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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e602, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radical penectomy (RP) is infrequently performed as it is reserved for specific cases of penile cancer, hence the paucity of reports regarding surgical and anesthetic considerations. Acute postoperative pain, chronic post-surgical pain, concomitant mood disorders as well as a profound impact on the patient's quality of life have been documented. This case is of a patient with diabetes and coronary heart disease, who presented with advanced, over infected penile cancer, depressive disorder and a history of pain of neuropathic characteristics. The patient underwent radical penectomy using a combined spinal-epidural technique for anesthesia. Preoperatively, the patient was treated with pregabalin and magnesium sulphate, and later received a blood transfusion due to intraoperative blood loss. Adequate intra and postoperative analgesia was achieved with L-bupivacaine given through a peridural catheter during one week. Recovery was good, pain was stabilized to preoperative levels and the patient received pharmacological support and follow-up by psychiatry and the pain team.


Resumen La penectomía radical (PR) es una cirugía infrecuente, reservada para casos específicos de cáncer de pene, por lo que hay escasos informes sobre sus consideraciones quirúrgicas y anestésicas. Se ha documentado dolor agudo postoperatorio, dolor crónico posquirúrgico y alteraciones del estado de ánimo concomitantes, así como un profundo impacto en la calidad de vida posterior del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un paciente diabético y cardiópata coronario con cáncer de pene avanzado y sobreinfectado, trastorno depresivo y dolor previo de características neuropáticas, que recibe técnica combinada espinal-peridural para cirugía de penectomía radical. Se le trata también con pregabalina preoperatoria, sulfato de magnesio y transfusión por sangrado quirúrgico. Se otorgó una adecuada analgesia intra y postoperatoria, mediante catéter peridural con L-bupivacaína hasta por una semana. El paciente tuvo una buena recuperación, estabilización del dolor a niveles preoperatorios, controles y apoyo farmacológico por psiquiatría de enlace y equipo del dolor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Penile Neoplasms , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Catheters , Anesthetics , Pain, Postoperative , Psychiatry , Quality of Life , Blood Transfusion , Bupivacaine , Coronary Disease , Depressive Disorder , Pain Management , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Magnesium Sulfate
2.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(3): 263-268, mayo-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341294

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del programa de rehabilitación cardiaca en la calidad de vida, la clase funcional y la tolerancia al ejercicio de pacientes con enfermedad coronaria en un centro médico de la ciudad de Medellín. Método: Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, comparativo antes y después, del cambio en la calidad de vida, la clase funcional y la tolerancia al ejercicio de pacientes con enfermedad coronaria sometidos a rehabilitación cardiaca. Resultados: Completaron 12 sesiones de rehabilitación 41 pacientes, de los que 28 eran hombres (68.3%), con una edad promedio de 61.59 ± 9.5 años. La frecuencia cardiaca máxima lograda tuvo una reducción estadísticamente significativa (p < 0.0001). Tanto la clase funcional como la capacidad funcional no presentaron cambios significativos con el programa de rehabilitación; el peso y el índice de masa corporal tampoco se modificaron. Posterior al programa de rehabilitación se observó una mejoría significativa en los dominios de función física, dolor, salud general, vitalidad y salud mental. Conclusiones: Luego del programa de rehabilitación se observaron mejorías en la calidad de vida de los participantes, en los dominios físicos, de dolor, salud general, vitalidad y salud mental.


Abstract Objective: To assess the effect of a cardiac rehabilitation program on the quality of life, functional status and exercise tolerance of patients with coronary heart disease in a medical center in the city of Medellín. Method: A descriptive, longitudinal study comparing the change in quality of life, functional status and exercise tolerance of patients with coronary heart disease undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Results: Twelve rehabilitation sessions were completed by 41 patients, 28 were men (68.3%). The mean age was 61.59 ± 9.5 years. The maximum heart rate had a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.0001). Both functional status and functional capacity did not show a significant change with the rehabilitation program, weight and body mass index were neither modified. Significant improvement was observed in the domains of physical function, pain, general health, vitality and mental health after the rehabilitation program. Conclusions: The rehabilitation program improved quality of life, physical and pain domains, vitality and mental health of participants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Coronary Disease
3.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(2): 185-188, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341282

ABSTRACT

Resumen El infarto de miocardio con arterias coronarias no obstruidas (MINOCA, por sus siglas en inglés) ha ganado importancia en los últimos 20 años gracias a la dilucidación de etiologías fisiopatológicas diferentes de las causas obstructivas del flujo coronario. Diversos estudios han evidenciado una prevalencia variable, la cual es más alta en las mujeres. Se han descrito dos grupos de alteraciones en la reactividad coronaria que afectan el flujo: las causas epicárdicas y las causas microvasculares. El diagnóstico de MINOCA es de exclusión; por lo tanto, inicialmente se deben descartar otras posibles causas de isquemia, como miocarditis, miocardiopatía séptica, choque hipovolémico por trauma o quemaduras, y enfermedades renales o pulmonares. Los reportes y estudios de esta enfermedad suelen incluir pacientes adultos o mayores de 18 años. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 16 años con antecedente de tetralogía de Fallot corregida en etapa de lactante menor y reemplazo valvular pulmonar con bioprótesis y ampliación del tronco pulmonar a los 11 años, quien ingresó con dolor torácico de características coronarias. Cursó con un diagnóstico de MINOCA por exclusión en una institución de cuarto nivel en Cali, Colombia. El diagnóstico de MINOCA en edad pediátrica es raro; sin embargo, es importante saber acerca de su existencia para brindar a los pacientes el mejor manejo disponible, de manera que se aseguren los mejores desenlaces a largo plazo.


Abstract Myocardial infarction with non-obstructed coronary arteries (MINOCA) has gained importance in the last 20 years, due to the elucidation of physiopathological etiologies different from the obstructive causes of coronary flow. Different studies have shown variable prevalence, being higher in women. Different causes have been evidenced in the studies found in two groups of alterations in coronary reactivity: epicardial causes and microvascular causes. The diagnosis of MINOCA must be a diagnosis of exclusion. Therefore, other possible causes of ischemia, such as myocarditis, septic cardiomyopathy, hypovolemic shock due to trauma or burns, renal or pulmonary diseases, should be ruled out initially. The reports and studies done around this pathology usually include adult patients and people older than 18 years. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient with a history of Tetralogy of Fallot corrected as an infant and pulmonary valve replacement with bioprothesis and enlargement of the pulmonary trunk at 11 years of age who was admitted with chest pain of coronary characteristics. The diagnosis after multiples studies and exclusion of other causes was MINOCA in a fourth level institution in Cali, Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Myocardial Infarction , Pediatrics , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Vessels
4.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(2): 153-159, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341277

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y de procedimiento asociadas a complicaciones en pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad coronaria severa, sometidos a revascularización quirúrgica. Métodos: Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo en pacientes mayores de 18 años con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus y enfermedad coronaria multivaso, sometidos a revascularización quirúrgica, en el que se evaluaron las características individuales, clínicas y de procedimiento asociadas a complicaciones posquirúrgicas. Se realizó un análisis bivariado y multivariado mediante regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Los factores asociados a complicaciones fueron edad, índice de masa corporal, fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo, clase funcional de la Asociación del Corazón de Nueva York (NYHA, su sigla en inglés por New York Heart Association) preintervención y antecedente de consumo de alcohol y tabaco; de estos, la edad es la variable que persiste con significancia estadística tras el modelo de regresión logística binaria. Conclusión: La incidencia de complicaciones posoperatorias en pacientes diabéticos sometidos a revascularización quirúrgica es comparable con la observada en estudios previos, y el factor asociado encontrado para este grupo de pacientes es la edad. El modelo podría explicar el 23 % del desarrollo de complicaciones en la cohorte estudiada.


Abstract Objective: To determine the sociodemographic, clinical and procedural characteristics associated with complications in diabetic patients with severe coronary disease treated by coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: A retrospective cohort study in patients over 18 years old with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and multivessel coronary disease, undergoing surgical revascularization, where individual, clinical and procedural characteristics associated with surgical complications were evaluated. A bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed using binary logistic regression. Results: The factors associated with complications that were found were: age, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, pre intervention New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, alcohol and tobacco history. Of these, age was the only variable that persists with statistical significance after the logistic regression model. Conclusion: The incidence of postoperative complications in diabetic patients undergoing surgical revascularization is comparable to that observed in previous studies. The associated factor found for this group of patients is the age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus , Postoperative Complications , Risk Factors , Coronary Disease , Myocardial Revascularization
5.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(1): 90-97, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341266

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad coronaria es la principal causa de mortalidad en el mundo. Su tratamiento se asocia con una mejor calidad de vida, la cual puede medirse con el cuestionario de MacNew. Objetivo: Establecer los factores determinantes de calidad de vida en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria. Materiales y métodos: Estudio analítico de corte transversal, en el que se usó el cuestionario de MacNew para valorar la calidad de vida en tres dominios: social, emocional y físico. Se incluyeron 249 pacientes con enfermedad coronaria diagnosticada en los años 2004, 2009 o 2013. Los resultados se estratificaron por el tipo de tratamiento (médico, implantación de stent o cirugía de revascularización miocárdica). Se usó un modelo de regresión beta, como una alternativa al modelo de regresión lineal. Resultados: Los puntajes más bajos se asociaron con hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia y aumento del índice de masa corporal. En el dominio físico el puntaje disminuyó en los pacientes mayores de 60 años. El alto grado de escolaridad se asoció con mayores puntajes en todos los dominios. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con enfermedad coronaria presentaron menor calidad de vida asociada a hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia, aumento del índice de masa corporal o mayor edad y mejor calidad de vida asociada con mayor nivel de escolaridad y afiliación al sistema de salud, indiferente a la intervención terapéutica.


Abstract Introduction: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Its treatment is associated with a better quality of life; it can be measured with the MacNew questionnaire. This study aims to establish the determin. Objective: To stablish the determinants of quality of life in coronary heart disease patients, in Cali, Colombia. Materials and methods: Analytical cross-sectional study, in which the MacNew questionnaire was applied to assess life quality in three domains: social, emotional and physical. 249 patients with coronary heart disease diagnosed in 2004, 2009 or 2013 were included. The results were stratified by type of treatment (doctor, stent implantation or myocardial revascularization surgery). Beta regression model was used, as an alternative to the linear regression model. Results: The MacNew lower scores were associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and increased body mass index. In the physical domain, the life quality score decreased in patients older than 60 years. High levels of education were associated with higher quality of life scores in all domains. Conclusions: Coronary heart disease patients presented lower quality of life associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, increased body mass index or older age and better quality of life associated with higher level of education and affiliation to the health system, regardless of the therapeutic intervention received.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Disease , Quality of Life , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Revascularization
6.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(1): 67-73, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341262

ABSTRACT

Resumen El ácido acetilsalicílico (Aspirina) es un inhibidor irreversible de la acetil ciclooxigenasa (COX) y su actividad no es restaurada hasta la formación de nuevas plaquetas. Sus efectos benéficos terapéuticos cardiovasculares lo han convertido en la piedra angular del tratamiento del paciente con enfermedad arterial coronaria. Existe una población de pacientes con indicación absoluta para su uso; sin embargo, la presencia o antecedente de hipersensibilidad a esta molécula conlleva un alto riesgo de complicaciones no relacionadas con enfermedad cardiovascular. En algunos de estos pacientes es crucial conocer e implementar protocolos de desensibilización para el ácido acetilsalicílico y, de esta manera, continuar con el uso de esta estrategia terapéutica necesaria e idónea en esta población.


Abstract Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) is an irreversible inhibitor of acetyl cyclooxygenase (COX) and its activity is not restored until new platelets are formed. Its beneficial therapeutic cardiovascular effects have made it the cornerstone of the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. There is a population of patients with absolute indication for its use, however, the presence or history of hypersensitivity to this molecule leads to a high risk of complications unrelated to their cardiovascular disease. It is vital to know and implement in some of these patients, desensitization protocols for acetyl salicylic acid and in this way to continue the use of this therapeutic strategy necessary and appropriate in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aspirin , Guideline , Coronary Disease , Protocols , Intensive Care Units , Myocardial Infarction
7.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 27-33, Ene-Jun 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147875

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una investigación descriptiva transversal retrospectiva con el fin de determinar el perfil clínico y epidemiológico de la enfermedad de Kawasaki (EK) en 95 niños egresados del Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga durante el período 2014-2017. El promedio de edad de los pacientes se ubicó en 3,9 ± 3,3 años, siendo 69,5% del sexo masculino. El tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad fue menor de 10 días en el 68,4% de los casos. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes fueron fiebre (100%), edema y/o descamación de palmas y plantas (85,3%), alteración de la mucosa oral (65,3%), inyección conjuntival (59%) y eritema polimorfo (55,8%). El tratamiento recibido consistió en aspirina (100%) e inmunoglobulina (96,8%). La respuesta al tratamiento fue satisfactoria en el 95,8% de los pacientes. Los hallazgos de laboratorio evidenciaron una PCR elevada (51,6%) y trombocitosis (97,9%) con hemoglobina normal en 62,1% de los casos. 41% de los pacientes presentaron ecocardiograma anormal y 97,9% presentaron ultrasonido abdominal normal. El diagnóstico de ingreso de la EK fue incompleto en 53,7% de los pacientes y el diagnóstico de egreso de la EK fue completo en 51,6%. Los resultados de este estudio brindan datos epidemiológicos recientes sobre la enfermedad de Kawasaki en nuestra institución prestadora de salud(AU)


A descriptive cross-sectional retrospective investigation was carried out to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of Kawasaki disease (KD) in 95 children discharged from the Pediatric Hospital Dr. Agustín Zubillaga during the period 2014-2017. Mean age of children was 3.9 ± 3.3 years and 69.5% were male. Time of symptom onset was less than ten days in 68.4% patients. Predominant clinical manifestations were fever (100%), edema and/or desquamation of palms and soles (85.3%), alteration of the oral mucosa (65.3%), conjunctival injection (59%) and polymorphic erythema (55.8%). Treatment received included aspirin (100%) and immunoglobulin (96.8%). Response to treatment was satisfactory in 95.8% of cases. Laboratory findings showed elevated CRP (51.6%), thrombocytosis (97.9%) and normal hemoglobin in 62.1% patients. 41% had an abnormal echocardiogram and 97.9% showed a normal abdominal ultrasound. The diagnosis of CHD admission was incomplete in 53.7% of cases and the diagnosis of EK was complete in 51.6%. Results of this study show recent epidemiological data about Kawasaki disease in our healthcare institution(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronary Disease/etiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Signs and Symptoms , Vasculitis , Edema , Fever
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879098

ABSTRACT

This research was to evaluate the economics of Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional therapy for patients with coronary heart disease(CHD) in Chinese medical environment. From the perspective of medical insurance, a Markov model was established in this study based on the results of Meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness and safety of Shexiang Tongxin Dripping Pills combined with conventional treatment and conventional treatment alone. The experimental group was treated with She-xiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine treatment, while the control group was treated with conventional Western medicine treatment alone. The cost-utility analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed for the two regimens using Treeage pro. After 30 cycles of model simulation, according to the results of Markov model, the total cost and health output were CNY 237 795.73 and 16.36 QALYs(the quality adjusted life years, QALYs), respectively for Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine treatment, CNY 247 396.55 and 16.36 QALYs respectively for the conventional Western medicine treatment alone. Compared with the conventional treatment alone, the Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional treatment had lower long-term cost and higher health output, with advantages of cost-utility and pharmacoeconomic advantages. The sensitivity analysis results showed that the conclusion was relatively stable. Based on the above results, it is considered that compared with the conventional Western medicine alone, Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pill combined with conventional Western medicine is a treatment regimen with pharmacoeconomic advantages for the treatment of CHD.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Female , Humans
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879087

ABSTRACT

With the process of urbanization and population aging in China, the burden of cardiovascular disease and the incidence of coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women have greatly increased. Studies have found that the incidence of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women is closely related to the level of estrogen, but there are still difficulties of low efficiency and large side effects in current therapies. Kidney deficiency has a strong correlation with reproductive development and overall function. The clinical manifestations and characteristics of postmenopausal coronary heart disease patients conform to the pathogenesis of kidney deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. The kidney-invigorating method has a good efficacy in treating postmenopausal coronary heart disease patients. This paper summarizes clinical and pharmacological evidences, expounds the relationship between kidney deficiency and the level of estrogen, and the pathological mechanism of the kidney-tonifying method in the treatment of coronary heart disease, and defines the clinical efficacy and advantages of the kidney-tonifying method. The method may become an effective method to prevent and treat postmenopausal coronary heart disease, and is expected to benefit patients with coronary heart disease better.


Subject(s)
China , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Kidney , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878934

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Danhong Injection combined with conventional therapy in improving diabetes mellitus complicated with coronary heart disease. Based on the online literature database(CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochran Library), the Chinese and English papers about the randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Danhong Injection in the treatment of diabetes mellitus complicated with coronary heart disease were searched comprehensively from the establishment of the databases to January 1, 2020. The papers were screened strictly according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Based on Jadad scale, the risk assessment of literature was carried out, and Meta-analysis was performed by STATA 12.0 software. Seventeen RCTs were included, involving 1 453 patients. The results of Meta-analysis showed that the combination of Danhong Injection and conventio-nal treatment could improve the clinical comprehensive effective rate(RR=1.47, 95%CI[1.38, 1.58], P<0.000 1), electrocardiogram(ECG) efficiency(RR=1.30, 95%CI[1.16, 1.46], P<0.000 1), efficiency of the angina pectoris(RR=1.41, 95%CI[1.25, 1.58], P<0.000 1), cholesterol level(SMD=-1.05, 95%CI[-1.95,-0.16], P=0.02), low-density lipoprotein(LDL) level(SMD=-0.50, 95%CI[-0.79,-0.21], P<0.000 1), coronary angina attack frequency(SMD=-3.71, 95%CI[-4.05,-3.36], P<0.000 1) and duration of angina pectoris(SMD=-2.96, 95%CI[-3.25,-2.66], P<0.000 1), with statistically significant differences. But the differences in fasting plasma glucose(FPG)(SMD=-0.19, 95%CI[-0.45, 0.08], P=0.16), plasma glucose of two hours after meal(2 hPG)(SMD=0.19, 95%CI[-0.11, 0.49], P=0.22), and high-density lipoprotein(HDL) level(SMD=0.10, 95%CI[-0.30, 0.49], P=0.62) after treatment were not statistically significant. Compared with the control group, there was no significant difference in adverse reactions(SMD=-2.96, 95%CI[-3.25,-2.66], P=0.75). The existing evidence shows that the combination of Western medicine and Danhong Injection can improve the clinical effect for diabetes mellitus complicated with coronary heart disease and has no obvious adverse reactions. However, due to the low level of overall literature evidence, high risk and some kind of publication bias, it still needs more high-quality randomized controlled trials and low-bias studies for further verification.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878336

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Evidence is lacking regarding the combined effects of smoking and obesity on mortality from coronary heart disease in male veterans. This study aimed to explore the combined effect of smoking and obesity on coronary heart disease mortality in male veterans in China.@*Methods@#A cohort of 1,268 male veterans from 22 veteran centers in Xi'an (Shaanxi Province, China) were followed up once every 2 years from February 1, 1987 to October 30, 2016. The endpoint was death from any cause. The hazard ratio ( @*Results@#The total follow-up was 24394.21 person-years; each subject was followed up for a mean duration of 19.24 years. By the end of the study, of the 1,268 veterans, 889 had died, 363 were alive, and 16 were lost to follow-up. Cox regression analysis results revealed that current smoking ( @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that obese veterans who smoke might be an important target population for coronary heart disease mortality control.


Subject(s)
Aged , China/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Smoking , Veterans/statistics & numerical data
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated with angina pectoris of coronary heart disease between the combined therapy of acupuncture and western medication and the simple administration of western medication.@*METHODS@#A total of 134 patients with T2DM and angina pectoris of coronary heart disease were randomly divided into two groups, i.e. an acupuncture plus medication group (67 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a medication group (67 cases, 4 cases dropped off). The routine western medication was used according to symptoms in the patients of both groups. In the acupuncture plus medication group, on the base of medication, acupuncture was applied to Jianshi (PC 5), Quchi (LI 11), Neiguan (PC 6), etc. The needles were retained for 20 min in each treatment and 3 treatments of acupuncture were required weekly. The treatment was given consecutively for 8 weeks in the two groups. Separately, before and after treatment, the symptom scores of TCM were observed and the indexes were detected, including glycolipid metabolism [fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), glucosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TC)], islet β cell function [homeostasis model assessment-β (HOMA-β), homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), fasting insulin (FINS) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI)], cardiac function indexes [cardiac output (CO), early diastolic peak velocity/late diastolic peak velocity (E/A), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)], as well as electrocardiogram QT dispersion (QTd). Besides, the clinical therapeutic effects were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the TCM symptom scores and the values of FPG, 2hPG, HbA1c, TG, TC, HOMA-IR, FINS, E/A and LVEDD as well as QTd were all lower than those before treatment in the two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#The combined therapy of acupuncture and medication is effective in treatment of T2DM complicated with angina pectoris of coronary heart disease. Such therapy effectively improves glucolipid metabolism, islet β cell function, cardiac function and myocardial blood supply. Its curative effect is better than the simple administration of western medicine.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Angina Pectoris/etiology , Blood Glucose , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879194

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety associated with Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional therapy for patients with coronary heart disease(CHD). We searched 8 electronic databases up to November 2020, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and SinoMed. Eligible studies were clinical trials of Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional therapy used in the treatment of coronary heart disease(CHD). The Meta-analysis was performed using STATA 15 software. A total of 21 RCTs(n=2 186) were shortlisted for the Meta-analysis. The results of efficacy evaluation showed that the total effective rate of Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional therapy was higher than that of conventional therapy of coronary heart disease(RR=1.20, 95%CI[1.15, 1.26], Z=8.63, P<0.001). Furthermore, Shexiang Tongxin Dripping Pills combined with conventional therapy had better effect on electrocardiogram efficacy(RR=1.24, 95%CI[1.16, 1.34], Z=5.98, P<0.001) and the number of angina attacks(SMD=-2.30, 95%CI[-3.47,-1.14], Z=3.88, P<0.001), the duration of angina attack(SMD=-2.31, 95%CI[-3.07,-1.55], Z=5.97, P<0.001), with lower levels of LDL-C(SMD=-0.73, 95%CI[-1.32,-0.14], Z=2.42, P=0.016), TC(SMD=-1.16, 95%CI[-1.35,-0.96], Z=11.56, P<0.001) and TG(SMD=-0.87, 95%CI[-1.06,-0.68], Z=8.97, P<0.001), and higher levels of HDL-C(SMD=0.87, 95%CI[0.02, 1.71], Z=2.00, P=0.045). The results of safety evaluation showed that the incidence of adverse reactions of Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional therapy was lower than that of conventional therapy of coronary heart disease(RR=0.45, 95%CI[0.22, 0.91], Z=2.23, P=0.026). There were significant differences in the above outcome indexes between the two groups. After the Harbord method test, the total effective rate outcome index has publication bias, but the sensitivity analysis of the cut-and-fill method suggested that the result was stable. In general, limited by the quantity and quality of included literature, more high-quality studies are needed to further verify the conclusions of this study.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Electrocardiography , Humans
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879193

ABSTRACT

To systemically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills in treating angina pectoris and co-ronary heart disease. CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases were retrieved on computer, and the randomized clinical trial(RCT) on Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills in treating angina pectoris and coronary heart disease, which were published from the database establishment to December 31, 2019, were comprehensively collected. Literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation were conducted independently by two researchers according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Literature methodology quality evaluation was conducted with use of the Cochrane Handbook 5.3.0(bias risk assessment tool). Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3.0 software. A total of 10 RCTs were included. The results of the Meta-analysis showed that as compared with conventional Western medicine alone, the application of Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine treatment further improved the total effective rate and electrocardiogram effect(RR=1.43,95%CI[1.20,1.71],P<0.000 1). There were statistically significant differences in the number of angina attacks, the duration of angina and the amount of nitroglycerin used. In terms of safety indicators, four studies reported adverse reactions in the experimental group, including facial flu-shing, tachycardia, dizziness, dyspnea, nausea and other symptoms. Based on the existing findings, in the treatment of angina pectoris and coronary heart disease, Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine can improve the clinical total effective rate, electrocardiogram effect, number of angina attacks, duration of angina and the amount of nitroglycerin used. However, in the included studies, due to some methodological quality problems which would impact the reliability of literature results more high-quality randomized controlled trials are still needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Esters , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Ketones/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879192

ABSTRACT

The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in China has become a major public health problem, and the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease is in urgent need. For the reality of integrated Chinese and Western medicine in the Chinese health care system, we can consider the service ability of traditional Chinese medicine. Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablet is a kind of Chinese patent medicine commonly used in the treatment of recovery stage of ischemic stroke and angina pectoris of coronary heart disease. Based on the data of hospitalized patients covered by national urban basic medical insurance of China Medical Insurance Research Association in 2013, this study evaluated the treatment cost and detailed composition of the cost for the patients with cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease treated by Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets. At the same time, the differences in disease burden and direct medical expenses among Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group, Western medicine group and another commonly used Chinese patent medicine group were analyzed. Among the three groups of patients with cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease, the hospitalization rates caused by various causes(44.4% and 29.6%) and diseases(20.8% and 5.2%) in Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group were the lowest(all P<0.01), and the number of hospitalization times in half a year was highest in the common Chinese patent medicine group(all P<0.01). In patients with cerebral infarction, the median annual total outpatient expenses were 7 476.8, 7 601.8, 15 650.1 yuan respectively in Western medicine group, Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group and the common Chinese patent medicine group(P<0.01), and the median hospitalization expenses were 11 620.2, 14 988.9, 13 325.6 yuan respectively(P=0.058). In patients with coronary heart disease, the total outpatient expenses of the three groups were 6 831.4, 10 228.6, 13 132.4 yuan respectively(P<0.01), and the total hospitalization expenses were 13 354.7, 14 911.5, 15 725.3 yuan respectively(P=0.134). The results showed that in patients with cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease, the hospitalization rate was lowest in Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group, beneficial to the turnover of hospital beds and full use of hospital medical resources. The total annual outpatient cost of Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablets group was lower than that of common Chinese patent medicine group, beneficial to reduce the burden of disease.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , China , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Cost of Illness , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Tablets
16.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e674, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La frecuencia de infarto agudo de miocardio sin elevación del segmento ST se está incrementando y, con ella, los resultados adversos en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria isquémica aguda. Objetivo: Identificar las variables electrocardiográficas asociadas a la aparición de eventos cardiovasculares adversos en el infarto agudo de miocardio sin elevación del segmento ST. Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal, de tipo correlacional, con 68 pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio sin elevación del segmento ST atendidos en el Hospital Arnaldo Milián Castro, en la provincia de Villa Clara. Se estudiaron los hallazgos electrocardiográficos y eventos cardiacos adversos durante el ingreso. Se hicieron análisis bivariados para establecer la relación de ambas variables, utilizando el estadígrafo chi cuadrado y el riesgo relativo. Resultados: Los hallazgos electrocardiográficos más frecuentes fueron la inversión de la onda T (#8805; 2mm), depresión del segmento ST y el QT corregido largo mediante la fórmula de Bazzet. El 26,5 por ciento presentaron eventos cardiovasculares adversos. La depresión del segmento ST, el QT largo corregido y la elevación del segmento ST en aVR se asociaron significativamente con eventos adversos intrahospitalarios (p lt; 0,05). Conclusiones: La asociación de la depresión del segmento ST, la elevación del segmento ST en aVR y el QT largo corregido con la ocurrencia de eventos cardiovasculares adversos intrahospitalarios, sugiere que estos hallazgos se pueden tener en cuenta como posibles indicadores de evolución desfavorable en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio sin elevación del segmento ST(AU)


Introduction: The frequency of non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction is on the increase, and so is the number of adverse results in patients with acute ischemic coronary disease. Objective: Identify the electrocardiographic variables associated to the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events in non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. Method: A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted of 68 patients with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction cared for at Arnaldo Milián Castro Hospital in the province of Villa Clara. Attention was paid to electrocardiographic findings and adverse cardiac events occurring during the hospital stay. Bivariate analyses were performed to establish the relationship between the two variables, using the chi square statigram and relative risk estimation. Results: The most common electrocardiographic findings were T-wave inversion (#8805; 2 mm), ST depression and long corrected QT by Bazzet's formula. Of the total study subjects 26.5 percent had adverse cardiovascular events. ST depression, long corrected QT and ST elevation in aVR were significantly associated to in-hospital adverse events (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Association of ST depression, ST elevation in aVR and long corrected QT with the occurrence of adverse in-hospital cardiovascular events suggests that these findings may be taken into account as possible indicators of an unfavorable evolution in patients with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Disease/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(6): 621-629, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289282

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Analizar y sintetizar la evidencia sobre el efecto del consumo habitual de café en la aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular. Métodos Se realizó una evaluación crítica de la literatura basada en metaanálisis y revisiones sistemáticas publicadas en Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y LILACS (enero 1966 a junio 2018). La búsqueda, selección y extracción de información fue llevada a cabo por una pareja de investigadores. La calidad de los manuscritos fue evaluada con AMSTAR. Resultados Se analizaron cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que consideraron como desenlaces enfermedad coronaria, riesgo cardiovascular e infarto del miocardio; para el primer y segundo desenlace se encontró una reducción del riesgo con consumo de 3-4 tazas/día (RR=0,90; IC95% 0,84-0,9; p de heterogeneidad=0,02 y RR=0,85; IC95% 0,80-0,90; p de heterogeneidad=0,09); para 1-2 tazas/día (RR=0,89; IC95% 0,85-0,94; p de heterogeneidad=0,83 y RR=0,89; IC95% 0,84-0,94; p de heterogeneidad=0,09) respectivamente. Para infarto agudo de miocardio se reportó un aumento del riesgo en hombres con consumo de 3-4 tazas/día (OR=1,75; IC95% 1,44-2,14; p de heterogeneidad=0,005) y de ≥ 4 tazas/día (OR=2,01; IC95% 1,7-2,36; p de heterogeneidad<0,001). Conclusiones Los consumos leves y moderados de café tienen un efecto neutro o de reducción del riesgo cardiovascular y de enfermedad coronaria; en contraste, el riesgo de infarto agudo de miocardio se incrementa con consumos mayores o iguales a 3 tazas/día en hombres. Se recomienda el consumo de hasta 3 tazas de café día y se desaconsejan consumos mayores, especialmente en hombres.


Abstract Objective To analyse and summarise the evidence on the effect of regular coffee drinking on the appearance of cardiovascular disease. Methods A critical review of the literature was carried out based on a meta-analysis and systematic reviews published in MedLine, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and LILACS (January 1966 to June 2018). The search, selection, and extraction of the information were performed by two investigators. The quality of the manuscripts was evaluated using AMSTAR. Results An analysis was made of 4 systematic reviews that considered coronary disease, cardiovascular risk, and myocardial infarction as outcomes. For the first and second outcomes, a reduction in risk was found with consuming 3-4 cups/day (RR=0.90; 95%CI; 0.84-0.9; P=.02, and RR=0.85; IC95% CI; 0.80-0.90; P=.09); for 1-2 cups/day (RR=0.89; 95%CI; 0.85-0.94; P=.83, and RR=0.89; 95%CI; 0.84-0.94; P=.09), respectively. As regards myocardial infarction, an increase in risk was reported with consuming 3-4 cups/day (OR=1.75; 95%CI; 1.44-2.14; P=.005) and ≥ 4 cups/day (OR=2.01; IC95%CI; 1.7-2.36; P<.001). Conclusion Mild and moderate consumption of coffee has a neutral effect or a reduction in cardiovascular risk and coronary disease. On the other hand, the risk of myocardial is increased with drinking more or equal to 3 cups/day in men. The drinking of up to 3 cups of coffee/day is recommended, and it is not advised to drink more, especially in men.


Subject(s)
Coffee , Coronary Disease , Systematic Review , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Myocardial Infarction
18.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(6): 616-620, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289281

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: Determinar el mejor punto de corte y el grado de conformidad de las escalas de riesgo, Framingham, PROCAM y Reynolds, para el diagnóstico de lesión vascular coronaria arterioesclerótica severa a través de la comparación de las áreas bajo la curva de acuerdo con las curvas operativas del receptor (COR). Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal en adultos que fueron sometidos a arteriografía coronaria. Se aplicaron las escalas Framingham, PROCAM y Reynolds, las dos primeras ajustadas según estudio de calibración colombiano. Luego se realizó la recolección de los datos de manera concurrente en instituciones de referencia en cardiología y hemodinámica en Bogotá. Resultados: De 200 pacientes estudiados, 66% eran mujeres, 37,5% mayores de 70 años, 53,2% con hipertensión, 52,7% en sobrepeso u obesidad, 61,5% presentaron valores altos de Proteína C Reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus) y 50% tenían al menos una lesión coronaria mayor de 70%. Se encontraron los mejores puntos de corte, de acuerdo con cada curva de características operativas del receptor (COR): Framingham ajustado 5,8% (sensibilidad 80%, especificidad 41%). PROCAM ajustado 1,7% (sensibilidad 78%, especificidad 45%) y Reynolds 3,8% (sensibilidad 68%, especificidad 45%). Adicionalmente, se encontró que las tres escalas presentaron áreas bajo la curva (ABC) de 0,59, 0,59 y 0,57, respectivamente.


Abstract Objectives: To determine the best cut-off point and the level of agreement of the Framingham, PROCAM, and Reynolds risk scales, for the diagnosis of a severe atherosclerotic coronary artery lesion by comparing the areas under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on adults that were subjected to coronary angiography. The Framingham, PROCAM, and Reynolds were applied, with the first two adjusted to a Colombian calibration study. Data were collected concurrently in the institutions of reference in Cardiology and haemodynamics in Bogota. Results: Of the 200 patients study, 66% were female, and 37.5% greater than 70 years-old. Hypertension was recorded in 53.2%, and overweight and obesity in 52.7%. Elevated levels of high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) were observed in 61.5% of cases and 50% had at least one major coronary lesion greater than 70%. The best cut-off points according to each of the ROC curves: Adjusted Framingham, 5.8% (sensitivity, 80%, specificity, 41%), Adjusted PROCAM, 1.7% (sensitivity, 78%, specificity, 45%) and Reynolds, 3.8% (sensitivity, 68%, specificity, 45%). Additionally, the three areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.59, 0.59, and 0.57, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Longitudinal Studies , Weights and Measures , Angiography , Coronary Disease
19.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(4): eabc110, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146299

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Durante o ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina, podem ocorrer efeitos adversos e exames inconclusivos. Objetivo: Avaliar em uma grande população geral a segurança e a exequibilidade do ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina. Métodos: Estudo de 10.006 ecocardiogramas sob estresse com dobutamina realizados no período de julho de 1996 a setembro de 2007. A dobutamina foi administrada em quatro estágios (10, 20, 30 e 40 µcg.kg-1.min-1) para pesquisa de isquemia miocárdica e iniciada com 5 µcg.kg- ¹.min-1 apenas na análise de viabilidade miocárdica. A atropina foi iniciada conforme os protocolos vigentes. Foram verificados dados clínicos, hemodinâmicos e efeitos adversos associados ao ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina. Resultados: Durante os ecocardiogramas sob estresse com dobutamina, ocorreu angina típica (8,9%), pico hipertensivo (1,7%), ectopias ventriculares isoladas (31%), taquiarritmia supraventricular (1,89%), fibrilação atrial (0,76%) e taquicardia ventricular não sustentada (0,6%). Os efeitos adversos citados foram mais frequentes nos pacientes com ecocardiogramas sob estresse com dobutamina positivos para isquemia. A desaceleração sinusal paradoxal (0,16%) não ocorreu em ecocardiogramas sob estresse com dobutamina positivo. As três complicações graves ocorreram em ecocardiogramas sob estresse com dobutamina positivos para isquemia. Foram dois casos (0,02%) com fibrilação ventricular e um caso de síndrome coronariana aguda (0,01%). Não houve caso de taquicardia ventricular sustentada, ruptura cardíaca, assistolia ou óbito. Comparados aos exames concluídos, nos inconclusivos, os pacientes usaram menos atropina (81,5% versus 49,9%; p< 0,001) e mais betabloqueador (4,7% versus 19%; p< 0,001), apresentando mais pico hipertensivo (1,1% versus 14,2%; p = 0,0001) e taquicardia ventricular não sustentada (0,5% versus 2,2%; p< 0,001). Conclusão: O ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina realizado de forma apropriada é seguro e apresenta elevada exequibilidade.


Background: Adverse effects and inconclusive results may occur on dobutamine stress echocardiography. Objective: To assess the safety and feasibility of dobutamine stress echocardiography in a large general population. Methods: A total of 10,006 dobutamine stress echocardiographies were performed between July 1996 and September 2007. Dobutamine was administered in four stages (10, 20, 30, and 40 µcg·kg-1·min-1) to research myocardial ischemia starting with 5 µcg·kg- ¹·min-1 to analyze myocardial viability. Atropine administration was initiated according to current protocols. Clinical, hemodynamic, and adverse effect data associated with dobutamine stress echocardiography findings were verified. Results: Typical angina (8.9%), hypertensive peak (1.7%), isolated ventricular ectopias (31%), supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (1.89%), atrial


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Atropine/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Echocardiography, Stress/adverse effects , Echocardiography, Stress/drug effects , Dobutamine/administration & dosage , Dobutamine/adverse effects , Electrocardiography/methods , Hypertension/complications , Metoprolol/administration & dosage
20.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(5): 13-19, dez. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1152261

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Implementar a Teoria do Conforto, mediada pela pesquisa-cuidado, para o alcance de integridade institucional, na prática clínica de enfermeiros em unidade coronariana. MÉTODO: Pesquisa-cuidado realizada de abril de 2014 a janeiro de 2015 com enfermeiros e pessoas com coronariopatias de um hospital público em Sobral-Ceará-Brasil. RESULTADO: O método de pesquisa-cuidado facilitou o uso da Teoria do Conforto na prática de cuidar de pessoas com coronariopatias, por meio de diálogos entre enfermeiro pesquisador e enfermeiros assistenciais. Foi possível orientá-los na implementação de uma teoria e um método de pesquisa no cotidiano de cuidado, com vistas a melhores políticas e práticas para integridade institucional. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: A Teoria do Conforto, no cuidado clínico de enfermagem direcionado às pessoas com coronariopatias mediada pela pesquisa-cuidado, permite diálogos entre enfermeiro pesquisador e enfermeiros da prática clínica e favorece o alcance integridade institucional. (AU)


Objective: To implement the Comfort Theory, mediated by research-care, to achieve institutional integrity in the clinical practice of nurses in a coronary care unit. Methods: Care research carried out from April 2014 to January 2015 with nurses and people with coronary diseases at a public hospital in Sobral-Ceará-Brazil. Results: The care-research method facilitated the use of Comfort Theory in the practice of caring for people with coronary artery disease, through dialogues between nurse researchers and nursing assistants. It was possible to guide them in the implementation of a theory and a research method in daily care, with a view to better policies and practices for institutional integrity. Conclusion: The Theory of Comfort, in clinical nursing care directed to people with coronary diseases mediated by research-care, allows dialogues between nurse researchers and nurses in clinical practice and favors the achievement of institutional integrity. (AU)


Objetivo: Implementar la Teoría del Confort, mediada por la investigación-atención, para lograr la integridad institucional en la práctica clínica de las enfermeras en una unidad de atención coronaria. Métodos: Investigación de la atención realizada entre abril de 2014 y enero de 2015 con enfermeras y personas con enfermedades coronarias en un hospital público en Sobral-Ceará-Brasil. Resultados: El método de investigación de la atención facilitó el uso de la Teoría de la comodidad en la práctica del cuidado de las personas con enfermedad de las arterias coronarias, a través de diálogos entre investigadores de enfermería y asistentes de enfermería. Fue posible guiarlos en la implementación de una teoría y un método de investigación en la atención diaria, con miras a mejores políticas y prácticas para la integridad institucional. Conclusión: La Teoría de la Confort, en la atención clínica de enfermería dirigida a personas con enfermedades coronarias mediada por la investigación-atención, permite el diálogo entre enfermeras investigadoras y enfermeras en la práctica clínica y favorece el logro de la integridad institucional. (AU)


Subject(s)
Nursing , Clinical Nursing Research , Hospice Care , Coronary Disease , Health Communication
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