary vessels that presented significant obstructive lesions.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Coronary Artery Disease/ethnology , Chromosomes/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Venezuela , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Hypertension/ethnology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 760-767, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385669


SUMMARY: Atherosclerosis is a complex disease whose pathogenesis includes endothelial activation, accumulation of lipids in the subendothelium, formation of foam cells, fat bands and formation of atherosclerotic plaque. These complex mechanisms involve different cell populations in the intimate sub-endothelium, and the S-100 protein family plays a role in a number of extracellular and intracellular processes during the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic characteristics of smooth muscle cells and the consequent expression of S100 protein in atherosclerotic altered coronary arteries in advanced stages of atherosclerosis. 19 samples of right atherosclerotic coronary arteries in stages of fibro atheroma (type V lesion) and complicated lesions (type VI lesion) have been analyzed. According to the standard protocol, the following primary antibodies have been used in the immunohistochemical analysis: a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and S-100 protein. All analyzed samples have been in advanced stages of atherosclerosis, fibro atheroma (stage V lesions) and complicated lesions (type VI lesions). Most of them have had the structure of a complicated lesion with atheroma or fibro atheroma as a basis, subsequently complicated by disruption (subtype VI a), hemorrhage (subtype VI b) or thrombosis (subtype VI c), as well as by the presence of several complications on the same sample. Marked hypocellularity is present in the subendothelium of plaques. Cell population at plaque margins is characterized by immunoreactivity to α-SMA, vimentin, and S100 protein. Some of these cells accumulate lipids and look like foam cells. In the cell population at the margins of the plaques, smooth muscle cells of the synthetic phenotype are present, some of which accumulate lipids and demonstrate S100 immunoreactivity. Summarizing numerous literature data and our results, we could assume that smooth muscle cells, due to their synthetic and proliferative activity in the earlier stages of pathogenesis, as well as the consequent expression of S100 protein, could accumulate lipids in the earlier stages of atherosclerosis which, in advanced stages analyzed in this study, result in immunoreactivity of foam cells of smooth muscle origin to S100 protein.

RESUMEN: La aterosclerosis es una enfermedad compleja cuya patogenia incluye activación endotelial, acumulación de lípidos en el subendotelio, formación de células espumosas, bandas grasas y formación de placa aterosclerótica. Estos complejos mecanismos involucran diferentes poblaciones celulares en el subendotelio íntimo, y la familia de proteínas S-100 juega un papel en varios procesos extracelulares e intracelulares durante el desarrollo de lesiones ateroscleróticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las características fenotípicas de las células de músculo liso y la consecuente expresión de la proteína S100 en arterias coronarias alteradas ateroscleróticas en estadios avanzados de aterosclerosis. Se analizaron 19 muestras de arterias coronarias ateroscleróticas derechas en estadios de fibroateroma (lesión tipo V) y lesiones complicadas (lesión tipo VI). Según el protocolo estándar, en el análisis inmunohistoquímico se utilizaron los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: α-actina de músculo liso (α-SMA), vimentina y proteína S-100. Todas las muestras analizadas han estado en estadios avanzados de aterosclerosis, fibroateroma (lesiones estadio V) y lesiones complicadas (lesiones tipo VI). La mayoría de ellos han tenido la estructura de una lesión complicada con ateroma o fibroateroma como base, complicada posteriormente por disrupción (subtipo VI a), hemorragia (subtipo VI b) o trombosis (subtipo VI c), así como por la presencia de varias complicaciones en la misma muestra. La hipocelularidad marcada estaba presente en el subendotelio de las placas. La población celular en los márgenes de la placa se caracterizaba por inmunorreactividad a α-SMA, vimentina y proteína S100. Algunas de estas células acumulan lípidos y parecen células espumosas. En la población celular en los márgenes de las placas, estaban presentes las células de músculo liso de fenotipo sintético, algunas de las cuales acumulaban lípidos y mostraban inmunorreactividad S100. Resumiendo numerosos datos de la literatura y nuestros resultados, podríamos suponer que las células del músculo liso, debido a su actividad sintética y proliferativa en las primeras etapas de la patogénesis, así como la consecuente expresión de la proteína S100, podrían acumular lípidos en las primeras etapas de la aterosclerosis que, en estadios avanzados analizados en este estudio, dan como resultado inmunorreactividad de células espumosas de origen muscular liso a la proteína S100.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/metabolism , S100 Proteins/metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Phenotype
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 578-585, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364359


Resumo Fundamento Atualmente o sistema de saúde público brasileiro (SUS) não contempla a angiotomografia de coronárias. Objetivos Ranquear sob a perspectiva do SUS, a custo-efetividade de estratégias diagnósticas combinando teste ergométrico, cintilografia miocárdica, ecocardiograma por estresse e angiotomografia de coronárias para o diagnóstico de doença arterial coronariana em uma coorte hipotética de pacientes com probabilidade pré-teste intermediária. Métodos Análise de custo-efetividade por meio de árvore de decisão. Foram analisados a relação de custo-efetividade incremental e o benefício líquido em saúde das estratégias diagnósticas, com a adoção de múltiplos limiares de disposição a pagar entre 0,05 e 1 PIB per capita por diagnóstico correto. Nos casos de testes sequenciais, um segundo teste confirmatório era realizado quando o primeiro fosse positivo. Resultados Após exclusão das estratégias diagnósticas dominadas ou com dominância estendida, a fronteira de eficiência foi composta por três estratégias: teste ergométrico, teste ergométrico seguido de ecocardiograma de estresse, e ecocardiograma de estresse seguido de angiotomografia de coronárias, sendo esta última a estratégia mais custo-efetiva. Pelo critério do benefício líquido, o ranqueamento das estratégias mais custo-efetivas variou conforme a disposição a pagar. Conclusão Utilizando conceitos atuais de avaliação de tecnologias em saúde, este estudo fornece um ranqueamento para a tomada de decisão sobre qual estratégia diagnóstica utilizar, em uma população com risco pré-teste intermediário para DAC. Com estimativa factível de custos para a ATC, o impacto da inclusão desta ao rol do arsenal diagnóstico representaria uma estratégia custo-efetiva na maioria dos cenários avaliados nas variações de disposição a pagar.

Abstract Background The Brazilian public health system does not include computed tomography angiography (CTA). Objective Rank, according to the Brazilian public health system, the cost-effectiveness of different strategies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), combining exercise tests (ET), myocardial scintigraphy (MS), stress echocardiography (SE), and CTA in a hypothetical intermediate pre-test probability cohort of patients. Methods This study implemented a cost-effectiveness analysis through a decision tree. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net benefit were analyzed by adopting multiple thresholds of willingness to pay, from 0.05 to 1 GDP per capita per correct diagnosis. In sequential tests, a second confirmatory test was performed only when the first was positive. Results After excluding dominated or extended dominance diagnostic strategies, the efficiency frontier consisted of three strategies: ET, ET followed by SE, and SE followed by CTA, the last being the most cost-effective strategy. Through the net benefit, the ranking of the most cost-effective strategies varied according to willingness to pay. Conclusions Using current concepts of health technology assessment, this study provides a ranking for decision-making concerning which diagnostic strategy to use in a population with an intermediate pre-test risk for CAD. With a feasible cost estimate adopted for CTA, the impact of including this to the list of the diagnostic arsenal would represent a cost-effective strategy in most of the evaluated scenarios with broad variations in the willingness to pay.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Coronary Angiography , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Echocardiography, Stress , Computed Tomography Angiography
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 607-613, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364344


Resumo Fundamento A ventriculografia esquerda é um método invasivo para avaliar a função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Depois do advento de métodos não invasivos, o seu uso tem sido questionado por resultar em algum risco para o paciente. Objetivos Avaliar quais fatores associam-se independentemente com a decisão de realizar ventriculografia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos Tratou-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, avaliando prontuários eletrônicos e banco de dados e comparando 21 variáveis de interesse pré-definidas entre pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia. Foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliamos 600 pacientes consecutivos, e a ventriculografia esquerda foi realizada na maioria dos pacientes submetidos a uma cineangiocoronariografia (54%). Depois da análise multivariada, os pacientes com síndromes coronarianas crônicas ( odds ratio [OR] 1,72; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,20-2,46; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de serem submetidos ao procedimento. Os pacientes com função ventricular conhecida (OR = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,40-0,85; p < 0,01), os revascularizados (OR 0,31; IC 95% 0,14-0,69; p < 0,01), os hipertensos (OR 0,58; IC 95%: 0,36-0,94; p = 0,02) e aqueles com maiores valores de creatinina (OR 0,42; IC 95% 0,26-0,69; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de não realizar ventriculografia. Conclusões Nos pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia, o diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana crônica associou-se de modo independente com uma maior realização da técnica, enquanto ter a função ventricular previamente conhecida, ser hipertenso, ter sido submetido a revascularização cirúrgica prévia e ter valores de creatinina mais elevados associaram-se a uma maior chance de não realizar o método.

Abstract Background Left ventriculography is an invasive method for assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Since the advent of noninvasive methods, its use has been questioned, as it carries some risk to the patient. Objective To assess which factors are independently associated with the decision to perform ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Analytical, retrospective, database review study of electronic medical records comparing 21 predefined variables of interest among patients undergoing coronary angiography. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results We evaluated 600 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Left ventriculography was performed in the majority of cases (54%). After multivariate analysis, patients with chronic coronary syndrome (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46; p < 0.01) were more likely to undergo the procedure. Patients with known ventricular function (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.85; p < 0.01); those with a history of CABG (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14-0.69; p < 0.01) or hypertension (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36-0.94; p = 0.02); and those with higher creatinine levels (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.26-0.69; p < 0.01) had greater odds of not undergoing ventriculography. Conclusions In patients undergoing coronary angiography, a diagnosis of chronic coronary syndrome was independently associated with greater likelihood of left ventriculography, while having previously determined ventricular function, a history of hypertension or CABG, and higher creatinine levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing this procedure.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Heart
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 28-36, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1356316


BACKGROUND: Exercise tests are an important tool in the investigation of myocardial ischemia. The ramp protocol has gained increasing importance in clinical practice because of the possibility of individualizing its exercise intensity. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Bruce and ramp protocols for exercise testing in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia considering myocardial perfusion scintigraphy as the reference standard. Secondary objectives included the assessment of hemodynamic profiles, functional capacity, and the incidence of arrhythmias in each of the protocols. METHODS: Participants underwent exercise testing using the ramp and Bruce protocols, and the tests' diagnostic power was assessed. For testing the difference between data provided by both protocols, we used a paired Student's t-test or Wilcoxon test, depending on the assumption of data normality. The level of significance adopted for all tests was 5%. RESULTS: The ramp protocol showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 55.6%, 82.4%, and 76.7%, respectively, whereas the Bruce protocol had results of 77.8%, 64.7%, and 67.4%, respectively. The maximum heart rate and double product at peak exercise were significantly higher in the Bruce protocol (p = 0.043 and p = 0.040, respectively). No differences were observed between the incidence of arrhythmias in both protocols. CONCLUSION: The Bruce protocol presented higher sensitivity for detecting ischemia on the exercise test, while the ramp protocol presented higher specificity and accuracy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Exercise Test , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Exercise , Predictive Value of Tests , Hemodynamics
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 48-55, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356308


Abstract Background Nothing is known about ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the Germans who emigrated to Brazil during the last century. Objective We sought to compare age at diagnosis and IHD manifestations between German immigrants and their first-generation descendants in the region of Blumenau, Brazil. Methods We reviewed medical records of hospitals in Blumenau. Comparison of the groups in the evaluation times was made by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, and comparison of two factors was made by two-way ANOVA. The level of significance was set at p <0.05. Results Study population comprised 68 patients who were born in Germany (group G) and 99 descendants (group D). Twenty-nine patients of group D had two German parents and 70 had one. Mean age at diagnosis was 66.8 ± 10.6 years, with a significant difference between the groups, four years higher in Group G than group D (69.0 ± 8.8 vs 65.4 ± 11.5 years old) (p = 0.025). There was no significant difference in risk factors or coronary angiography data between the groups. HDL cholesterol levels were significantly higher in group G than in group D (48.4 ± 11.1 mg/dL vs 43.3 ± 11.2 mg/dL, p = 0.005). Conclusion At the time of first IHD diagnosis, mean age of the group G was significantly higher than group D, with no differences between groups in sex, risk factors, LDL levels, or clinical and angiographic manifestations. An earlier manifestation of the disease could be part of lifestyle changes in descendants, in this population that mantained eating habits characterized by high saturated fat consumption.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease/ethnology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Brazil/ethnology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Germany/ethnology , Risk Factors , Intergenerational Relations , Feeding Behavior
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 52-58, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360111


Resumo Fundamento Os níveis de Proteína 3 relacionada ao fator de necrose tumoral/complemento sérico C1q (CTRP3) e a relação com a fibrilação atrial (FA) na doença arterial coronária estável (DAC) não estão claros atualmente. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a mudança nos níveis séricos de CTRP3 e sua relação com a FA paroxística em DAC estável. Método O estudo incluiu 252 pacientes com DAC e 50 controles saudáveis com idade/sexo compatíveis. Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram medidos, além da anamnese de rotina, exame físico, exames laboratoriais e ecocardiograma. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupos com e sem DAC e indivíduos com DAC com e sem FA paroxística. Os valores eram estatisticamente significativos quando p<0,05. Resultados Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram significativamente menores em pacientes com DAC do que no grupo controle (p<0,001). A FA foi detectada em 28 pacientes (15,08%) no grupo DAC. A frequência de hipertensão e do sexo feminino, a proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as), o nitrogênio ureico no sangue, os níveis de creatinina e o diâmetro diastólico do átrio esquerdo foram maiores (p<0,05 para cada um), e os níveis de CTRP3 foram mais baixos em pacientes com FA (p<0,001). Na análise de regressão logística, os níveis séricos de CTRP3 e os diâmetros diastólicos do átrio esquerdo foram independentemente determinados pelos pacientes com FA (p<0,01 para cada um). Nesta análise, observamos que cada 1 ng/mL de redução nos níveis de CTRP3 aumentou o risco de FA em 10,7%. Na análise ROC dos valores de CTRP3 para detectar pacientes com FA, a área da curva ROC para CTRP3 foi 0,971 (0,951-991) e considerada estatisticamente significativa (p<0,001). Quando o ponto de corte de CTRP3 foi considerado em 300 ng/mL, demonstrava a presença de FA com 87,9% de sensibilidade e 86,8% de especificidade. Conclusão Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 caíram significativamente em pacientes com DAC estável, e níveis reduzidos de CTRP3 estiveram relacionados à presença de FA paroxística nesses pacientes.

Abstract Background Serum Complement C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) levels and the relationship with atrial fibrillation (AF) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clearly known. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the change in serum CTRP3 levels and its relationship with paroxysmal AF in stable CAD. Method The study included 252 patients with CAD and 50 age-sex matched healthy control subjects. Serum CTRP3 levels were measured in addition to routine anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory and echocardiography examinations. The patients were divided into groups with and without CAD and CAD patients with and without paroxysmal AF. Statistical significance was accepted as p<0.05. Results Serum CTRP3 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with CAD than in the control group (p<0.001). AF was detected in 38 patients (15.08%) in the CAD group. The frequency of hypertension and female gender, hs-CRP, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine levels and left atrial end-diastolic (LAd) diameter were higher (p<0.05 for each one), and CTRP3 levels were lower in patients with AF (p <0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, serum CTRP3 levels and LAd diameters were independently determined the patients with AF (p<0.01 for each one). In this analysis, we found that every 1 ng/mL reduction in CTRP3 levels increased the risk of AF by 10.7%. In the ROC analysis of CTRP3 values for detecting patients with AF, the area under the ROC curve for CTRP3 was 0.971 (0.951-991) and was statistically significant (p<0.001). When the CTRP3 cut-off value was taken as 300 ng/mL, it was found to predict the presence of AF with 87.9% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. Conclusion Serum CTRP3 levels were significantly reduced in patients with stable CAD and decreased CTRP3 levels were closely related to the presence of paroxysmal AF in these patients.

Humans , Female , Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , ROC Curve , Heart Atria
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368762


ABSTRACT: Background: Coronary artery disease represents the condition with the highest prevalence worldwide. The treatment of this disease is through Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Aiming: To outline the clinical epidemiological profile of health users who have undergone PCI, in a Hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: Exploratory research, with a quantitative approach carried out on 188 medical records of health users who were submitted to elective or emergency PCI, with the use of stents or not in the year 2018. Values of p <0.05 represented significant statistical differences. Results: Users with a diagnosis of unstable angina (n = 16; 17.8%), diagnostic symptoms of unstable angina (n = 61; 67.8%) and a diagnosis of angina pectoris (n = 52; 57.8%) presented significantly more likely to be submitted to the PCI in elective way (p <0.001). Users diagnosed with Acute Myocardial Infarction - AMI (n = 59; 60.2%) and symptoms with evolution greater than 24 hours (n = 30; 30.6%) and less than 24 hours (n = 24; 24.5%), with dyslipidemia (n = 38; 38.8%) and who underwent catheterization on the same day (n = 87; 88.8%) are significantly more likely to perform emergency surgery (p <0.05). In addition, the data showed that the diagnosis of unstable angina potentiates new cardiomyopathies (n = 9, 47.4%; p <0.001) and restenosis (n = 5; 26.3%; p = 0.002). Conclusion: It is necessary to create strategies to strengthen the Health Care Network (HCN) with actions for prevention, promotion and rehabilitation to health, aiming quality in diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. (AU)

RESUMO: Introdução: A doença arterial coronariana representa a afecção de maior prevalência mundial. O tratamento desta doença se dá pela intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP). Objetivo: Delinear o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos usuários de saúde submetidos à ICP em um Hospital do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos: Pesquisa exploratória, de abordagem quantitativa realizada em 188 prontuários de usuários de saúde submetidos à ICP eletiva ou de urgência com uso de stent ou não no ano de 2018. Valores de p< 0,05 representaram diferenças estatísticas significativas. Resultados: Usuários com diagnóstico de angina instável (n=16; 17,8%), sintomas diagnósticos de angina instável (n= 61; 67,8%) e diagnóstico de angina pectoris (n=52; 57,8%) apresentaram significativamente maior probabilidade de serem submetidos à ICP em caráter eletivo (p<0,001). Usuários com diagnóstico para infarto agudo do miocárdio (n=59; 60,2%) e sintomatologia com evolução maior que 24 horas (n=30; 30,6%) e menor que 24 horas (n=24; 24,5%), com dislipidemia (n=38; 38,8%) e que fizeram cateterismo no mesmo dia (n=87; 88,8%) são significativamente mais propensos a realizar cirurgia de urgência (p<0,05). Além disso, os dados evidenciaram que o diagnóstico de angina instável potencializa novas cardiomiopatias (n=9, 47,4%; p<0,001) e reestenose (n=5; 26,3%; p= 0,002). Conclusão: É necessário criar estratégias para fortalecer a Rede de Atenção à Saúde (RAS) com ações de prevenção, promoção e reabilitação à saúde, visando a qualidade no diagnóstico, tratamento e reabilitação. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Profile , Coronary Artery Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 16(1): 4931-4938, 2022. tales, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1410559


Contexte et objectif. La maladie athéromateuse dont la coronaropathie étant une pathologie diffuse peut être prévenue par le contrôle des facteurs de risqué cardiovasculaire. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les caractéristiques pharmaco doppler pénien des patients coronariens souffrant de dysfonction érectile. Méthodes. Il s'agissait d'une série analytique des cas suivie entre juin 2020 et février 2021. Elle concernait des patients ayant des lésions athéromateuses significatives à la coronographie et souffrant de dysfonction érectile. Nous avons évalué les caractéristiques pharmaco doppler pénien. La qualité d'érection était appréciée par le score de rigidité Erectile Hardness Score (EHS). Résultats. Trente-six patients étaient inclus. L'âge moyen était de 56 ± 8,4 ans. le pic de Vitesse systolique au repos (PSVr) moyen des patients était de 13,7 cm/s ± 5,9. Le pic de vitesse systolique post injection (PSV pi) moyen des patients était de 23,9 cm/s ± 5,4. Les causes étaient principalement artérielles de 75%. La qualité d'érection était appréciée selon le score EHS : E1 (83%), E2 (22%), E3 (5%) et E4 (3%). Conclusion. La dysfunction érectile est associée aux facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire selon plusieurs études. L'echodoppler pénien avait occupé une place importante dans le diagnostic étiologique. Les causes retrouvées étaient principalement artérielles avec une baisse de PSVpi<25 cm/s.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Blood Pressure , Coronary Vessels , Erectile Dysfunction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929044


The dysfunction of coronary microcirculation is an important cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is a quantitative evaluation of coronary microcirculatory function, which provides a significant reference for the prediction, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of CAD. IMR also plays a key role in investigating the interaction between epicardial and microcirculatory dysfunctions, and is closely associated with coronary hemodynamic parameters such as flow rate, distal coronary pressure, and aortic pressure, which have been widely applied in computational studies of CAD. However, there is currently a lack of consensus across studies on the normal and pathological ranges of IMR. The relationships between IMR and coronary hemodynamic parameters have not been accurately quantified, which limits the application of IMR in computational CAD studies. In this paper, we discuss the research gaps between IMR and its potential applications in the computational simulation of CAD. Computational simulation based on the combination of IMR and other hemodynamic parameters is a promising technology to improve the diagnosis and guide clinical trials of CAD.

Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Circulation , Humans , Microcirculation , Predictive Value of Tests , Vascular Resistance
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939806


OBJECTIVES@#Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is one of the important methods for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). In-sent restenosis (ISR) after PCI for patients suffered from CAD is considered to be an essential factor affecting long-term outcomes and prognosis of this disease. This study aims to investigate the correlation between plasma Quaking (QKI) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels and ISR in patients with CAD.@*METHODS@#A total of 218 consecutive CAD patients who underwent coronary angiography and coronary arterial stenting from September 2019 to September 2020 in the Department of Cardiology of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled in this study, and 35 matched individuals from the physical examination center were served as a control group. After admission, clinical data of these 2 groups were collected. Plasma QKI and COX-2 levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Follow-up angiography was performed 12 months after PCI. CAD patients were divided into a NISR group (n=160) and an ISR group (n=58) according to the occurrence of ISR based on the coronary angiography. The clinical data, coronary angiography, and stent features between the NISR group and the ISR group were compared, and multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the factors influencing ISR. The occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) 1 year after operation was recorded. Fifty-eight patients with ISR were divided into an MACE group (n=24) and a non-MACE group (n=34), classified according to the occurrence of MACE, and the plasma levels of QKI and COX-2 were compared between the 2 groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were utilized to analyze the diagnostic value of plamsa levels of QKI and COX-2 for ISR and MACE occurrences in patients after PCI.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group, plasma levels of QKI and COX-2 in the CAD group decreased significantly (all P<0.001). Compared with the NISR group, the plasma levels of QKI and COX-2 also decreased obviously in the ISR group (all P<0.001), while the levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) significantly increased (all P<0.001). The level of COX-2 was negatively correlated with hs-CRP (r=-0.385, P=0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high level of plasma QKI and COX-2 were protective factors for in-stent restenosis after PCI, while hs-CRP was a risk factor. ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of plasma QKI for evaluating the predictive value of ISR were 77.5% and 66.5%, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity of plasma COX-2 for evaluating the predictive value of ISR were 80.0% and 70.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma QKI combined with COX-2 for evaluating the predictive value of ISR were 81.3% and 74.1%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma QKI for evaluating the prognosis of ISR were 75.0% and 64.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma COX-2 for evaluating the prognosis of ISR were 75.0% and 70.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma QKI combined with COX-2 for prognostic evaluation of ISR were 81.7% and 79.4%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma COX-2 combined with QKI for evaluating ISR and MACE occurrences in patients after PCI were better than those of COX-2 or QKI alone (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#High level of plasma QKI and COX-2 might be a protective factor for ISR, which can also predict ISR patient's prognosis.

C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Coronary Angiography/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Restenosis/therapy , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Stents/adverse effects
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 462-465, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935721


Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis combined with coronary artery dilatation. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data, including clinical manifestations, blood routine, inflammatory factors, echocardiography, vascular ultrasound and CT angiography, treatment and outcomes, etc, of 5 cases with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis combined with coronary artery dilation admitted to Department of Rheumatology in the affiliated Children's Hospital of Capital Institute of Pediatrics from May 2019 to June 2021. Results: There were 2 males and 3 females among 5 cases. The onset age ranged from 7 months to 4 years 7 months.The diagnostic time ranged from 1.5 months to 3.0 months.Four cases were diagnosed as atypical Kawasaki disease. Three cases showed unilateral coronary artery dilation.Two cases showed bilateral coronary artery dilation.Four cases developed multiple organ injuries.Three cases developed macrophage activation syndrome.Three cases developed lung injury.Two cases developed pericardial effusion.One case developed pulmonary hypertension.As for treatment, 3 cases treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and methotrexate combined with cyclosporine, improved after the final application of biological agents, and have stopped prednisone. The other 2 cases were treated with adequate oral prednisone and gradually reduced, and methotrexate was added at the same time, 1 case relapsed in the process of reduction. No other vascular involvement was found in 5 cases. Coronary artery dilation recovered completely after 1 to 3 months of treatment. Conclusions: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis combined with coronary artery dilatation has the clinical characteristics of small onset age, long diagnostic time, prone to multiple organ injuries. Corticosteroids and conventional immunosuppressive agents are not sensitive, and biological agents should be used as soon as possible.The prognosis of coronary artery dilation is good after timely treatment.

Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Child , Coronary Aneurysm/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Dilatation , Dilatation, Pathologic , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Methotrexate , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 494-500, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935175


Objective: To investigate the diagnostic efficiency and incremental value of quantitative myocardial blood flow measurements by Cadmium-Zine-Telluride (CZT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) dynamic myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with traditional semi-quantitative measurements by MPI. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of patients with suspected or known CAD, who underwent the dynamic MPI quantitative blood flow measurement of CZT SPECT in TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital from October 2018 to December 2020. Clinical data, semi-quantitative parameters (stress score (SS), rest score (RS) and different score (DS)) and myocardial quantitative blood flow parameters (rest myocardial blood flow (rMBF), stress myocardial blood flow (sMBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR)) were analyzed. According to the results of coronary angiography, patients were divided into the stenosis group and the control group with coronary artery stenosis ≥50% or ≥75% as the diagnosis criteria. The differences of quantitative and semi-quantitative parameters between the two groups were compared, and the diagnostic efficacy was compared by receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve. Results: A total of 98 patients with a mean age of (62.1±8.7) years were included in the study, including 66 males (67%). At the patient level, with the positive standard of coronary artery stenosis≥50%, the left ventricle (LV) stress MBF (LV-sMBF) ((1.36±0.45) ml·min-1·g-1) and LV-MFR (1.45±0.43) of the stenosis group were lower than the LV-sMBF ((2.09±0.64) ml·min-1·g-1) and LV-MFR (2.17±0.54) of control group; summed SS and summed DS were higher than control group (all P<0.05). With the positive standard of coronary artery stenosis ≥75%, the LV-sMBF ((1.19±0.34) ml·min-1·g-1) and LV-MFR (1.34±0.35) of stenosis group were lower than the LV-sMBF ((1.94±0.63) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (2.00±0.58) of control group; all semi-quantitative parameters were higher than control group (all P<0.05). At the vascular level, with coronary artery stenosis ≥50% as the diagnosis criteria, the sMBF ((1.26±0.49) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (1.35±0.46) of stenosis group were lower than the sMBF ((1.95±0.70) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (2.05±0.65) of control group; SS and DS were higher than control group (all P<0.05). With coronary artery stenosis≥75% as the diagnosis criteria, the sMBF ((1.12±0.41) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (1.25±0.38) of stenosis group were lower than the sMBF ((1.84±0.70) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (1.93±0.66) of control group; all semi-quantitative parameters were higher than control group (all P<0.05). With coronary artery stenosis≥50% as the diagnosis criteria and CAG as the reference standard, the AUC and 95%CI of myocardial quantitative blood flow parameters indicated by ROC curve for diagnosis of CAD were 0.830 (0.783-0.877). The sensitivity (86.1% vs. 61.5%), specificity (82.6% vs. 73.8%), positive predictive value (77.8% vs. 62.5%), negative predictive value (89.3% vs. 73.0%) and accuracy (84.0% vs. 68.7%) were all higher than the semi-quantitative parameters (all P<0.05). With coronary artery stenosis≥75% as the diagnosis criteria, the AUC and 95%CI of myocardial quantitative blood flow parameters indicated by ROC curve for diagnosis of CAD were 0.832(0.785-0.879). The sensitivity (89.2% vs. 67.6%), negative predictive value (95.5% vs. 86.2%) and accuracy (80.6% vs. 68.0%) were all higher than semi-quantitative parameters (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with traditional SPECT MPI derived semi-quantitative parameters, diagnostic efficacy for CAD is higher using CZT SPECT quantitative myocardial blood flow parameters, this strategy thus has additional diagnostic benefits and incremental value on the diagnosis of CAD.

Aged , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 480-485, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935173


Objective: To evaluate the consistency on the determination of target heart rate by simple calculation method based on resting heart rate and by anaerobic threshold method in cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) for patients with coronary artery disease after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: This study was a diagnostic test. Patients with coronary artery disease who underwent the first PCI in the Department of Cardiology of Peking University People's Hospital from October 2011 to April 2021 were enrolled. Patients were further divided into subgroups according to gender, age (<60 years group and ≥60 years group), with or without myocardial infarction history (myocardial infarction group and angina pectoris group) and whether β blockers were applied. The general clinical data of patients, resting heart rate (RHR) and anaerobic threshold heart rate in CPET were collected through the electronic medical record system. The simple target rate (RHR plus 20 or 30 bpm) and the target rate calculated by anaerobic threshold (anaerobic threshold heart rate minus 10 bpm) were both calculated in each patient. Consistency test of target heart rate derived by above the two methods was shown by intra-class correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Results: A total of 439 patients were included, age was (56.2±8.8) years, body mass index was (25.77±2.34) kg/m2, there were 382 males (87.0%). The target heart rate determined by anaerobic threshold method was (90.0±11.8)bpm, and the simple target heart rate determined by RHR plus 20 bpm was (91.0±8.4)bpm. There was no significant difference on the target heart rate derived from the two calculation methods (P=0.091). The simple target heart rate determined by RHR plus 30 bpm was (101.0±8.4)bpm, which was significant higher than that determined by anaerobic threshold method (P<0.001). In the following analysis, RHR plus 20 bpm was defined as the simple target heart rate. The ICC value of target heart rate determined by anaerobic threshold and resting rate plus 20 bpm was 0.529(95%CI 0.458-0.593, P<0.001). Bland-Altman plots analysis showed that the ratio of the simple target heart rate and the target heart rate determined by anaerobic threshold method was 1.03±0.11 and the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were 0.812-1.245. In the subgroup of patients aged<60 years (n=247), the ICC value was 0.492, the ratio by Bland-Altman plots analysis was 1.02±0.11 and LOA was 0.814-1.234; in the subgroup of patients aged ≥60 years (n=192), the ICC value was 0.566, the ratio by Bland-Altman plots analysis was 1.03±0.11 and LOA was 0.810-1.260. In male subgroup(n=382), the ICC value was 0.540, the ratio by Bland-Altman plots analysis was 1.03±0.11 and LOA was 0.813-1.246; in female subgroup(n=57), the ICC value was 0.445, the ratio by Bland-Altman plots analysis was 1.03±0.11 and LOA was 0.810-1.240.In myocardial infarction subgroup (n=186), the ICC value was 0.568, the ratio by Bland-Altman plots analysis was 1.02±0.11 and LOA was 0.810-1.227; in angina pectoris subgroup (n=253), the ICC value was 0.495, the ratio by Bland-Altman plots analysis was 1.04±0.11 and LOA was 0.813-1.260. In the subgroup of patients with β blockers (n=353), the ICC value was 0.520, the ratio by Bland-Altman plots analysis was 1.03±0.11 and LOA was 0.810-1.252; in the subgroup of patients without β blockers (n=86), the ICC value was 0.570, the ratio by Bland-Altman plots analysis was 1.02±0.10 and LOA was 0.821-1.219. Conclusions: The simple target heart rate determined by RHR plus 20 bpm is consistent with the target heart rate determined by anaerobic threshold in patients with coronary artery disease after PCI. But the simple target heart rate determined by RHR plus 20 bpm can't replace the target heart rate determined by anaerobic threshold in this patient cohort.

Adrenergic beta-Antagonists , Anaerobic Threshold , Angina Pectoris , Coronary Artery Disease , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 458-465, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935170


Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT>1 year) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes who were event-free at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) in a large and contemporary PCI registry. Methods: A total of 1 661 eligible patients were selected from the Fuwai PCI Registry, of which 1 193 received DAPT>1 year and 468 received DAPT ≤1 year. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding, MACCE was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or stroke. Multivariate Cox regression analysis and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) Cox regression analysis were performed. Results: After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, patients who received DAPT>1 year were associated with lower risks of MACCE (1.4% vs. 3.2%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.412, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.205-0.827) compared with DAPT ≤1 year, which was primarily caused by the lower all-cause mortality (0.1% vs. 2.6%; HR 0.031, 95%CI 0.004-0.236). Risks of cardiac death (0.1% vs. 1.5%; HR 0.051, 95%CI 0.006-0.416) and definite/probable ST (0.3% vs. 1.1%; HR 0.218, 95%CI 0.052-0.917) were also lower in patients received DAPT>1 year than those received DAPT ≤ 1 year. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of BARC type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding (5.3% vs. 4.1%; HR 1.088, 95%CI 0.650-1.821). Conclusions: In patients with stable CAD and diabetes who were event-free at 1 year after PCI with DES, prolonged DAPT (>1 year) provides a substantial reduction in ischemic cardiovascular events, including MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and definite/probable ST, without increasing the clinically relevant bleeding risk compared with ≤ 1-year DAPT. Further well-designed, large-scale randomized trials are needed to verify the beneficial effect of prolonged DAPT in this population.

Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Eluting Stents , Hemorrhage , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome