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Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552286


La evaluación de la perfusión miocárdica con SPECT combina una prueba de esfuerzo (ergometría o estrés farmacológico) junto a imágenes de perfusión con radioisótopos. Este estudio es útil para establecer el diagnóstico de enfermedad arterial coronaria, estratificar el riesgo de infarto y tomar decisiones terapéuticas. Un resultado normal aporta un alto valor predictivo negativo, es decir, una muy baja probabilidad de que el paciente presente eventos cardiovasculares. El hallazgo de signos de isquemia en la ergometría podría poner en jaque el valor predictivo negativo de una perfusión normal. En presencia de este resultado, el paso siguiente es evaluar los predictores de riesgo en la ergometría, el riesgo propio del paciente en función de los antecedentes clínicos y el puntaje cálcico coronario, cuando este se encuentra disponible. Ante la presencia concomitante de otros marcadores de riesgo se sugiere completar la evaluación con un estudio anatómico.El uso de nuevas tecnologías podría mejorar la precisión en la predicción de eventos. (AU)

Assessment of myocardial perfusion with SPECT combines a stress test (ergometry or pharmacological stress) with radioisotope perfusion imaging. This test is helpful to diagnose coronary artery disease, stratify the risk of heart attack, and make therapeutic decisions. A normal result provides a high negative predictive value; therefore, the probability of cardiovascular events is very low. Signs of ischemia on an ergometry could jeopardize the negative predictive value of normal perfusion. In this clinical setting, the next step is to evaluate the risk predictors in the stress test, the individual risk based on the clinical history, and the coronary calcium score when available. Given the simultaneous presence of other risk markers,completing the evaluation with an anatomical study is suggested. The use of new technologies could improve the accuracy of event prediction. (AU)

Humans , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Ergometry , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Prognosis , Survival , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Exercise Test , Clinical Decision-Making
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 633-641, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984696


Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between epicardial fat volume (EFV) and obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) with myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the incremental value of EFV on top of traditional risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in predicting obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia. Methods: This study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) and single photon emission computerized tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from March 2018 to November 2019 were consecutively enrolled. EFV and CAC were measured by non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT) scan. Obstructive CAD was defined as coronary artery stenosis≥50% in at least one of the major epicardial coronary arteries, and myocardial ischemia was defined as reversible perfusion defects in stress and rest MPI. Obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia was defined in patients with coronary stenosis severity≥50% and reversible perfusion defects in the corresponding areas of SPECT-MPI. Patients with myocardial ischemia bot without obstructive CAD were defined as none-obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia group. We collected and compared the general clinical data, CAC and EFV between the two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between EFV and obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia. ROC curves were performed to determine whether addition of EFV improved predictive value beyond traditional risk factors and CAC for obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia. Results: Among the 164 patients with suspected CAD, 111 patients were males, and average age was (61.4±9.9) years old. 62 (37.8%) patients were included into the obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia group. 102 (62.2%) patients were included into the none-obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia group. EFV was significantly higher in obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia group than in none-obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia group ((135.63±33.29)cm3 and (105.18±31.16)cm3, P<0.01). Univariate regression analysis showed the risk of obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia increased by 1.96 times for each SD increase in EFV(OR 2.96; 95%CI, 1.89-4.62; P<0.01). After adjustment for traditional risk factors and CAC, EFV remained as an independent predictor for obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia (OR, 4.48, 95%CI, 2.17-9.23; P<0.01). Addition of EFV to CAC and traditional risk factors was related to larger AUC for predicting obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia (0.90 vs. 0.85, P=0.04, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) and the global chi-square increased by 21.81 (P<0.05). Conclusions: EFV is an independent predictor for obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia. Addition of EFV to traditional risk factors and CAC has incremental value for predicting obstructive CAD with myocardial ischemia in this patient cohort.

Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Stenosis , Calcium
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984695


Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reserve assessed by gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT G-MPI) for major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. From January 2017 to December 2019, patients with coronary artery disease and confirmed myocardial ischemia by stress and rest SPECT G-MPI, and underwent coronary angiography within 3 months were enrolled. The sum stress score (SSS) and sum resting score (SRS) were analyzed by the standard 17-segment model, and the sum difference score (SDS, SDS=SSS-SRS) was calculated. The LVEF at stress and rest were analyzed by 4DM software. The LVEF reserve (ΔLVEF) was calculated (ΔLVEF=stress LVEF-rest LVEF). The primary endpoint was MACE, which was obtained by reviewing the medical record system or by telephone follow-up once every twelve months. Patients were divided into MACE-free and MACE groups. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between ΔLVEF and all MPI parameters. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the independent factors of MACE, and the optimal SDS cutoff value for predicting MACE was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted to compare the difference in the incidence of MACE between different SDS groups and different ΔLVEF groups. Results: A total of 164 patients with coronary artery disease [120 male; age (58.6±10.7) years] were included. The average follow-up time was (26.5±10.4) months, and a total of 30 MACE were recorded during follow-up. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SDS (HR=1.069, 95%CI: 1.005-1.137, P=0.035) and ΔLVEF (HR=0.935, 95%CI: 0.878-0.995, P=0.034) were independent predictors of MACE. According to ROC curve analysis, the optimal cut-off to predict MACE was a SDS of 5.5 with an area under the curve of 0.63 (P=0.022). Survival analysis showed that the incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the SDS≥5.5 group than in the SDS<5.5 group (27.6% vs. 13.2%, P=0.019), but the incidence of MACE was significantly lower in the ΔLVEF≥0 group than in theΔLVEF<0 group (11.0% vs. 25.6%, P=0.022). Conclusions: LVEF reserve (ΔLVEF) assessed by SPECT G-MPI serves as an independent protective factor for MACE, while SDS is an independent risk predictor in patients with coronary artery disease. SPECT G-MPI is valuable for risk stratification by assessing myocardial ischemia and LVEF.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Myocardial Ischemia
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 615-619, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982642


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the value of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA)-based fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) and plaque quantitative analysis in predicting adverse outcomes in patients with non-obstructive coronary heart disease (CAD).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of patients with non-obstructive CAD who underwent CCTA at the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University from March 2014 to March 2018 were retrospectively analyzed and followed up, and the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) was recorded. The patients were divided into MACE and non-MACE groups according to the occurrence of MACE. The clinical data, CCTA plaque characteristics including plaque length, stenosis degree, minimum lumen area, total plaque volume, non-calcified plaque volume, calcified plaque volume, plaque burden (PB) and remodelling index (RI), and CT-FFR were compared between the two groups. Multivaritate Cox proportional risk model was used to evaluate the relationship between clinical factors, CCTA parameters and MACE. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to assess the predictive power of outcome prediction model based on different CCTA parameters.@*RESULTS@#Finally 217 patients were included, of which 43 (19.8%) had MACE and 174 (80.2%) did not. The median follow-up interval was 24 (16, 30) months. The CCTA showed that patients in the MACE group had more severe stenosis than that in the non-MACE group [(44.3±3.8)% vs. (39.5±2.5)%], larger total plaque volume and non-calcified plaque volume [total plaque volume (mm3): 275.1 (197.1, 376.9), non-calcified plaque volume (mm3): 161.5 (114.5, 307.8) vs. 117.9 (77.7, 185.5)], PB and RI were larger [PB: 50.2% (42.1%, 54.8%) vs. 45.1% (38.2%, 51.7%), RI: 1.19 (0.93, 1.29) vs. 1.03 (0.90, 1.22)], CT-FFR value was lower [0.85 (0.80, 0.88) vs. 0.92 (0.87, 0.97)], and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that non-calcified plaques volume [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.005. 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.025-4.866], PB ≥ 50% (HR = 3.146, 95%CI was 1.443-6.906), RI ≥ 1.10 (HR = 2.223, 95%CI was 1.002-1.009) and CT-FFR ≤ 0.87 (HR = 2.615, 95%CI was 1.016-6.732) were independent predictors of MACE (all P < 0.05). The model based on CCTA stenosis degree+CT-FFR+quantitative plaque characteristics (including non-calcified plaque volume, RI, PB) [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.91, 95%CI was 0.87-0.95] had significantly better predictive efficacy for adverse outcomes than the model based on CCTA stenosis degree (AUC = 0.63, 95%CI was 0.54-0.71) and the model based on CCTA stenosis degree+CT-FFR (AUC = 0.71, 95%CI was 0.63-0.79; both P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CT-FFR and plaque quantitative analysis based on CCTA are helpful in predicting adverse outcomes in patients with non-obstructive CAD. Non-calcified plaque volume, RI, PB and CT-FFR are important predictors of MACE. Compared with the prediction model based on stenosis degree and CT-FFR, the combined plaque quantitative index can significantly improve the prediction efficiency of adverse outcomes in patients with non-obstructive CAD.

Humans , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Coronary Angiography/methods , Constriction, Pathologic , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Predictive Value of Tests , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 607-613, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364344


Resumo Fundamento A ventriculografia esquerda é um método invasivo para avaliar a função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Depois do advento de métodos não invasivos, o seu uso tem sido questionado por resultar em algum risco para o paciente. Objetivos Avaliar quais fatores associam-se independentemente com a decisão de realizar ventriculografia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos Tratou-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, avaliando prontuários eletrônicos e banco de dados e comparando 21 variáveis de interesse pré-definidas entre pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia. Foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliamos 600 pacientes consecutivos, e a ventriculografia esquerda foi realizada na maioria dos pacientes submetidos a uma cineangiocoronariografia (54%). Depois da análise multivariada, os pacientes com síndromes coronarianas crônicas ( odds ratio [OR] 1,72; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,20-2,46; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de serem submetidos ao procedimento. Os pacientes com função ventricular conhecida (OR = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,40-0,85; p < 0,01), os revascularizados (OR 0,31; IC 95% 0,14-0,69; p < 0,01), os hipertensos (OR 0,58; IC 95%: 0,36-0,94; p = 0,02) e aqueles com maiores valores de creatinina (OR 0,42; IC 95% 0,26-0,69; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de não realizar ventriculografia. Conclusões Nos pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia, o diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana crônica associou-se de modo independente com uma maior realização da técnica, enquanto ter a função ventricular previamente conhecida, ser hipertenso, ter sido submetido a revascularização cirúrgica prévia e ter valores de creatinina mais elevados associaram-se a uma maior chance de não realizar o método.

Abstract Background Left ventriculography is an invasive method for assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Since the advent of noninvasive methods, its use has been questioned, as it carries some risk to the patient. Objective To assess which factors are independently associated with the decision to perform ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Analytical, retrospective, database review study of electronic medical records comparing 21 predefined variables of interest among patients undergoing coronary angiography. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results We evaluated 600 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Left ventriculography was performed in the majority of cases (54%). After multivariate analysis, patients with chronic coronary syndrome (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46; p < 0.01) were more likely to undergo the procedure. Patients with known ventricular function (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.85; p < 0.01); those with a history of CABG (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14-0.69; p < 0.01) or hypertension (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36-0.94; p = 0.02); and those with higher creatinine levels (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.26-0.69; p < 0.01) had greater odds of not undergoing ventriculography. Conclusions In patients undergoing coronary angiography, a diagnosis of chronic coronary syndrome was independently associated with greater likelihood of left ventriculography, while having previously determined ventricular function, a history of hypertension or CABG, and higher creatinine levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing this procedure.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Heart
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 578-585, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364359


Resumo Fundamento Atualmente o sistema de saúde público brasileiro (SUS) não contempla a angiotomografia de coronárias. Objetivos Ranquear sob a perspectiva do SUS, a custo-efetividade de estratégias diagnósticas combinando teste ergométrico, cintilografia miocárdica, ecocardiograma por estresse e angiotomografia de coronárias para o diagnóstico de doença arterial coronariana em uma coorte hipotética de pacientes com probabilidade pré-teste intermediária. Métodos Análise de custo-efetividade por meio de árvore de decisão. Foram analisados a relação de custo-efetividade incremental e o benefício líquido em saúde das estratégias diagnósticas, com a adoção de múltiplos limiares de disposição a pagar entre 0,05 e 1 PIB per capita por diagnóstico correto. Nos casos de testes sequenciais, um segundo teste confirmatório era realizado quando o primeiro fosse positivo. Resultados Após exclusão das estratégias diagnósticas dominadas ou com dominância estendida, a fronteira de eficiência foi composta por três estratégias: teste ergométrico, teste ergométrico seguido de ecocardiograma de estresse, e ecocardiograma de estresse seguido de angiotomografia de coronárias, sendo esta última a estratégia mais custo-efetiva. Pelo critério do benefício líquido, o ranqueamento das estratégias mais custo-efetivas variou conforme a disposição a pagar. Conclusão Utilizando conceitos atuais de avaliação de tecnologias em saúde, este estudo fornece um ranqueamento para a tomada de decisão sobre qual estratégia diagnóstica utilizar, em uma população com risco pré-teste intermediário para DAC. Com estimativa factível de custos para a ATC, o impacto da inclusão desta ao rol do arsenal diagnóstico representaria uma estratégia custo-efetiva na maioria dos cenários avaliados nas variações de disposição a pagar.

Abstract Background The Brazilian public health system does not include computed tomography angiography (CTA). Objective Rank, according to the Brazilian public health system, the cost-effectiveness of different strategies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), combining exercise tests (ET), myocardial scintigraphy (MS), stress echocardiography (SE), and CTA in a hypothetical intermediate pre-test probability cohort of patients. Methods This study implemented a cost-effectiveness analysis through a decision tree. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net benefit were analyzed by adopting multiple thresholds of willingness to pay, from 0.05 to 1 GDP per capita per correct diagnosis. In sequential tests, a second confirmatory test was performed only when the first was positive. Results After excluding dominated or extended dominance diagnostic strategies, the efficiency frontier consisted of three strategies: ET, ET followed by SE, and SE followed by CTA, the last being the most cost-effective strategy. Through the net benefit, the ranking of the most cost-effective strategies varied according to willingness to pay. Conclusions Using current concepts of health technology assessment, this study provides a ranking for decision-making concerning which diagnostic strategy to use in a population with an intermediate pre-test risk for CAD. With a feasible cost estimate adopted for CTA, the impact of including this to the list of the diagnostic arsenal would represent a cost-effective strategy in most of the evaluated scenarios with broad variations in the willingness to pay.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Coronary Angiography , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Echocardiography, Stress , Computed Tomography Angiography
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 52-58, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360111


Resumo Fundamento Os níveis de Proteína 3 relacionada ao fator de necrose tumoral/complemento sérico C1q (CTRP3) e a relação com a fibrilação atrial (FA) na doença arterial coronária estável (DAC) não estão claros atualmente. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a mudança nos níveis séricos de CTRP3 e sua relação com a FA paroxística em DAC estável. Método O estudo incluiu 252 pacientes com DAC e 50 controles saudáveis com idade/sexo compatíveis. Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram medidos, além da anamnese de rotina, exame físico, exames laboratoriais e ecocardiograma. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupos com e sem DAC e indivíduos com DAC com e sem FA paroxística. Os valores eram estatisticamente significativos quando p<0,05. Resultados Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram significativamente menores em pacientes com DAC do que no grupo controle (p<0,001). A FA foi detectada em 28 pacientes (15,08%) no grupo DAC. A frequência de hipertensão e do sexo feminino, a proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as), o nitrogênio ureico no sangue, os níveis de creatinina e o diâmetro diastólico do átrio esquerdo foram maiores (p<0,05 para cada um), e os níveis de CTRP3 foram mais baixos em pacientes com FA (p<0,001). Na análise de regressão logística, os níveis séricos de CTRP3 e os diâmetros diastólicos do átrio esquerdo foram independentemente determinados pelos pacientes com FA (p<0,01 para cada um). Nesta análise, observamos que cada 1 ng/mL de redução nos níveis de CTRP3 aumentou o risco de FA em 10,7%. Na análise ROC dos valores de CTRP3 para detectar pacientes com FA, a área da curva ROC para CTRP3 foi 0,971 (0,951-991) e considerada estatisticamente significativa (p<0,001). Quando o ponto de corte de CTRP3 foi considerado em 300 ng/mL, demonstrava a presença de FA com 87,9% de sensibilidade e 86,8% de especificidade. Conclusão Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 caíram significativamente em pacientes com DAC estável, e níveis reduzidos de CTRP3 estiveram relacionados à presença de FA paroxística nesses pacientes.

Abstract Background Serum Complement C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) levels and the relationship with atrial fibrillation (AF) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clearly known. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the change in serum CTRP3 levels and its relationship with paroxysmal AF in stable CAD. Method The study included 252 patients with CAD and 50 age-sex matched healthy control subjects. Serum CTRP3 levels were measured in addition to routine anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory and echocardiography examinations. The patients were divided into groups with and without CAD and CAD patients with and without paroxysmal AF. Statistical significance was accepted as p<0.05. Results Serum CTRP3 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with CAD than in the control group (p<0.001). AF was detected in 38 patients (15.08%) in the CAD group. The frequency of hypertension and female gender, hs-CRP, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine levels and left atrial end-diastolic (LAd) diameter were higher (p<0.05 for each one), and CTRP3 levels were lower in patients with AF (p <0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, serum CTRP3 levels and LAd diameters were independently determined the patients with AF (p<0.01 for each one). In this analysis, we found that every 1 ng/mL reduction in CTRP3 levels increased the risk of AF by 10.7%. In the ROC analysis of CTRP3 values for detecting patients with AF, the area under the ROC curve for CTRP3 was 0.971 (0.951-991) and was statistically significant (p<0.001). When the CTRP3 cut-off value was taken as 300 ng/mL, it was found to predict the presence of AF with 87.9% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. Conclusion Serum CTRP3 levels were significantly reduced in patients with stable CAD and decreased CTRP3 levels were closely related to the presence of paroxysmal AF in these patients.

Humans , Female , Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , ROC Curve , Heart Atria
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 478-485, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364331


Resumo Fundamento A relação direta entre a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e o câncer de pulmão não é bem conhecida. Objetivo Investigar a associação entre a gravidade anatômica da DAC e do câncer de pulmão. Métodos Trezentos pacientes, incluindo 75 recém-diagnosticados com câncer de pulmão e 225 pacientes correspondentes sem câncer, foram submetidos à angiografia coronária durante a internação, sem intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) prévia nem enxerto de bypass da artéria coronária (CABG). O escore SYNTAX foi utilizado para avaliar a gravidade da DAC. Uma pontuação alta no escore foi definida como > 15 (o maior quartil do escore SYNTAX). O teste de tendência de Cochran-Armitage foi utilizado para verificar a distribuição dos escores dos pacientes. Uma análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para avaliar a associação entre a gravidade da DAC e o câncer de pulmão. Os valores de p foram estabelecidos quando o nível de significância era 5%. Resultados A tendência de distribuição dos escores SYNTAX dos pacientes por quartis foi diferente entre aqueles com câncer de pulmão e controles (do quartil mais baixo ao mais alto: 20,0%; 20,0%; 24,0%; 36,0% vs. 26,7%; 26,2%; 25,8%; 21,3%; p=0,022). A pontuação no escore SYNTAX foi mais alta em pacientes com câncer do que nos pacientes controle (36,0% vs. 21,3%, p=0,011).O maior quartil do escore demonstrou mais riscos de desenvolver câncer de pulmão em comparação ao quartil mais baixo (OR: 2.250, IC95%: 1.077 a 4.699 ; P -trend= 0,016). Após ajustes, os pacientes no maior quartil do escore SYNTAX tinham mais risco de desenvolver câncer de pulmão (OR: 2.1o49, IC95%: 1.008 a 4.584; P -trend= 0,028). Pacientes com escores SYNTAX alto (> 15) tinham 1.985 mais chances de ter câncer de pulmão (IC95%: 1.105-3.563, P= 0,022). Conclusão A gravidade anatômica da DAC está associada ao risco de câncer de pulmão, o que indica que um rastreamento completo deste tipo de câncer possa ser mais significativo entre pacientes com DAC.

Abstract Background The direct relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and lung cancer is not well known. Objective To investigate the association between the anatomical severity of CAD and lung cancer. Methods Three-hundred study patients, including 75 recently diagnosed lung cancer patients and 225 matched non-cancer patients, underwent coronary angiography during hospitalization without previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The SYNTAX score (SXscore) was used to assess the severity of CAD. A high SXscore (SXhigh) grade was defined as SXscore > 15 (the highest quartile of the SXscore). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to assess the distribution of patients' SXscores. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the severity of CAD and lung cancer. P-values were set when significance level was 5%. Results The distribution trend of patients' SXscore by quartiles was different between lung cancer patients and control patients (from the lowest to the highest quartile: 20.0%, 20.0%, 24.0%, 36.0% vs. 26.7%, 26.2%, 25.8%, 21.3%, p=0.022). The SX high rate was higher in lung cancer patients than in control patients (36.0% vs. 21.3%, p=0.011).The highest quartile of the SXscore showed higher risk of lung cancer in comparison to the lowest quartile (OR: 2,250, 95%CI: 1,077 to 4,699 ; P-trend= 0.016). After adjustment, patients in the highest quartile of the SXscore had higher risk of lung cancer (OR: 2,149, 95%CI: 1,008 to 4,584; P-trend= 0.028). Patients with high SXscore (> 15) had 1,985 times more chances of having lung cancer (95%CI: 1,105-3,563, P= 0.022). Conclusions The anatomical severity of CAD is associated with the risk of lung cancer, which indicates that a thorough lung cancer screening may be significant among severe CAD patients.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Angiography , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 494-500, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935175


Objective: To investigate the diagnostic efficiency and incremental value of quantitative myocardial blood flow measurements by Cadmium-Zine-Telluride (CZT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) dynamic myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with traditional semi-quantitative measurements by MPI. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of patients with suspected or known CAD, who underwent the dynamic MPI quantitative blood flow measurement of CZT SPECT in TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital from October 2018 to December 2020. Clinical data, semi-quantitative parameters (stress score (SS), rest score (RS) and different score (DS)) and myocardial quantitative blood flow parameters (rest myocardial blood flow (rMBF), stress myocardial blood flow (sMBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR)) were analyzed. According to the results of coronary angiography, patients were divided into the stenosis group and the control group with coronary artery stenosis ≥50% or ≥75% as the diagnosis criteria. The differences of quantitative and semi-quantitative parameters between the two groups were compared, and the diagnostic efficacy was compared by receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve. Results: A total of 98 patients with a mean age of (62.1±8.7) years were included in the study, including 66 males (67%). At the patient level, with the positive standard of coronary artery stenosis≥50%, the left ventricle (LV) stress MBF (LV-sMBF) ((1.36±0.45) ml·min-1·g-1) and LV-MFR (1.45±0.43) of the stenosis group were lower than the LV-sMBF ((2.09±0.64) ml·min-1·g-1) and LV-MFR (2.17±0.54) of control group; summed SS and summed DS were higher than control group (all P<0.05). With the positive standard of coronary artery stenosis ≥75%, the LV-sMBF ((1.19±0.34) ml·min-1·g-1) and LV-MFR (1.34±0.35) of stenosis group were lower than the LV-sMBF ((1.94±0.63) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (2.00±0.58) of control group; all semi-quantitative parameters were higher than control group (all P<0.05). At the vascular level, with coronary artery stenosis ≥50% as the diagnosis criteria, the sMBF ((1.26±0.49) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (1.35±0.46) of stenosis group were lower than the sMBF ((1.95±0.70) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (2.05±0.65) of control group; SS and DS were higher than control group (all P<0.05). With coronary artery stenosis≥75% as the diagnosis criteria, the sMBF ((1.12±0.41) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (1.25±0.38) of stenosis group were lower than the sMBF ((1.84±0.70) ml·min-1·g-1) and MFR (1.93±0.66) of control group; all semi-quantitative parameters were higher than control group (all P<0.05). With coronary artery stenosis≥50% as the diagnosis criteria and CAG as the reference standard, the AUC and 95%CI of myocardial quantitative blood flow parameters indicated by ROC curve for diagnosis of CAD were 0.830 (0.783-0.877). The sensitivity (86.1% vs. 61.5%), specificity (82.6% vs. 73.8%), positive predictive value (77.8% vs. 62.5%), negative predictive value (89.3% vs. 73.0%) and accuracy (84.0% vs. 68.7%) were all higher than the semi-quantitative parameters (all P<0.05). With coronary artery stenosis≥75% as the diagnosis criteria, the AUC and 95%CI of myocardial quantitative blood flow parameters indicated by ROC curve for diagnosis of CAD were 0.832(0.785-0.879). The sensitivity (89.2% vs. 67.6%), negative predictive value (95.5% vs. 86.2%) and accuracy (80.6% vs. 68.0%) were all higher than semi-quantitative parameters (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with traditional SPECT MPI derived semi-quantitative parameters, diagnostic efficacy for CAD is higher using CZT SPECT quantitative myocardial blood flow parameters, this strategy thus has additional diagnostic benefits and incremental value on the diagnosis of CAD.

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): 825-828, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351674


Abstract Woven coronary disease is a rare pathology with unknown etiology. Although initially considered benign, recent publications report myocardial ischemia caused by the affected vessel. Since most patients are asymptomatic, long-term follow-up to understand its behavior is mandatory. We report a multivessel woven disease case with documented ischemia that was submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting and remained asymptomatic for two years of follow-up.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(2): 96-103, ago. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388095


RESUMEN: Introducción: La evaluación de lesiones coronarias mediante Reserva de Flujo Fraccional (FFR), es de elección para determinar su significancia funcional en el laboratorio de hemodinamia. La razón de flujo cuantitativo (Quantitative Flow Ratio, QFR) es una nueva técnica no invasiva para la evaluación de la significancia funcional de una estenosis coronaria, basada en el análisis de flujo a partir de la coronariografía diagnóstica, sin necesidad de hiperemia ni de la introducción de insumos adicionales. Objetivo: evaluar la correlación y valor predictivo del QFR comparado con FFR. Métodos: se seleccionaron arterias que contaban con medición de FFR realizados en nuestro centro y se analizó retrospectivamente el QFR a partir de las coronariografías de dichos estudios. Se excluyó lesiones de tronco y lesiones ostiales. La medición de FFR fue realizada con guía de presión ubicada distal al segmento afectado, mediante hiperemia con adenosina intracoronaria o intravenosa en infusión. Para el análisis de QFR se utilizan 2 proyecciones angiográficas ortogonales del vaso a interrogar con una separación de más de 25º entre ellas; ambas proyecciones deben coincidir en el eje para un correcto análisis. El análisis fue realizado por dos operadores, ciegos al resultado del FFR, utilizando el software QAngioXA (Medis ®, Netherland). Resultados: se analizaron 35 arterias, 57,1% Descendente Anterior (ADA), 20% Circunfleja (ACF) y 20% Derecha (ACD). El FFR promedio fue de 0,83±0,092 y 34,2% tuvieron como resultado un FFR ±0,80. El análisis retrospectivo del QFR se pudo realizar en 27 arterias; en las 8 restantes (22,9%) no fue posible su realización, ya sea por imágenes insuficientes o falta de perpendicularidad del segmento. El QFR promedio fue de 0,81±0,118. Hubo una buena correlación entre QFR y FFR (r =0,758; p0,8 pero QFR±0,8 en 3,7%; y FFR ±0,8 y QFR >0,8 en 3,7%. Así, el QFR tuvo una Sensibilidad: 90,9%, Especificidad: 93,8%; Valor Predictivo Positivo: 90,9%; Valor Predictivo Negativo: 93,8%; Likelihood Ratio Positivo: 14,55 y Likelihood Ratio Negativo: 0,1. La curva ROC mostró un área bajo curva: 0,923; 95% IC: 0,801-1,00. Conclusión: Los resultados del QFR en nuestra serie son similares a las mediciones de FFR. El uso de QFR podría ser una alternativa, rápida, económica y segura, en la evaluación fisiológica de lesiones coronarias. Se requieren mayores estudios clínicos para comprobar estos resultados.

ABSTRACT: Background: FFR is a gold standard used evaluate the severity of coronary artery lesions. QFR is a new non invasive technique for the same purpose based on the analysis of flow directly derived from routine coronary angiography, without additional intervention and with no induction of hyperemia. The aim was to compare the results obtained by QFR to those obtained by FFR in in terms of its predictive value. Method: Retrospective analysis of FFR measurements in routine coronary angiographic studies were compared to results obtained by means of QFR. Main left lesions were excluded. FFR was evaluated using pressure guides across the lesion under hyperemia induced by intracoronary or intravenous adenosine. Two orthogonal projections with no more than 25o difference between them were analyzed. The analysis was performed by two independent and operators blind to the results of FFR. The QAngioXA (Medis ®, Netherland) software was used in the analysis. Results: 35 coronary arteries were analyzed: LAD 57.1%, RCA 20.9%; Cx 20%. QFR was available for 27 arteries, the rest being discarded due to inadequate orientation of the artery. Mean QFR was 0.81 (SD 0.118). Mean difference between QFR and DD FFR was 0,04 (SD 0,006) (NS). Interobserver correlation was good (r=0.95, P 0.07). In only 7.4% of arteries there was a notable though not statistically significant difference between FFR and QFR, either due to under estimation or overestimation of lesion severity by QFR compared to FFR. Using FFR as a gold standard method QFR revealed sensitivity 90.9%, specificity 93.8%, The respective numbers for either positive or negative predictive values were the same. Area under the ROC curve was 0.923 (95% C.I. 0.01-1.00). Conclusion: this study reveals similar results of QFR compared to FFE in the estimation of coronary lesion severity. Given that QFR is a significantly less invasive and less expensive method than FFR, it may lead to an increased use of flow analysis in the determination of coronary artery lesion severity.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(8): 1093-1101, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346985


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established treatment modality for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). Syntax II Score has been established as novel scoring system with better prediction of postprocedural outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of SYNTAX II Score for predicting late saphenous vein graft (SVG) failure in patients undergoing isolated CABG. METHODS: The records of 1,875 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG with at least one SVG were investigated. Those who underwent coronary angiography and SVGs angiography at least 1 year after the CABG were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of SVG failure. For each group, predictors of late SVG failure and subsequent clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: According to this study, the presence of hypertension, higher rates of repeat revascularization, and higher SYNTAX II Scores were found to be independent predictors of late SVG failure. In addition, the prognostic value of SYNTAX II Score was found to be significantly higher than anatomical SYNTAX Score in terms of predicting late SVG failure and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event. CONCLUSIONS: There was a strong association between SYNTAX II Score and late SVG failure in patients undergoing isolated CABG.

Humans , Saphenous Vein/surgery , Saphenous Vein/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Patency , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 89-90, July. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285234


Resumo A fístula da artéria coronária é uma anormalidade anatômica rara das artérias coronárias que afeta 0,002% da população geral e representa 14% de todas as anomalias das artérias coronárias. A sua relevância clínica concentra-se principalmente no mecanismo do fenômeno do roubo coronário, que causa isquemia funcional do miocárdio, mesmo na ausência de estenose; portanto, angina e dispneia aos esforços são sintomas comuns. A abordagem diagnóstica sugerida é orientada pelos sintomas dos pacientes e consiste em uma série de exames instrumentais, como ECG, teste de esteira, ecocardiografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética cardíaca e angiografia coronária. Nos casos onde não é um achado acidental, a angiografia coronária é necessária para o planejamento terapêutico otimizado. As pequenas fístulas geralmente são assintomáticas e o prognóstico é excelente se forem tratadas medicamente com acompanhamento clínico e ecocardiografia no período de 2 a 5 anos. As fístulas grandes/gigantes e sintomáticas, ao contrário, devem ser submetidas a fechamento invasivo, por via transcateter ou ligadura cirúrgica, cujos resultados são equivalentes no acompanhamento de longo prazo. A profilaxia antibiótica para a prevenção da endocardite bacteriana é recomendada para todos os pacientes com fístulas da artéria coronária submetidos a procedimentos dentários, gastrointestinais ou urológicos. O acompanhamento ao longo da vida é sempre essencial para garantir que o paciente não sofra progressão da doença ou outras complicações cardíacas.

Abstract Coronary artery fistula is a rare anatomic abnormality of the coronary arteries that affects 0.002% of the general population and represents 14% of all anomalies of coronary arteries. Its clinical relevance focuses mainly on the mechanism of the coronary steal phenomenon, causing myocardial functional ischemia, even in the absence of stenosis; therefore, angina and effort dyspnea are common symptoms. The suggested diagnostic approach is driven by patients' symptoms, and it consists of a number of instrumental examinations like ECG, treadmill test, echocardiography, computed tomography scan, cardiac magnetic resonance, and coronary angiography. If it is not an incidental finding, coronary angiography is required in view of optimal therapeutic planning. Small fistulae are usually asymptomatic, and prognosis is excellent if they are managed medically with clinical follow-up and echocardiography every 2 to 5 years. Large/giant, symptomatic fistulae, on the contrary, should undergo invasive closure, via either transcatheter approach or surgical ligation, whose results are equivalent at long-term follow-up. Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of bacterial endocarditis is recommended in all patients with coronary artery fistulae who undergo dental, gastrointestinal, or urological procedures. Life-long follow-up is always essential to ensure that the patient does not undergo progression of the disease or further cardiac complications.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Fistula , Coronary Angiography
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 346-353, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288240


Abstract Introduction: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is one of the uncommon cardiovascular disorders and its prognosis is still debated. Objective: We aimed to review long-term follow-up data in patients with CAE and to evaluate the prognosis of CAE patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP). Methods: This study had a prospective design and 143 patients with CAE were included. The angiographic and demographic characteristics were reviewed in detail. The patients were categorized, based on concomitant coronary artery stenosis detected by angiography, as CCAE group (n=87, ≥30% luminal stenosis) and ICAE group (n=56, <30% luminal stenosis) and also categorized by the coronary flow as CSFP group (n=51) and normal flow coronary ectasia - NCEA group (n=92). All patients were re-evaluated at 6-month intervals. Follow-up data, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, hospitalization and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were collected. The level of statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: Patients were followed up for an average of 56.9±7.4 months. During the follow-up, statistically significant differences were found in hospitalization, CV mortality and MACE between the CCAE and ICAE groups (P=0.038, P=0.003, P=0.001, respectively). The CSFP and NCEA groups were also compared. There was a statistical difference with respect to hospitalization between the CFSP and NCEA groups (P=0.001), but no difference was observed in terms of MACE and CV mortality (P=0.793 and P=0.279). Conclusion: CSFP accompanying CAE may be a predictor of hospitalization. Significant atherosclerotic plaques coexisting with CAE may be predictive for MACE.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , No-Reflow Phenomenon , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Dilatation, Pathologic
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 251-260, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280171


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar os preditores de doença arterial coronária em sobreviventes à parada cardíaca, visando definir o melhor momento para realização de angiografia coronária e estabelecer o relacionamento entre doença arterial coronária e mortalidade. Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo em centro único, que incluiu os pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à angiografia coronária após uma parada cardíaca. Resultados: Incluímos 117 pacientes (63 ± 13 anos, 77% homens). A maioria dos incidentes de parada cardíaca ocorreu com ritmos chocáveis (70,1%), e o tempo mediano até retorno da circulação espontânea foi de 10 minutos. Identificou-se doença arterial coronária em 68,4% dos pacientes, dentre os quais 75% foram submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea. Elevação do segmento ST (RC de 6,5; IC95% 2,2 - 19,6; p = 0,001), presença de alterações da contratilidade segmentar (RC de 22,0; IC95% 5,7 - 84,6; p < 0,001), fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda ≤ 40% (RC de 6,2; IC95% 1,8 - 21,8; p = 0,005) e níveis elevados de troponina T de alta sensibilidade (RC de 3,04; IC95% 1,3 - 6,9; p = 0,008) foram preditores de doença arterial coronária; esse último teve baixa precisão (área sob a curva de 0,64; p = 0,004), tendo o nível de 170ng/L como ponto ideal de corte. Apenas elevação do segmento ST e presença de alterações da contratilidade segmentar foram preditores independentes de doença arterial coronária. A duração da parada cardíaca (RC de 1,015; IC95% 1,0 - 1,05; p = 0,048) foi um preditor independente de óbito, e ritmo chocável (RC de 0,4; IC95% 0,4 - 0,9; p = 0,031) foi um preditor independente de sobrevivência. A presença de doença arterial coronária e a realização de intervenção coronária percutânea não tiveram impacto na sobrevivência; não foi possível estabelecer o melhor ponto de corte para o momento da angiografia coronária. Conclusão: Em pacientes com parada cardíaca, elevação do segmento ST, alterações da contratilidade segmentar, disfunção ventricular esquerda e níveis elevados de troponina T de alta sensibilidade foram preditivos de doença arterial coronária. Nem doença arterial coronária nem a intervenção coronária percutânea tiveram impacto significante na sobrevivência.

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify predictors of coronary artery disease in survivors of cardiac arrest, to define the best timing for coronary angiography and to establish the relationship between coronary artery disease and mortality. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study including consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography after cardiac arrest. Results: A total of 117 patients (63 ± 13 years, 77% men) were included. Most cardiac arrest incidents occurred with shockable rhythms (70.1%), and the median duration until the return of spontaneous circulation was 10 minutes. Significant coronary artery disease was found in 68.4% of patients, of whom 75% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. ST-segment elevation (OR 6.5, 95%CI 2.2 - 19.6; p = 0.001), the presence of wall motion abnormalities (OR 22.0, 95%CI 5.7 - 84.6; p < 0.001), an left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40% (OR 6.2, 95%CI 1.8 - 21.8; p = 0.005) and elevated high sensitivity troponin T (OR 3.04, 95%CI 1.3 - 6.9; p = 0.008) were predictors of coronary artery disease; the latter had poor accuracy (area under the curve 0.64; p = 0.004), with an optimal cutoff of 170ng/L. Only ST-segment elevation and the presence of wall motion abnormalities were independent predictors of coronary artery disease. The duration of cardiac arrest (OR 1.015, 95%CI 1.0 - 1.05; p = 0.048) was an independent predictor of death, and shockable rhythm (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.4 - 0.9; p = 0.031) was an independent predictor of survival. The presence of coronary artery disease and the performance of percutaneous coronary intervention had no impact on survival; it was not possible to establish the best cutoff for coronary angiography timing. Conclusion: In patients with cardiac arrest, ST-segment elevation, wall motion abnormalities, left ventricular dysfunction and elevated high sensitivity troponin T were predictive of coronary artery disease. Neither coronary artery disease nor percutaneous coronary intervention significantly impacted survival.

Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Survivors
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 88-93, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287778


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluated calcification of the coronary arteries and its association with visceral fat and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels. METHODS: A cross sectional study involving 140 individuals without any previous diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. A biochemical analysis of vitamin D serum levels was carried out, as well as computed tomography to measure coronary artery calcium score and visceral adipose tissue. RESULTS: The mean age of the individuals was 55.9 (±12.4). Coronary artery calcium was observed in 40.7% of the population. Vitamin D presented median serum levels of 30.4 ng/ml (IQ24.5-39.1), with 14,1 and 33.7% of the individuals presenting deficiency and insufficiency, respectively. In the univariate analysis, the calcium score was more prevalent in aged patients (p<0.01), in hypertensive individuals (p<0.01), in diabetics (p=0.02), and in those with a higher concentration of VAT (p=0.02). In the adjusted analysis, it was found that the highest concentration of VAT (OR: 4.0; 95%CI 1.4-11.7), hypertension (OR: 4.8; 95%CI 1.5-15.3), and age (OR: 10.4; 95%CI 3.9-27.6) were predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of body mass index, diabetes, and 25OHD. CONCLUSIONS: Excess visceral fat was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Serum levels of 25OHD were not associated with CAD in its early stages.

Humans , Aged , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Vitamin D , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging