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1.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 42(1): 59-64, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441378

ABSTRACT

Presentamos el caso de un paciente quien presentó un evento presincopal en el que destacan 3 patologías asociadas a muerte súbita de forma independiente: miocardiopatía hipertrófica, origen anómalo coronario y enfermedad arterial coronaria epicárdica; diagnósticos coexistentes. Se describe las patologías, diagnóstico, manejo médico y terapéutico y se revisa la literatura.


A patient presented with a presyncopal event. Three conditions independently associated with sudden death, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, anomalous origin of coronary arteries and epicardial coronary artery disease were found. Diagnosis, and medical management are described, followed by a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Arteriosclerosis , Coronary Artery Disease , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessel Anomalies
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 535-538, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440311

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Variations in the origin of the right coronary artery have an incidence between 0.09 % and 0.92 %. Herein, we report a rare case of a coronary artery anomaly in which the right coronary artery originates from the left main coronary artery. This variant was found during routine coronarography, combined with an artificial aortic valve. Despite their rare occurrence, some variations in the origins of the coronary arteries can be life threatening and are associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. They can also pose serious technical challenges and predispose to complications during coronary angiographic procedures. Thus, knowledge of such anomalies is paramount for managing the patients correctly.


Las variaciones en el origen de la arteria coronaria derecha tienen una incidencia entre el 0,09 % y el 0,92 %. En este documento, informamos un caso raro de una anomalía de la arteria coronaria en la que la arteria coronaria derecha se originaba en la arteria coronaria izquierda. Esta variante se encontró durante una coronariografía de rutina, combinada con una válvula aórtica artificial. A pesar de su rara aparición, algunas variaciones en los orígenes de las arterias coronarias pueden poner en peligro la vida y se asocian con un mayor riesgo de muerte súbita cardíaca. También pueden plantear serios desafíos técnicos y predisponer a complicaciones durante los procedimientos angiográficos coronarios. Por tanto, el conocimiento de dichas anomalías es fundamental para el manejo correcto de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnostic imaging , Anatomic Variation
3.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 481-489, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984679

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze the reasons of missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis on anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) by echocardiography. Methods: This is a retrospective study. Patients with ALCAPA who underwent surgical treatment in Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from August 2008 to December 2021 were included. According to the results of preoperative echocardiography and surgical diagnosis, the patients were divided into confirmed group or missed diagnosis/misdiagnosis group. The results of preoperative echocardiography were collected, and the specific echocardiographic signs were analyzed. According to the experience of the doctors, the echocardiographic signs were divided into four types, namely clear displayed, vague/doubtful displayed, no display and no notice, and the display rate of each sign was calculated (display rate=number of clearly displayed cases/total number of cases×100%). By referring the surgical data, we analyzed and recorded the pathological anatomy and pathophysiological characteristics of the patients, and the rate of missed diagnosis/misdiagnosis of echocardiography in patients with different characteristics was compared. Results: A total of 21 patients were enrolled, including 11 males, aged 1.8 (0.8, 12.3) years (range 1 month to 47 years). Except for one patient with anomalous origin of left anterior descending artery, the others were all originated from the main left coronary artery (LCA). There were 13 cases of ALCAPA in infant and children, and 8 cases of adult ALCAPA. There were 15 cases in the confirmed group (diagnostic accuracy was 71.4% (15/21)), and 6 cases in the missed diagnosis/misdiagnosis group (three cases were misdiagnosed as primary endocardial fibroelastosis, two cases were misdiagnosed as coronary-pulmonary artery fistula; and one case was missed diagnosis). The working years of the physicians in the confirmed group were longer than those in the missed diagnosis/misdiagnosed group ((12.8±5.6) years vs. (8.3±4.7) years, P=0.045). In infants with ALCAPA, the detection rate of LCA-pulmonary shunt (8/10 vs. 0, P=0.035) and coronary collateral circulation (7/10 vs. 0, P=0.042) in confirmed group was higher than that in missed diagnosis/misdiagnosed group. In adult ALCAPA patients, the detection rate of LCA-pulmonary artery shunt was higher in confirmed group than that in missed diagnosis/misdiagnosed group (4/5 vs. 0, P=0.021). The missed diagnosis/misdiagnosis rate of adult type was higher than that of infant type (3/8 vs. 3/13, P=0.410). The rate of missed diagnosis/misdiagnosis was higher in patients with abnormal origin of branches than that of abnormal origin of main trunk (1/1 vs. 5/21, P=0.028). The rate of missed diagnosis/misdiagnosis in patients with LCA running between the main and pulmonary arteries was higher than that distant from the main pulmonary artery septum (4/7 vs. 2/14, P=0.064). The rate of missed diagnosis/misdiagnosis in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension was higher than that in patients without severe pulmonary hypertension (2/3 vs. 4/18, P=0.184). The reasons with an echocardiography missed diagnosis/misdiagnosis rate of≥50% included that (1) the proximal segment of LCA ran between the main and pulmonary arteries; (2) abnormal opening of LCA at the right posterior part of the pulmonary artery; (3) abnormal origin of LCA branches; (4) complicated with severe pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions: Echocardiography physicians' knowledge of ALCAPA and diagnostic vigilance are critical to the accuracy of diagnosis. Attention should be paid to the pediatric cases with no obvious precipitating factors of left ventricular enlargement, regardless of whether the left ventricular function is normal or not, the origin of coronary artery should be routinely explored.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Infant , Child , Humans , Bland White Garland Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Missed Diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Echocardiography , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnostic imaging
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 84-88, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285217

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A fístula da artéria coronária (FAC) é uma conexão direta entre uma ou mais artérias coronárias e câmaras cardíacas ou um grande vaso; pode estar associada à cardiopatia congênita. Objetivo Estabelecer os padrões de trajetos de FAC a partir de dados ecocardiográficos e correlacioná-los com aspectos clínicos e cardiopatias congênitas. Métodos Um total de 7.183 prontuários médicos de crianças menores de 5 anos de idade com cardiopatia submetidas a ecodopplercardiograma colorido foram analisados utilizando o teste de correlação de Spearman para associar sinais, sintomas e cardiopatia à FAC, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados Vinte e seis crianças (0,0036%) apresentaram FAC, nos seguintes trajetos: da artéria coronária direita para o ventrículo direito (26,92%), da artéria coronária esquerda para o ventrículo direito (23,08%), do ramo interventricular anterior para o ventrículo direito (23,08%), da artéria coronária direita para o átrio direito (11,54%), da artéria coronária esquerda para o tronco pulmonar (7,69%) e do ramo interventricular anterior para o tronco pulmonar (7,69%). Em 57,69% dos pacientes, houve uma correlação positiva entre sintomas e a FAC (p = 0,445), relacionada à dispneia ou cianose (53,84%). Em 96,15%, a cardiopatia congênita estava associada à FAC; principalmente, a comunicação interventricular e a comunicação interatrial, em 34,62% dos casos, correlacionaram-se positivamente com a FAC (p = 0,295). O trajeto da FAC foi representado em três dimensões pelo software de modelagem, texturização e animação Cinema 4D R19. Conclusão A FAC é uma entidade anatômica incomum que apresenta quadro clínico compatível com dispneia e cianose e está associada a cardiopatias congênitas, principalmente com a CIV ou a CIA. De acordo com as análises ecocardiográficas, as fístulas na ACD, na ACE ou no RIVA representam aproximadamente um terço dos pacientes, com trajeto prioritário para as câmaras cardíacas direitas.


Abstract Background Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a direct connection of one or more coronary arteries to cardiac chambers or a large vessel; it may be associated with congenital heart disease. Objective To establish CAF pathway patterns from echocardiographic data and to correlate them with clinical aspects and congenital heart disease. Methods A total of 7.183 medical records of children under the age of five years with cardiac disease submitted to color Doppler echocardiography and Spearman's Correlation test were used to associate signs and symptoms and cardiopathy to CAF with a significance level of 5%. Results Twenty six children (0.0036%) presented CAF: from the right coronary artery (RCA) to the right ventricle (RV) 26.92%, from the left coronary artery (LCA) to the RV 23.08%, from the anterior interventricular branch (AIVB) to RV 23.08%, RCA to right atrium (RA) 11.54%, LCA for pulmonary trunk (PT) 7.69% or AIVB for PT 7.69%. In 57.69% of the patients, there was a positively correlated symptomatology to CAF with p=0.445 related to dyspnea or cyanosis (53.84%); in 96.15%, congenital heart disease associated with CAF, mainly interventricular communication (IVC) or interatrial communication (IAC) in 34.62% positively correlated to CAF with p=0.295. CAF pathway was represented in three dimensions by software modeling, texturing and animation Cinema 4D R19. Conclusion CAF is an uncommon anatomical entity that presents a clinical picture compatible with dyspnea and cyanosis, and this is associated with congenital heart disease, mainly with IVC or IAC. According to echocardiographic analyzes, fistulas in RCA, LCA, or AIVB represent about one-third of the patients, with a priority pathway for right heart chambers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnostic imaging , Fistula , Heart Atria
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 89-90, July. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285234

ABSTRACT

Resumo A fístula da artéria coronária é uma anormalidade anatômica rara das artérias coronárias que afeta 0,002% da população geral e representa 14% de todas as anomalias das artérias coronárias. A sua relevância clínica concentra-se principalmente no mecanismo do fenômeno do roubo coronário, que causa isquemia funcional do miocárdio, mesmo na ausência de estenose; portanto, angina e dispneia aos esforços são sintomas comuns. A abordagem diagnóstica sugerida é orientada pelos sintomas dos pacientes e consiste em uma série de exames instrumentais, como ECG, teste de esteira, ecocardiografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética cardíaca e angiografia coronária. Nos casos onde não é um achado acidental, a angiografia coronária é necessária para o planejamento terapêutico otimizado. As pequenas fístulas geralmente são assintomáticas e o prognóstico é excelente se forem tratadas medicamente com acompanhamento clínico e ecocardiografia no período de 2 a 5 anos. As fístulas grandes/gigantes e sintomáticas, ao contrário, devem ser submetidas a fechamento invasivo, por via transcateter ou ligadura cirúrgica, cujos resultados são equivalentes no acompanhamento de longo prazo. A profilaxia antibiótica para a prevenção da endocardite bacteriana é recomendada para todos os pacientes com fístulas da artéria coronária submetidos a procedimentos dentários, gastrointestinais ou urológicos. O acompanhamento ao longo da vida é sempre essencial para garantir que o paciente não sofra progressão da doença ou outras complicações cardíacas.


Abstract Coronary artery fistula is a rare anatomic abnormality of the coronary arteries that affects 0.002% of the general population and represents 14% of all anomalies of coronary arteries. Its clinical relevance focuses mainly on the mechanism of the coronary steal phenomenon, causing myocardial functional ischemia, even in the absence of stenosis; therefore, angina and effort dyspnea are common symptoms. The suggested diagnostic approach is driven by patients' symptoms, and it consists of a number of instrumental examinations like ECG, treadmill test, echocardiography, computed tomography scan, cardiac magnetic resonance, and coronary angiography. If it is not an incidental finding, coronary angiography is required in view of optimal therapeutic planning. Small fistulae are usually asymptomatic, and prognosis is excellent if they are managed medically with clinical follow-up and echocardiography every 2 to 5 years. Large/giant, symptomatic fistulae, on the contrary, should undergo invasive closure, via either transcatheter approach or surgical ligation, whose results are equivalent at long-term follow-up. Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of bacterial endocarditis is recommended in all patients with coronary artery fistulae who undergo dental, gastrointestinal, or urological procedures. Life-long follow-up is always essential to ensure that the patient does not undergo progression of the disease or further cardiac complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Fistula , Coronary Angiography
9.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(1): 59-64, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388079

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La disección coronaria espontánea ha surgido como una causa interesante y poco reconocida de síndrome coronario agudo no aterosclerótico. Ocurre más frecuentemente en mujeres jóvenes, donde de forma importante puede asociarse a anomalías arteriales no coronarias. La clave para un tratamiento oportuno es el diagnóstico precoz que impida su evolución a cuadros más severos. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 36 años con un síndrome coronario agudo secundario a una disección coronaria espontánea bi-arterial que evolucionó de forma grave a una insuficiencia cardíaca aguda. El objetivo es informar un cuadro poco usual y proporcionar evidencia que respalde el cómo debe enfrentarse.


Abstract: Spontaneous coronary dissection is an important cause of acute non-atherosclerotic coronary syndrome. It occurs more frequently in young women, often without significantly associated coronary arterial anomalies. Early diagnosis is a key to prompt treatment, in order to prevent severe complications. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with an acute coronary syndrome secondary to spontaneous bi-arterial coronary dissection progressing to severe acute heart failure. A discussion of the management of this condition is included.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Vascular Diseases/surgery , Vascular Diseases/complications , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/surgery , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Vascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Stents , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
10.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(1): 65-67, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388080

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 63 year-old-male was admitted with a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Due to poor acoustic windows ventricular function could not be evaluated by echocardiography. Magnetic resonance (CMR) revealed normal biventricular size and function without fibro- sis and portraying a rare finding consisting of a tubular structure originated in the aortic root following a retro aortic course between the aorta and left atrium, traversing through the atrioventricular groove. These characteristics raised the suspicion of an anomalous coronary artery origin. Coronary angiography confirmed the presence of two coronary arteries, the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left circumflex artery (LCx) originating from the right coronary sinus via two separate ostia. The LCx followed a retro aortic course proximally be- fore irrigating the left ventricular lateral wall. From the left coronary sinus, the left anterior descending artery followed its normal course with a thin diagonal vessel that presented an acute plaque. Due to these low-risk findings, medical management was chosen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Angiography
11.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 114-120, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152868

ABSTRACT

Resumen A 29 year old female with a past medical history of systemic lupus erythematosus, diagnosed 15 years earlier, presents with lupus nephritis, currently on peritoneal dialysis. She had myopericarditis in 2012 and is currently on immunosuppressants. The patient began with exertional dyspnea and angina 2 weeks before admission. An echocardiogram was performed, reporting severe mitral and tricuspid insufficiency. Afterwards, the patient presented with resting angina associated with an adrenergic and vagal response. Initially, rheumatology ruled out autoimmune activity caused by lupus. We performed a coronary angiogram based on clinical presentation, EKG changes and biomarkers, finding a trivascular coronary artery disease classified as a Markis I coronary artery ectasia and a coronary dissection of the ramus intermedius and the circumflex, posterior to the first obtuse marginal artery. Cardiothoracic surgery considered intervention with a coronary bridge posterior to the dissection of the intermedius ramus artery, marginal obtuse and posterolateral artery, as well as a mitral valve replacement and a tricuspid valve repair. Coronary dissection is more common in women (70%), clinical presentation varies from unstable angina to sudden death. In lupus nephritis, it is an uncommon form of extra renal vasculitis. Treatment depends on the number of arteries affected, as well as the haemodynamic state of the patient. It is imperative to individualize treatment options.


Abstract Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 29 años con antecedente de lupus eritematoso sistémico diagnosticado 15 años antes, que desarrolló nefropatía lúpica actualmente en diálisis peritoneal, cuadro de miopericarditis en 2012 y bajo tratamiento inmunosupresor. Inició con deterioro de su clase funcional por disnea y angina 2 semanas previas al ingreso. Se le realizó ecocardiograma, el cual reportó insuficiencias mitral y tricuspídea graves. Posteriormente presentó angina en reposo asociada a descarga adrenérgica y vagal. A su ingreso se descarta actividad lúpica por reumatología. Por presentación clínica, cambios en electrocardiograma y biomarcadores, se realizó cateterismo cardiaco, que reportó enfermedad coronaria trivascular con ectasia coronaria Markis I y disección coronaria de ramo intermedio y circunfleja posterior a la primera marginal obtusa. Se consideró por el servicio de cirugía cardiotorácica realizar intervención con puente coronario posterior a disección del ramo intermedio, marginal obtusa y posterolateral, así como cambio valvular mitral y plastia tricuspídea. La disección coronaria espontánea es más frecuente en las mujeres (70%); puede presentarse como angina inestable y hasta como muerte súbita. La asociación con lupus eritematoso sistémico es poco frecuente, con una incidencia del 0.42%. En la nefropatía lúpica es una manifestación poco frecuente de vasculitis extrarrenal. El tratamiento de elección depende del número de vasos afectados y del estado hemodinámico, por lo que es necesario individualizarlo para cada paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Vascular Diseases/congenital , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Vascular Diseases/etiology
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(3): 469-471, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389461

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome that predominantly affects women without cardiovascular risk factors. In transplant patients, spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an extremely rare condition, having been described in only three patients, in whom vascular damage secondary to the use of anticalcineurinics is postulated as a probable mechanism. We report a spontaneous coronary dissection in a female who received a heart transplant at 34 years of age. The diagnosis was made in a follow-up coronary angiography three years after transplantation, supplemented with optical coherence tomography. A percutaneous coronary revascularization of the involved artery was performed, with good immediate results and at one year of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Vascular Diseases/etiology , Vascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Angiography , Dissection
17.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292756

ABSTRACT

O sinal RAC (retroaortic anomalous coronary ou artéria coronária anômala retroaórtica) é um achado desconhecido, descrito ao ecocardiograma transtorácico como uma estrutura tubular ecogênica, localizada na face atrial do sulco atrioventricular. Apresentamos um caso onde o sinal RAC se apresenta na ecocardiografia transesofágica (ETE). O conhecimento do sinal RAC e a avaliação com ETE aumentam a sensibilidade e a especificidade e conferem a oportunidade de avaliar características anatômicas de alto risco, importantes na avaliação do risco de morte súbita.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/genetics , Stroke/diagnosis , Death, Sudden/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital , Sinus of Valsalva/abnormalities , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods
18.
20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(4): 606-610, out.-dez. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156244

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Os autores relatam um raro caso de uso de Suporte Avançado de Vida no contexto de uma parada cardíaca ocorrida em razão de uma origem aórtica anômala da artéria coronária direita em um paciente de 49 anos de idade. O paciente foi admitido com dor torácica e dispneia, evoluindo rapidamente para taquicardia ventricular sem pulso e parada cardiopulmonar. Considerou-se um infarto agudo do miocárdio e, na ausência de um laboratório de hemodinâmica no hospital, realizou-se trombólise. Subsequentemente, uma angiografia coronária revelou ausência de lesões angiográficas nas artérias coronárias e origem anômala da artéria coronária direita do seio de Valsalva oposto. Uma angiografia coronária por tomografia computadorizada confirmou o achado e determinou um trajeto entre a artéria pulmonar e a aorta. O paciente foi submetido à cirurgia cardíaca com realização de ponte de mamária para a artéria coronária direita, sem qualquer novo episódio de arritmia.


ABSTRACT The authors report a rare case of successful Advanced Life Support in the context of cardiac arrest due to the presence of an anomalous aortic origin of the right coronary artery in a 49-year-old patient. The patient was admitted due to chest pain and dyspnea, with rapid evolution of pulseless ventricular tachycardia and cardiopulmonary arrest. Acute myocardial infarction was considered, and in the absence of a hemodynamic laboratory in the hospital, thrombolysis was performed. Subsequently, coronary angiography revealed no angiographic lesions in the coronary arteries and an anomalous right coronary artery originating from the opposite sinus of Valsalva. Coronary computed tomography angiography confirmed this finding and determined the course between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with a bypass graft to the right coronary artery, with no recurrent episodes of arrythmia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Sinus of Valsalva , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/complications , Heart Arrest/etiology , Aorta , Coronary Angiography
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