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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 160-165, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136172


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Coronary collateral development (CCD) predicts the severity of coronary heart disease. Hemogram parameters, such as mean platelet volume (MPV), eosinophil, red cell distribution width, and platelet distribution width (PDW), are supposed novel inflammatory markers. We aimed to compare hemogram parameter values in patients presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) with adequate or inadequate CCD. METHODS A total of 177 patients with NSTEMI undergoing coronary arteriography were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the development of CCD: one group with adequate CCD (n=88) and the other with impaired CCD (n=89). RESULTS Baseline demographics and clinical risk factors were similar between the groups. Hemogram parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. However, compared to the inadequate CCD group, the median PDW was significantly higher in the adequate CCD group, 17.6 (1.4) vs. 17.8 (1.6) p=0.004. In a multivariate analysis, PDW (p=0.001, 95% CI for OR: 0.489(0,319-0,750) was found to be significantly different in the adequate CCD group compared to the inadequate CCD group. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that PDW was significantly correlated with the Rentrop score (r=0.26, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS We suggest that since PDW is an index that is inexpensive and easy to assess, it could serve as a marker of CCD in patients with NSTEMI.

RESUMO OBJETIVO O desenvolvimento colateral coronariano (CCD) prediz a gravidade da doença coronariana. Parâmetros de hemograma como volume plaquetário médio (VPM), eosinófilo, largura de distribuição de glóbulos vermelhos e largura de distribuição de plaquetas (PDW) são supostos novos marcadores inflamatórios. Nosso objetivo foi comparar os valores do parâmetro hemograma em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMSSST) com DCC adequado ou inadequado. MÉTODOS Um total de 177 pacientes com NSTEMI submetidos à arteriografia coronariana foram incluídos e divididos, com base no desenvolvimento de CCD, em dois grupos: grupo com CCD adequado (n = 88) e grupo com CCD alterado (n = 89). RESULTADOS Os dados demográficos e os fatores de risco clínicos basais foram semelhantes entre os grupos. Os parâmetros do hemograma não foram significativamente diferentes entre os dois grupos. Mas, em comparação com a mediana inadequada do grupo CCD, o PDW foi significativamente maior em CCD adequado de 17,6 (1,4) vs. 17,8 (1,6) p = 0,004. Na análise multivariada, PDW (p = 0,001, IC 95% para OR: 0,489 (0,319-0,750) foi significativamente diferente no grupo CCD adequado em comparação com o grupo CCD inadequado. A análise de correlação de Pearson revelou que PDW foi significativamente correlacionado com escore de aluguel (r = 0,26, p <0,001). CONCLUSÃO Sugerimos que, uma vez que a PDW é um índice barato e de fácil avaliação, pode servir como um marcador de DCC em pacientes com IAMSSST.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Collateral Circulation/physiology , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/blood , Reference Values , Blood Cell Count , Blood Platelets , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Statistics, Nonparametric , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1092-1101, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055064


Abstract Background: Functional assessment to rule out myocardial ischemia using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is extremely important and data on the Brazilian population are still limited. Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance of myocardial perfusion by CCTA in the detection of severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). To analyze the importance of anatomical knowledge to understand the presence of myocardial perfusion defects on SPECT imaging that is not identified on computed tomography (CT) scan. Method: A total of 35 patients were evaluated by a simultaneous pharmacologic stress protocol. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions. The patients were grouped according to the presence or absence of significant CAD. The area under the ROC curve was used to identify the diagnostic performance of CCTA and SPECT in perfusion assessment. P < 0.05 values were considered statistically significant. Results: For detection of obstructive CAD, CT myocardial perfusion analysis yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.84 [a 95% confidence interval (CI95%): 0.67-0.94, p < 0.001]. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging, on the other hand, showed an AUC of 0.58 (95% CI 0.40 - 0.74, p < 0.001). In this study, false-positive results with SPECT are described. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion analysis by CTA displays satisfactory results compared to SPECT in the detection of obstructive CAD. CCTA can rule out false-positive results of SPECT.

Resumo Fundamento: A avaliação funcional para descartar a isquemia miocárdica utilizando a angiotomografia computadorizada (angio-TC) de coronárias é de extrema importância e dados na população brasileira ainda são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho diagnóstico da perfusão miocárdica pela angio-TC de coronárias na detecção de doença arterial coronariana (DAC) obstrutiva significativa em comparação com a tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT; do inglês, single photon emission computerized tomography). Analisar a importância do conhecimento anatômico para entender a presença de defeito de perfusão miocárdica pela SPECT que não é identificado pela tomografia computadorizada (TC). Método: Trinta e cinco pacientes foram avaliados por um protocolo de estresse farmacológico simultâneo. O teste exato de Fisher foi utilizado para comparação entre as proporções. Os pacientes foram agrupados de acordo com a presença ou não de DAC significativa. A área sob a curva foi utilizada para identificar o desempenho diagnóstico da avaliação da perfusão pela angio-TC de coronárias e pela SPECT. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: Para detecção de DAC obstrutiva a avaliação da perfusão miocárdica pela TC teve uma área sob a curva de 0,84 [intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%): 0,67 a 0,94, p < 0,001]. Já o estudo da perfusão miocárdica pela SPECT foi de 0,58 (IC95%: 0,40 a 0,74, p < 0,001). Neste estudo, foram descritos falso-positivos pela SPECT. Conclusão: A avaliação da perfusão miocárdica pela angio-TC apresenta resultados satisfatórios em comparação com os da SPECT na detecção de DAC obstrutiva. A angio-TC de coronárias tem capacidade de afastar falso-positivos da SPECT.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Cineangiography/methods , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Computed Tomography Angiography
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 410-416, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038554


Abstract Background: Increases in daily physical activity levels is recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, despite this recommendation, little is known about the physical activity patterns of PAD patients. Objective: To describe the physical activity patterns of patients with symptomatic peripheral artery (PAD) disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 174 PAD patients with intermittent claudication symptoms. Patients were submitted to clinical, hemodynamic and functional evaluations. Physical activity was objectively measured by an accelerometer, and the time spent in sedentary, low-light, high-light and moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) were obtained. Descriptive analysis was performed to summarize patient data and binary logistic regression was used to test the crude and adjusted associations between adherence to physical activity recommendation and sociodemographic and clinical factors. For all the statistical analyses, significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Results: Patients spent in average of 640 ± 121 min/day, 269 ± 94 min/day, 36 ± 27 min/day and 15 ± 16 min/day in sedentary, low-light, high-light and MVPA, respectively. The prevalence of patients who achieved physical activity recommendations was 3.4%. After adjustment for confounders, a significant inverse association was observed between adherence to physical activity recommendation and age (OR = 0.925; p = 0.004), while time of disease, ankle brachial index and total walking distance were not associated with this adherence criteria (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The patterns of physical activity of PAD patients are characterized by a large amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors and a low engagement in MVPA. Younger patients, regardless of the clinical and functional factors, were more likely to meet the current physical activity recommendations.

Resumo Fundamento: Aumentos nos níveis de atividade física diária são recomendados para pacientes com doença arterial periférica (DAP). No entanto, apesar dessa recomendação, pouco se sabe sobre os padrões de atividade física dos pacientes com DAP. Objetivo: Descrever os padrões de atividade física de pacientes com DAP sintomática. Métodos: Este estudo transversal incluiu 174 pacientes com DAP com sintomas de claudicação intermitente. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliações clínicas, hemodinâmicas e funcionais. A atividade física foi objetivamente medida por um acelerômetro, e o tempo gasto em atividades sedentárias, de baixa intensidade, de alta intensidade e atividade física moderada-a-vigorosa (AFMV) foi obtido. A análise descritiva foi realizada para resumir os dados dos pacientes e a regressão logística binária foi utilizada para testar as associações brutas e ajustadas entre a adesão à recomendação de atividade física e os fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos. Para todas as análises estatísticas, a significância foi estabelecida em p < 0,05. Resultados: Os pacientes gastaram em média 640 ± 121 min/dia, 269 ± 94 min / dia, 36 ± 27 min/dia e 15 ± 16 min/dia em atividades sedentárias, de baixa intensidade, alta intensidade e AFMV, respectivamente. A prevalência de pacientes que atingiram as recomendações de atividade física foi de 3,4%. Após ajuste para fatores de confusão, observou-se associação inversa significativa entre adesão à recomendação de atividade física e idade (OR = 0,925; p = 0,004), enquanto tempo de doença, ITB e distância total de caminhada não se associaram a esse critério de adesão (p> 0,05). Conclusão: Os padrões de atividade física dos pacientes com DAP são caracterizados por uma grande quantidade de tempo gasto em comportamentos sedentários e um baixo envolvimento na AFMV. Pacientes mais jovens, independentemente dos fatores clínicos e funcionais, apresentaram maior probabilidade de atender às recomendações atuais de atividade física.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Walking/physiology , Ankle Brachial Index , Sedentary Behavior , Intermittent Claudication/physiopathology
Clinics ; 74: e1222, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039547


OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient/blood , Platelet Aggregation/physiology , Stroke/blood , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Platelet Function Tests , Blood Coagulation Tests , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Stroke/physiopathology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 553-558, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977479


Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two different papaverine concentrations (0.5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml) for vasospasm prevention and their impact on endothelium integrity. Methods: We have studied distal segments of radial arteries obtained by no-touch technique from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients (n=10). The vasodilatory effect of papaverine (concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml) was assessed in vitro, in isometric tension studies using ex vivo myography (organ bath technique) and arterial rings precontracted with potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine. The impact of papaverine on endothelial integrity was studied by measurement of the percentage of vessel's circumference revealing CD34 endothelial marker. Results: 2 mg/ml papaverine concentration showed stronger vasodilatatory effect than 0.5 mg/ml, but it caused significantly higher endothelial damage. Response to KCl was 7.35±3.33 mN for vessels protected with papaverine 0.5 mg/ml and 2.66±1.96 mN when papaverine in concentration of 2 mg/ml was used. The histological examination revealed a significant difference in the presence of undamaged endothelium between vessels incubated in papaverine 0.5 mg/ml (72.86±9.3%) and 2 mg/ml (50.23±13.42%), P=0.002. Conclusion: Papaverine 2 mg/ml caused the higher endothelial damage. Concentration of 0.5 mg/ml caused better preservation of the endothelial lining.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Papaverine/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Radial Artery/drug effects , Coronary Vasospasm/prevention & control , Papaverine/adverse effects , Papaverine/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 717-725, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954064


ABSTRACT Introduction: To compare the perioperative outcomes and complications of monopolar and bipolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods: A total of 90 CAD patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer who underwent TURBT were randomized into monopolar TURBT (M-TURBT) and bipolar TURBT (B-TURBT) groups. Primary outcome was safety of the procedures including obturator jerk, bladder perforation, clot retention, febrile urinary tract infection and TUR syndrome. The secondary outcome was the efficacy of TURBT procedures, including complete tumor resection, sampling of the deep muscle tissue and sampling of the qualified tissues without any thermal damage. Results: Mean ages of the patients in M-TURBT and B-TURBT groups were 71.36±7.49 and 73.71±8.15 years, respectively (p=0.157). No significant differences were found between M-TURBT and B-TURBT groups regarding complete tumor resection (76.2% vs. 87.5%, p=0.162) and muscle tissue sampling rates (71.4% vs. 64.6%,p=0.252). Obturator jerk was detected in 16.7% of the patients in M-TURBT group and 2.1% in B-TURBT group (p=0.007). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding intraoperative and postoperative complications. Conclusions: Both monopolar and bipolar systems can be used safely and effectively during TURBT procedure in CAD patients. Due to the more frequently seen obturator jerk in M-TURBT than B-TURBT, careful surgical approach is needed during M-TURBT.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Ureteroscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Operative Time , Middle Aged
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(3): 226-234, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-908885


Fundamentos: O conhecimento do ângulo de fase e seu uso como determinante prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca ainda é escasso. Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre indicadores antropométricos, função cardíaca e integridade celular em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal que avaliou pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida por meio da antropometria e da bioimpedância elétrica. Foram empregados os testes do Qui-quadrado e teste t de student para analisar as diferenças e a correlação linear de Pearson para avaliar associação, adotando p < 0,05 para indicar significância estatística.Resultados: Foram avaliados 41 indivíduos, com idade entre 30-74 anos, sendo 34 homens (82,9%). O ângulo de fase mostrou-se com maior média entre as mulheres (7,1°), porém houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os sexos apenas para as médias do percentual de gordura. O ângulo de fase correlacionou-se com o índice de massa corporal (r = 0,44; p = 0,004) e houve uma tendência na correlação do ângulo de fase com a razão cintura/estatura (r = 0,29; p = 0,06) e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (r = 0,29; p = 0,07). Conclusões: O ângulo de fase apresentou boa correlação com o índice de massa corporal e mostrou uma tendência de correlação com a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, sustentando o paradoxo da obesidade e a importância prognóstica deste marcador. Ressalta-se ainda, a necessidade de novos estudos sobre a aplicabilidade do ângulo de fase no prognóstico nesta população

Background: Knowledge about phase angle and its use as a prognostic determinant in patients with heart failure is still scarce. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between anthropometric indicators, cardiac function and cell integrity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Chi-square test and Student's t test were used to analyze differences, and Pearson's linear correlation was used to evaluate associations, using p < 0.05 to indicate statistical significance. Results: We evaluated 41 subjects aged 30-74 years, of which 34 were men (82.9%). Mean phase angle was higher among women (7.1%), but significant differences between men and women were found only for body fat percentage. Phase angle correlated with body mass index (r = 0.44, p = 0.004) and there was a trend of correlation of the phase angle with waist-to-height ratio (r = 0.29, p = 0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.29, p = 0.07). Conclusions: Phase angle showed a good correlation with body mass index and showed a trend of correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction, supporting the obesity paradox and the prognostic importance of this marker. Further studies on the applicability of the phase angle in the prognosis of these patients are still needed

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Body Composition , Anthropometry , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Stroke Volume , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference , Heart Ventricles , Hypertension/complications , Obesity
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(4): 333-338, jul.-ago. 2018. ta, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910215


Lesões coronárias moderadas podem ser, ou não, responsáveis pela isquemia miocárdica. A análise funcional das lesões pode ser realizada por métodos invasivos e não invasivos. Comparar a análise funcional das lesões coronarianas moderadas pela reserva de fluxo fracionado e pela cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica. Foram estudados prospectivamente 47 pacientes com doença arterial coronária estável com pelo menos uma lesão coronariana moderada obstrutiva. Eles foram submetidos à reserva de fluxo fracionado e à cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica com intervalo médio de 24,5 dias, entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2015. Não houve alteração no estado clínico e nem no procedimento de revascularização entre exames. As variáveis populacionais foram descritas como mediana e interquartil. A reserva de fluxo fracionado foi realizada em um de tronco de coronária esquerda; 37 artérias coronárias descendentes; 12 artérias circunflexas e quatro artérias coronárias direitas. Reserva de fluxo fracionado < 0,8 foi considerada positiva. A análise comparativa entre os resultados dos testes foi feita pelo teste de Fisher bicaudal, sendo considerado significativo valor de p < 0,05. A reserva de fluxo fracionado < 0,8 foi encontrada no tronco de coronária esquerda (100%); 13 na artéria coronária descendente (35,14%); seis na artéria circunflexa (50%) e duas na artéria coronária direita (50%). Dentre os pacientes com reserva de fluxo fracionado positiva, 83% tinham isquemia miocárdica demonstrada na cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica (p = 0,058). Analisando especificamente o território da artéria coronária descendente, 83% dos pacientes com reserva de fluxo fracionado negativa não tinham isquemia na cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica, mas 69% dos pacientes com reserva de fluxo fracionado positiva não tinham isquemia na cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica (p = 0,413). Pode ocorrer discordância entre os resultados de análise funcional de lesões coronárias moderadas por testes invasivos e não invasivos

Moderate coronary artery lesions can be, or not, responsible for myocardial ischemia. The functional analysis of these lesions can be performed by invasive and noninvasive methods.To compare the functional analysis of moderate coronary lesions by fractional flow reserve and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. 47 patients with stable coronary artery disease and at least one moderate coronary artery obstruction were prospectively studied. They were submitted to fractional flow reserve and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with a median interval of 24.5 days between January 2013 and December 2015. There was no change in clinical status or revascularization procedure between the exams. The population variables were described as medians and interquartile range. Fractional flow reserve was performed in one left main coronary artery; 37 left descending coronary arteries; 12 circumflex arteries and 4 right coronary arteries. Fractional flow reserve < 0.8 was considered positive. The comparative analysis between the results of the tests was performed by two-tailed Fisher's test and a p-value 0.05 was considered significant.Fractional flow reserve < 0.8 was found in the left main coronary artery (100%); 13 in the left descending coronary artery (35.14%); 6 in circumflex artery (50%) and 2 in the right coronary artery (50%). Among the patients with positive fractional flow reserve, 83% had myocardial ischemia demonstrated by the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (p = 0.058).When analyzing specifically the left descending coronary artery, 83% of the patients with negative fractional flow reserve showed no ischemia at the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, but 69% of the patients with positive fractional flow reserve showed no ischemia at the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (p = 0.413). Disagreements can occur between the results of the functional analysis of moderate coronary lesions by invasive and noninvasive tests

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Statistical Analysis , Prospective Studies , Microvascular Angina/diagnosis , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Myocardium
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(4): 393-404, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910598


O exercício físico melhora a sobrevida e a qualidade de vida de pacientes coronarianos, mas a maneira ideal de prescrevê-lo é ainda controversa. Criar um modelo periodizado para prescrição de exercícios para pacientes coronarianos e compará-lo com o modelo convencional. Randomização de 62 pacientes coronarianos em tratamento farmacológico em dois grupos: treinamento convencional, não periodizado (GNP, n = 33) e periodizado (GP, n = 29). Os dois grupos foram submetidos aos mesmos exercícios durante as 36 sessões do programa, mas prescritos de maneira diferente. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à seguinte avaliação: consulta médica admissional, teste de esforço cardiopulmonar, teste de 1 repetição máxima (1RM) e avaliação da composição corporal. O VO2 pico melhorou nos dois grupos, embora de maneira mais efetiva no GP (4% versus 1,7%, p < 0,001). Além disso, a capacidade funcional do GP aumentou em 13%, tendo havido significativa redução no percentual de gordura corporal (2,1%, p < 0,005) e no peso corporal (1,9 kg, p < 0,005). A força muscular nos dois grupos melhorou como diagnosticado pelo teste de 1RM para seis diferentes grupos musculares (quádriceps, isquiotibiais, bíceps, tríceps braquial, peitoral e grande dorsal), mas sem diferença significativa entre os grupos, tendo os dois modelos a mesma eficiência. O presente estudo mostrou que a periodização do treinamento de pacientes cardíacos pode melhorar a capacidade cardiorrespiratória e reduzir a porcentagem de gordura corporal mais efetivamente do que o modelo convencional

Physical exercise improves the survival and quality of life of coronary patients, but the ideal way of prescribing these exercises is still controversial. To create a new periodized model for the prescription of exercises for coronary patients and compare it with a conventional model. 62 coronary patients under pharmacological treatment were randomized into two groups: conventional (NPG, n = 33) and periodized (PG, n = 29) training. The two groups were submitted to the same exercises during the 36 sessions making up the program, but prescribed in different ways. All patients underwent an evaluation consisting of: medical admission consultancy, cardiopulmonary endurance testing, 1 maximum repetition test (1MR) and body composition evaluation. The VO2 peak improved in both groups, although more effectively in the PG (4% against 1.7%, p < 0.001). In addition, the functional capacity of this group improved by 13%, and there was a significant reduction in the percent body fat (2.1%, p < 0.005) and body weight (1.9 kg, p < 0.005). The muscle strength of both groups improved as diagnosed by the 1RM test for six different muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstrings, brachial biceps, brachial triceps, pectoral and large dorsal), and showed no significant difference between the groups, evidencing that the two models had the same efficiency. The present study showed that periodization of the training of cardiac patients can improve their cardiorespiratory capacity and reduce the percent body fat more effectively than the conventional one

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Exercise , Exercise Movement Techniques/methods , Exercise Therapy/methods , Oxygen Consumption , Secondary Care/methods , Body Composition , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trial , Angioplasty/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Heart Rate
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 354-361, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-888050


Abstract Background: Unstable angina (UA) is a common cause of hospital admission; risk stratification helps determine strategies for treatment. Objective: To determine the applicability of two-dimensional longitudinal strain (SL2D) for the identification of myocardial ischemia in patients with UA. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study lasting 60 days. The sample consisted of 78 patients, of which fifteen (19.2%) were eligible for longitudinal strain analysis. The value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The group of ineligible patients presented: a lower proportion of women, a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), use of ASA, statins and beta-blockers and larger cavity diameters. The main causes of non-applicability were: presence of previous infarction (56.4%), previous CTA (22.1%), previous MRI (11.5%) or both (16.7%) and the presence of specific electrocardiographic abnormalities (12.8%). SL2D assessment revealed a lower global strain value in those with stenosis greater than 70% in some epicardial coronary arteries (17.1 [3.1] versus 20.2 [6.7], with p = 0.014). Segmental strain assessment showed an association between severe CX and RD lesions with longitudinal strain reduction of lateral and inferior walls basal segments; (14 [5] versus 21 [10], with p = 0.04) and (12.5 [6] versus 19 [8], respectively). Conclusion: There was very low SL2D applicability to assess ischemia in the studied population. However, the global strain showed a correlation with the presence of significant coronary lesion, which could be included in the UA diagnostic arsenal in the future.

Resumo Fundamento: A angina instável (AI) é uma causa comum de internação hospitalar, a estratificação de risco ajuda a determinar estratégias para o tratamento. Objetivo: Determinar a aplicabilidade do strain longitudinal bidimensional (SL2D) para identificação de isquemia miocárdica, em pacientes com AI. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal, descritivo, com duração de 60 dias. A amostra foi composta por 78 pacientes, sendo quinze (19,2%) elegíveis para análise do strain longitudinal. O valor de p < 0.05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: O grupo dos não elegíveis apresentou: menor proporção de mulheres, maior prevalência de diabetes mellitus (DM), do uso de AAS, estatinas e betabloqueadores e maiores diâmetros cavitários. As principais causas da não aplicabilidade foram: presença de infarto prévio (56,4%), ATC prévia (22,1%), RM prévia (11,5%) ou ambos (16,7%) e presença de alterações eletrocardiográficas específicas (12,8%). A avaliação do SL2D revelou um valor de strain global inferior naqueles com estenose maior que 70% em alguma coronária epicárdica (17,1 [3,1] versus 20,2 [6,7], com p = 0,014). A avaliação do strain segmentar demonstrou associação entre lesão grave nas coronárias CX e CD com redução do strain longitudinal dos segmentos basais das paredes lateral e inferior; (14 [5] versus 21 [10], com p = 0,04) e (12,5 [6] versus 19 [8], com p = 0,026), respectivamente. Conclusão: Houve aplicabilidade muito baixa do SL2D para avaliar isquemia na população estudada. Entretanto, o strain global apresentou correlação com presença de lesão coronária significativa, podendo, futuramente, ser incluído no arsenal diagnóstico da AI.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Angina, Unstable/physiopathology , Angina, Unstable/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Pressure/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography/methods
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 16(1): 52-58, 20180000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-884997


A doença arterial coronariana é a principal causa de morte no Brasil e no mundo. É um grande desafio para o clínico o acompanhamento destes pacientes, pois são casos cada vez mais prevalentes, complexos, normalmente associados a comorbidades, com maior acometimento nos indivíduos idosos e taxas de insucesso terapêutico elevadas. Apresentamos uma revisão narrativa da literatura atual sobre fisiopatologia, sintomatologia, diagnóstico, tratamentos possíveis e prognóstico, tanto na forma aguda como crônica desta enfermidade.(AU)

The coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. It is a great challenge for the clinician to follow these patients, because they are increasingly more prevalent, complex, usually associated with comorbidities, with a greater involvement in elderly individuals, and with high therapeutic failure rates. We present a narrative review of the current literature on pathophysiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, possible treatments, and prognosis in both the acute and chronic forms of this disease.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Prognosis
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 31(2): f:89-l:96, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883721


ntrodução: A disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (DDVE) pode levar a insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada. O ecocardiograma, em especial o Doppler tecidual, é o principal exame utilizado. A clínica geralmente cursa com dispneia, avaliada pela escala modified Medical Research Council (mMRC). Entretanto, existem poucos estudos que investiguem qual é a associação entre o sintoma e a disfunção. Objetivo: Avaliar se a queixa de dispneia se associa com a progressão da DDVE e se há relação entre mMRC e os graus de DDVE. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle e transversal, com 60 participantes, com avaliação clínica (mMRC) e ecocardiográfica (parâmetros bidimensionais, Doppler espectral e tecidual). Dentre os participantes avaliados, 49 configuraram o grupo caso (DDVE com dispneia) e 11 o grupo controle (DDVE sem dispneia). Foram excluídos participantes com comorbidades ou outras alterações ecocardiográficas relacionadas à dispneia. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 61,7 anos (± 7,9), sendo 72% mulheres. Do total, 82% dos participantes apresentaram dispneia. Destes, 82% apresentaram DDVE grau I. Todos apresentaram função ventricular sistólica preservada. A presença de dispneia se associou com o grau de DDVE (p = 0,04), relação que não se observou com a intensidade do sintoma (p = 0,72). Conclusão: Houve associação entre a presença de dispneia e grau de DDVE, porém não houve relação entre a progressão da dispneia e a evolução da DDVE. O aumento do átrio esquerdo e a presença de doença arterial coronariana foram associadas com graus mais avançados de DDVE

Introduction: The left ventricle diastolic dysfuntion (LVDD) can lead to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Echocardiography, especially the tissue Doppler, is the main exam. The clinic has dyspnea as a typical symptom, which is evaluated by modified Medical Research Council (mMRC). However, there are few studies that investigate what is the association between the symptom and LVDD. Objective: Evaluate if dyspnea is associated with the advancement of LVDD and if there is a linkage between mMRC and the degrees of LVDD. Method: Case-control transversal study, with 60 participants, with clinical (mMRC) and echocardiographic (bidimensional parameters, spectral and tissue Doppler) evaluation. Among the participants, 49 constituted the case group (LVDD with dyspnea) and 11 the control group (LVDD without dyspnea). Participants with co-morbidity or other echocardiographic abnormalities related to dyspnea were excluded. Results: The average age was 61,7 (± 7,9) years and 72% were women. In overwall, 82% of the participants had dyspnea. Among them, 82% had LVDD degree I. All of the study population had preserved ventricular systolic function. The presence of dyspnea was associated with the degree of LVDD (p = 0,04), however, the symptom severity was not (p = 0,72). Conclusion: Dyspnea was associated with the degree of LVDD, but there was no association between the symptom severity and the evolution of LVDD. The aging, the increase of left atrium and coronary artery disease were associated with the advanced grades of LVDD

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , Control Groups , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart/physiopathology , Hypertension/complications , Risk Factors , Statistical Analysis , Stroke Volume
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 278-288, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888039


Abstract Many non-invasive methods, such as imaging tests, have been developed aiming to add a contribution to existing studies in estimating patients' prognosis after myocardial injury. This prognosis is proportional to myocardial viability, which is evaluated in coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction patients only. While myocardial viability represents the likelihood of a dysfunctional muscle (resulting from decreased oxygen supply for coronary artery obstruction), hibernation represents post-interventional functional recovery itself. This article proposes a review of pathophysiological basis of viability, diagnostic methods, prognosis and future perspectives of myocardial viability. An electronic bibliographic search for articles was performed in PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane and Scielo databases, according to pre-established criteria. The studies showed the ability of many imaging techniques in detecting viable tissues in dysfunctional areas of left ventricle resulting from coronary artery injuries. These techniques can identify patients who may benefit from myocardial revascularization and indicate the most appropriate treatment.

Resumo Diversos métodos não invasivos, como novos exames de imagem, vem sendo aprimorados, a fim de somar esforços com os atuais em estimar o prognóstico de pacientes pós-injúria miocárdica. Este prognóstico é proporcional à viabilidade miocárdica, a qual tem sua avaliação reservada para pacientes portadores de doença arterial coronariana e insuficiência ventricular esquerda. Enquanto a viabilidade miocárdica se mostra como a capacidade de recuperação funcional do músculo com disfunção por redução de oxigênio fornecido por artérias coronárias obstruídas, a hibernação consiste na própria recuperação funcional após intervenções. Este artigo propõe uma revisão sobre as bases fisiopatológicas do processo de viabilidade, métodos diagnósticos disponíveis, prognóstico e perspectivas para o futuro acerca dessa condição. Realizou-se pesquisa de busca bibliográfica informatizada em bases eletrônicas de dados, como PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane e Scielo, onde foram selecionados os estudos de acordo com critérios pré-determinados. Os estudos demonstram a capacidade de várias técnicas de imagem de identificar tecido viável em regiões disfuncionais do ventrículo esquerdo em decorrência de lesões em artérias coronárias. Estas técnicas podem identificar pacientes com potencial benefício da revascularização miocárdica e orientar o tratamento mais adequado.

Humans , Tissue Survival/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Revascularization
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 211-216, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888027


Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and osteoporosis (OP) are common diseases in postmenopausal women. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiologic studies, low bone mass has been related to increased frequency of CAD. However, available data on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and severity of coronary lesions is limited. Objective: To investigate association between the BMD and severity of coronary lesions assessed by Gensini score in postmenopausal women. Methods: This study included 122 postmenopausal women who were diagnosed with CAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of coronary lesions assessed by the Gensini score - patients with mild coronary lesions (Gensini score < 25) and patients with severe coronary lesions (Gensini score ≥ 25). Femoral neck mineral density was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: The study included postmenopausal women aged 64.31 ± 4.71 years, 85 of whom (69.7%) exhibited severe coronary lesions. Participants with severe coronary lesions had a significantly higher T score than did those with mild coronary lesions at the femoral neck (p < 0.05). The mean T-score was −0.84 ± 1.01 in mild coronary lesions group, −1.42 ± 1.39 in severe coronary lesions group (p < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that osteopenia-osteoporosis at the Femoral neck (odds ratio 2.73; 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 6.13) was associated with an increased risk of developing severe coronary lesions. The multiple regression model showed that T-scores (b = −0.407, SE = 0.151, p=0.007) were the independent predictors of Gensini score. Conclusion: The relationship between severity of coronary lesions and BMD was significant in postmenopausal women. BMD, a low-cost technique involving minimal radiation exposure, widely used for osteoporosis screening, is a promising marker of severity of coronary lesions.

Resumo Fundamento: A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e a osteoporose são doenças comuns em mulheres pós-menopausa. Tanto em estudos transversais como em estudos epidemiológicos longitudinais, a massa óssea diminuída foi relacionada à frequência aumentada de DAC. No entanto, dados disponíveis sobre a relação entre densidade mineral óssea (DMO) e gravidade das lesões coronarianas são limitados. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre DMO e gravidade das lesões coronarianas avaliadas pelo escore de Gensini em mulheres pós-menopausa. Métodos: Este estudo incluiu 122 mulheres pós-menopausa diagnosticadas com DAC. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos de acordo com a gravidade das lesões coronarianas avaliada pelo escore de Gensini - pacientes com lesões coronarianas leves (escore de Gensini < 25) e pacientes com lesões coronarianas graves (escore de Gensini ≥ 25). A densidade mineral do colo femoral foi medida por absorção de raios-X de dupla energia (DXA). Resultados: O estudo incluiu mulheres pós-menopausa com idade de 64,31 ± 4,71 anos, 85 delas (69,7%) com lesões coronarianas graves. Pacientes com lesões coronarianas graves apresentaram um escore T mais elevado que aquelas com lesões coronarianas leves no colo femoral (p < 0,05). O escore T médio foi -0,84 ± 1,01 no grupo com lesões leves, e -1,42 ± 1,39 no grupo com lesões graves (p < 0,05). A análise de regressão logística multivariada mostrou que a osteopenia-osteoporose no colo femoral (odds ratio 2,73; intervalo de confiança de 95% 1,06 - 6,13) esteve associada com um risco aumentado de se desenvolver lesões coronarianas graves. O modelo de regressão múltipla mostrou que os escores T (b = -0,407; EP= 0,151; p = 0,007) foram preditores independentes do escore de Gensini. Conclusão: Encontrou-se uma relação significativa entre a gravidade das lesões coronarianas e a DMO em mulheres pós-menopausa. DMO, uma técnica de baixo custo que envolve mínima exposição à radiação, e amplamente utilizada no rastreamento de osteoporose, é um marcador promissor da gravidade de lesões coronarianas graves.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Bone Density/physiology , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/physiopathology , Postmenopause/physiology , Bone Demineralization, Pathologic/physiopathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Logistic Models , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Bone Demineralization, Pathologic/complications , Femur Neck/diagnostic imaging , Hyperlipidemias/complications
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(1): 26-32, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-906709


Ao longo das décadas, alguns conceitos mudaram radicalmente a respeito do tratamento clínico da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Inicialmente focado na redução dos sintomas isquêmicos, hoje a otimização da terapêutica clínica é fundamental para a redução de eventos cardiovasculares. No mesmo período, houve um grande desenvolvimento das técnicas de revascularização. A angioplastia coronária tornou-se uma das intervenções terapêuticas mais frequentemente realizadas e as técnicas de revascularização miocárdica vêm sendo objeto de mais ensaios clínicos randomizados, do que qualquer outra intervenção em Medicina. Ainda mais, várias modalidades de imagem invasivas e não invasivas foram desenvolvidas, permitindo estudar com maior precisão a doença arterial coronariana, reconhecer novos marcadores prognóstico, avaliar mais claramente os pacientes e indicar mais acertadamente o tratamento

Some concepts regarding the clinical management of coronary artery disease (CAD) have radically changed over the past decades. Initially focused on improving ischemic symptoms, today, optimal medical therapy is fundamental for reducing cardiovascular events. In the same time frame, there has been an immense development in revascularization treatment. Coronary angioplasty has become one of the most frequently performed therapeutic interventions, and myocardial revascularization techniques have been the subject of more randomized clinical trials than any other intervention in medicine. Furthermore, several invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities have been developed, enabling more accurate study of coronary artery disease, recognition of prognostic markers, clearer patient evaluation, and earlier treatment indications

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Drug Therapy/methods , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Therapeutics , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Calcium Channel Blockers , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Life Style