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1.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Total ceramide concentrations are linked with increased insulin resistance and cardiac dysfunction. However, recent studies have demonstrated that plasma concentrations of specific very-long-chain fatty ceramides (C24:0 and C22:0) are associated with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that specific genetic loci are associated with plasma C22:0 and C24:0 concentrations.METHODS: Heritability and genome-wide association studies of plasma C24:0 and C22:0 ceramide concentrations were performed among 2,217 participants in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factor covariates and cardiovascular drug treatment.RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted heritability for C22:0 and C24:0 ceramides was 0.42 (standard error [SE], 0.07; p=1.8E-9) and 0.25 (SE, 0.08; p=0.00025), respectively. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), all on chromosome 20, significantly associated with C22:0 concentrations; the closest gene to these variants was SPTLC3. The lead SNP (rs4814175) significantly associated with 3% lower plasma C22:0 concentrations (p=2.83E-11). Nine SNPs, all on chromosome 20 and close to SPTLC3, were significantly associated with C24:0 ceramide concentrations. All 9 were also significantly related to plasma C22:0 levels. The lead SNP (rs168622) was significantly associated with 10% lower plasma C24:0 ceramide concentrations (p=9.94E-09).CONCLUSION: SNPs near the SPTLC3 gene, which encodes serine palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3; part of the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis) were associated with plasma C22:0 and C24:0 ceramide concentrations. These results are biologically plausible and suggest that SPTLC3 may be a potential therapeutic target for C24:0 and C22:0 ceramide modulation.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Ceramides , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20 , Cohort Studies , Coronary Disease , Genetic Loci , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genomics , Heart , Incidence , Insulin Resistance , Mortality , Plasma , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Serine C-Palmitoyltransferase
2.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-812993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the expression of autophagy related genes 5 (ATG5) and cyclin E in coronary heart disease (CHD) and its clinical significance.@*METHODS@#From April 2018 to August 2018, 80 patients diagnosed with CHD in the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University were selected as an observation group, and another 80 healthy subjects were selected as a control group. The expression of ATG5 and cyclin E mRNA in nucleate cells and the plasma protein in the 2 groups were detected and analyzed. The model of macrophage-derived foam cells induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) was used to simulate atherosclerosis. The proliferation of macrophage- derived foam cells and the protein levels of ATG5 and cyclin E induced by ox-LDL at different concentrations were examined.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the levels of ATG5 mRNA and protein in the blood in the observation group were decreased, and the cyclin E mRNA and protein levels were increased, there were statistically difference (both <0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the area under curve (AUC) of ATG5 mRNA, cyclin E mRNA, ATG5 protein and cyclin E protein were 0.739, 0.780, 0.671 and 0.807, respectively. Pearson analysis showed that the ATG5 mRNA was negatively correlated with the cyclin E mRNA (=-0.734, <0.05),while the plasma ATG5 protein was negatively correlated with the plasma cyclin E protein (=-0.746, <0.05). Macrophage-derived foam cell model induced by ox-LDL showed that the proliferation of foam cells and the expression levels of cyclin E protein were increased in a concentration and time-dependent manner, and the expression levels of ATG5 protein were decreased in a concentration-dependent manner.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The levels of ATG5 mRNA and protein are lowly expressed while the levels of cyclin E mRNA and protein are highly expressed in the patients with CHD.The ATG5 protein levels are lowly expressed in ox-LDL-treated macrophage-derived foam cells while the cyclin E protein levels are highly expressed in ox-LDL-treated macrophage-derived foam cells. Based on these observations, we conclude that ATG5 inhibits the degradation of the cyclin E and promotes the proliferation of macrophages, involving in the occurrence and development of CHD.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein 5 , Coronary Disease , Cyclin E , Foam Cells , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL
3.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to distinguish lipid plaques using a CT quantitative pixel density histogram, based on the pathological diagnosis of lipid cores as the gold standard.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients awaiting heart transplantation due to end-stage coronary heart disease underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) spectroscopy prior to heart transplantation; coronary artery pathological analysis was performed for all patients. Lipid-core plaques were defined pathologically as manifesting a lipid core diameter > 200 µm, a circumference > 60 degrees, and a cap thickness < 450 µm. The percentage distributions of CT pixel attenuation ≤ 20, 30, 40, and 50 HU were calculated using quantitative histogram analysis.RESULTS: A total of 271 transverse sections were co-registered between CCTA and pathological analysis. Overall, 26 lipid cores and 16 fibrous plaques were identified by pathological analysis. There was no significant difference in median CT attenuation between the lipid and fibrous plaques (51 HU [interquartile range, 46–63] vs. 57 HU [interquartile range, 50–64], p = 0.659). The median percentage of CT pixel attenuation ≤ 30 HU accounted for 11% (5–17) of lipid-core plaques and 0% (0–2) of fibrous plaques (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the method for diagnosing lipid plaques by the average CT pixel attenuation ≤ 30 HU were 80.8% and 87.5%, respectively. The area under the receiver operator characteristics curve was 0.898 (95% confidence interval: 0.765–0.970; 3.0% was the best cut-off value). The diagnostic performance was significantly higher than those of the average pixel CT attenuation percentages ≤ 20, 40, and 50 HU and the mean CT attenuation (p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: In in vivo conditions, with the pathological lipid core as the gold standard, quantification of the percentage of average CT pixel attenuation ≤ 30 HU in the histogram can be useful for accurate identification of lipid plaques.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Coronary Disease , Coronary Vessels , Diagnosis , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrum Analysis
5.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 311-318, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1051220

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a sintomatologia climatérica em mulheres com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos: Participaram quarenta (40) mulheres, clientes do Ambulatório de Cardiologia do Hospital da Universidade Federal do Maranhão. Utilizou-se a Escala de Avaliação da Menopausa. Pesquisa aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade São Paulo sob o número 293.900. Resultados: Os sintomas mais frequentes relatados foram ansiedade, mal estar no coração, irritabilidade, problemas musculares e nas articulações. Os sintomas mais intensos foram os problemas musculares e nas articulações, ansiedade, mal estar no coração, esgotamento físico e mental. A média de escore dos sintomas psicológicos foi 23,8; nos sintomas somáticos foi 23,6 e nos sintomas urogenitais foi 9,2. Conclusão: Os sintomas climatéricos parecem ser confundidos com problemas inerentes à idade e percebidos com mais intensidade na presença de doenças, inclusive a doença arterial coronariana


Objective: to Analyze the climate symptoms in women with coronary artery disease. Methods: participated in 40 (40) women, Cardiology outpatient clinic of the Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão. It was menopause assessment scale. Research approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the school of nursing of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo under number 293.900. Results: The most frequent symptoms reported were anxiety, malaise in the heart, irritability, muscle and joint problems. The most intense symptoms were the muscle problems and joint pain, anxiety, malaise in the heart, physical and mental exhaustion. The average score of the psychological symptoms was 23.8; somatic symptoms was 23.6 and urogenital symptoms was 9.2. Conclusion: climate symptoms seem to be confused with inherent problems of age and perceived with more intensity in the presence of diseases, including coronary artery disease


Objetivo: analizar los síntomas de clima en mujeres con enfermedad arterial coronaria. Métodos: participaron en 40 (40) mujeres, clínica de consulta externa de Cardiología del Hospital de la Universidad Federal de Maranhão. Fue la escala de evaluación de la menopausia. Investigación aprobado por el Comité de ética de investigación de la escuela de enfermería de Ribeirão Preto, Universidad de São Paulo bajo número 293.900. Resultados: informaron de los síntomas más frecuentes fueron ansiedad, malestar en el corazón, irritabilidad, problemas musculares y la articulaciones. Los síntomas más intensos fueron los problemas musculares y dolor en las articulaciones, ansiedad, malestar en el corazón, agotamiento físico y mental. La puntuación media de los síntomas psicológicos fue 23,8; síntomas somáticos fue 23.6 y síntomas urogenitales 9.2. Conclusion: clima síntomas parecen ser confundidos con problemas inherentes de la edad y percibe con más intensidad en la presencia de enfermedades, incluyendo enfermedad arterial coronaria


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease , Climacteric , Coronary Disease , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Risk Factors , Women's Health , Symbolic Interactionism
6.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 460-465, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1053063

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência da nefropatia induzida por contraste em pacientes cardiopatas submetidos a procedimentos angiográficos de diagnóstico e/ou tratamento. Método: Estudo prospectivo, quantitativo, realizado no setor de hemodinâmica de um hospital de grande porte, situado na região norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A amostra foi constituída por 79 participantes através do cálculo de tamanho amostral. Resultados: A amostra foi formada por 52 (65,8%) homens e 27 (34,2%) mulheres. A idade média foi de 65,9 ± 9,52 anos. A incidência de nefropatia induzida por contraste foi de 30,38%, totalizando 24 pacientes. Conclusão: Foi evidenciada uma alta prevalência de nefropatia por contraste, apesar dos pacientes apresentarem poucos fatores de risco, o que ressalta a necessidade de medidas preventivas e redução do volume de contraste


Objective: To determine the prevalence of contrast-induced nephropathy in cardiac patients undergoing diagnostic and / or treatment angiographic procedures. Method: A prospective, quantitative study in the hemodynamics sector of a large hospital, located in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The sample consisted of 79 participants through the calculation of sample size. Results: The sample consisted of 52 (65.8%) men and 27 (34.2%) women. The mean age was 65.9 ± 9.52 years. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy was 30,38%, totaling 24 patients. Conclusion: A high prevalence of contrast nephropathy was evidenced, despite the fact that patients presented few risk factors, which highlights the need for preventive measures and reduction of contrast volume


Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la nefropatía inducida por contraste en pacientes cardiopatas sometidos a procedimientos angiográficos de diagnóstico y / o tratamiento. Método: Estudio prospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado en el sector de hemodinámica de un hospital de gran porte, situado en la región norte de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. La muestra fue constituida por 79 participantes a través del cálculo de tamaño muestral. Resultados: La muestra fue formada por 52 (65,8%) hombres y 27 (34,2%) mujeres. La edad media fue de 65,9 ± 9,52 años. La incidencia de nefropatía inducida por contraste fue del 30,38%, totalizando 24 pacientes. Conclusión: Se evidenció una alta prevalencia de nefropatía por contraste, a pesar de que los pacientes presentaban pocos factores de riesgo, lo que resalta la necesidad de medidas preventivas y reducción del volumen de contraste


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Angiography/adverse effects , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Coronary Disease/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Hemodynamics
7.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(4): 299-306, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1058276

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cirugía sin circulación extracorpórea (CEC) es una variante de la técnica convencional. Existe controversia sobre sus beneficios, seguridad y resultados a largo plazo. OBJETIVO: Describir resultados inmediatos y alejados (a 5 años) de cirugía sin CEC y compararlos a cirugía con CEC. MATERIALES y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo-analítico, con revisión de base de datos del equipo, protocolos quirúrgicos, fichas clínicas, seguimiento clínico y/o entrevista telefónica y en registro civil de pacientes operados entre enero de 2006 y diciembre de 2008. Total 658 cirugías coronarias aisladas, 466 (70,8%) con CEC y 192 (29,2%) sin CEC. Se realizó técnica de Propensity Score Matching para identificar grupos de pacientes similares y comparar resultados entre ambas técnicas. RECSULTADOS: Mortalidad operatoria en 1,0% en el grupo sin CEC y 2,1% en el grupo con CEC (p = 0,411). En seguimiento alejado: Supervivencia a 1, 3 y 5 años de 97,4%, 95,3% y 92,2% respectivamente sin CEC vs 97,9%, 96,3% y 92,7% respectivamente con CEC (p = 0,824). Mayor-Adverse-Cardiac-and-Cerebrovascular-Events (MACCE) 28 (17,3%) sin CEC vs 26 (16,0%) (p = 0,71). Infarto agudo al miocardio (IAM) 3 (1,9%) sin CEC vs 6 (3,7%) (p = 0,33), accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) 6 (3,7%) sin CEC vs 3 (1,9%) (p = 0,3) y reintervención 4 (2,5%) sin CEC vs 3 (1,9%) (p = 0,703). Recurrencia de angina 9 (5,6%) sin CEC vs 10 (6,2%) (p = 0,813). CONCLUSIONES: En nuestra serie de paciente ambas técnicas fueron comparables en resultados inmediatos y alejados.


INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) without extracorporeal circulation (off pump) is a technical alternative to conventional surgery. There is ongoing controversy about its benefits, safety and results. AIM: To describe immediate and late results of off pump CABG and compare it with conventional surgery. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Descriptive-analytic, study with review of surgical protocols, clinical charts, civil registry for survival and telephonic follow up of patient who underwent CABG in our center between January 2006 and December 2008. In total 658 isolated CABG cases, 466 (70.8%) on pump and 192 (29.2%) off pump. A Propensity Score Matching was used to match off pump CABG patients with those undergoing On Pump CABG. RESULTS: Mortality was 1.0% in off pump and 2.1% in on pump patients (p = 0.411). At follow up: 1.3 and 5 year survival was 97.4%, 95.3% and 92.2% respectively in off pump patients and 97.9%, 96.3% and 92.7% respectively in On Pump patients (p = 0.824). Mayor-adverse-Cardiac-and-Cerebrovascular-events (MACCE) in 28 (17.3%) off pump vs 26 (16.0%) (p = 0.71) on pump, myocardial infarction in 3 (1.9%) off pump vs 6 (3.7%) on pump (p = 0.33), stroke in 6 (3.7%) off pump vs 3 (1.9%) on pump (p = 0.3) and coronary reintervention in 4 (2.5%) off pump vs 3 (1.9%) on pump patients (p = 0.703). Recurrence of angina in 9 (5.6%) off pump vs 10 (6.2%). CONCLUSIONS: In our experience both techniques had similar results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Propensity Score , Survival Analysis , Interviews as Topic , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/mortality , Extracorporeal Circulation , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Myocardial Revascularization/mortality
8.
Arch. med ; 19(2): 352-362, 2019/07/30.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1023147

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir los conocimientos que refieren los familiares de sujetos con enfermedad cardiovascular, previo a la asistencia a un taller educativo. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo en 103 familiares de pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular, que participaron en talleres educativos relacionados con enfermedad coronaria entre marzo y agosto de 2013. Los talleres eran los siguientes: 1. La enfermedad coronaria; 2. Ejercicio en enfermedad cardiovascular; 3. Adherencia a medicamentos y 4. Factores psicosociales y enfermedad cardiovascular. Se compararon diferencias entre proporción de sujetos con conocimiento informal y formal en cada taller. Resultados:103 familiares participaron en los talleres (80% mujeres; edad promedio 49± 1.55años). El 39% refiere no tener ningún conocimiento respecto al tema a tratar. El 28% sí tiene conocimientos sobre el tema y la obtiene de fuentes informales como internet, diarios o revistas. Existió una proporción significativamente mayor de sujetos con conocimiento informal sobre ejercicio y adherencia a medicamentos. Conclusiones: estos resultados muestran que: hay poco conocimiento formal de enfermedad cardiovascular y del manejo de sus factores de riesgo, y alto nivel de apoyo del sexo femenino. La necesidad de educar, reforzar y aclarar el conocimiento para mejorar la adherencia al tratamiento y la prevención de nuevos eventos cardiovasculares, es un trabajo importante de enfermería, que debe desarrollarse prestando especial atención al entorno familiar del paciente..(AU)


Objective: to describe the knowledge referred by relatives of subjects with cardiovascular disease prior to attending an educational workshop. Materials and methods:descriptive study in 103 relatives of patients with cardiovascular disease, who participated in educational workshops related to coronary disease between March and August 2013. The workshops were the following: 1. Coronary disease; 2. Exercise in cardiovascular disease; 3. Adherence to medications and 4. Psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease. Differences were compared between proportion of subjects with informal and formal knowledge in each workshop. Results: 103 relatives participated in the workshop (80% women, average age 49 ± 1.55 years). 39% report having no knowledge about the subject to be treated. 28% do have knowledge about the subject and get it from informal sources such as the internet, newspapers or magazines. There was a significantly higher proportion of subjects with informal knowledge about exercise and medication adherence. Conclusions: these results show that: there is little formal knowledge of cardiovascular disease and the management of its risk factors, and high level of support of the female sex. The need to educate, reinforce and clarify knowledge to improve adherence to treatment and the prevention of new cardiovascular events, is an important work of nursing, which should be developed paying special attention to the patient's family environment..(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Family , Knowledge , Coronary Disease
9.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 20190000. 72 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1026652

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As doenças cardiovasculares são uma das principais causas de mortalidade no mundo. A forma aguda desta situação é denominada Síndrome Coronariana Aguda (SCA) que pode ser classificada como: angina instável e infarto agudo do miocárdio. Após o diagnóstico médico definido como SCA, o paciente necessita de internação em uma Unidade Coronariana. Neste ambiente é oferecida uma assistência guiada por protocolos clínicos e diretrizes de forma a contribuir na sua recuperação, minimizar o risco de complicações e prevenir os danos. Entre os protocolos que envolvem esse cuidado destaca-se o banho, que pode ser classificado como no leito ou de aspersão. Para a tomada de decisão do do enfermeiro quanto a indicação ao banho do paciente coronariopata são necessárias informações clinicas, e da hemodinâmica atual do paciente. Pontua-se como problema "A ausência de sistematização para tomada de decisão quanto a escolha banho do paciente coronariopata em uma Unidade Coronariana". Objetivo: Elaborar um algoritmo no formato de aplicativo móvel para auxiliar a tomada de decisão do enfermeiro quanto ao banho do paciente coronariopata em uma Unidade Coronariana. Método: Trata-se de estudo exploratório, metodológico e abordagem quantitativa para a elaboração de um algoritmo no formato de aplicativo móvel. O estudo foi realizado em duas etapas: 1ªetapa: elaborou-se um intrumento a partir de uma revisão de literatura abordando as temáticas reabilitação cardíaca e banho. Este instrumento foi submetido a validação de seus critérios por enfermeiros. A abordagem dos dados, foi realizada por estatística descritriva como cálculo do Coeficiente de Alfa de Cronbach. 2ªetapa: Elaboração do algoritmo baseado nos achados do instrumento aplicado, em formato de aplicativo móvel para auxiliar na tomada de decisão quanto ao banho do paciente coronariopata na UTI. Resultados: Avaliaram o instrumento um total de 29 enfermeiros, em um período de 03 meses. Dentre estes 26 (89%) eram do sexo feminino, com idade na faixa de 23 à 58 anos e todos os enfermeiros possuíam algum tipo de pós-graduação em seu currículo. Foram 22 critérios submetidos à validação por 29 especialistas, totalizando 638 avaliações. Dentre estes, 63% (401) foi classificada como Concordância. O valor encontrado para o coeficiente α foi de aproximadamente 0,9536. Foram 19 itens validados, através do coeficiente α, e 19 itens sugeridos e utilizados pelos especialistas. Após categorização, foram selecionados 19 itens, organizados em formato de algoritmo, com respostas dicotômicas (sim ou não) o que sugere a cada final de fluxo o tipo do banho (não banho, banho no leito ou banho de aspersão) indicado ao paciente, devido suas condições clínicas. Conclusão: O aplicativo móvel, produto desta pesquisa, foi elaborado por um colaborador que o utilizou a interface de desenvolvimento Android Studio® com a linguagem Java® a partir do algoritmo estruturado baseado nos achados do julgamento prévio dos especialistas para auxiliar na tomada de decisão quanto ao banho do paciente em uma Unidade Coronariana, para sua disponibilização para download, sugere-se a validação através de um estudo piloto, para garantir a segurança ao paciente


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. The acute form of this condition is called Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), which can be classified as unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction. After the medical diagnosis defined as SCA, the patient needs hospitalization in a Coronary Unit. In this environment, it is offered assistance guided by clinical protocols and guidelines in order to contribute to its recovery, to minimize the risk of complications and to prevent damages. Among the protocols that involve this care is the bath, which can be classified as bedding or spraying. The clinician's clinical information and the patient's current hemodynamics are necessary for the decision-making of the nurse regarding the indication to the coronary patient's bath. The problem "The absence of systematization for decision making regarding the choice of bath of the coronariopata patient in a Coronary Unit" is a problem. Objective: To elaborate an algorithm in the format of a mobile application to aid the decision making of the nurse regarding the bath of the coronariopata patient in a Coronary Unit. Method: This is an exploratory, methodological and quantitative approach to the elaboration of an algorithm in the mobile application format. The study was carried out in two stages: 1st stage: an instrument was elaborated from a literature review addressing the themes of cardiac and bath rehabilitation. This instrument was submitted to validation of its criteria by nurses. The data approach was carried out by a statistic described as the calculation of Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient. 2nd stage: Elaboration of the algorithm based on the findings of the applied instrument, in a mobile application format to aid in decision making regarding the coronary patient's ICU bath. Results: A total of 29 nurses were evaluated in a period of 03 months. Of these, 26 (89%) were female, ranging in age from 23 to 58 years old and all nurses had some type of postgraduate degree in their curriculum. There were 22 criteria submitted to validation by 29 specialists, totaling 638 evaluations. Of these, 63% (401) was classified as Concordance. The value found for the coefficient α was approximately 0.9536. There were 19 items validated through the α coefficient and 19 items suggested and used by the specialists. After categorization, we selected 19 items, organized in an algorithm format, with dichotomic responses (yes or no), which suggests to each end of the flow the type of bath (not bath, bath in the bed or bath of sprinkling) due to its clinical conditions. Conclusion: The mobile application, the product of this research, was developed by a developer who used the Android Studio® development interface with the Java® language from a structured algorithm based on the findings of the expert's prior judgment to assist in decision making to the patient's bath in a Coronary Unit, for its availability for download, validation is suggested through a pilot study, to guarantee patient safety


Subject(s)
Humans , Baths/methods , Coronary Disease/nursing , Critical Care Nursing , Mobile Applications
10.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 36(1): 127-134, ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002566

ABSTRACT

Resumen La muerte súbita cardiaca se define como la muerte que ocurre dentro de una hora después de inicio de síntomas en los casos presenciados y en los no presenciados dentro de las últimas 24 horas de haberse visto con vida. Su incidencia anual en el mundo ronda entre 4-5 millones de casos. Aproximadamente un 90-95% de las víctimas de muerte súbita cardíaca sufren una cardiopatía estructural. Siendo la cardiopatía isquémica la causa principal en mayores de 35 años y las afectaciones congénitas y hereditarias en adultos jóvenes entre 18-35 años. La etiología de la muerte súbita cardíaca se puede clasificar en coronariopatías, miocardiopatías, cardiopatías congénitas, enfermedades eléctricas hereditarias y cardiopatías adquiridas. Siendo la aterosclerosis y la miocardiopatía dilatada las más prevalentes y de las cardiopatías congénitas la que tiene mayor mortalidad por muerte súbita cardíaca es la coartación de aorta. Múltiples mecanismos pueden derivar en muerte súbita cardíaca como fibrilación ventricular, taquicardia ventricular polimorfa y actividad eléctrica sin pulso. Sin embargo, en la actualidad la muerte súbita cardíaca continúa siendo un reto en la salud pública, tanto el diagnóstico como el tratamiento oportuno. Mediante la prevención de factores de riesgo modificables y con el control adecuado de los no modificables, así como la optimización de la terapéutica, se podrá reducir la incidencia de muerte súbita cardíaca.


Abstract Sudden cardiac death is defined as death that occurs within one hour after the onset of symptoms in the presence and not witnessed cases within the last 24 hours of having seen life. Its annual incidence in the world is between 4-5 million cases. Approximately 90-95% of victims of sudden cardiac death suffered from structural heart disease. Ischemic heart disease is the main cause in people older than 35 years and the congenital and hereditary affectations in young adults between 18-35 years. The etiology of sudden cardiac death can be classified as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, hereditary diseases and acquired heart disease. Being atherosclerosis and dilated cardiomyopathy the most frequent and congenital cardiopathies, the one with the highest mortality due to sudden cardiac death is the coarctation of the aorta. Multiple mechanisms can lead to sudden cardiac death such as ventricular fibrillation, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and pulseless electrical activity. However, at the right time. Through the prevention of modifiable risk factors and with the adequate control of the non-modifiable ones, as well as the optimization of therapeutics, the incidence of sudden cardiac death can be reduced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Coronary Disease , Channelopathies , Heart Defects, Congenital , Heart Diseases , Cardiomyopathies
11.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 23: e-1167, jan.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1005381

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: estudo qualitativo com o objetivo de descrever o impacto da descoberta da doença coronariana no cotidiano das mulheres climatéricas. Método: utilizou- -se, para interpretação dos dados, a análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Resultados e discussão: foram identificadas quatro categorias: "o conhecimento da doença coronariana"; "mudança na alimentação"; "mudanças no trabalho"; "a insegurança e o medo da morte". As mulheres manifestam certo desconhecimento em definir a doença coronariana. Compreendem que é grave e impõe riscos, porém sentem dificuldades em defini-la ou explicá-la. Reconhecem a importância do tratamento preconizado, seguindo as recomendações terapêuticas como a mudança de hábitos de vida, a utilização da terapia medicamentosa e dos tratamentos invasivos, como a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio e a angioplastia. Conclusão: as principais mudanças no cotidiano das mulheres estão relacionadas à alimentação e às atividades laborais e domésticas. A perda da autonomia imposta pela doença ocasiona dependência e inutilidade. A insegurança e o medo também estão presentes associados a significações simbólicas acerca do inesperado e da morte. As mudanças cotidianas após a descoberta da doença coronariana causam impacto físico, emocional e social a essas mulheres, bastante prejudicial à sua saúde na recorrência de eventos coronarianos ou para uma condição mais grave e incapacitante da doença coronariana.(AU)


Objective: this is a qualitative study aimed at describing the impact of the discovery of the coronary disease in the daily life of climacteric women. Method: Bardin content analysis was used for data interpretation. Results and discussion: four categories were identified: "knowledge of the coronary disease"; "Change in food"; "Changes in work"; "Insecurity and fear of death". The women showed a lack of knowledge in defining the coronary disease. They understand that it is a serious and risky disease, but they find it difficult to define or explain it. They recognize the importance of the recommended treatment, following the therapeutic recommendations as to the change of habits of life, the use of the drug therapy and the invasive treatments, as the surgery of revascularization of the myocardium and the angioplasty. Conclusion: the main changes in the daily life of women are related to food and work and domestic activities. The loss of autonomy imposed by the disease causes dependence and uselessness. Insecurity and fear are also present associated with symbolic meanings of unexpected and death. The daily changes after the discovery of the coronary disease cause physical, emotional and social impact to these women, quite harmful to their health in the recurrence of coronary events or to a more serious and incapacitating condition of the coronary disease.(AU)


Objetivo: estudio cualitativo con miras a describir el impacto del descubrimiento de la enfermedad coronaria en el cotidiano de las mujeres en edad de climaterio. Método: la interpretación de datos se realizó según el análisis de Bardin. Resultados y discusión: se identificaron cuatro categorías: "conocimiento de la enfermedad coronaria"; " cambios en la alimentación"; "cambios en el trabajo"; " la inseguridad y el miedo a la muerte". Las mujeres manisfestaron desconocimiento para definir la enfermedad coronaria. Entienden que es grave y trae riesgos pero les resulta dificil definirla o explicarla. Reconocen la importancia del tratamiento, que sigue recomendaciones terapéuticas tales como el cambio de costumbres de vida, la terapia medicamentosa y los tratamientos invasivos, como la cirugía de revascularización del miocardio y la angioplastia. Conclusión: los principales cambios en el cotidiano de las mujeres están relacionados con la alimentación y las actividades laborales y domésticas. La pérdida de autonomía impuesta por la enfermedad causa dependencia e inutilidad. La inseguridad y el miedo también están presentes asociados a significados simbólicos sobre lo inesperado y la muerte. Los cambios cotidianos después del descubrimiento de la enfermedad coronaria causan impacto físico, emocional y social, bastante perjudicial a la salud en la recurrencia de eventos coronarios o para una condición más grave e incapacitante de la enfermedad coronaria.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Climacteric , Women's Health , Impacts on Health , Coronary Disease , Health Promotion
12.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 23: e-1202, jan.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1051454

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: descrever o nível de conhecimento do paciente em tratamento de síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA). MÉTODO: estudo transversal com aplicação do Maugerl Cardiac Prevention-Questionnaire aos pacientes com SCA submetidos ao cateterismo cardíaco (CATE) após alta da unidade coronariana de cuidados intensivos. RESULTADOS: amostra composta de 50 pacientes, 76% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 58 anos (±10.2), sendo que 72% apresentaram como principal fator de risco a hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Os pacientes apresentaram, de modo geral, bom índice de desempenho no questionário, apesar do baixo nível de escolaridade. A pontuação média no questionário foi proporcional à renda familiar (p=0,002) e ao nível de escolaridade (p=0,007). CONCLUSÃO: a utilização do instrumento O Micro-Q permitiu constatar que a escolaridade e o nível socioeconômico influenciam no entendimento do paciente sobre a própria doença. O instrumento foi uma ferramenta útil para a avaliação do nível de conhecimento do paciente acometido pela SCA, pois a adequada caracterização do perfil dos pacientes atendidos em cada instituição torna-se uma ferramenta facilitadora para planejamentos assistenciais e programas de vigilância em saúde.(AU)


Objectives: describing the level of knowledge of patients undergoing treatment for Acute Coronary Syndrome (SCA). Method: cross-sectional study applying the Maugerl Cardiac Prevention-Questionnaire to SCA patients who underwent cardiac catheterization (CATE) after being discharged from the coronary intensive care unit. Results: the sample was made up of 50 patients, 76% of whom were males, with a mean age of 58 years old ((±10.2). The main risk factor for most of them was the systemic arterial hypertension. Patients presented, in general, a good performance in the questionnaire, despite their low educational level. The mean score in the questionnaire was proportional to family income (p=0.002) and to educational level (p=0.007). Conclusion: using the MICRO-Q instrument allowed this work to observe that educational level and socioeconomic level influence the understanding of the patient with regards to their own disease. The instrument was a useful tool to evaluate the level of knowledge of the patient affected by the SCA, since the adequate characterization of the profile of the patients cared for in each institution becomes a tool that makes it easier to plan assistance and health surveillance programs.(AU)


Objetivo: describir el nivel de conocimiento del paciente en tratamiento del síndrome coronario agudo (SCA). Método: estudio transversal con la aplicación del Cuestionario de Prevención Cardíaca Maugerl a pacientes con SCA sometidos a cateterismo cardíaco (CATE) después del alta de la unidad de cuidados intensivos coronarios. Resultados: muestra compuesta de 50 pacientes, 76% varones, edad media de 58 años (±10.2), 72% de ellos con hipertensión arterial como principal factor de riesgo. En general, los pacientes lograron un buen desempaño en el cuestionario, a pesar del bajo nivel de educación. El puntaje promedio en el cuestionario fue proporcional al ingreso familiar (p=0,002) y al nivel de educación (p=0,007). Conclusión: el uso del instrumento Micro-Q mostró que la educación y el nivel socioeconómico influyen en la comprensión del paciente de la enfermedad en sí. El instrumento fue una herramienta útil para evaluar el nivel de conocimiento de los pacientes afectados por SCA ya que la caracterización adecuada del perfil de los pacientes tratados en cada institución se convierte en una herramienta facilitadora para la planificación de la atención y los programas de vigilancia de ln salud.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Education , Risk Factors , Coronary Disease , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Hypertension , Socioeconomic Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases
13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1066-1111, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-759405

ABSTRACT

Though clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are an effective and widely used treatment method worldwide, they are as yet not widely accepted in Korea. Given that cardiovascular (CV) disease is the second leading cause of death in Korea, it is urgent that CR programs be developed. In 2008, the Government of Korea implemented CR programs at 11 university hospitals as part of its Regional Cardio-Cerebrovascular Center Project, and 3 additional medical facilities will be added in 2019. In addition, owing to the promotion of CR nationwide and the introduction of CR insurance benefits, 40 medical institutions nationwide have begun CR programs even as a growing number of medical institutions are preparing to offer CR. The purpose of this research was to develop evidence-based CPGs to support CR implementation in Korea. This study is based on an analysis of CPGs elsewhere in the world, an extensive literature search, a systematic analysis of multiple randomized control trials, and a CPG management, development, and assessment committee comprised of thirty-three authors—primarily rehabilitation specialists, cardiologists, and thoracic surgeons in 21 university hospitals and 2 general hospitals. Twelve consultants, primarily rehabilitation, sports medicine, and preventive medicine specialists, CPG experts, nurses, physical therapists, clinical nutritionists, and library and information experts participated in the research and development of these CPGs. After the draft guidelines were developed, 3 rounds of public hearings were held with staff members from relevant academic societies and stakeholders, after which the guidelines were further reviewed and modified. CR involves a more cost-effective use of healthcare resources relative to that of general treatments, and the exercise component of CR lowers CV mortality and readmission rates, regardless of the type of coronary heart disease and type and setting of CR. Individualized CR programs should be considered together with various factors, including differences in heart function and lifestyle, and doing so will boost participation and adherence with the CR program, ultimately meeting the final goals of the program, namely reducing the recurrence of myocardial infarction and mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Cause of Death , Consultants , Coronary Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Heart , Hospitals, General , Hospitals, University , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Korea , Life Style , Methods , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Nutritionists , Physical Therapists , Preventive Medicine , Recurrence , Rehabilitation , Secondary Prevention , Specialization , Sports Medicine , Surgeons
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-763923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of 21 different national dyslipidemia screening strategies according to total cholesterol (TC) cutoff and screening interval among 40 years or more for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease over a lifetime in Korea, from a societal perspective. METHODS: A decision tree was used to estimate disease detection with the 21 different screening strategies, while a Markov model was used to model disease progression until death, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a Korea societal perspective. RESULTS: The results showed that the strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 4-year interval cost ₩4,625,446 for 16.65105 QALYs per person and strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 3-year interval cost ₩4,691,771 for 16.65164 QALYs compared with ₩3,061,371 for 16.59877 QALYs for strategy with no screening. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 4-year interval versus strategy with no screening was ₩29,916,271/QALY. At a Korea willingness-to-pay threshold of ₩30,500,000/QALY, strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 4-year interval is cost-effective compared with strategy with no screening. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were robust to reasonable variations in model parameters. CONCLUSION: In this study, revised national dyslipidemia screening strategy with TC 200 mg/dL and 4-year interval could be a cost-effective option. A better understanding of the Korean dyslipidemia population may be necessary to aid in future efforts to improve dyslipidemia diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Coronary Disease , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Decision Trees , Diagnosis , Disease Progression , Dyslipidemias , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Primary Prevention , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Though clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are an effective and widely used treatment method worldwide, they are as yet not widely accepted in Korea. Given that cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of death in Korea, it is urgent that CR programs be developed. In 2008, the Government of Korea implemented CR programs at 11 university hospitals as part of its Regional Cardio-Cerebrovascular Center Project, and three additional medical facilities will be added in 2019. In addition, owing to the promotion of CR nationwide and the introduction of CR insurance benefits, 40 medical institutions nationwide have begun CR programs even as a growing number of medical institutions are preparing to offer CR. The purpose of this research was to develop evidence-based CPGs to support CR implementation in Korea. METHODS: This study is based on an analysis of CPGs elsewhere in the world, an extensive literature search, a systematic analysis of multiple randomized control trials, and a CPG management, development, and assessment committee comprised of 33 authors—primarily rehabilitation specialists, cardiologists, and thoracic surgeons in 21 university hospitals and two general hospitals. Twelve consultants, primarily rehabilitation, sports medicine, and preventive medicine specialists, CPG experts, nurses, physical therapists, clinical nutritionists, and library and information experts participated in the research and development of these CPGs. After the draft guidelines were developed, three rounds of public hearings were held with staff members from relevant academic societies and stakeholders, after which the guidelines were further reviewed and modified. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: CR involves a more cost-effective use of healthcare resources relative to that of general treatments, and the exercise component of CR lowers cardiovascular mortality and readmission rates, regardless of the type of coronary heart disease and type and setting of CR. Individualized CR programs should be considered together with various factors, including differences in heart function and lifestyle, and doing so will boost participation and adherence with the CR program, ultimately meeting the final goals of the program, namely reducing the recurrence of myocardial infarction and mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Consultants , Coronary Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Heart , Hospitals, General , Hospitals, University , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Korea , Life Style , Methods , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Nutritionists , Physical Therapists , Preventive Medicine , Recurrence , Rehabilitation , Secondary Prevention , Specialization , Sports Medicine , Surgeons
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-777120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the prognostic value of serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) thus explore a potential biomarker of "toxin syndrome" in CHD.@*METHODS@#In this prospective nested case-control study, 36 of 1,503 Chinese patients with stable CHD experienced at least 1 recurrent cardiovascular event (RCE) during 1-year follow-up. Serum levels of ADMA at the start of follow-up were compared between these 36 cases and 36 controls which matched to cases in terms of gender, age, history of hypertension, and myocardial infarction.@*RESULTS@#Based on the crude model, subjects in the 2 highest ADMA quartiles showed significantly higher risk of developing RCE than those in the lowest ADMA quartile [odds ratio (OR) 4.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 16.58; OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.57 to 29.07]. This association was also observed in the case-mix model (OR 5.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 24.61; OR 7.83, 95% CI 1.68 to 36.41) and multivariable model (OR 6.64, 95% CI 1.40 to 31.49: OR 13.14, 95% CI 2.28 to 75.71) after adjusting for confounders. The multivariable model which combined ADMA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) showed better predictive power with areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (0.779) than the model of either ADMA (0.694) or hsCRP (0.636).@*CONCLUSION@#Serum ADMA level may be a potential biomarker of "toxin syndrome" in CHD which shows favorable prognostic value in predicting 1-year RCE in patients with stable CHD. [The registration number is ChiCTR-PRNRC-07000012].


Subject(s)
Arginine , Blood , Biomarkers , Blood , Coronary Disease , Blood , Humans , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Syndrome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-776891

ABSTRACT

This study developed a population pharmacokinetic model for sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) in healthy volunteers and coronary heart disease (CHD) patients in order to identify significant covariates for the pharmacokinetics of STS. Blood samples were obtained by intense sampling approach from 10 healthy volunteers and sparse sampling from 25 CHD patients, and a population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. The final model was evaluated by bootstrap and visual predictive check. A total of 230 plasma concentrations were included, 137 from healthy volunteers and 93 from CHD patients. It was a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. The typical value of the apparent clearance (CL) of STS in CHD patients with total bilirubin (TBIL) level of 10 μmol(L was 48.7 L(h with inter individual variability of 27.4%, whereas that in healthy volunteers with the same TBIL level was 63.1 L(h. Residual variability was described by a proportional error model and estimated at 5.2%. The CL of STS in CHD patients was lower than that in healthy volunteers and decreased when TBIL levels increased. The bootstrap and visual predictive check confirmed the stability and validity of the final model. These results suggested that STS dosage adjustment might be considered based on TBIL levels in CHD patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bilirubin , Blood , Coronary Disease , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Phenanthrenes , Blood , Pharmacokinetics
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-776056

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the associations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)with the prevalence,severity,and prognosis of coronary heart disease(CHD). Methods A total of 512 hospitalized patients undergoing coronary angiography in our department from June 2013 to June 2015 were enrolled.Fatty liver was judged by ultrasound screening,and Gensini score was calculated according to the result of coronary angiography.Then the independent predictors of CHD were analyzed.The association between NAFLD and cardiovascular endpoints was analyzed during prospective follow-up among 276 CHD patients. Results The CHD prevalence was 76.8% in NAFLD group and 50.7% in non-NAFLD group(P=0.000),the number of target vessels was 2(1,3)and 1(1,3)(P=0.019),and the Gensini score was(29.02±27.62)and(24.04±20.18)(P=0.022),respectively.NAFLD was an independent predictor of CHD(OR=2.28,95%CI=1.54-3.56,P0.1).Cox regression analysis showed that NAFLD was not a predictor of cardiovascular endpoints in patients with CHD(HR=0.95,95%CI=0.62-1.58,P=0.691).Conclusion NAFLD is an independent predictor of CHD,and it is related to severity of coronary artery stenosis.However,it can not predict the clinical outcomes of patients with CHD.


Subject(s)
Coronary Angiography , Coronary Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-776010

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the risks of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with primary biliary cholangitis(PBC). Methods We carried out a Meta analysis by RevMan 5.3 software to investigate literatureon the risk of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with PBC and controls. Results Compared with non-PBC controls,PBC patients had significantly higher risk of coronary events(=1.56,=0.0002);however,the risk of cerebrovascular events showed no significant difference between these two groups(=1.01,=0.94).Subgroup analysis demonstrated a significantly lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis in PBC patients(=0.63,=0.03);however,there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke(=1.11,=0.40). Conclusion Patients with PBC have an increased risk of coronary events but may have a lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis.


Subject(s)
Carotid Stenosis , Cholangitis , Coronary Disease , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Risk Factors , Stroke
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-761858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are an effective and widely used treatment method worldwide, they are as yet not widely accepted in Korea. Given that cardiovascular disease is the second leading cause of death in Korea, it is urgent that CR programs be developed. In 2008, the Government of Korea implemented CR programs at 11 university hospitals as part of its Regional Cardio-Cerebrovascular Center Project, and 3 additional medical facilities will be added in 2019. In addition, owing to the promotion of CR nationwide and the introduction of CR insurance benefits, 40 medical institutions nationwide have begun CR programs even as a growing number of medical institutions are preparing to offer CR. The purpose of this research was to develop evidence-based CPGs to support CR implementation in Korea. METHODS: This study is based on an analysis of CPGs elsewhere in the world, an extensive literature search, a systematic analysis of multiple randomized control trials, and a CPG management, development, and assessment committee comprised of 33 authors—primarily rehabilitation specialists, cardiologists, and thoracic surgeons in 21 university hospitals and 2 general hospitals. Twelve consultants, primarily rehabilitation, sports medicine, and preventive medicine specialists, CPG experts, nurses, physical therapists, clinical nutritionists, and library and information experts participated in the research and development of these CPGs. After the draft guidelines were developed, 3 rounds of public hearings were held with staff members from relevant academic societies and stakeholders, after which the guidelines were further reviewed and modified. RESULTS: CR involves a more cost-effective use of healthcare resources relative to that of general treatments, and the exercise component of CR lowers cardiovascular mortality and readmission rates, regardless of the type of coronary heart disease and type and setting of CR. CONCLUSION: Individualized CR programs should be considered together with various factors, including differences in heart function and lifestyle, and doing so will boost participation and adherence with the CR program, ultimately meeting the final goals of the program, namely reducing the recurrence of myocardial infarction and mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Consultants , Coronary Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Heart , Hospitals, General , Hospitals, University , Humans , Insurance Benefits , Korea , Life Style , Methods , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Nutritionists , Physical Therapists , Preventive Medicine , Recurrence , Rehabilitation , Secondary Prevention , Specialization , Sports Medicine , Surgeons
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