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Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 278-288, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888039


Abstract Many non-invasive methods, such as imaging tests, have been developed aiming to add a contribution to existing studies in estimating patients' prognosis after myocardial injury. This prognosis is proportional to myocardial viability, which is evaluated in coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction patients only. While myocardial viability represents the likelihood of a dysfunctional muscle (resulting from decreased oxygen supply for coronary artery obstruction), hibernation represents post-interventional functional recovery itself. This article proposes a review of pathophysiological basis of viability, diagnostic methods, prognosis and future perspectives of myocardial viability. An electronic bibliographic search for articles was performed in PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane and Scielo databases, according to pre-established criteria. The studies showed the ability of many imaging techniques in detecting viable tissues in dysfunctional areas of left ventricle resulting from coronary artery injuries. These techniques can identify patients who may benefit from myocardial revascularization and indicate the most appropriate treatment.

Resumo Diversos métodos não invasivos, como novos exames de imagem, vem sendo aprimorados, a fim de somar esforços com os atuais em estimar o prognóstico de pacientes pós-injúria miocárdica. Este prognóstico é proporcional à viabilidade miocárdica, a qual tem sua avaliação reservada para pacientes portadores de doença arterial coronariana e insuficiência ventricular esquerda. Enquanto a viabilidade miocárdica se mostra como a capacidade de recuperação funcional do músculo com disfunção por redução de oxigênio fornecido por artérias coronárias obstruídas, a hibernação consiste na própria recuperação funcional após intervenções. Este artigo propõe uma revisão sobre as bases fisiopatológicas do processo de viabilidade, métodos diagnósticos disponíveis, prognóstico e perspectivas para o futuro acerca dessa condição. Realizou-se pesquisa de busca bibliográfica informatizada em bases eletrônicas de dados, como PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane e Scielo, onde foram selecionados os estudos de acordo com critérios pré-determinados. Os estudos demonstram a capacidade de várias técnicas de imagem de identificar tecido viável em regiões disfuncionais do ventrículo esquerdo em decorrência de lesões em artérias coronárias. Estas técnicas podem identificar pacientes com potencial benefício da revascularização miocárdica e orientar o tratamento mais adequado.

Humans , Tissue Survival/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Revascularization
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(2): e6738, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889025


Adiponectin (APN), an adipose tissue-released adipokine with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, is encoded by a gene whose polymorphisms are associated with presence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum APN levels are inversely related with presence and complexity of CAD. Within this context, we sought to compare levels of total APN and its high molecular weight form (HMW APN) according to clinical presentation and extent of CAD in patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. From March 2008 to June 2010, clinical data and blood samples for APN and HMW APN measurements were collected from 415 subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization at two tertiary centers. CAD extent was estimated by the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis (≥70% obstruction in a major coronary artery) and by Duke Jeopardy Score (DJS). Serum APN levels were similar between groups with stable or unstable CAD (APN 9.20±5.88 vs 9.47±6.23 μg/mL, P=0.738, and HMW APN 5.31±3.72 vs 5.91±4.16 μg/mL, P=0.255), even after stratification by the number of arteries involved (single-vessel vs multivessel disease: APN 9.39±5.76 vs 9.26±6.27 μg/mL, P=0.871; HMW APN 5.29±3.79 vs 5.83±4.04 μg/mL, P=0.306) and DJS score (APN, P=0.718; HMW APN, P=0.276). We conclude that APN and HMW APN serum levels are similar across clinical presentations and different extents of CAD, despite being significantly lower in the presence of obstructive CAD.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Angiography , Adiponectin/blood , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , Elective Surgical Procedures , Molecular Weight
Clinics ; 73: e203, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952802


OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory molecules play a role in the development of atherosclerosis, which is the primary origin of cardiovascular disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has attempted to investigate the relationship between these circulating molecules and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase 9 serum concentrations with the extent of coronary lesions. METHODS: Seventy-four individuals who were undergoing coronary angiography for the first time for diagnostic purposes were enrolled in this study. The extent of the coronary lesion was assessed using the Friesinger Index, and subjects were classified into four groups: no lesions, minor lesions, intermediate lesions and major lesions. Serum biochemical parameters and serum concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase 9 were analyzed. RESULTS: The vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentration was higher than 876 ng/mL in individuals with intermediate and major lesions (p<0.001 and p=0.020, respectively). Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that these patients had an increased risk of having an intermediate lesion (p=0.007). Interestingly, all individuals with major lesions had vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations higher than 876 ng/mL. No association was found between the concentrations of the other proteins and the Friesinger Index. CONCLUSIONS: Serum vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 may be associated with the extent of coronary lesions. Moreover, it may represent an alternative to improve the cardiovascular risk classification in patients without acute coronary syndrome.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , E-Selectin/blood , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/blood , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnosis
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 423-431, dic. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142152


Abstract Introduction: Three-vessel coronary artery disease is an advanced manifestation of atherosclerosis, with high prevalence in Mexico. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe coronary risk factors in a group of patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease in Northwest Mexico. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on a population with three-vessel coronary artery disease from May 2015 to February 2016. The disease was defined when ≥70% stenosis was present in each major epicardial coronary artery. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured in each patient. Ankle-Brachial Index was measured with vascular ultrasound, and Syntax score calculation with an on-line application. Statistical analysis for qualitative differences was performed using Pearson X2 test, with p < 0.05 being considered as significant. Results: The study included 100 patients, of whom 75 were male (mean age 63 ± 9 years) and 25 female (mean age 69 ± 9 years). The coronary risk factors observed were diabetes (58%), hypertension (86%), smoking (68%), dyslipidaemia (100%), metabolic syndrome (71%), and obesity/overweight (75%). Diabetes and metabolic syndrome prevalence was higher in women (p = 0.03), but smoking was higher in men (76%, p = 0.003). Ankle-Brachial Index was abnormal in 58% of patients, the mean Syntax score was in 36.9 ± 11.5, and the prevalence of left main coronary heart disease was 36%. Conclusions: This group of patients with complex coronary lesions has a high prevalence of coronary risk factors, which could represent a worse prognosis.

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad coronaria de tres vasos (ECTV) es una manifestación avanzada de aterosclerosis, con alta prevalencia en el noroeste de México. Objetivo: Describir los factores de riesgo coronario (FRC) en un grupo de enfermos con ECTV en el noroeste de México. Métodos: De mayo de 2015 a febrero de 2016 se realizó un estudio transversal en una población del noroeste de México diagnosticada con ECTV. Se definió ECTV cuando existía estenosis ≥70% en cada una de las arterias coronarias epicárdicas mayores. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos en cada paciente. Los parámetros para el índice tobillo-brazo (ITB) se obtuvieron con ultrasonido vascular (Edan SonoTrax 8 Hz) y un cálculo de puntaje Syntax con una aplicación en línea. Análisis estadístico con 32 de Pearson para diferencias cualitativas Se consideró significativo cuando p ≤ 0.05. Resultados: Se estudiaron 25 mujeres (edad 69 ± 9 años) y 75 varones (edad 63 ± 9 años). Los FRC observados fueron diabetes (58%), hipertensión (86%), antecedente de tabaquismo (68%), dislipidemia (100%), síndrome metabólico (71%) y sobrepeso/obesidad (75%). En las mujeres la prevalencia de diabetes y síndrome metabólico fue mayor que en los varones (p = 0.03), pero el tabaquismo fue más prevalente en los varones (76%, p = 0.003). El ITB se encontró anormal en el 58% de los pacientes, el puntaje Syntax promedio fue de 36.9 ± 11.5 y la prevalencia de la enfermedad del tronco de la arteria coronaria izquierda fue del 36%. Conclusión: En este grupo de estudio con lesiones coronarias complejas existe alta prevalencia de FRC que se refleja en y posiblemente un peor pronóstico.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Smoking/adverse effects , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ankle Brachial Index , Mexico/epidemiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 207-215, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796040


Abstract Background: The importance of coronary anatomy in predicting cardiovascular events is well known. The use of traditional anatomical scores in routine angiography, however, has not been incorporated to clinical practice. SYNTAX score (SXscore) is a scoring system that estimates the anatomical extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). Its ability to predict outcomes based on a baseline diagnostic angiography has not been tested to date. Objective: To evaluate the performance of the SXscore in predicting major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients referred for diagnostic angiography. Methods: Prospective cohort of 895 patients with suspected CAD referred for elective diagnostic coronary angiography from 2008 to 2011, at a university-affiliated hospital in Brazil. They had their SXscores calculated and were stratified in three categories: no significant CAD (n = 495), SXscoreLOW-INTERMEDIATE: < 23 (n = 346), and SXscoreHIGH: ≥ 23 (n = 54). Primary outcome was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and late revascularization. Secondary endpoints were the components of MACE and death from any cause. Results: On average, patients were followed up for 1.8 ± 1.4 years. The primary outcome occurred in 2.2%, 15.3%, and 20.4% in groups with no significant CAD, SXscoreLOW-INTERMEDIATE, and SXscoreHIGH, respectively (p < 0.001). All-cause death was significantly higher in the SXscoreHIGH compared with the 'no significant CAD' group, 16.7% and 3.8% (p < 0.001), respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors, all outcomes remained associated with the SXscore. Conclusions: SXscore independently predicts MACE in patients submitted to diagnostic coronary angiography. Its routine use in this setting could identify patients with worse prognosis.

Resumo Fundamento: A importância da anatomia coronariana na predição de eventos cardiovasculares é bem conhecida. O uso de escores anatômicos tradicionais na cineangiocoronariografia de rotina, entretanto, não foi incorporado à prática clínica. O SYNTAX escore (SXescore) é um sistema de escore que estima a extensão anatômica da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Sua capacidade para predizer desfechos com base na cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica de base ainda não foi testada. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho do SXescore para predizer eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (MACE) em pacientes encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica. Métodos: Coorte prospectiva de 895 pacientes com suspeita de DAC encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica eletiva de 2008 a 2011, em hospital universitário no Brasil. Os pacientes tiveram seus SXescores calculados e foram estratificados em três categorias: 'sem DAC significativa' (n = 495); SXescoreBAIXO-INTERMEDIÁRIO: < 23 (n = 346); e SXescoreALTO: ≥ 23 (n = 54). O desfecho primário foi composto de morte cardíaca, infarto do miocárdio e revascularização tardia. Os desfechos secundários foram MACE e morte por todas as causas. Resultados: Em média, os pacientes foram acompanhados por 1,8 ± 1,4 anos. Desfecho primário ocorreu em 2,2%, 15,3% e 20,4% nos grupos 'sem DAC significativa', SXescoreBAIXO-INTERMEDIÁRIO e SXescoreALTO, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Morte por todas as causas foi significativamente mais frequente no grupo de SXescoreALTO comparado ao grupo 'sem DAC significativa', 16,7% e 3,8% (p < 0,001), respectivamente. Após ajuste para fatores de confusão, todos os desfechos permaneceram associados com o SXescore. Conclusão: O SXescore prediz independentemente MACE em pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica. Seu uso rotineiro nesse contexto poderia identificar pacientes de pior prognóstico.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Angiography/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Prognosis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Brazil , Cineangiography/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Hospitals, University
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 134 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881509


A terapia antiagregante é comumente indicada na prevenção e tratamento de doenças cardiovasculares. A dupla antiagregação com clopidrogrel e ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) tem sido frequentemente adotada em pacientes com Doença Arterial Coronariana (DAC), mas apresenta ineficácia em uma parcela significativa da população com genótipo de respondedores. Essa falha terapêutica nos leva a questionar se outros mecanismos moleculares podem estar influenciando na resposta a esses fármacos. Recentes estudos sugerem que pequenas sequências de RNA não codificantes denominadas microRNAs (miRNAs) podem estar fortemente relacionadas com resposta ao tratamento fármaco-terapêutico, controlando as proteínas envolvidas na farmacocinética e farmacodinâmica. Entretanto, os principais miRNAs que atuam na dinâmica da resposta medicamentosa ainda não foram bem definidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de miRNAs no sangue total periférico, procurando melhor esclarecer os mecanismos envolvidos na resposta aos antiagregantes plaquetários AAS e clopidogrel. Para isso, selecionou-se pacientes com DAC, os quais apresentavam diferentes respostas à dupla terapia de antiagregação determinadas pelo teste de agregação plaquetária. Baseados nos fenótipos, os perfis de expressão de miRNAs foram comparados entre os valores da taxa de agregação categorizados em tercis (T) de resposta. O grupo T1 foi constituído de pacientes respondedores, o T2 de respondedores intermediários e o T3 de não respondedores. Os perfis de miRNAs foram obtidos após sequenciamento de última geração e os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo pacote Deseq2. Os resultados mostraram 18 miRNAs diferentemente expressos entre os dois tercis extremos. Dentre esses miRNAs, 10 deles apresentaram importantes alvos relacionados com vias de ativação e agregação plaquetária quando analisados pelo software Ingenuity®. Dos 10 miRNAs, 4 deles, os quais apresentaram-se menos expressos no sequenciamento, demonstraram os mesmos perfis de expressão quando analisados pela reação em cadeia pela polimerase quantitativa (qPCR): hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-744-5p, hsa-miR- 30a-5p e hsa-let-7g-5p. A partir das análises de predição de alvos, pôde-se observar que os quatro miRNAs, quando menos expressos simultaneamente, predizem ativação da agregação plaquetária. Além disso, os miRNAs hsa-miR- 423-5p, hsa-miR-744-5p e hsa-let-7g-5p mostraram correlação com o perfil lipídico dos pacientes que, por sua vez, apresentou influência nos valores de agregação compreendidos no T3 de resposta a ambos os medicamentos. Sendo assim, conclui-se que maiores taxas de agregação plaquetária podem estar indiretamente relacionadas com os padrões de expressão de hsa-miR- 423-3p, hsa-miR-744-5p e hsa-let-7g-5p. Sugere-se que a avaliação do perfil de expressão destes 3 miRNAs no sangue periférico de pacientes com DAC possa predizer resposta terapêutica inadequada ao AAS e ao clopidogrel

The antiplatelet therapy is often indicated for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has often been adopted in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but it has been ineffective in a significant portion of the population with genotype of responders. This fact leads us to question whether other molecular mechanisms may be influencing the response to these drugs. Recent studies suggest that small non-coding RNA sequences known as microRNAs (miRNAs) may be closely related to response to drug-therapeutic treatment, controlling proteins involved in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of miRNAs in whole blood, looking to better clarify mechanisms involved in ASA and clopidogrel response. For this purpose, we selected CAD patients who showed different responses to dual antiplatelet therapy determined by aggregation test. Based on the phenotypes, the miRNA expression profiles were compared between the platelet aggregation values categorized into tertiles (T) of response. The T1 group consisted of responding patients, the T2 consisted of intermediate responders and the T3 consisted of non-responders. The miRNA profiles were obtained after next-generation sequencing and data were analyzed by Deseq2 package. Results showed that 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two extreme tertiles. By Ingenuity® software prediction analysis, 10 miRNAs showed important targets related with activation and aggregation of blood platelets. Of the 10 miRNAs, 4 of them, which were down-expressed on sequencing, showed the same fold-regulation when expression profiles were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR): hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-744-5p, hsa-miR-30a-5p and has-hsa- let-7g-5p. By target prediction analysis, it was observed that, when the four miRNAs are simultaneously down-expressed, they predict activation of platelet aggregation. Furthermore, hsa-miR-423-5p, hsa-miR-744-5p, and hsa-let-7g-5p showed correlation with the lipid profile of patients which, in turn, demonstrated influence in aggregation values reaching T3 of response to both drugs. Therefore, we concluded that increased platelet aggregation rates may be indirectly related to the expression profiles of hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-744-5p and hsa-let-7g-5p. It is suggested that the evaluation of the expression profile of these three miRNAs in the peripheral blood of patients with CAD may predict inadequate therapeutic response to aspirin and clopidogrel

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspirin/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data , Gene Library , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.307-332.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971543
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 13(3)dez. 2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774728


O jogo patológico caracteriza-se pela maneira desajustada do indivíduoproceder diante de jogos de azar, de forma recorrente,excessiva, e com repercussões negativas na vida pessoal, familiare profissional. Jogadores patológicos são rotineiramente submetidosà grande carga de estresse, devido a problemas financeirose familiares, e, frequentemente, possuem múltiplos fatores derisco tradicionais para doença aterosclerótica coronariana. Adependência do jogo patológico altera o estado subjetivo do indivíduo,interagindo com a atividade cerebral, pela estimulaçãoda atividade nervosa. O jogo, em muitos aspectos, pode mimetizaros efeitos do abuso de drogas estimulantes, cursando comliberação catecolaminérgica contínua. Considerando as diversasalterações psíquicas e autonômicas associadas ao jogo patológico,existe a possibilidade de essa patologia apresentar associaçãocom a instabilidade do ateroma e consequente infarto agudodo miocárdio. Neste relato de caso, descrevemos uma pacienteportadora de múltiplos fatores de risco cardiovascular, que sofreuum infarto agudo do miocárdio durante atividade de jogoe aposta, evidência que contribui com a hipótese em potencialde que alterações autonômicas associadas ao jogo patológico podemter algum papel na instabilização do ateroma.(AU)

Pathological gambling is characterized by the dysfunctional,recurrent and excessive way the individual handles gambling,which leads to adverse consequences for the gambler?s personal,professional and family lives. Pathological gamblers are regularlyunder a lot of stress due to financial and family problems, andthey often have multiple traditional risk factors for coronaryatherosclerotic disease. Pathological gambling addiction alters theindividual?s subjective state of mind, interacting with the brainactivity by stimulating the nervous system. The gambling in manyways may mimic the effects of stimulant drugs, evolving withcontinuous catecholaminergic response. Considering the severalpsychic and autonomic changes associated with pathologicalgambling, this disorder could be related to atheroma instabilityand consequent acute myocardial infarction. This paper describeda patient with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who has sufferedan acute myocardial infarction during gambling activity, that wasan evidence which contributes to the potential hypothesis thatautonomic changes associated with pathological gambling mayhave some role in the atheroma destabilizatio.(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Gambling/etiology , Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders/psychology , Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Risk Factors
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(4): 390-398, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764464


Background:Vascular remodeling, the dynamic dimensional change in face of stress, can assume different directions as well as magnitudes in atherosclerotic disease. Classical measurements rely on reference to segments at a distance, risking inappropriate comparison between dislike vessel portions.Objective:to explore a new method for quantifying vessel remodeling, based on the comparison between a given target segment and its inferred normal dimensions.Methods:Geometric parameters and plaque composition were determined in 67 patients using three-vessel intravascular ultrasound with virtual histology (IVUS-VH). Coronary vessel remodeling at cross-section (n = 27.639) and lesion (n = 618) levels was assessed using classical metrics and a novel analytic algorithm based on the fractional vessel remodeling index (FVRI), which quantifies the total change in arterial wall dimensions related to the estimated normal dimension of the vessel. A prediction model was built to estimate the normal dimension of the vessel for calculation of FVRI.Results:According to the new algorithm, “Ectatic” remodeling pattern was least common, “Complete compensatory” remodeling was present in approximately half of the instances, and “Negative” and “Incomplete compensatory” remodeling types were detected in the remaining. Compared to a traditional diagnostic scheme, FVRI-based classification seemed to better discriminate plaque composition by IVUS-VH.Conclusion:Quantitative assessment of coronary remodeling using target segment dimensions offers a promising approach to evaluate the vessel response to plaque growth/regression.

Fundamento:O remodelamento vascular, alteração dimensional dinâmica frente ao estresse, pode assumir diferentes direções e magnitudes na doença aterosclerótica. As medidas clássicas baseiam-se em referências a distância do segmento-alvo, com risco de comparação inadequada pela seleção de porções vasculares indesejáveis.Objetivo:Explorar um novo método para quantificar remodelamento vascular, baseado na comparação entre um determinado segmento-alvo e suas dimensões normais inferidas.Métodos:Parâmetros geométricos e a composição da placa foram determinados em 67 pacientes usando-se ultrassom intravascular de três vasos com histologia virtual (IVUS-VH). Avaliou-se o remodelamento coronário ao nível da seção transversal (n = 27.639) e da lesão (n = 618) usando-se métrica clássica e um novo algoritmo analítico baseado no índice de remodelamento vascular fracionado (FVRI) que quantifica a alteração total nas dimensões da parede arterial em relação a dimensão normal estimada do vaso. Construiu-se um modelo preditivo para estimar a dimensão normal do vaso para calcular o FVRI.Resultados:De acordo com o novo algoritmo, o padrão de remodelamento “ectásico” foi o menos comum, o remodelamento “completo compensatório” foi observado em metade dos casos, e os tipos “negativo” e “incompleto compensatório” foram detectados nos restantes. Comparada ao esquema tradicional diagnóstico, a classificação baseada no FVRI pareceu melhor discriminar a composição da placa através de IVUS-VH.Conclusão:A análise quantitativa do remodelamento coronário utilizando dimensões do segmento-alvo oferece uma abordagem promissora para avaliar a resposta vascular ao crescimento e à regressão da placa.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Algorithms , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology , Vascular Remodeling/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/physiopathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography, Interventional
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(2): 176-183, Aug. 2015. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-758005


AbstractIntroduction:Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major limitation for long-term survival of patients undergoing heart transplantation (HT). Some immunosuppressants can reduce the risk of CAV.Objectives:The primary objective was to evaluate the variation in the volumetric growth of the intimal layer measured by intracoronary ultrasound (IVUS) after 1 year in patients who received basiliximab compared with that in a control group.Methods:Thirteen patients treated at a single center between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Evaluations were performed with IVUS, measuring the volume of a coronary segment within the first 30 days and 1 year after HT. Vasculopathy was characterized by the volume of the intima of the vessel.Results:Thirteen patients included (7 in the basiliximab group and 6 in the control group). On IVUS assessment, the control group was found to have greater vessel volume (120–185.43 mm3 vs. 127.77–131.32 mm3; p = 0.051). Intimal layer growth (i.e., CAV) was also higher in the control group (27.30–49.15 mm3 [∆80%] vs. 20.23–26.69 mm3[∆33%]; p = 0.015). Univariate regression analysis revealed that plaque volume and prior atherosclerosis of the donor were not related to intima growth (r = 0.15, p = 0.96), whereas positive remodeling was directly proportional to the volumetric growth of the intima (r = 0.85, p < 0.001).Conclusion:Routine induction therapy with basiliximab was associated with reduced growth of the intima of the vessel during the first year after HT.

ResumoFundamento:A doença vascular do enxerto (DVE) constitui uma grande limitação de sobrevida a longo prazo de pacientes submetidos a transplante cardíaco (TxC). Alguns imunossupressores diminuem o aparecimento da DVE.Objetivos:O principal objetivo foi avaliar, através de ultrassonografia intracoronária (USIC), a variação do crescimento volumétrico da camada íntima e comparar, após um ano, o grupo que recebeu basiliximab com um grupo de controle.Métodos:Treze pacientes de um único centro foram analisados retrospectivamente de 2007 a 2009. As análises foram feitas através de USIC, medindo-se o volume de um segmento coronariano nos primeiros 30 dias e um ano após o TxC. A vasculopatia foi caracterizada pelo volume da camada íntima do vaso.Resultados:O estudo incluiu 13 pacientes (7 no grupo com o basiliximab e 6 no grupo de controle). A análise por USIC revelou que o grupo de controle apresentou maior crescimento volumétrico do vaso (131,32 a 127,77 mm3 x 120 a 185,43 mm3 p = 0,051). O crescimento da camada íntima (CCI) também foi maior no grupo de controle [Basiliximab: 20,23 a 26,69 mm3 (∆ 33%); Controle: 27,30 a 49,15 mm3(∆ 80% p = 0,015)]. De acordo com a regressão univariada, o volume da placa aterosclerótica prévia do doador não teve relação com o crescimento da íntima (r = 0,15, p = 0,96), enquanto que o remodelamento positivo do vaso foi diretamente proporcional ao crescimento da íntima (r = 0,85, p < 0,001).Conclusão:A terapia de indução de rotina com basiliximab está associada à redução do crescimento da camada íntima do vaso no primeiro ano após o transplante cardíaco.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , Allografts/drug effects , Allografts/pathology , Biopsy , Case-Control Studies , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Coronary Artery Disease , Disease Progression , Graft Rejection/pathology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Rejection , /antagonists & inhibitors , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/drug therapy , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tunica Intima/drug effects , Tunica Intima/pathology
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 85(1): 50-58, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746436


Se estableció la puntuación Syntax como herramienta para determinar la complejidad de la enfermedad coronaria y como guía para tomar decisiones entre la cirugía de revascularización coronaria y el intervencionismo coronario percutáneo. El propósito de esta revisión es examinar de manera sistemática qué es la puntuación Syntax, cómo el cirujano debe integrar la información en la selección y tratamiento del paciente. Revisamos los resultados del estudio SYNTAX, las guías de práctica clínica, así como los beneficios y las limitaciones de la puntuación. Finalmente, el rumbo hacia el futuro que tomará la puntuación Syntax.

The Syntax score has been established as a tool to determine the complexity of coronary artery disease and as a guide for decision-making among coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine what the Syntax score is, and how the surgeon should integrate the information in the selection and treatment of patients. We reviewed the results of the SYNTAX Trial, the clinical practice guidelines, as well as the benefits and limitations of the score. Finally we discuss the future directions of the Syntax score.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/classification , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Thoracic Surgery , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 33(3): 181-188, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743820


Introducción: La asociación entre cardiopatía coronaria (CC) y estados de disglicemia está bien establecida. Sin embargo, aún cuando la diabetes mellitus (DM) corresponde a uno de los principales factores de riesgo para CC, la asociación con el síndrome metabólico (SM) parece menos clara. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el grado de compromiso aterosclerótico del árbol coronario de acuerdo a la existencia de SM y DM. Pacientes y método: Se analizó los datos de 413 pacientes sometidos a coronariografía electiva en el período de un año. Se dividió la muestra en 3 grupos: pacientes diabéticos, pacientes con SM (no diabéticos) y pacientes sin enfermedad metabólica (no SM, no DM). Se consideró como portador de CC a todo paciente con estenosis >50 por ciento en cualquier arteria coronaria, la severidad de la enfermedad coronaria fue medida por el Score de Gensini. Se utilizó análisis de varianza (Barlett) con comparación múltiple de Scheffe y prueba no paramétrica de Krus-kal-Wallis en aquellos grupos con varianzas distintas. El protocolo fue aprobado por el Comité Ético Científico del Servicio de Salud Araucanía Sur. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 63.8 +/- 11,17 años. La prevalencia de SM fue 38 por ciento (n=158), DM 45 por ciento (n=186) y no tenían alteraciones metabólicas 17 por ciento de los pacientes (n=69). La prevalencia global de enfermedad coronaria fue 52,7 por ciento. La prevalencia en los distintos grupos fue 33.9 por ciento en aquellos sin enfermedad metabólica, 52.2 por ciento en los portadores de SM y 62.2 por ciento en los pacientes con DM (p=0.001). En cuanto a la severidad de la CC, el score de Gensini fue 18, 22,04 y 29,6 respectivamente (p=0,04). Conclusiones: Este estudio observacional sugiere que, comparados con sujetos sin enfermedad metabólica tanto la prevalencia de CC, como su severidad son mayores en pacientes con SM aislado y mayores aún en portadores de DM.

Introduction: The association between coronary artery (CAD) and dysglicemia is well established. Diabetes (DM) is recognized as one of the most important coronary risk factors, but the association of CAD and metabolic syndrome (MS) is less well defined. Our objective was to evaluate the degree of coronary atherosclerotic disease in relation to the presence of MS and DM . Patients and Method: The data of 413 patients electively studied with coronary angiography over a period of one year was analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: Patients with DM, patients with MS (without DM) and patients without a metabolic disorder (no DM, no MS). The severity of CAD was measured by the Gensini Score. Results: Mean age was 63,8 +/-11,17 years. The prevalence of patients with MS was 38 percent (n=158), with DM 45 percent (n=186) and without a metabolic disorder 17 percent (n=69). The global prevalence of CAD was 52,7 percent. The prevalence of CAD in the different groups was as follows: Absence of metabolic disease 33.9 percent, patients with MS 52.2 percent and patients with DM 62.2 percent (p< 0.001). Conclusions: This observational study suggests that, compared to subjects without metabolic disease, the prevalence and severity of CAD are higher in patients with MS and even higher in patients with DM.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Analysis of Variance , Coronary Angiography , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Linear Models , Observational Study , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Waist-Hip Ratio
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 928-936, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113985


PURPOSE: Recent studies show positive association of early repolarization (ER) with the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study was to investigate the relationships of ER with myocardial scarring and prognosis in patients with CAD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 570 consecutive CAD patients, patients with and without ER were assigned to ER group (n=139) and no ER group (n=431), respectively. Myocardial scar was evaluated using cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography. RESULTS: ER group had previous history of myocardial infarction (33% vs. 15%, p<0.001) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (57+/-13% vs. 62+/-13%, p<0.001) more frequently than no-ER group. While 74 (53%) patients in ER group had myocardial scar, only 121 (28%) patients had in no-ER group (p<0.001). During follow up, 9 (7%) and 4 (0.9%) patients had cardiac events in ER and no-ER group, respectively (p=0.001). All patients with cardiac events had ER in inferior leads and horizontal/descending ST-segment. Patients with both ER in inferior leads and horizontal/descending ST variant and scar had an increased adjusted hazard ratio of cardiac events (hazard ratio 16.0; 95% confidence interval: 4.1 to 55.8; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: ER in inferior leads with a horizontal/descending ST variant was associated with increased risk of cardiac events. These findings suggest that ER in patients with CAD may be related to myocardial scar rather than pure ion channel problem.

Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Cicatrix/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/pathology , Female , Heart Conduction System/abnormalities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2013 Oct; 16(4): 238-242
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149660


Aims and Objectives: Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) is the preferred arterial conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. Various pharmacological agents are known to increase LIMA blood flow. Sympathetic blockade mediated by stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been used to provide vasodilatation in the upper extremities and in the treatment of refractory angina. We investigated effect of left stellate ganglion block (LSGB) on LIMA diameter. Materials and Methods: In 30 diagnosed patients of triple vessel coronary artery disease, LSGB was given under fluoroscopic guidance by C6 transverse process approach using 10 ml of 1% lignocaine. LIMA diameter was measured before and 20 min after the block at 2nd, 3rd, 4th and at 5th rib level. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded before and 20 min after the block. Results: The LIMA diameter increased significantly at 2nd (2.56 ± 0.39 vs. 2.99 ± 0.40; P < 0.0001), 3rd (2.46 ± 0.38 vs. 2.90 ± 0.40; P < 0.0001), 4th (2.39 ± 0.38 vs. 2.84 ± 0.41; P < 0.0001) and 5th rib level (2.35 ± 0.38 vs. 2.78 ± 0.40; P < 0.0001). No statistically significant change occurred in HR, SBP, DBP and MAP before and 20 min after LSGB. Conclusions: LSGB significantly increased the LIMA diameter. The LSGB can be considered as an alternative to topical and systemic vasodilators for reducing vasospasm of LIMA.

Autonomic Nerve Block , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Mammary Arteries/anatomy & histology , Stellate Ganglion
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 83(2): 112-119, abr.-jun. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-702996


La angiografía es la técnica de referencia para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad arte rial coronaria. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los síndromes coronarios agudos involucran lesiones angiográficamente no significativas. Es también la técnica de elección para guiar la implantación de prótesis endovasculares y su seguimiento. La tomografía de coherencia óptica es una técnica de imagen interferométrica que penetra en los tejidos alrededor de 2-3 mm y ofrece una alta resolución axial. Es capaz de distinguir diferentes tipos de tejido, como fibroso, lipídico, necrótico o calcificado, reconoce características de las placas de ateroma que se han asociado con progresión rápida de la lesión y eventos clínicos adversos, como la delgada capa de fibroateroma, el espesor de la capa fibrosa, la infiltración de macrófagos y la formación de trombos. En la actualidad, existe un creciente interés en el valor de la tomografía de coherencia óptica en el área de intervención coronaria, donde la técnica ofrece ventajas significativas sobre las técnicas intravasculares de diagnóstico convencionales, como la ecografía intravascular. Su alta resolución permite reconocer las complicaciones periprocedimiento, como microdisección, malaposición e hiperplasia neointimal, haciendo de esta herramienta una de las técnicas más prometedoras en el diagnóstico intravascular.

Coronary angiography is the reference technique for the diagnosis of coronary disease. However, the majority of acute coronary syndromes involve angiographically non- significant lesions. It is also the technique of choice for guiding the implantation of endovascular prostheses and their later monitoring. Optical coherence tomography is an interferometric imaging technique that penetrates tissue approximately 2-3 mm and provides axial and lateral resolution. It is able to distinguish different tissue types, such as fibrous, lipid-rich, necrotic, or calcified tissue. Optical coherence tomography is able to recognize a variety of features of athe- rosclerotic plaques that have been associated with rapid lesion progression and clinical events, such as thin cap fibroatheroma, fibrous cap thickness, dense macrophage infiltration, and thrombus formation. Currently, there is growing interest in the value of optical coherence tomography in the area of coronary intervention, where the technique offers significant advantages over more widespread intravascular diagnostic techniques such as intravascular ultrasound. Its higher resolution permits to recognize periprocedural complications, such as microdissection of the coronary artery, stent malapposition, and neointimal hiperplasia, making this tool one of the most promising techniques in the intravascular diagnosis.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Stenosis/pathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Stenosis/surgery , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/surgery , Recurrence , Severity of Illness Index , Stents , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 32(1): 1-7, ene.-mar. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-673088


Los pacientes con Hígado Graso No Alcohólico (HGNA), presentan un incremento en la mortalidad por enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica, siendo la misma, la segunda causa más frecuente de muerte en los pacientes con HGNA. En general, el Engrosamiento de la Íntima Media Carotídea (EIMC), el cual constituye una evidencia de aterosclerosis subclínica, es mayor en los pacientes con HGNA que en las personas sanas. Los individuos con HGNA están en riesgo de aterosclerosis carotídea, independientemente de la presencia del Síndrome Metabólico y de factores clásicos de riesgo coronario aterosclerótico, por lo tanto la detección del HGNA, nos debe alertar de la existencia del incremento del riesgo de enfermedad aterosclerótica

Patients with non alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) present an increase in mortality duo to atherosclerotic coronary disease, being this, the second most common cause of death in patients with (NAFLD). In general, the intima-media thickening, which constitutes an evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis, is higher in patients with NAFLD than in healthy people. The individuals with NAFLD are at risk of suffering from carotid atherosclerosis independently of both the presence of Metabolic Syndrome and classical factors of atherosclerotic coronary risk. That's why the detection of NAFLD should alert us to the existence of an increase in the risk of suffering from atherosclerotic disease

Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Fatty Liver/epidemiology