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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 578-585, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364359

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Atualmente o sistema de saúde público brasileiro (SUS) não contempla a angiotomografia de coronárias. Objetivos Ranquear sob a perspectiva do SUS, a custo-efetividade de estratégias diagnósticas combinando teste ergométrico, cintilografia miocárdica, ecocardiograma por estresse e angiotomografia de coronárias para o diagnóstico de doença arterial coronariana em uma coorte hipotética de pacientes com probabilidade pré-teste intermediária. Métodos Análise de custo-efetividade por meio de árvore de decisão. Foram analisados a relação de custo-efetividade incremental e o benefício líquido em saúde das estratégias diagnósticas, com a adoção de múltiplos limiares de disposição a pagar entre 0,05 e 1 PIB per capita por diagnóstico correto. Nos casos de testes sequenciais, um segundo teste confirmatório era realizado quando o primeiro fosse positivo. Resultados Após exclusão das estratégias diagnósticas dominadas ou com dominância estendida, a fronteira de eficiência foi composta por três estratégias: teste ergométrico, teste ergométrico seguido de ecocardiograma de estresse, e ecocardiograma de estresse seguido de angiotomografia de coronárias, sendo esta última a estratégia mais custo-efetiva. Pelo critério do benefício líquido, o ranqueamento das estratégias mais custo-efetivas variou conforme a disposição a pagar. Conclusão Utilizando conceitos atuais de avaliação de tecnologias em saúde, este estudo fornece um ranqueamento para a tomada de decisão sobre qual estratégia diagnóstica utilizar, em uma população com risco pré-teste intermediário para DAC. Com estimativa factível de custos para a ATC, o impacto da inclusão desta ao rol do arsenal diagnóstico representaria uma estratégia custo-efetiva na maioria dos cenários avaliados nas variações de disposição a pagar.


Abstract Background The Brazilian public health system does not include computed tomography angiography (CTA). Objective Rank, according to the Brazilian public health system, the cost-effectiveness of different strategies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), combining exercise tests (ET), myocardial scintigraphy (MS), stress echocardiography (SE), and CTA in a hypothetical intermediate pre-test probability cohort of patients. Methods This study implemented a cost-effectiveness analysis through a decision tree. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net benefit were analyzed by adopting multiple thresholds of willingness to pay, from 0.05 to 1 GDP per capita per correct diagnosis. In sequential tests, a second confirmatory test was performed only when the first was positive. Results After excluding dominated or extended dominance diagnostic strategies, the efficiency frontier consisted of three strategies: ET, ET followed by SE, and SE followed by CTA, the last being the most cost-effective strategy. Through the net benefit, the ranking of the most cost-effective strategies varied according to willingness to pay. Conclusions Using current concepts of health technology assessment, this study provides a ranking for decision-making concerning which diagnostic strategy to use in a population with an intermediate pre-test risk for CAD. With a feasible cost estimate adopted for CTA, the impact of including this to the list of the diagnostic arsenal would represent a cost-effective strategy in most of the evaluated scenarios with broad variations in the willingness to pay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Coronary Angiography , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Echocardiography, Stress , Computed Tomography Angiography
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 607-613, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364344

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ventriculografia esquerda é um método invasivo para avaliar a função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Depois do advento de métodos não invasivos, o seu uso tem sido questionado por resultar em algum risco para o paciente. Objetivos Avaliar quais fatores associam-se independentemente com a decisão de realizar ventriculografia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos Tratou-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, avaliando prontuários eletrônicos e banco de dados e comparando 21 variáveis de interesse pré-definidas entre pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia. Foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliamos 600 pacientes consecutivos, e a ventriculografia esquerda foi realizada na maioria dos pacientes submetidos a uma cineangiocoronariografia (54%). Depois da análise multivariada, os pacientes com síndromes coronarianas crônicas ( odds ratio [OR] 1,72; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,20-2,46; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de serem submetidos ao procedimento. Os pacientes com função ventricular conhecida (OR = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,40-0,85; p < 0,01), os revascularizados (OR 0,31; IC 95% 0,14-0,69; p < 0,01), os hipertensos (OR 0,58; IC 95%: 0,36-0,94; p = 0,02) e aqueles com maiores valores de creatinina (OR 0,42; IC 95% 0,26-0,69; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de não realizar ventriculografia. Conclusões Nos pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia, o diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana crônica associou-se de modo independente com uma maior realização da técnica, enquanto ter a função ventricular previamente conhecida, ser hipertenso, ter sido submetido a revascularização cirúrgica prévia e ter valores de creatinina mais elevados associaram-se a uma maior chance de não realizar o método.


Abstract Background Left ventriculography is an invasive method for assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Since the advent of noninvasive methods, its use has been questioned, as it carries some risk to the patient. Objective To assess which factors are independently associated with the decision to perform ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Analytical, retrospective, database review study of electronic medical records comparing 21 predefined variables of interest among patients undergoing coronary angiography. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results We evaluated 600 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Left ventriculography was performed in the majority of cases (54%). After multivariate analysis, patients with chronic coronary syndrome (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46; p < 0.01) were more likely to undergo the procedure. Patients with known ventricular function (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.85; p < 0.01); those with a history of CABG (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14-0.69; p < 0.01) or hypertension (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36-0.94; p = 0.02); and those with higher creatinine levels (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.26-0.69; p < 0.01) had greater odds of not undergoing ventriculography. Conclusions In patients undergoing coronary angiography, a diagnosis of chronic coronary syndrome was independently associated with greater likelihood of left ventriculography, while having previously determined ventricular function, a history of hypertension or CABG, and higher creatinine levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing this procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Heart
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 52-58, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360111

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Os níveis de Proteína 3 relacionada ao fator de necrose tumoral/complemento sérico C1q (CTRP3) e a relação com a fibrilação atrial (FA) na doença arterial coronária estável (DAC) não estão claros atualmente. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a mudança nos níveis séricos de CTRP3 e sua relação com a FA paroxística em DAC estável. Método O estudo incluiu 252 pacientes com DAC e 50 controles saudáveis com idade/sexo compatíveis. Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram medidos, além da anamnese de rotina, exame físico, exames laboratoriais e ecocardiograma. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupos com e sem DAC e indivíduos com DAC com e sem FA paroxística. Os valores eram estatisticamente significativos quando p<0,05. Resultados Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram significativamente menores em pacientes com DAC do que no grupo controle (p<0,001). A FA foi detectada em 28 pacientes (15,08%) no grupo DAC. A frequência de hipertensão e do sexo feminino, a proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as), o nitrogênio ureico no sangue, os níveis de creatinina e o diâmetro diastólico do átrio esquerdo foram maiores (p<0,05 para cada um), e os níveis de CTRP3 foram mais baixos em pacientes com FA (p<0,001). Na análise de regressão logística, os níveis séricos de CTRP3 e os diâmetros diastólicos do átrio esquerdo foram independentemente determinados pelos pacientes com FA (p<0,01 para cada um). Nesta análise, observamos que cada 1 ng/mL de redução nos níveis de CTRP3 aumentou o risco de FA em 10,7%. Na análise ROC dos valores de CTRP3 para detectar pacientes com FA, a área da curva ROC para CTRP3 foi 0,971 (0,951-991) e considerada estatisticamente significativa (p<0,001). Quando o ponto de corte de CTRP3 foi considerado em 300 ng/mL, demonstrava a presença de FA com 87,9% de sensibilidade e 86,8% de especificidade. Conclusão Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 caíram significativamente em pacientes com DAC estável, e níveis reduzidos de CTRP3 estiveram relacionados à presença de FA paroxística nesses pacientes.


Abstract Background Serum Complement C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) levels and the relationship with atrial fibrillation (AF) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clearly known. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the change in serum CTRP3 levels and its relationship with paroxysmal AF in stable CAD. Method The study included 252 patients with CAD and 50 age-sex matched healthy control subjects. Serum CTRP3 levels were measured in addition to routine anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory and echocardiography examinations. The patients were divided into groups with and without CAD and CAD patients with and without paroxysmal AF. Statistical significance was accepted as p<0.05. Results Serum CTRP3 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with CAD than in the control group (p<0.001). AF was detected in 38 patients (15.08%) in the CAD group. The frequency of hypertension and female gender, hs-CRP, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine levels and left atrial end-diastolic (LAd) diameter were higher (p<0.05 for each one), and CTRP3 levels were lower in patients with AF (p <0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, serum CTRP3 levels and LAd diameters were independently determined the patients with AF (p<0.01 for each one). In this analysis, we found that every 1 ng/mL reduction in CTRP3 levels increased the risk of AF by 10.7%. In the ROC analysis of CTRP3 values for detecting patients with AF, the area under the ROC curve for CTRP3 was 0.971 (0.951-991) and was statistically significant (p<0.001). When the CTRP3 cut-off value was taken as 300 ng/mL, it was found to predict the presence of AF with 87.9% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. Conclusion Serum CTRP3 levels were significantly reduced in patients with stable CAD and decreased CTRP3 levels were closely related to the presence of paroxysmal AF in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , ROC Curve , Heart Atria
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 478-485, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364331

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A relação direta entre a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e o câncer de pulmão não é bem conhecida. Objetivo Investigar a associação entre a gravidade anatômica da DAC e do câncer de pulmão. Métodos Trezentos pacientes, incluindo 75 recém-diagnosticados com câncer de pulmão e 225 pacientes correspondentes sem câncer, foram submetidos à angiografia coronária durante a internação, sem intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) prévia nem enxerto de bypass da artéria coronária (CABG). O escore SYNTAX foi utilizado para avaliar a gravidade da DAC. Uma pontuação alta no escore foi definida como > 15 (o maior quartil do escore SYNTAX). O teste de tendência de Cochran-Armitage foi utilizado para verificar a distribuição dos escores dos pacientes. Uma análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para avaliar a associação entre a gravidade da DAC e o câncer de pulmão. Os valores de p foram estabelecidos quando o nível de significância era 5%. Resultados A tendência de distribuição dos escores SYNTAX dos pacientes por quartis foi diferente entre aqueles com câncer de pulmão e controles (do quartil mais baixo ao mais alto: 20,0%; 20,0%; 24,0%; 36,0% vs. 26,7%; 26,2%; 25,8%; 21,3%; p=0,022). A pontuação no escore SYNTAX foi mais alta em pacientes com câncer do que nos pacientes controle (36,0% vs. 21,3%, p=0,011).O maior quartil do escore demonstrou mais riscos de desenvolver câncer de pulmão em comparação ao quartil mais baixo (OR: 2.250, IC95%: 1.077 a 4.699 ; P -trend= 0,016). Após ajustes, os pacientes no maior quartil do escore SYNTAX tinham mais risco de desenvolver câncer de pulmão (OR: 2.1o49, IC95%: 1.008 a 4.584; P -trend= 0,028). Pacientes com escores SYNTAX alto (> 15) tinham 1.985 mais chances de ter câncer de pulmão (IC95%: 1.105-3.563, P= 0,022). Conclusão A gravidade anatômica da DAC está associada ao risco de câncer de pulmão, o que indica que um rastreamento completo deste tipo de câncer possa ser mais significativo entre pacientes com DAC.


Abstract Background The direct relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and lung cancer is not well known. Objective To investigate the association between the anatomical severity of CAD and lung cancer. Methods Three-hundred study patients, including 75 recently diagnosed lung cancer patients and 225 matched non-cancer patients, underwent coronary angiography during hospitalization without previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The SYNTAX score (SXscore) was used to assess the severity of CAD. A high SXscore (SXhigh) grade was defined as SXscore > 15 (the highest quartile of the SXscore). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to assess the distribution of patients' SXscores. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the severity of CAD and lung cancer. P-values were set when significance level was 5%. Results The distribution trend of patients' SXscore by quartiles was different between lung cancer patients and control patients (from the lowest to the highest quartile: 20.0%, 20.0%, 24.0%, 36.0% vs. 26.7%, 26.2%, 25.8%, 21.3%, p=0.022). The SX high rate was higher in lung cancer patients than in control patients (36.0% vs. 21.3%, p=0.011).The highest quartile of the SXscore showed higher risk of lung cancer in comparison to the lowest quartile (OR: 2,250, 95%CI: 1,077 to 4,699 ; P-trend= 0.016). After adjustment, patients in the highest quartile of the SXscore had higher risk of lung cancer (OR: 2,149, 95%CI: 1,008 to 4,584; P-trend= 0.028). Patients with high SXscore (> 15) had 1,985 times more chances of having lung cancer (95%CI: 1,105-3,563, P= 0.022). Conclusions The anatomical severity of CAD is associated with the risk of lung cancer, which indicates that a thorough lung cancer screening may be significant among severe CAD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Angiography , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 89-90, July. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285234

ABSTRACT

Resumo A fístula da artéria coronária é uma anormalidade anatômica rara das artérias coronárias que afeta 0,002% da população geral e representa 14% de todas as anomalias das artérias coronárias. A sua relevância clínica concentra-se principalmente no mecanismo do fenômeno do roubo coronário, que causa isquemia funcional do miocárdio, mesmo na ausência de estenose; portanto, angina e dispneia aos esforços são sintomas comuns. A abordagem diagnóstica sugerida é orientada pelos sintomas dos pacientes e consiste em uma série de exames instrumentais, como ECG, teste de esteira, ecocardiografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética cardíaca e angiografia coronária. Nos casos onde não é um achado acidental, a angiografia coronária é necessária para o planejamento terapêutico otimizado. As pequenas fístulas geralmente são assintomáticas e o prognóstico é excelente se forem tratadas medicamente com acompanhamento clínico e ecocardiografia no período de 2 a 5 anos. As fístulas grandes/gigantes e sintomáticas, ao contrário, devem ser submetidas a fechamento invasivo, por via transcateter ou ligadura cirúrgica, cujos resultados são equivalentes no acompanhamento de longo prazo. A profilaxia antibiótica para a prevenção da endocardite bacteriana é recomendada para todos os pacientes com fístulas da artéria coronária submetidos a procedimentos dentários, gastrointestinais ou urológicos. O acompanhamento ao longo da vida é sempre essencial para garantir que o paciente não sofra progressão da doença ou outras complicações cardíacas.


Abstract Coronary artery fistula is a rare anatomic abnormality of the coronary arteries that affects 0.002% of the general population and represents 14% of all anomalies of coronary arteries. Its clinical relevance focuses mainly on the mechanism of the coronary steal phenomenon, causing myocardial functional ischemia, even in the absence of stenosis; therefore, angina and effort dyspnea are common symptoms. The suggested diagnostic approach is driven by patients' symptoms, and it consists of a number of instrumental examinations like ECG, treadmill test, echocardiography, computed tomography scan, cardiac magnetic resonance, and coronary angiography. If it is not an incidental finding, coronary angiography is required in view of optimal therapeutic planning. Small fistulae are usually asymptomatic, and prognosis is excellent if they are managed medically with clinical follow-up and echocardiography every 2 to 5 years. Large/giant, symptomatic fistulae, on the contrary, should undergo invasive closure, via either transcatheter approach or surgical ligation, whose results are equivalent at long-term follow-up. Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of bacterial endocarditis is recommended in all patients with coronary artery fistulae who undergo dental, gastrointestinal, or urological procedures. Life-long follow-up is always essential to ensure that the patient does not undergo progression of the disease or further cardiac complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Fistula , Coronary Angiography
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 251-260, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280171

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar os preditores de doença arterial coronária em sobreviventes à parada cardíaca, visando definir o melhor momento para realização de angiografia coronária e estabelecer o relacionamento entre doença arterial coronária e mortalidade. Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo em centro único, que incluiu os pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à angiografia coronária após uma parada cardíaca. Resultados: Incluímos 117 pacientes (63 ± 13 anos, 77% homens). A maioria dos incidentes de parada cardíaca ocorreu com ritmos chocáveis (70,1%), e o tempo mediano até retorno da circulação espontânea foi de 10 minutos. Identificou-se doença arterial coronária em 68,4% dos pacientes, dentre os quais 75% foram submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea. Elevação do segmento ST (RC de 6,5; IC95% 2,2 - 19,6; p = 0,001), presença de alterações da contratilidade segmentar (RC de 22,0; IC95% 5,7 - 84,6; p < 0,001), fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda ≤ 40% (RC de 6,2; IC95% 1,8 - 21,8; p = 0,005) e níveis elevados de troponina T de alta sensibilidade (RC de 3,04; IC95% 1,3 - 6,9; p = 0,008) foram preditores de doença arterial coronária; esse último teve baixa precisão (área sob a curva de 0,64; p = 0,004), tendo o nível de 170ng/L como ponto ideal de corte. Apenas elevação do segmento ST e presença de alterações da contratilidade segmentar foram preditores independentes de doença arterial coronária. A duração da parada cardíaca (RC de 1,015; IC95% 1,0 - 1,05; p = 0,048) foi um preditor independente de óbito, e ritmo chocável (RC de 0,4; IC95% 0,4 - 0,9; p = 0,031) foi um preditor independente de sobrevivência. A presença de doença arterial coronária e a realização de intervenção coronária percutânea não tiveram impacto na sobrevivência; não foi possível estabelecer o melhor ponto de corte para o momento da angiografia coronária. Conclusão: Em pacientes com parada cardíaca, elevação do segmento ST, alterações da contratilidade segmentar, disfunção ventricular esquerda e níveis elevados de troponina T de alta sensibilidade foram preditivos de doença arterial coronária. Nem doença arterial coronária nem a intervenção coronária percutânea tiveram impacto significante na sobrevivência.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify predictors of coronary artery disease in survivors of cardiac arrest, to define the best timing for coronary angiography and to establish the relationship between coronary artery disease and mortality. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study including consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography after cardiac arrest. Results: A total of 117 patients (63 ± 13 years, 77% men) were included. Most cardiac arrest incidents occurred with shockable rhythms (70.1%), and the median duration until the return of spontaneous circulation was 10 minutes. Significant coronary artery disease was found in 68.4% of patients, of whom 75% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. ST-segment elevation (OR 6.5, 95%CI 2.2 - 19.6; p = 0.001), the presence of wall motion abnormalities (OR 22.0, 95%CI 5.7 - 84.6; p < 0.001), an left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40% (OR 6.2, 95%CI 1.8 - 21.8; p = 0.005) and elevated high sensitivity troponin T (OR 3.04, 95%CI 1.3 - 6.9; p = 0.008) were predictors of coronary artery disease; the latter had poor accuracy (area under the curve 0.64; p = 0.004), with an optimal cutoff of 170ng/L. Only ST-segment elevation and the presence of wall motion abnormalities were independent predictors of coronary artery disease. The duration of cardiac arrest (OR 1.015, 95%CI 1.0 - 1.05; p = 0.048) was an independent predictor of death, and shockable rhythm (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.4 - 0.9; p = 0.031) was an independent predictor of survival. The presence of coronary artery disease and the performance of percutaneous coronary intervention had no impact on survival; it was not possible to establish the best cutoff for coronary angiography timing. Conclusion: In patients with cardiac arrest, ST-segment elevation, wall motion abnormalities, left ventricular dysfunction and elevated high sensitivity troponin T were predictive of coronary artery disease. Neither coronary artery disease nor percutaneous coronary intervention significantly impacted survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Survivors
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(11): e11371, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339452

ABSTRACT

Dietary factors may influence the process of atherosclerosis and coronary artery calcification (CAC). This study assessed CAC and its association with dietary intake in asymptomatic men. We evaluated 150 asymptomatic men with mean age of 58.2±5.3 years. The dietary intake was assessed by the Food Consumption Register method. CAC was measured through multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and assessed in accordance with the Agatston score. Modified Poisson regression model was used to estimate the effects of intake of different nutrients that are prevalent in moderate/severe CAC, adjusted for calorie intake and CAC risk factors by means of prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]. An association was found between the intake of some nutrients and moderate/severe CAC. Lower carbohydrate intake (P=0.021) and higher lipid intake (P=0.006) were associated with moderate/severe CAC. After adjustment, the nutrients associated with the prevalence of moderate/severe CAC were carbohydrates (P=0.040), lipids (P=0.005), and saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P=0.013). A 1% increase in lipids and SFA intake caused an increase of 4% [95%CI: 1-7%] and 8% [95%CI: 2-14%] in the prevalence of moderate/severe CAC, respectively. A 1% increase of carbohydrate intake led to a 2% decrease in the likelihood of moderate/severe CAC [95%CI: 1-4%]. These conclusions showed that the higher intake of total lipids and SFA was associated with higher CAC scores, whereas higher carbohydrate intake was associated with lower CAC scores in asymptomatic men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Eating , Multidetector Computed Tomography
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1144-1151, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152951

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico (AVEi) e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) coexistem frequentemente e compartilham fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica. Segundo a American Heart Association , os subtipos de AVEi podem ser considerados equivalentes de risco para DAC, mas a evidência para o AVEi não-aterosclerótico não está bem definida. Além disso, o escore de cálcio coronário (CAC) é um marcador preciso para estimar o risco de DAC. Entretanto, a distribuição do CAC pelos subtipos de AVEi ainda não foi bem caracterizada. Objetivos Comparar o CAC entre os grupos de AVEi ateroscleróticos e não ateroscleróticos, e determinar quais covariáveis estão associadas a CAC alto no AVEi Métodos Em um estudo transversal, incluímos todos os pacientes com AVEi, com idades entre 45 a 70 anos no momento do acidente vascular, consecutivamente admitidos em um hospital de reabilitação entre agosto de 2014 e dezembro de 2016, sem DAC prevalente. Todos os pacientes passaram por tomografia computadorizada (TC), para medir o CAC. CAC≥100 foi considerado alto risco de DAC. O nível de significância foi p<0,05. Resultados Dos 244 pacientes estudados (média de idade de 58,4±6,8 anos; 49% do sexo feminino), 164 (67%) apresentavam etiologia não-aterosclerótica. As proporções de CAC≥100 foram semelhantes entre os grupos ateroscleróticos e não-ateroscleróticos (33% [n=26] x 29% [n=47]; p= 0,54). Entre todos os pacientes com AVEi, apenas os de idade ≥60 anos foram associados independentemente a CAC≥100 (RC 3,5; 95% IC 1,7-7,1), ajustado para hipertensão, dislipidemia, diabetes, sedentarismo, e histórico familiar de DAC. Conclusão O AVEi aterosclerótico não apresentou risco maior de DAC quando comparado ao AVEi não-aterosclerótico de acordo com o CAC. Apenas a faixa etária ≥60 anos - mas não a etiologia - foi associada independentemente a CAC≥100. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1144-1151)


Abstract Background Ischemic Stroke (IS) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) frequently coexist and share atherosclerotic disease risk factors. According to the American Heart Association, IS subtypes may be considered CAD risk equivalents, but the evidence for non-atherosclerotic IS is uncertain. Additionally, the Coronary Calcium Score (CCS) is an accurate marker to address CAD risk; however, CCS distribution between IS subtypes is not well characterized. Objectives To compare the CCS between atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic IS groups; and to determine which covariates were associated with high CCS in IS. Methods This cross-sectional design included all patients with IS, 45 to 70 years of age at the time of the stroke, consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between August 2014 and December 2016, without prevalent CAD. All patients underwent CT scanning for CCS measurement. CCS≥100 was considered a high risk for CAD, with a significance level of p<0.05. Results From the 244 studied patients (mean age 58.4±6.8 years; 49% female), 164 (67%) had non-atherosclerotic etiology. The proportions of CCS≥100 were similar between the atherosclerotic and the non-atherosclerotic groups (33% [n=26] x 29% [n=47]; p= 0.54). Among all IS patients, only age ≥60 years was independently associated with CCS≥100 (OR 3.5; 95%CI 1.7-7.1), accounting for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sedentarism, and family history of CAD. Conclusion Atherosclerotic IS did not present a greater risk of CAD when compared to non-atherosclerotic IS according to CCS. Only age ≥60 years, but not etiology, was independently associated with CCS≥100.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke , Calcium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Middle Aged
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1094-1101, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152945

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A doença de Chagas (DC) constitui uma causa potencial negligenciada de doença microvascular coronariana (DMC). Objetivos Comparar pacientes com DMC relacionada à DC (DMC-DC) com pacientes com DMC ligada a outras etiologias (DMC-OE). Métodos De 1292 pacientes estáveis, encaminhados para angiografia coronária invasiva para elucidar o padrão hemodinâmico e a causa de angina, 247 apresentaram coronárias subepicárdicas normais, e 101 foram incluídos após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão. Desses, 15 compuseram o grupo de DMC-DC e suas características clínicas, hemodinâmicas, angiográficas, e cintilográficas foram comparadas às do grupo de 86 pacientes com DMC-OE. O nível de significância estatística para todas as comparações adotado foi de 0,05. Resultados Pacientes com suspeita de DMC-DC apresentaram características antropométricas, clínicas e angiográficas, além de alterações hemodinâmicas e de perfusão miocárdica estatisticamente comparáveis às detectadas nos 86 pacientes com DMC-OE. Disfunção ventricular diastólica, expressa por elevada pressão telediastólica do ventrículo esquerdo, foi igualmente encontrada nos dois grupos. Entretanto, em comparação a esse grupo com DMC-OE, o grupo com DMC-DC exibiu fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda mais baixa (61,1 ± 11,9 vs 54,8 ± 15,9; p= 0,049) e mais elevado escore de mobilidade da parede ventricular (1,77 ± 0,35 vs 1,18 ± 0,26; p= 0,02). Conclusão A cardiomiopatia crônica da doença de Chagas esteve associada à etiologia de possível doença microvascular coronariana em 15% de amostra de 101 pacientes estáveis, cujo sintoma principal era angina requerendo elucidação por angiografia invasiva. Embora os grupos DMC-DC e DMC-OE apresentassem características clínicas, hemodinâmicas, e de perfusão miocárdica em comum, a disfunção global e segmentar do ventrículo esquerdo foi mais grave nos pacientes com DMC associada à DC em comparação à DMC por outras etiologias. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1094-1101)


Abstract Background Chagas disease (CD) as neglected secondary form of suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). Objectives Comparison of patients with CMD related to CD (CMD-CE) versus patients with CMD caused by other etiologies (CMD-OE). Methods Of 1292 stable patients referred for invasive coronary angiography to elucidate the hemodynamic pattern and the cause of angina as a cardinal symptom in their medical history, 247 presented normal epicardial coronary arteries and 101 were included after strict exclusion criteria. Of those, 15 had suspected CMD-CE, and their clinical, hemodynamic, angiographic and scintigraphic characteristics were compared to those of the other 86 patients with suspected CDM-OE. Level of significance for all comparisons was p < 0.05. Results Patients with suspected CMD-CE showed most anthropometric, clinical, angiographic hemodynamic and myocardial perfusion abnormalities that were statistically similar to those detected in the remaining 86 patients with suspected CMD-OE. LV diastolic dysfunction, expressed by elevated LV end-diastolic pressure was equally found in both groups. However, as compared to the group of CMD-OE the group with CMD-CE exhibited lower left ventricular ejection fraction (54.8 ± 15.9 vs 61.1 ± 11.9, p= 0.049) and a more severely impaired index of regional wall motion abnormalities (1.77 ± 0.35 vs 1.18 ± 0.26, p= 0.02) respectively for the CMD-OE and CMD-CE groups. Conclusion Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy was a secondary cause of suspected coronary microvascular disease in 15% of 101 stable patients whose cardinal symptom was anginal pain warranting coronary angiography. Although sharing several clinical, hemodynamic, and myocardial perfusion characteristics with patients whose suspected CMD was due to other etiologies, impairment of LV segmental and global systolic function was significantly more severe in the patients with suspected CMD related to Chagas cardiomyopathy. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1094-1101)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Circulation , Microcirculation
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1051-1060, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152934

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Em regiões endêmicas da doença de Chagas, por muitos anos, existe uma observação empírica recorrente de que a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) é incomum em pacientes com doença de Chagas. Estudos anteriores baseados em análise patológica ou angiografia coronária invasiva apresentam resultados controversos. Objetivo Investigar se a DAC é menos prevalente e menos grave em pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica em comparação a uma população pareada controle, com perfil de risco para DAC similar. Métodos Um total de 86 participantes, 43 pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica consecutivos e 43 indivíduos assintomáticos, sem qualquer história prévia de doença cardíaca ou doença DAC conhecida (grupo controle), foram incluídos no estudo. Pacientes e controles foram pareados quanto sexo, idade e escore de risco de Framingham. Todos os pacientes foram analisados quanto ao escore de cálcio coronário (ECC) e submetidos à angiotomografia coronária usando um tomógrafo de 320 detectores. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de p < 0,05. Resultados O ECC foi significativamente mais baixo em pacientes com doença de Chagas em comparação aos controles (p<0,05). A presença de placas ateroscleróticas coronárias foi significativamente menos frequente em pacientes com doença de Chagas que nos controles (20,9% versus 41,9%, p=0,037). Após ajuste quanto ao escore de Framingham, o odds ratio para a presença de qualquer calcificação coronária foi de 0,26 (IC95%: 0,07-0,99, p=0,048). O padrão é similar para escore de cálcio coronário (ECC) > 10 (OR: 0,11, IC95%: 0,01-0,87, p=0,04), e para a presença de estenose (OR: 0,06, IC95%: 0,01-0,47, p=0,001). O pareamento por escore de propensão também mostrou um efeito da doença de Chagas no ECC (-21,6 pontos no escore absoluto e 25% menos pacientes com ECC > 10; p=0,015). Conclusões A prevalência e a gravidade da DAC são mais baixas nos pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica em comparação a uma população pareada e perfil de risco para DAC similar. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1051-1060)


Abstract Background In Chagas' disease endemic regions, there has been for many years a recurrent empirical observation that coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncommon in patients with Chagas' disease. Previous pathological and invasive coronary angiography studies led to controversial results. Objective We sought to investigate whether CAD is less prevalent and less severe in patients with chronic Chagas' disease when compared with a matched population with a similar CAD risk profile. Methods A total of 86 participants, 43 consecutive patients with chronic Chagas' disease and 43 asymptomatic individuals, without any prior history of cardiac disease or known CAD (control group), were included. Patients and controls were matched according to gender, age, and Framingham risk score. All participants underwent coronary calcium scoring and coronary computed tomography angiography on a 320-row detector scanner. Statistical significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Results The coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was significantly lower in patients with Chagas' disease than in controls (p<0.05). The presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques was significantly less frequent in patients with Chagas' disease than in controls (20.9% versus 41.9%, p=0.037). After adjustment for the Framingham score, the odds ratio for the presence of any coronary artery calcium (CAC) in Chagas patients was 0.26 (95%CI: 0.07-0.99, p=0.048). The pattern is similar for CACS > 10 (OR: 0.11, 95%CI: 0.01-0.87, p=0.04) and for the presence of any stenosis (OR: 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01-0.47, p=0.001). Propensity score matching also indicated an effect of Chagas disease on the CACS (-21.6 points in the absolute score and 25% less of patients with CACS >10, p=0.015). Conclusions CAD is less prevalent and less severe in patients with chronic Chagas' disease when compared with a matched population with a similar CAD risk profile. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1051-1060)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/diagnostic imaging , Prevalence , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography
14.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(4): e530,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156519

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La detección y la cuantificación de la carga aterosclerótica por técnicas de imagen no invasiva es un marcador cada vez más usado en la evaluación y reestratificación del riesgo cardiovascular. La cuantificación de la carga de aterosclerosis para la evaluación del riesgo cardiovascular requiere por tanto una herramienta precisa, ya que el riesgo aumenta de manera proporcional a la carga de enfermedad subclínica. Objetivo: Profundizar en las técnicas de imagen no invasivas que permiten la cuantificación imaginológica de la carga aterosclerótica global en su fase subclínica y su importancia en la reevaluación precoz del riesgo cardiovascular. Desarrollo: Entre todas las modalidades de imagen, la puntuación de calcio coronario por tomografía axial computarizada y la cuantificación de la carga de aterosclerosis por ecografía vascular tridimensional han demostrado mejorar la valoración del riesgo cardiovascular individual por encima de las escalas de riesgo convencionales basadas en la presencia de factores de riesgo tradicionales, pues identifica directamente la enfermedad y reclasifica a los individuos de riesgo bajo e intermedio de manera más efectiva. Conclusiones: La cuantificación imaginológica no invasiva de la carga aterosclerótica mejora de manera significativa la exactitud y precisión en la predicción de las escalas de estimación del riesgo cardiovascular global universalmente validadas, pues incrementa su capacidad de discriminación y reclasificación de la población con riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular(AU)


Introduction: The detection and quantification of the atherosclerotic burden by non-invasive imaging techniques is a marker increasingly used in the evaluation and re-stratification of cardiovascular risk. The quantification of the atherosclerosis burden for the assessment of cardiovascular risk therefore requires a precise tool, since the risk increases proportionally to the burden of subclinical disease. Objective: To deepen the non-invasive imaging techniques that allow the imaginological quantification of the global atherosclerotic burden in its subclinical phase and its importance in the early reassessment of cardiovascular risk. Development: Among all imaging modalities, the coronary calcium score by computed tomography and the quantification of the atherosclerosis burden by three-dimensional vascular ultrasound have been shown to improve the assessment of individual cardiovascular risk above conventional risk scales based on presence of traditional risk factors, since it directly identifies the disease and reclassifies individuals at low and intermediate risk more effectively. Conclusions: The non-invasive imaginological quantification of the atherosclerotic burden significantly improves the accuracy and precision in the prediction of the globally validated global cardiovascular risk estimation scales, as it increases their discrimination and reclassification capacity of the population at risk of cardiovascular disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(3): 538-544, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131322

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Os enxertos de veias safenas (EVS) são frequentemente usados em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM). Objetivos Avaliar as relações entre índices aterogênicos e estenose de EVS. Métodos: No total, 534 pacientes (27,7% mulheres, com idade média de 65±8,4 anos) submetidos a CRM e angiografia coronariana eletiva foram incluídos no estudo. Pacientes com pelo menos uma estenose EVS ≥50% foram alocados ao grupo estenose EVS (+) (n=259) e pacientes sem estenose foram classificados como EVS (-) (n=275). O índice aterogênico plasmático (IAP) e o coeficiente aterogênico (CA) foram calculados a partir dos parâmetros lipídicos de rotina dos pacientes. A significância foi estabelecida no nível p<0,05. Resultados O número de pacientes com histórico de hipertensão (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), acidente vascular cerebral e insuficiência cardíaca (IC) se mostrou significativamente maior no grupo EVS (+) do que no grupo EVS (-). O colesterol total, triglicerídeos e colesterol LDL mostraram-se significativamente mais altos e o colesterol HDL mostrou-se menor no grupo EVS (+) do que no grupo EVS (-). IAP (p<0,001) e CA (p<0,001) apresentaram-se significativamente mais altos no grupo EVS (+) do que no grupo EVS (-). A análise ROC mostra que tanto o IAP quanto o CA mostraram-se melhores que o colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL e colesterol não HDL na predição de estenose de EVS. Na análise multivariada, histórico de DM, HT, acidente vascular cerebral, IC, número de enxertos de safena, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, colesterol não HDL, IAP e CA foram fatores de risco independentes para estenose de EVS. Conclusão O IAP e o CA foram preditores independentes de estenose de EVS. Além disso, tanto o IAP quanto o CA têm melhor desempenho na predição de estenose de EVS do que o colesterol LDL, colesterol HDL e colesterol não HDL. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):538-544)


Abstract Background Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) are frequently used in patients that have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between atherogenic indexes and SVG stenosis. Methods Altogether, 534 patients (27.7% women, mean age 65±8.4 years) that underwent CABG and elective coronary angiography were included in the study. Patients with at least one SVG stenosis ≥50% were allocated to the stenosis group SVG (+) (n=259) and patients without stenosis were categorized as SVG (-) (n=275). Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and atherogenic coefficient (AC) were calculated from the patients' routine lipid parameters. The level of significance was p<0.05. Results The number of patients with a history of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), stroke, and heart failure was significantly higher in the SVG (+) group than in the SVG (-) group. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C were significantly higher and HDL-C was lower in the SVG (+) group than in the SVG (-) group. AIP (p<0.001) and AC (p<0.001) were significantly higher in the SVG (+) group than in the SVG (-) group. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis show that both AIP and AC were better than HDL-C, LDL-C and non-HDL-C at predicting SVG stenosis. In the multivariate analysis, history of DM, HT, stroke, heart failure (HF), number of saphenous grafts, HDL-C, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, AIP and AC were found to be independent risk factors for SVG stenosis. Conclusion AIP and AC were independent predictors of SVG stenosis. Moreover, both AIP and AC have better performance in predicting SVG stenosis than LDL-C, HDL-C and non-HDL-C. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):538-544)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Transplants , Saphenous Vein/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Angiography , Constriction, Pathologic , Middle Aged
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(3): 493-500, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131308

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A doença cardiovascular representa a principal causa de mortalidade no mundo. Calcificações parietais nas artérias podem ser visualizadas e quantificadas por tomografia computadorizada (TC) em estágios iniciais e subclínicos, sendo expressa em escore de cálcio (EC). Com esse número, é possível estimar o prognóstico de eventos cardiovasculares futuros. Objetivos Correlacionar a detecção e quantificação do EC pela TC do tórax utilizando como padrão-ouro a TC cardíaca sincronizada ao eletrocardiograma. Métodos Estudo transversal e descritivo que selecionou pacientes (n=73) consecutivos para investigação de doença arterial coronariana estável e que realizaram TC cardíaca no período de junho de 2013 a outubro de 2014. Realizado protocolo com TC do tórax e EC, em aparelho de 64 canais. Os valores de p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Na avaliação por paciente, após a transformação logarítmica a média do EC sincronizado foi de 8,7 e na TC de tórax foi de 9,4. Prevalência de doença de 49,3% (n= 36). A sensibilidade foi de 97,2% e a especificidade de 100,0%. Observou-se excelente correlação entre os métodos (r= 0,993 com p<0,001). Na avaliação por segmento, a média do EC sincronizado foi de 3,0. Já a média do EC na TC de tórax foi de 3,2. Prevalência de doença de 29,5% (n= 86), com sensibilidade de 95,3% e especificidade de 97,5%. Observou-se também excelente correlação entre os métodos (r= 0,985 com p<0,001). Conclusão O EC sincronizado e não sincronizado têm boa correlação entre si e não mostram resultados estatisticamente diferentes. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):493-500)


Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world. Parietal calcifications of the arteries may be visualized and quantified at initial and subclinical states by computed tomography (CT), and expressed as calcium score (CS). It is possible to estimate the prognosis of future cardiovascular events using this score. Objectives To correlate the detection and quantification of the CS obtained by chest CT with that obtained by electrocardiography (ECG)-synchronized cardiac computed tomography (the gold-standard). Method Cross-sectional, descriptive study of 73 consecutive patients in investigation for coronary artery disease who underwent cardiac CT between June 2013 and October 2014. Chest computed tomography and CS protocols were performed in a 64-channel TC scanner. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results In the per-patient analysis, after logarithmic transformation, mean CS was 8.7 and 9.4 by the ECG-synchronized method and chest CT, respectively. The prevalence of disease was 49.3% (n=36), with a sensitivity of 97.2% and specificity of 100.0%. There was an excellent correlation between the methods (r= 0.993, p<0.001). In the per-segment analysis, after logarithmic transformation, mean CS was 3.0 and 3.2 by the ECG-synchronized method and chest CT, respectively. The prevalence of disease was 29.5% (n=86), with a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 97.5%. There was an excellent correlation between the methods (r= 0.985, p<0.001). Conclusion ECG-synchronized CT is well correlated with the non-ECG-synchronized CT for CS determination, without statistical difference between the methods. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):493-500)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Calcium , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Angiography
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 675-682, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To elucidate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the atherosclerotic process in saphenous vein grafts by determining urotensin-II (U-II) levels in harvested saphenous veins of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who underwent CABG were divided into two groups: Group I (eight non-diabetic patients; CAD group) and Group II (13 patients; DM+CAD group). All patients underwent coronary angiography prior to surgery and Gensini score was used to determine the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Saphenous vein samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and U-II, then damage score, H-Score, and vein layer thicknesses were calculated and statistically evaluated. Results: In light microscopic evaluation, significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of endothelial cells damage, internal elastic lamina degradation, and tunica media vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) damage (P<0.001). U-II immunoreactivity was increased in tunica adventitia in the DM+CAD group (P=0.002). The increase in foam cells was directly proportional to the thickening of the subendothelial layer, and this increased U-II immunoreactivity. Gensini score was higher in the DM+CAD group than in the CAD group (P=0.002). Conclusion: Our results show that saphenous vein grafts are already atherosclerotic before they are grafted in CAD patients. This disease is more severe in diabetic CAD patients and these changes can be detected using U-II immunoreactivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urotensins , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Saphenous Vein/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass , Endothelial Cells
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 706-712, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137338

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD) has a poor prognosis and many patients are ineligible for conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This study evaluated the 12-month outcomes of coronary artery reconstruction and surgical patch angioplasty of the coronary artery for diffuse CAD. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent CABG with surgical patch angioplasty of the coronary artery (reconstruction group) or standard CABG alone (standard group) at the Cardiovascular Surgery Department of the local Hospital between January 2014 and January 2016. Follow-up was censored at 12 months after surgery. Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamping durations were longer in the reconstruction group (n=32) than in the standard group (n=125) (P<0.05). There were no differences in graft blood flow and postoperative levels of cardiac markers between the two groups (P>0.05). In the reconstruction group, one patient died; a vein graft showed occlusion. In the standard group, two patients died; one left internal mammary artery graft and three vein grafts showed occlusion. There were no significant differences in mortality, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and patency between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Coronary artery reconstruction and surgical patch angioplasty of the coronary artery can be performed for diffuse CAD. Patient outcomes were not significantly different from those of patients who underwent standard CABG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Angioplasty , Stroke Volume , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ventricular Function, Left
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 452-458, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137293

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the clinical impact of coronary dominance type in terms of early and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: A total of 844 consecutive patients who underwent elective CABG were divided into two groups based on preoperative angiographic views as left dominant (LD) and right dominant or co-dominant (RD+CD). The measured outcomes were postoperative complications, 30-day mortality, long-term mortality, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results: RD+CD was present in 87.9% (n=742) and LD in 12.1% (n=102) of patients. Postoperative complications, 30-day mortality, and 30-day readmissions were similar in both groups. The median duration of follow-up was 3.4 years. LD was not an independent predictor of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-2.45, P=0.12), but it was an independent predictor of MACCE in the long term (adjusted HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.39-3.42, P=0.001). Conclusion: In patients undergoing elective surgical revascularization, left coronary dominance is associated with increased MACCE risk in the long term. Therefore, the assessment of coronary dominance type should be an integral part of outpatient management after CABG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Bypass , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
20.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 4-11, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130999

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Different mechanical properties have been suggested for metallic bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) in comparison to polymeric BVS. We aim to evaluate the acute mechanical performance of Magmaris® scaffold in comparison to Absorb®. Materials and Methods: Two groups of 10 coronary lesions treated with Magmaris® and Absorb® 1.1 (20584 vs. 21016 struts) were compared. In all cases, optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images were acquired after scaffold deployment. Baseline clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics were compared, including OCT evaluations. Results: No baseline clinical or angiographic significant differences were found between groups. The most common indication for revascularization was effort angina (60% vs. 70% p = 0.45) with no ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) cases. Main target artery was left anterior descending, with a mean vessel diameter of 3.46 ± 0.23 in Absorb® and 3.52 ± 0.19mm in Magmaris® groups (p = 0.56). All cases underwent pre- and post-dilatation with a procedural success rate of 100%. OCT analyses showed larger scaffold and vessel diameters in Magmaris® group: 3.11 ± 0.38 mm versus 3.07 ± 0.36 mm, p = 0.03 and 4.12 ± 0.51 mm versus 4.04 ± 0.46 mm, p = 0.04. Despite the application of slightly higher postdilatation pressures to Magmaris® devices (18.01 ± 2.15 vs. 17.20 ± 3.80 atm, p = 0.05), significantly lower percentages of disrupted and malapposed struts were identified within Magmaris® scaffolds (0.15% vs. 0.27%, p = 0.03 and 1.06% vs. 1.46% p = 0.01). No cardiac death, target vessel-related MI, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization was reported in a 30-day follow-up. Conclusion: Mechanical properties of Magmaris® scaffold allow achieving larger vessel and scaffold diameters in a safe manner, with lower rates of malapposition and scaffold disruption.


Resumen Introducción: Se ha sugerido la presencia de un distinto comportamiento mecánico entre los dos grupos principales de dispositivos bioresorbibles: metálicos y poliméricos. En este estudio evaluamos el comportamiento mecánico agudo del andamiaje bioresorbible metálico Magmaris® frente al del polimérico Absorb®. Métodos: Se compararon dos grupos de 10 lesiones coronarias tratadas con Magmaris® y Absorb® 1.1 (20584 vs. 21016 struts). En todos los casos se realizó estudio postimplante del dispositivo mediante tomografia de coherencia óptica (OCT). Se compararon las características basales clínicas y angiográficas, así como aspectos del procedimiento (incluídos los estudios de OCT) entre ambos grupos. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias clínicas o angiográficas estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos. La indicación más frecuente de revascularización coronaria fué la presencia de angina de esfuerzo (60% vs. 70% p = 0.45), sin incluirse casos de IAMCEST. La arteria descendente anterior fué el principal vaso diana, con un diámetro medio de 3.46 ± 0.23 mm en el grupo de Absorb® y de 3.52 ± 0.19mm en el grupo de Magmaris® (p = 0.56). En todos los casos se realizó pre y postdilatación, con una tasa de éxito del procedimiento del 100%. Los estudios mediante OCT demostraron un mayor diámetro de stent y del vaso en el grupo de Magmaris®: 3.11 ± 0.38mm versus 3.07 ± 0.36 mm, p = 0.03 y 4.12 ± 0.51mm versus 4.04 ± 0.46mm, p = 0.04. A pesar de someter a los dispositivos Magmaris® a presiones de postdilatación ligeramente superiores (18.01 ± 2.15 vs. 17.20 ± 3.80 atm, p = 0.05), se identificó un menor porcentaje estadísticamente significativo de struts rotos o malapuestos en dicho grupo (0.15% vs. 0.27 %, p = 0.03 y 1.06 % vs. 1.46% p = 0.01). En un seguimiento a 30 días no se registraron eventos mayores: muerte cardíaca, IM relacionado con vaso diana o TLR. Conclusión: Las propiedades mecánicas del scaffold metálico bioresorbible Magmaris® permiten alcanzar mayores diámetros de stent y vaso de forma segura tras su implante, con una baja tasa de malaposición y disrupción.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Absorbable Implants , Tissue Scaffolds , Drug-Eluting Stents , Polyesters/chemistry , Prosthesis Design , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Magnesium/chemistry
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