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Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 25-31, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155792


Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: A total of 127 patients who had undergone CABG (2011-2013) were enrolled into this study and follow-up was obtained by phone contact. Patients were categorized into two groups according to preoperative CCC using the Rentrop method. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, heart failure (HF), and mortality rates were compared between groups. Clinical outcome was defined as combined end point including death, PCI, recurrent MI, stroke, and HF. Results: Sixty-two of 127 patients had poor CCC and 65 had good CCC. There were no differences in terms of PCI, recurrent MI, and HF between the groups. Stroke (seven of 62 [11.3%] and one of 65 [1.5%], P=0.026) and mortality (19 of 62 [30.6%] and 10 of 65 [15.4%], P=0.033) rates were significantly higher in poor CCC group than in good CCC group. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, survival time was not statistically different between the groups. Presence of poor CCC resulted in a significantly higher combined end point incidence (P=0.011). Conclusion: Stroke, mortality rates, and combined end point incidence were significantly higher in poor CCC patients than in the good CCC group.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Stroke/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Bypass , Treatment Outcome , Collateral Circulation , Coronary Circulation
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 160-165, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136172


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Coronary collateral development (CCD) predicts the severity of coronary heart disease. Hemogram parameters, such as mean platelet volume (MPV), eosinophil, red cell distribution width, and platelet distribution width (PDW), are supposed novel inflammatory markers. We aimed to compare hemogram parameter values in patients presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) with adequate or inadequate CCD. METHODS A total of 177 patients with NSTEMI undergoing coronary arteriography were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the development of CCD: one group with adequate CCD (n=88) and the other with impaired CCD (n=89). RESULTS Baseline demographics and clinical risk factors were similar between the groups. Hemogram parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. However, compared to the inadequate CCD group, the median PDW was significantly higher in the adequate CCD group, 17.6 (1.4) vs. 17.8 (1.6) p=0.004. In a multivariate analysis, PDW (p=0.001, 95% CI for OR: 0.489(0,319-0,750) was found to be significantly different in the adequate CCD group compared to the inadequate CCD group. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that PDW was significantly correlated with the Rentrop score (r=0.26, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS We suggest that since PDW is an index that is inexpensive and easy to assess, it could serve as a marker of CCD in patients with NSTEMI.

RESUMO OBJETIVO O desenvolvimento colateral coronariano (CCD) prediz a gravidade da doença coronariana. Parâmetros de hemograma como volume plaquetário médio (VPM), eosinófilo, largura de distribuição de glóbulos vermelhos e largura de distribuição de plaquetas (PDW) são supostos novos marcadores inflamatórios. Nosso objetivo foi comparar os valores do parâmetro hemograma em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMSSST) com DCC adequado ou inadequado. MÉTODOS Um total de 177 pacientes com NSTEMI submetidos à arteriografia coronariana foram incluídos e divididos, com base no desenvolvimento de CCD, em dois grupos: grupo com CCD adequado (n = 88) e grupo com CCD alterado (n = 89). RESULTADOS Os dados demográficos e os fatores de risco clínicos basais foram semelhantes entre os grupos. Os parâmetros do hemograma não foram significativamente diferentes entre os dois grupos. Mas, em comparação com a mediana inadequada do grupo CCD, o PDW foi significativamente maior em CCD adequado de 17,6 (1,4) vs. 17,8 (1,6) p = 0,004. Na análise multivariada, PDW (p = 0,001, IC 95% para OR: 0,489 (0,319-0,750) foi significativamente diferente no grupo CCD adequado em comparação com o grupo CCD inadequado. A análise de correlação de Pearson revelou que PDW foi significativamente correlacionado com escore de aluguel (r = 0,26, p <0,001). CONCLUSÃO Sugerimos que, uma vez que a PDW é um índice barato e de fácil avaliação, pode servir como um marcador de DCC em pacientes com IAMSSST.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Collateral Circulation/physiology , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/blood , Reference Values , Blood Cell Count , Blood Platelets , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Statistics, Nonparametric , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812991


OBJECTIVES@#To study myocardial perfusion and systolic function in patients with different coronary artery stenosis by myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) and two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI).@*METHODS@#MCE, 2D-STI and coronary angiography were conducted in patients with coronary heart disease in our hospital. Myocardial segments were divided into 4 groups according to the degree of coronary artery stenosis: group A (normal group), group B (mild stenosis, 50%-75%), group C (moderate stenosis, 76%-90%) and group D (severe stenosis, 91%-100%). Blood volume, blood flow velocity, blood flow and longitudinal myocardial strain value (SL) in each group were measured by analysis software for MCE and 2D-STI. The differences in blood volume, blood flow velocity, blood flow and SL were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#The blood flow velocity and blood flow in B, C and D groups were decreased gradually, with significant difference (0.05). There were significant differences in SL among the 4 groups (<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a good correlation between coronary stenosis degree and myocardial perfusion or systolic function. The ability of 2D-STI to detect mild stenosis of coronary artery is better than MCE.

Coronary Circulation , Coronary Stenosis , Echocardiography , Humans , Myocardium , Systole
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879217


Coronary microcirculation dysfunction (CMVD) is an important risk factor for the prognosis of re-perfused ischemic heart. Recent studies showed that the evaluation of CMVD has significant impact on both the early diagnosis of heart diseases relevant to blood supply and prognosis after myocardial reperfusion. In this review, the definition of CMVD from the perspective of pathophysiology was clarified, the principles and features of the state-of-the-art imaging technologies for CMVD assessment were reviewed from the perspective of engineering and the further research direction was promoted.

Coronary Circulation , Heart Diseases , Humans , Microcirculation , Prognosis , Technology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 401-408, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038546


Abstract Background: Stress is defined as a complicated state that related to homeostasis disturbances, over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses. Cardiac preconditioning reduces myocardial damages. Objective: This study was designed to assess the cardioprotective effects of acute physical stress against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups; (1) IR (n = 8): rats underwent I/R, (2) Acute stress (St+IR) (n = 8): physical stress induced 1-hour before I/R, (3) Sympathectomy (Symp+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy was done 24-hours before I/R and (4) Sympathectomy- physical stress (Symp+St+IR) (n = 8): chemical sympathectomy induced before physical stress and I/R. Chemical sympathectomy was performed using 6-hydroxydopamine (100 mg/kg, sc). Then, the hearts isolated and located in the Langendorff apparatus to induce 30 minutes ischemia followed by 120 minutes reperfusion. The coronary flows, hemodynamic parameters, infarct size, corticosterone level in serum were investigated. P < 0.05 demonstrated significance. Results: Physical stress prior to I/R could improve left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate product pressure (RPP) of the heart respectively, (63 ± 2 versus 42 ± 1.2, p < 0.05, 70 ± 2 versus 43 ± 2.6, p < 0.05) and reduces infarct size (22.16 ± 1.3 versus 32 ± 1.4, p < 0.05) when compared with the I/R alone. Chemical sympathectomy before physical stress eliminated the protective effect of physical stress on I/R-induced cardiac damages (RPP: 21 ± 6.6 versus 63 ± 2, p < 0.01) (LVDP: 38 ± 4.5 versus 43 ± 2.6, p < 0.01) (infarct size: 35 ± 3.1 versus 22.16 ± 1.3, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Findings indicate that acute physical stress can act as a preconditional stimulator and probably, the presence of sympathetic nervous system is necessary.

Resumo Fundamento: O estresse é definido como um estado complicado de distúrbios da homeostase, hiperatividade do sistema nervoso simpático e das respostas do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. O pré-condicionamento cardíaco diminui os danos do miocárdio. Objetivo: Esse estudo avaliou os efeitos cardioprotetores do estresse físico agudo contra a lesão por isquemia-reperfusão (I/R) através da ativação do sistema nervoso simpático. Métodos: Trinta e dois ratos machos Wistar foram divididos em quatro grupos; (1) IR (n = 8): ratos submetidos a I/R, (2) Estresse agudo (St+IR) (n = 8): estresse físico induzido 1 hora antes da I/R, (3) Simpatectomia (Symp+IR) (n = 8): a simpatectomia química foi realizada 24 horas antes da I/R e (4) Simpatectomia-estresse físico (Symp+St+IR) (n = 8): simpatectomia induzida antes do estresse físico e da I/R. A simpatectomia química foi realizada com 6-hidroxidopamina (100 mg/kg, SC). Em seguida, os corações foram isolados e colocados em aparato de Lagendorff por 30 minutos para induzir isquemia, seguida de reperfusão por 120 minutos. Os fluxos coronarianos, os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, o tamanho do infarto e os níveis de corticosterona plasmática foram investigados. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: O estresse físico anterior à I/R pode melhorar a pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE) e duplo produto (DP), respectivamente, (63 ± 2 versus 42 ± 1,2, p < 0,05, 70 ± 2 versus 43 ± 2,6, p < 0,05) e reduzir o tamanho do infarto (22,16 ± 1,3 versus 32±1,4, p < 0,05) quando comparado com a I/R isoladamente. A simpatectomia química antes do estresse físico eliminou o efeito protetor do estresse físico sobre os danos cardíacos induzidos pela I/R (DP: 21 ± 6,6 versus 63 ± 2, p < 0,01) (PDVE: 38 ± 4,5 versus 43 ± 2,6, p < 0,01) (tamanho do infarto: 35 ± 3,1 versus 22,16 ± 1,3, p < 0,01). Conclusão: Os achados indicam que o estresse físico agudo pode funcionar como um estimulador pré-condicional e, provavelmente, a presença do sistema nervoso simpático é necessária.

Animals , Male , Rats , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Heart/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Corticosterone/blood , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Circulation/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 130-135, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983830


Abstract Background: The Fontan-Kreutzer procedure (FK) was widely performed in the past, but in the long-term generated many complications resulting in univentricular circulation failure. The conversion to total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is one of the options for treatment. Objective: To evaluate the results of conversion from FK to TCPC. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records for patients who underwent the conversion of FK to TCPC in the period of 1985 to 2016. Significance p < 0,05. Results: Fontan-type operations were performed in 420 patients during this period: TCPC was performed in 320, lateral tunnel technique in 82, and FK in 18. Ten cases from the FK group were elected to conversion to TCPC. All patients submitted to Fontan Conversion were included in this study. In nine patients the indication was due to uncontrolled arrhythmia and in one, due to protein-losing enteropathy. Death was observed in the first two cases. The average intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) was 13 days, and the average hospital LOS was 37 days. A functional class by New York Heart Association (NYHA) improvement was observed in 80% of the patients in NYHA I or II. Fifty-seven percent of conversions due to arrhythmias had improvement of arrhythmias; four cases are cured. Conclusions: The conversion is a complex procedure and requires an experienced tertiary hospital to be performed. The conversion has improved the NYHA functional class despite an unsatisfactory resolution of the arrhythmia.

Resumo Fundamento: O procedimento de Fontan-Kreutzer (FK) foi amplamente realizado no passado, mas a longo prazo gerou muitas complicações, resultando em falha na circulação univentricular. A conversão para conexão cavopulmonar total (CCPT) é uma das opções de tratamento. Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados da conversão de FK para CCPT. Métodos: Revisão retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes submetidos à conversão de FK para CCPT no período de 1985 a 2016. Significância p < 0,05. Resultados: Operações do tipo Fontan foram realizadas em 420 pacientes durante este período: CCPT foi realizada em 320, técnica de túnel lateral em 82 e FK em 18. Dez casos do grupo FK foram eleitos para conversão em CCPT. Todos os pacientes submetidos à conversão de Fontan foram incluídos neste estudo. Em nove pacientes, a indicação deveu-se a arritmia não controlada e em um devido à enteropatia perdedora de proteínas. A morte foi observada nos dois primeiros casos. O tempo médio de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) foi de 13 dias e o tempo médio de internação hospitalar foi de 37 dias. Uma classe funcional pela melhora da New York Heart Association (NYHA) foi observada em 80% dos pacientes em NYHA I ou II. Cinquenta e sete por cento das conversões devido a arritmias tiveram melhora das arritmias; quatro casos foram curados. Conclusões: A conversão é um procedimento complexo e requer que um hospital terciário experiente seja realizado. A conversão melhorou a classe funcional da NYHA, apesar de uma resolução insatisfatória da arritmia.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Heart Bypass, Right/methods , Fontan Procedure/methods , Univentricular Heart/surgery , Heart Failure/surgery , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/surgery , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Heart Bypass, Right/mortality , Fontan Procedure/adverse effects , Fontan Procedure/mortality , Coronary Circulation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Univentricular Heart/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Length of Stay
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776644


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the immediate effect and safety of Shexiang Tongxin dropping pills (, STDP) on patients with coronary slow flow (CSF), and furthermore, to explore new evidence for the use of Chinese medicine in treating ischemic chest pain.@*METHODS@#Coronary angiography (CAG) with corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count (CTFC) was applied (collected at 30 frames/s). The treatment group included 22 CSF patients, while the control group included 22 individuals with normal coronary flow. CSF patients were given 4 STDP through sublingual administration, and CAG was performed 5 min after the medication. The immediate blood flow frame count, blood pressure, and heart rate of patients before and after the use of STDP were compared. The liver and kidney functions of patients were examined before and after treatments.@*RESULTS@#There was a significant difference in CTFC between groups (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The immediate effect of STDP in treating CSF patients was apparent. This medication could significantly improve coronary flow without affecting blood pressure or heart rate. Our findings support the potential of Chinese medicine to treat ischemic chest pain.

Blood Pressure , Coronary Circulation , Physiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Kidney , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , No-Reflow Phenomenon , Drug Therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776617


BACKGROUND@#Many patients with chronic angina experience anginal episodes despite successful recanalization, antianginal and antiischemic medications. Empirical observations suggested that Shenzhu Guanxin Recipe Granules (, SGR), a Chinese herbal compound, exerted potential impacts on increased treadmill exercise performance and angina relieve. However, there has been no systematic study to clarify the impact of SGR on exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina. The SERIES (ShEnzhu guanxin Recipe for Improving Exercise tolerance in patients with Stable angina) trial is designed to determine the effects of SGR on exercise duration, electrocardiographic (ECG) evidence of myocardial ischemia, and incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in stable anginal patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 184 eligible patients with stable angina will be randomly assigned to receive placebo or SGR (10 g/day for 12 weeks) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome will be the change from baseline in total exercise tolerance duration, time to onset of angina and ECG ischemia during exercise treadmill testing performed over a 12-week study period. The secondary outcome will include ECG measures, the occurrence and composite of MACE and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire score. Moreover, the coronary microcirculation will be evaluated to explore the possible effects in response to treatment of SGR. After the procedure, all participants will be followed up by interview at 3 and 6 months, enquiring about any cardiac events, hospitalizations, cardiac functional level and medication usage. Additionally, the occurrence of adverse events will be evaluated at each follow-up.@*DISCUSSION@#This study may provide novel evidence on the efficacy of SGR in improving exercise tolerance and potentially reducing clinical adverse events. (Trial registration No. ChiCTR-TRC-14004504).

Angina, Stable , Drug Therapy , Coronary Circulation , Double-Blind Method , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance , Physiology , Humans , Placebos , Sample Size
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(10): 916-921, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976779


SUMMARY The septomarginal trabecula is a muscular structure which transmits the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle. It is usually supplied by a branch from the second anterior septal artery. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries may happen on the septomarginal trabecula. They are of great significance in order to prevent ischemia during a myocardial infarction. Surgeries such as Konno's and Ross' procedures implies in knowledge of these vessels anatomy. The coronary arteries of 50 human hearts were injected with latex and subsequentely dissected with the purpose of identifying the arterial branch that supplied the septomarginal trabecula. The trabecular branch arose from the second anterior septal artery in 38% of cases, and the branch arose from the first anterior septal artery in 26%. One of the hearts had its septomarginal trabecula supplied by the conus arteriosus arteryliterature. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries were found inside the septomarginal trabecula. The right branch of the atrioventricular bundle is subject to a great number of clinical conditions and is often manipulated during surgery, thus, the study of the septal branches of the coronary arteries and the trabecular branch is essential.

RESUMO A trabécula septomarginal é uma estrutura muscular que transmite o ramo direito do feixe atrioventricular. É usualmente suprida por um ramo da segunda artéria septal anterior. Anastomoses entre as artérias coronárias direita e esquerda podem ocorrer na trabécula. São de grande significância especialmente na prevenção de isquemia durante um infarto do miocárdio. Procedimentos cirúrgicos como o de Konno's e Ross implicam conhecimento anatômico desses vasos. As artérias coronárias de 50 corações humanos foram injetadas com látex e dissecadas com o propósito de identificar o ramo arterial que supria a trabécula septomarginal. Em somente 38% dos casos o ramo foi proveniente da segunda artéria septal anterior, enquanto que em 26% dos casos a artéria se originou da primeira septal anterior. Um dos corações teve a trabécula septomarginal suprida por um ramo originário da artéria do cone arterioso. Além disso, foram encontradas anastomoses entre as artérias coronárias no interior da trabécula septomarginal. Em suma, o ramo direito do feixe atrioventricular está sujeito a inúmeras condições clínicas e é alvo de manuseio em cirurgias, logo, o estudo dos ramos septais das artérias coronárias, em especial o ramo trabecular é essencial.

Humans , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Ventricular Function , Contrast Media , Heart Conduction System , Heart Septum/anatomy & histology
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(2): 136-142, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954531


ABSTRACT Introduction: An arteriovenous (AV) access flow (Qa) of 400 mL/min is usually sufficient for an effective hemodialysis (HD), but some accesses continue developing and become high flow accesses (HFA). Some authors postulated that an HFA might shift a significant portion of dialyzed blood from the cardiac output, which could decrease HD efficiency and lead to volume overload. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate if HFA is associated with reduced HD efficiency and/or volume overload in prevalent HD patients. Methods: We performed a 1-year retrospective study and assessed HD efficiency by the percentage of sessions in which the Kt/V > 1.4 and volume overload by bioimpedance spectroscopy. Results: The study included 304 prevalent HD patients with a mean age of 67.5 years; 62.5% were males, 36.2% were diabetics, with a median HD vintage of 48 months. Sixteen percent of the patients had a HFA (defined as Qa > 2 L/min). In multivariate analysis, patients with HFA presented higher risk of volume overload (OR = 2.67, 95%CI = 1.06-6.71) and severe volume overload (OR = 4.06, 95%CI = 1.01-16.39) and attained dry weight less frequently (OR = 0.37, 95%CI = 0.14-0.94). However, HFA was not associated with lower Kt/V. Conclusion: Our results suggest that patients with HFA have higher risk of volume overload. However, contrarily to what has been postulated, HFA was not associated with less efficient dialysis, measured by Kt/V. Randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify these questions.

RESUMO Introdução: Um débito de sangue de acesso arteriovenoso (AV) (Qa) de 400 mL/min é geralmente suficiente para uma hemodiálise (HD) eficaz, mas alguns acessos continuam se desenvolvendo e se tornam acessos de alto débito (AAD). Alguns autores postularam que um AAD poderia desviar uma porção significativa do sangue dialisado do débito cardíaco, o que poderia diminuir a eficiência da HD e levar à sobrecarga de volume. Objetivo: O objetivo do nosso estudo foi avaliar se o AAD está associado à redução da eficiência da HD e/ou à sobrecarga de volume em pacientes prevalentes em HD. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de 1 ano, e avaliada a eficiência da HD pela porcentagem de sessões em que o Kt/V > 1,4 e a sobrecarga de volume avaliada pela bioimpedância. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 304 pacientes prevalentes em HD, com média de idade de 67,5 anos; 62,5% eram do sexo masculino; 36,2% eram diabéticos, com uma mediana de tempo em HD de 48 meses. Dezesseis por cento dos pacientes apresentavam AAD (definida como Qa > 2 L/min). Na análise multivariada, os pacientes com AAD apresentaram maior risco de sobrecarga de volume (OR = 2,67; IC95% = 1,06-6,71) e sobrecarga severa de volume (OR = 4,06; IC95% = 1,01-16,39) e atingiram o peso seco com menor frequência (OR = 0,37, IC 95% = 0,14-0,94). No entanto, o AAD não foi associado uma menor razão Kt/V. Conclusão: Nossos resultados sugerem que pacientes com AAD apresentam maior risco de sobrecarga de volume. No entanto, ao contrário do que foi postulado, o AAD não foi associado à diálise menos eficiente, medida pelo Kt/V. Ensaios clínicos randomizados são necessários para esclarecer essas questões.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/methods , Renal Dialysis/methods , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/adverse effects , Pulmonary Circulation , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Circulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691380


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effect of treatment with Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills (, QSYQ) on myocardial injury and myocardial microvascular function in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty patients undergoing elective PCI were randomly assigned to QSYQ and control groups. The QSYQ group received QSYQ at a dosage of 0.5 g 3 times daily (3-7 days before PCI and then daily for 1 month) and regular medication, which comprised of aspirin, clopidogrel, statin, β-blocker, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker in the absence of contradiction. The control group received only the regular medication. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured at maximal hyperemia after PCI. The fractional flow reserve was measured before and after the procedure. Troponin I levels were obtained at baseline and 20-24 h after the procedure.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pre-PCI troponin I levels between the two groups were similar (0.028±0.05 vs. 0.022±0.04 ng/mL, P=0.55). However, post- PCI troponin I levels in the QSYQ group were significantly lower than that in the control group (0.11±0.02 vs. 0.16±0.09 ng/mL, P<0.01). IMR values were significantly lower in the QSYQ group as compared to the control group (16.5±6.1 vs. 31.2±16.0, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis identified QSYQ treatment as the only independent protective factor against IMR >32 (odds ratio=0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.74, P=0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The present study demonstrated the benefit of QSYQ in reducing myocardial injury and preserving microvascular function during elective PCI.</p>

Aged , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Circulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Male , Microvessels , Diagnostic Imaging , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardium , Pathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pilot Projects , Troponin I , Blood
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 252-257, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713096


PURPOSE: Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is recognized as an indicator of myocardial perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in the present study, and divided into MACE and non-MACE groups according to the incidence of 12-month MACEs. Left ventricular function and CFR were analyzed using two-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial contrast echocardiography at one week after PCI. Cardiac troponin I levels were assayed to estimate peak concentrations thereof. RESULTS: The MACE group was associated with lower CFR, compared to the non-MACE group (2.41 vs. 2.77, p < 0.001). In the multivariable model, CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium was an independent predictor of 12-month MACE (hazard ratio: 0.093, 95% confidence interval: 0.020–0.426, p=0.002) after adjustment for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. CONCLUSION: CFR in the non-infarcted myocardium is a useful marker for predicting 12-month MACEs in patients with AMI undergoing primary PCI.

Aged , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Echocardiography , Female , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Proportional Hazards Models , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(5): 397-403, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887967


Abstract Background: Although a proportion of CSX patients have impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in response to hyperemia, suggesting that endothelial dysfunction in these patients may be systemic and not just confined to the coronary circulation; the underlying mechanisms triggering endothelial dysfunction in these patients are still incompletely understood. Objectives: To assess the association of the index of Microcirculatory Resistance (IMR) with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in patients with CSX. Methods: We studied 20 CSX patients and 20 age and gender-matched control subjects. Thermodilution-derived coronary flow reserve (CFR) and IMR were measured using a pressure-temperature sensor-tipped guidewire. Brachial artery FMD was measured using high-resolution, two-dimensional ultrasound images obtained with a Doppler ultrasound device (HDI-ATL 5000, USA) with a 5 MHz to 12 MHz linear-array transducer. Results: Compared with in control subjects, CFR was significantly lower (2.42 ± 0.78 vs. 3.59 ± 0.79, p < 0.001); IMR was higher (32.2 ± 8.0 vs. 19.5 ± 5.5, p < 0.001); the concentration of hs-CRP and FMD was higher (4.75 ± 1.62 vs. 2.75 ± 1.50; 5.24 ± 2.41 vs. 8.57 ± 2.46, p < 0.001) in CSX patients. The Duke treadmill score (DTS) was correlated positively to CFR and FMD (0.489 and 0.661, p < 0.001), it was negative to IMR and hsCRP (-0.761 and -0.087, p < 0.001) in CSX patients. Conclusions: The main finding in this study is that the DTS measured in patients with CSX was associated to hsCRP and FMD. Moreover, the independent effects of exercise tolerance can significantly impair FMD and hsCRP in CSX patients; especially it is particularly important to whom where FMD was associated negatively with IMR.

Resumo Fundamentos: Embora uma proporção de pacientes com SCX tenha dilatação mediada por fluxo da artéria braquial (DMF) prejudicada em resposta à hiperemia, sugerindo que a disfunção endotelial nestes pacientes pode ser sistémica e não limitar-se à circulação coronariana, os mecanismos subjacentes que desencadeiam a disfunção endotelial nestes pacientes ainda não são completamente compreendidos. Objetivos: Avaliar a associação do índice de resistência microcirculatória (IMR) com a disfunção endotelial e a inflamação em pacientes com SCX. Métodos: Estudaram-se 20 pacientes com SCX e 20 sujeitos de controle emparelhados em idade e género. A reserva de fluxo coronariano derivada da termodiluição (RFC) e a IMR forma medidas usando um fio guia com ponta de sensor de temperatura e pressão. A DMF da artéria braquial foi medida utilizando imagens ultrassónicas bidimensionais de alta resolução obtidas com um aparelho de ultrassom Doppler (HDI-ATL 5000, EE.UU.) com transdutor linear de 5 MHz a 12 MHz. Resultados: Em comparação com os sujeitos de controle, a RFC foi significativamente menor (2,42 ± 0,78 vs 3,59 ± 0,79, p < 0,001); o IMR foi maior (32,2 ± 8,0 frente a 19,5 ± 5,5, p < 0,001); a concentração de PCR-as e DMF foi maior (4,75 ± 1,62 frente a 2,75 ± 1,50, 5,24 ± 2,41 diante de 8,57 ± 2,46, p < 0,001) em pacientes com SCX. A escore de Duke (ED) se correlacionou positivamente com RFC e DMF (0,489 e 0,661, p < 0,001), foi negativa para IMR e PCR-as (-0,761 e -0,087, p < 0,001) em pacientes com SCX. Conclusões: O principal achado neste estudo é que o ED medido em pacientes com SCX esteve associado a PCR-as e DMF. Por outra parte, os efeitos independentes da tolerância ao exercício podem piorar significativamente a DMF e a PCR-as em pacientes com SCX especialmente, é particularmente importante que a DMF se associou negativamente com a RIM.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Microvascular Angina/physiopathology , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Microcirculation/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 925-930, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893075


This study described the anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main branches in Puma concolor. The hearts of six individuals of Puma concolor, were analyzed. The A. coronaria sinistra formed the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and the ramus circunflexus. A ramus septal was formed close to the origin of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and yielded from six to eight ventricular branches. The circumflex branch originated from two to five atrial branches and from three to seven ventricular branches. The right coronary artery formed two to six atrial branches, and four to nine ventricular branches. In half of the individuals, an accessory coronary artery was identified as the first branch of the right coronary artery. In all individuals, the subsinusal interventricular branch originated in the right coronary artery. It could be inferred that coronary circulation in Puma concolor is balanced, as each coronary artery yielded an interventricular branch and there was no significant difference in the total number of branches that originated from each coronary artery. These findings are different from the descriptions of most carnivore species, and may aid a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and synapomorphies of carnivore coronary circulation, especially in the Felidae family.

En este estudio se describió la anatomía de las arterias coronarias, y sus principales ramas, en el Puma concolor. Se analizaron los corazones de seis especímenes de Puma concolor. La arteria coronaria izquierda formó la rama interventricular paraconal y la rama circunfleja. Una rama septal se formó cerca del origen de la rama paraconal y otorgó de seis a ocho ramas ventriculares. La rama circunfleja originó de dos a cinco ramas atriales y de tres a siete ramas ventriculares. La arteria coronaria derecha originó de dos a seis ramas atriales y de cuatro a nueve ramas ventriculares. En la mitad de los especímenes, se identificó una arteria coronaria accesoria como la primera rama de la arteria coronaria derecha. En todos los individuos, la rama interventricular subsinusal se originó en la arteria coronaria derecha. Se podría inferir que la circulación coronaria en el Puma concolor es equilibrada, ya que cada arteria coronaria produce una rama interventricular y no hay diferencia significativa en el número total de ramas que se originan de cada arteria coronaria. Estos hallazgos son diferentes de las descripciones de la mayoría de las especies carnívoras y pueden ayudar a una mejor comprensión de las relaciones filogenéticas y de las sinapomorfias de la circulación de los carnívoros, especialmente en la familia Felidae.

Animals , Male , Female , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Puma/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(3): 171-176, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897903


Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether aortic tension estimated by palpation and cardioplegia infusion line pressure provide results equivalent to those obtained with direct aortic intraluminal pressure measurement. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgeries with extracorporeal circulation were analyzed. Sanguineous cardioplegic solution in a ratio of 4:1 was administered using a triple lumen antegrade cannula. After crossclamping, cardioplegia was infused and aortic root pressure was recorded by surgeon (A) considering the aortic tension he felt in his fingertips. At the same time, another surgeon (B) recorded his results for the same measurement. Concomitantly, the anesthesiologist recorded intraluminal pressure in the aortic root and the perfusionist recorded delta pressure in cardioplegia infusion line. None of the participants involved in these measurements was allowed to be informed about the values provided by the other examiners. Results: The Bland-Altman test showed that a considerable variation between aortic wall tension was found as measured by palpation and by intraluminal pressure, with a bias of -9.911±18.75% (95% limits of agreement: -46.7 to 26.9). No strong correlation was observed between intraluminal pressure and cardioplegia line pressure (Spearman's r=0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.7; P<0.0001). Conclusion: These findings reinforce that cardioplegia infusion should be controlled by measuring intraluminal pressure, and that palpation and cardioplegia line pressure are inaccurate methods, the latter should always be used to complement intraluminal measurement to ensure greater safety in handling the cardioplegia circuit.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aorta/physiology , Venous Pressure/physiology , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Aorta/surgery , Palpation , Reference Values , Time Factors , Cardioplegic Solutions , Body Mass Index , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(2): f:163-l:170, mar.-abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833934


Este trabalho faz uma revisão sobre o tema de tortuosidade coronariana abordando várias situações na prática clínica aonde a tortuosidade coronariana pode desempenhar um papel relevante e procura avaliar se há correlação entre tortuosidade coronariana e a presença de isquemia miocárdica em pacientes sem obstruções coronarianas fazendo uma busca na literatura das evidências científicas. Livro-texto de Fisiologia em Cardiologia com estudo da circulação coronariana, artigos teóricos com estudos de Hemodinâmica, Dinâmica de Fluidos e de Mecânica e artigos experimentais com simulação em computadores serviram de sustentação para a formulação da hipótese a ser verificada

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Age Factors , Aging , Echocardiography/methods , Heart , Hypertension/complications , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(2): 149-153, Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838698


Abstract Background: According to common belief, most myocardial infarctions (MIs) are due to the rupture of nonsevere, vulnerable plaques with < 70% obstruction. Data from recent trials challenge this belief, suggesting that the risk of coronary occlusion is, in fact, much higher after severe stenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not acute ST-elevation MIs result from high-grade stenoses by evaluating the presence of coronary collateral circulation (CCC). Methods: We retrospectively included 207 consecutive patients who had undergone primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-elevation MI. Collateral blood flow distal to the culprit lesion was assessed by two investigators using the Rentrop scoring system. Results: Out of the 207 patients included in the study, 153 (73.9%) had coronary collateral vessels (Rentrop 1-3). The Rentrop scores were 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 54 (26.1%), 50 (24.2%), 51 (24.6%), and 52 (25.1%) patients, respectively. Triglycerides, mean platelet volume (MPV), white cell (WBC) count, and neutrophil count were significantly lower in the group with good collateral vessels (p = 0.013, p = 0.002, p = 0.003, and p = 0.021, respectively). Conclusion: More than 70% of the patients with acute MI had CCC with Rentrop scores of 1-3 during primary coronary angiography. This shows that most cases of acute MI in our study originated from underlying high-grade stenoses, challenging the common believe. Higher serum triglycerides levels, greater MPV, and increased WBC and neutrophil counts were independently associated with impaired development of collateral vessels.

Resumo Fundamento: Há uma crença geral de que a maioria dos infartos agudos do miocárdio (IAM) ocorrem devido à ruptura de placas vulneráveis, não graves, com obstrução < 70%. Dados de ensaios recentes desafiam esta crença, sugerindo que o risco de oclusão coronariana é, na realidade, muito maior após estenose grave. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se a presença ou não de IAM com supradesnível do segmento ST resulta de estenoses de alto grau através da avaliação da presença de circulação colateral coronariana (CCC). Métodos: Nós incluímos retrospectivamente 207 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à intervenção coronariana percutânea primária devido à ocorrência de IAM com supradesnível do segmento ST. O fluxo sanguíneo colateral distal à lesão culpada foi avaliado por dois investigadores com utilização do sistema de escores de Rentrop. Resultados: Dos 207 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 153 (73,9%) apresentavam vasos coronarianos colaterais (Rentrop 1-3). Os escores Rentrop foram de 0, 1, 2 e 3 em 54 (26,1%), 50 (24,2%), 51 (24,6%) e 52 (25,1%) pacientes, respectivamente. Triglicérides, volume plaquetário médio (VPM), contagem de células brancas (CCB) e contagem de neutrófilos estiveram significativamente mais baixos no grupo com bons vasos colaterais (p = 0,013, p = 0,002, p = 0,003 e p = 0,021, respectivamente). Conclusão: Mais de 70% dos pacientes com IAM apresentaram CCC com escores de Rentrop de 1-3 durante angiografia coronariana primária. Isto demonstra que a maioria dos casos de IAM em nosso estudo originou a partir de estenoses subjacentes de alto grau, contrariamente à sabedoria comum. Níveis séricos mais elevados de triglicérides, maior VPM e elevação na CCB e na contagem de neutrófilos estiveram independentemente associados com comprometimento no desenvolvimento de vasos colaterais.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Collateral Circulation/physiology , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Coronary Stenosis/complications , Coronary Stenosis/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric