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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1797-1802, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134513

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Thorough knowledge and understanding of coronary arteries and their anatomy is essential when performing cardiac surgery such as a coronary bypass. Coronary angiography is a minimally invasive method used to evaluate the anatomy and obtain different measurements of the coronary arteries. This study was designed to evaluate the endoluminal diameter, trunk length and anatomical distribution of coronary arteries in Chilean subjects without apparent angiographic lesions. Measurements were carried out by 3 trained examiners using Leonardo® software program in 238 Chilean subjects of both sexes with an age-range of 45 to 78 years. Ostium and the distal luminal segments diameters were measured, as well as trunk length of both right and left coronary arteries. Ostium of the anterior interventricular artery, dominance and tortuosity were also registered. In the right coronary artery, the diameters (3.8 ± 1.2 mm and 3.6 ± 1.0 mm) differed according to sex and dominance, and the length (35.2 ± 12.5 mm) differed according to age. In the left coronary artery, the diameters (4.9 ± 1.1 mm and 4.7 ± 1.0 mm) were greater in males than in females. The left coronary artery showed greater diameters and length than the right coronary artery. The prevalence of right arterial dominance was 88.0 %. Patients with right arterial dominance presented greater distal caliber in the right coronary artery than those with left arterial dominance (p<0.05), especially in older patients. Significant arterial tortuosity was observed in seven subjects.


RESUMEN: Un factor clave durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos cardiacos tal como el bypass coronario, es el conocimiento exhaustivo de las arterias coronarias y su anatomía. La angiografía coronaria es un método mínimamente invasivo que se utiliza para evaluar la anatomía y obtener diferentes medidas. El presente estudio fue diseñado para evaluar el diámetro endoluminal, la longitud del tronco y la distribución anatómica de las arterias coronarias en sujetos chilenos sin lesiones angiográficas significativas. Las mediciones fueron realizadas en 238 sujetos chilenos de ambos sexos con un rango etario entre 45 a 78 años. Tres examinadores preparados llevaron a cabo las mediciones utilizando el software Leonardo®. Se midieron los ostios y los diámetros luminales distales de los troncos coronarios derecho e izquierdo, como también las longitudes del tronco de las arterias coronarias derecha e izquierda. Además, se identificaron los ostios de la arteria interventricular anterior, dominancia y tortuosidad. En la arteria coronaria derecha, los diámetros (3,8 ± 1,2 mm y 3,6 ± 1,0 mm) se observaron variaciones según el sexo y la dominancia, y la longitud (35,2 ± 12,5 mm) difirió según la edad. En la arteria coronaria izquierda, los diámetros (4,9 ± 1,1 mm y 4,7 ± 1,0 mm) fueron mayores en los hombres que en las mujeres. La arteria coronaria izquierda mostró mayor diámetro y longitud que la arteria coronaria derecha. La prevalencia de dominancia arterial derecha fue del 88,0 %. Los pacientes con dominancia arterial derecha presentaron mayor calibre distal en la arteria coronaria derecha que aquellos con dominancia arterial izquierda (p <0,05), especialmente en pacientes mayores. En siete sujetos se observó una tortuosidad arterial significativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Chile , Retrospective Studies
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 7-12, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056388

ABSTRACT

The Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) is an odontocete cetacean specie that lies in the waters of the southern hemisphere. With the aim of studying the course and distribution of Cephalorhynchus commersonii's coronary arteries, an exhaustive heart dissection was performed on one specimen. To the extent of our knowledge, and basing upon an extensive bibliographic research on the commersonii species, this is the first reported description of a Commerson's dolphin heart anatomy. Despite the fact that the analysis of a unique specimen does not allow to establish final conclusions, comparisons reveal broad similarities between Cephalorhynchus commersonii's coronary distribution and previous anatomical studies describing the heart of various marine diving mammals and the human fetus circulation. Diving mammals have developed an anastomotic system along evolution, in order to adjust their bodies to diving imposed conditions, and minimize the oxygen demand of the heart muscle. The present work begins with the identification of the patterns and similarities between Commerson's dolphin heart anatomy when compared to other odontecete species, to continue with an exhaustive description of the Commerson's dolphin coronary anatomy.


La tonina overa (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) es una especie de cetáceo odontoceto que se encuentra en las aguas del hemisferio sur. Con el objetivo de estudiar el curso y la distribución de las arterias coronarias de Cephalorhynchus commersonii, se realizó una disección exhaustiva del corazón de un ejemplar. Hasta donde sabemos, y basándonos en una extensa investigación bibliográfica sobre la especie, esta es la primera descripción informada de la anatomía de un corazón de este ejemplar. A pesar de que el análisis de una sola muestra no permite establecer conclusiones finales, las comparaciones revelan amplias similitudes entre la distribución coronaria de Cephalorhynchus commersonii, los estudios anatómicos previos que describen el corazón de varios mamíferos marinos buceadores, y la circulación del feto humano. Los mamíferos buceadores han desarrollado un sistema anastomótico a lo largo de la evolución para ajustar sus cuerpos a las condiciones impuestas por el buceo y minimizar la demanda de oxígeno del músculo cardíaco. El presente trabajo comienza con la identificación de los patrones y similitudes entre la anatomía del corazón de tonina overa en comparación con otras especies odontecetas, continuando con una descripción exhaustiva de la anatomía coronaria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Dolphins/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 448-451, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002241

ABSTRACT

Coronary arteries establish a complex blood vessel system, right and left coronary arteries commonly originate from the aortic sinuses and divide into multiple branches that supply the heart with several important variations between species. Diaphanization is a preservative technique which allows internal structures visualization, maintaining the three-dimensionality of the specimen. In this study, human (Homo sapiens), goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), bovine (Bos Taurus), equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa domesticus), canine (Canis lupus familiaris) and feline (Felis silvestris catus) coronary arteries were injected with selfcuring methyl-methacrylate and posteriorly diaphanized. The coronary vasculature was adequately observed in all models while keeping the three-dimensional relation with surrounding cardiac structures, except for septal arteries which were not visualized. As incidental findings, anatomical variations in canine and human hearts were observed. Repletion-diaphanization is a useful blended method to visualize the morphology of superficial coronary arteries. It could be a valuable tool in anatomical teaching and research, but further research needs to be done to prove its effectiveness in different vessel systems.


Las arterias coronarias son un complejo de vasos sanguíneos que usualmente se originan en los senos aórticos y que al dividirse en múltiples ramas suplen los requerimientos metabólicos del tejido cardiaco; cabe aclarar que la anatomía de estas estructuras posee variaciones importantes entre especies. La diafanización es una técnica de preservación que permite observar estructuras internas de un espécimen sin dañar su tridimensionalidad. En este estudio las arterias coronarias del corazón humano (Homo sapiens), caprino (Capra aegagrus hircus), bovino (Bos Taurus), equino (Equus caballus), porcino (Sus scrofa domesticus), canino (Canis lupus familiaris) y felino (Felis silvestris catus), fueron repletadas con metil-metacrilato y posteriormente diafanizados. Se observa la irrigación coronaria de cada uno de los corazones y su relación con las demás estructuras cardiacas, exceptuando las arterias septales. Como hallazgos incidentales se observaron variaciones anatómicas en los corazones canino y humano. Finalmente, esta técnica resultó de utilidad para evaluar la anatomía coronaria, lo que puede ser valioso para educación e investigación. Posteriores investigaciones deben ser realizadas para probar su utilidad en otros sistemas vasculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Transillumination , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 545-552, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1011259

ABSTRACT

Were used twelve (12) adult anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), adults, 6 (six) males and 6 (six) females, weighing from 20 to 27.32kg from free life. The thoracic cavity was opened until visualization of the whole heart and lungs and later injection of the coronary vessels. The right coronary artery emerged through a single coronary ostium of the aorta, 50%, emitting the intermediate branch and the subsinuous interventricular branch, had a path directed to the subsurface interventricular groove. In the other 50%, the right coronary artery was not present, showing only its branches, intermediate branch and subsurface interventricular branch with emergence of the aorta. Left coronary artery presented, in 83.33%, origin from the aorta in single ostium, issuing the circumflex and interventricular paraconal branches. In 16.66%, the left coronary artery was not evidenced originating from the aorta, but its branches, circumflex and interventricular paraconal.(AU)


Foram utilizados 12 tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), adultos, sendo seis machos e seis fêmeas, pesando de 20 a 27,32kg, provenientes de vida livre. Foi realizada abertura da cavidade torácica até a visualização do conjunto coração e pulmões e, posteriormente, injeção dos vasos coronários. A artéria coronária direita emergia, 50% dela, por um único óstio coronário da aorta, emitindo o ramo intermédio e o ramo interventricular subsinuoso; tinha trajeto direcionado ao sulco interventricular subsinuoso. Nos outros 50%, a artéria coronária direita não estava presente, exibindo somente seus ramos, ramo intermédio e ramo interventricular subsinuoso com emergência da aorta. A artéria coronária esquerda apresentou, em 83,33%, origem a partir da aorta em óstio único, emitindo os ramos circunflexo e interventricular paraconal. Em 16,66%, a artéria coronária esquerda não foi evidenciada originando-se da aorta, mas, sim, de seus ramos, circunflexo e interventricular paraconal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Cingulata/anatomy & histology , Heart
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1241-1245, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975690

ABSTRACT

Third coronary artery or supernumerary coronary artery is a direct branch from right aortic sinus and it supplies pulmonary conus and upper part of right ventricle. Third coronary artery is an important bridge for collateral circulation between right and left coronary system. The aim of this study was to determine the number of arteries that origin from right aortic sinus, their frequency and position. The study included 55 adult human hearts collected from Department of Anatomy. The hearts were morphologically studied by gross dissection for the prevalence and topographical anatomy of supernumerary coronary arteries. Out of 55 hearts, 26 (47.3 %) had one right coronary artery, 23 (41.8 %) had two right coronary arteries, and 6 (10.9 %) had three coronary arteries. The supernumerary arteries arises from the right aortic sinus. Right supernumerary coronary arteries may be present in about 52.7 % of the Serbian population. Interpretation of signs and symptoms of coronary occlusion should therefore consider possible contribution of this blood vessels.


La tercera arteria coronaria o arteria coronaria supernumeraria es una rama directa del seno aórtico derecho y su ministra el cono pulmonar y la parte superior del ventrículo derecho. La tercera arteria coronaria es importante para la circulación colateral entre el sistema coronario derecho e izquierdo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el número de arterias de origen del seno aórtico derecho, su frecuencia y posición. El estudio incluyó 55 corazones humanos adultos pertenecientes al Departamento de Anatomía. Los corazones se estudiaron morfológicamente mediante disección macroscópica para determinar la prevalencia y la anatomía topográfica de las arterias coronarias supernumerarias. De 55 corazones, 26 (47,3 %) tenían una arteria coronaria derecha, 23 (41,8 %) tenían dos arterias coronarias derechas, y 6 (10,9 %) tenían tres arterias coronarias. Las arterias supernumerarias surgen del seno aórtico derecho. Las arterias coronarias supernumerarias derechas pueden estar presentes en aproximadamente el 52,7 % de la población serbia. La interpretación de los signos y síntomas de la oclusión coronaria debería considerar la posible contribución de estos vasos sanguíneos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Heart/anatomy & histology
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(10): 916-921, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976779

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The septomarginal trabecula is a muscular structure which transmits the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle. It is usually supplied by a branch from the second anterior septal artery. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries may happen on the septomarginal trabecula. They are of great significance in order to prevent ischemia during a myocardial infarction. Surgeries such as Konno's and Ross' procedures implies in knowledge of these vessels anatomy. The coronary arteries of 50 human hearts were injected with latex and subsequentely dissected with the purpose of identifying the arterial branch that supplied the septomarginal trabecula. The trabecular branch arose from the second anterior septal artery in 38% of cases, and the branch arose from the first anterior septal artery in 26%. One of the hearts had its septomarginal trabecula supplied by the conus arteriosus arteryliterature. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries were found inside the septomarginal trabecula. The right branch of the atrioventricular bundle is subject to a great number of clinical conditions and is often manipulated during surgery, thus, the study of the septal branches of the coronary arteries and the trabecular branch is essential.


RESUMO A trabécula septomarginal é uma estrutura muscular que transmite o ramo direito do feixe atrioventricular. É usualmente suprida por um ramo da segunda artéria septal anterior. Anastomoses entre as artérias coronárias direita e esquerda podem ocorrer na trabécula. São de grande significância especialmente na prevenção de isquemia durante um infarto do miocárdio. Procedimentos cirúrgicos como o de Konno's e Ross implicam conhecimento anatômico desses vasos. As artérias coronárias de 50 corações humanos foram injetadas com látex e dissecadas com o propósito de identificar o ramo arterial que supria a trabécula septomarginal. Em somente 38% dos casos o ramo foi proveniente da segunda artéria septal anterior, enquanto que em 26% dos casos a artéria se originou da primeira septal anterior. Um dos corações teve a trabécula septomarginal suprida por um ramo originário da artéria do cone arterioso. Além disso, foram encontradas anastomoses entre as artérias coronárias no interior da trabécula septomarginal. Em suma, o ramo direito do feixe atrioventricular está sujeito a inúmeras condições clínicas e é alvo de manuseio em cirurgias, logo, o estudo dos ramos septais das artérias coronárias, em especial o ramo trabecular é essencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Ventricular Function , Contrast Media , Heart Conduction System , Heart Septum/anatomy & histology
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 235-242, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893216

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La información disponible sobre el aparato cardiovascular del carpincho (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) es escasa. El objetivo general de este estudio fue describir la anatomía cardíaca de esta especie. Se utilizaron 6 animales adultos y 5 neonatos, libres de patologías del aparato cardiovascular. El método de estudio de los animales fue la disección simple. El corazón del carpincho estaba ubicado desde el segundo espacio intercostal hasta la sexta costilla. El ligamento frenicopericárdico unía el pericardio fibroso al esternón y al diafragma. El tubérculo intervenoso era de escaso desarrollo. En la aurícula derecha se encontraban escasos músculos pectinados. Los músculos papilares derechos presentaban entre ellos trabéculas septomarginales. Las trabéculas carnosas presentaban un marcado desarrollo sobre la pared marginal del ventrículo derecho. También había grandes trabéculas carnosas sobre la pared septal, que sin embargo era algo más lisa. Los músculos papilares izquierdos eran dos, situados opuestos uno al otro y sobre la pared septal. Ambos eran simples y emitían cuerdas tendinosas hacia ambas cúspides de la válvula atrioventricular izquierda. Las trabéculas carnosas del ventrículo izquierdo eran menos numerosas. Entre ambos músculos papilares existía una gran trabécula carnosa que ocupaba gran parte de la extensión dorsoventral de la pared septal del ventrículo izquierdo. De ambas arterias coronarias, la arteria coronaria izquierda que surgía del seno coronario izquierdo de la aorta era la más importante, de mayor tamaño y de mayor distribución, encargándose de la irrigación de la mayoría del territorio cardíaco. La rama interventricular paraconal se dirigía por el surco interventricular paraconal y terminaba sobre el margen ventricular derecho anastomosándose con la rama interventricular subsinusal que venía por el surco del mismo nombre. Con otras técnicas, es necesario realizar estudios histológicos, semiológicos y fisiológicos en el corazón de esta especie para entender mejor su anatomía y fisiología.


SUMMARY: The available information on the cardiovascular apparatus of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is scarce. The general objective of this study was to describe the cardiac anatomy of this species. Six adult animals and five newborns were used; all were free of cardiovascular system pathologies. The method of study of the animals was simple dissection. The heart of the capybara was located from the second intercostal space to the sixth rib. The frenicopericardial ligament attached the fibrous pericardium to the sternum and the diaphragm. The intervenous tubercle was poorly developed. In the right atrium, there were few pectinated muscles. The right papillary muscles had septomarginal trabeculae among them. The carnous trabeculae showed a marked development on the marginal wall of the right ventricle. There were also large, carnous trabeculae on the septal wall, which was somewhat flatter. The left papillary muscles were two, located opposite each other and on the septal wall. Both were simple and sent tendinous cords to both cusps of the left atrioventricular valve. Carnous trabeculae of the left ventricle were less numerous. Between both papillary muscles there was a large carnous trabecula that occupied much of the dorsoventral extension of the septal wall of the left ventricle. Of both coronary arteries, the left coronary artery that emerged from the left coronary sinus of the aorta was the most important, with larger size and greater distribution. The paraconal interventricular branch was directed through the paraconal interventricular groove and terminated on the right ventricular margin anastomosing with the subsinusal interventricular branch that came through the groove of the same name. With other techniques, it is necessary to perform histological, semiological and physiological studies in the heart of this species to better understand its anatomy and physiology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heart/anatomy & histology , Rodentia/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1197-1202, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893114

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: A detailed understanding of the coronary arteries is of paramount importance in the management of coronary arterial diseases. The arterial supply to the heart originates from right (RCA) and left (LCA) coronary arteries which form an oblique inverted crown within the atrioventricular groove. This study aimed to document the embryologic relationship between the RCA and the LCA including their lengths, diameters, branching patterns and arterial dominance in fetuses. Forty-one human fetal heart specimens with an age range of 13.13 to 26.95 weeks were dissected at the Department of Clinical Anatomy, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. The RCA arose from the right aortic sinus and was dominant in all the specimens. The LCA was classified into types according to their branching pattern. The bifurcation, trifurcation and quadrifurcation of the LCA occurred in 68.3 %, 29.3 % and 2.4 % of hearts, respectively. The mean lengths of the RCA and LCA were 0.98±0.54 mm and 1.83±0.77 mm, respectively. The mean external diameters of the RCA and LCA were 0.38±0.12 mm and 0.49±0.17 mm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the RCA and LCA length and the fetal age which is indicative of significant changes in the coronary vasculature with fetal growth.


RESUMEN: Una comprensión detallada de las arterias coronarias es de suma importancia en el manejo de las enfermedades en estas arterias. El suministro arterial al corazón se origina de las arterias coronarias derecha (ACD) e izquierda (ACI) que forman una "corona oblicua invertida" dentro del surco atrioventricular. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo documentar la relación embriológica entre la ACD y la ACI, incluyendo sus longitudes, diámetros, patrones de ramificación y dominio arterial en fetos. Se disecaron 41 corazones de fetos humanos con un rango de edad de 13,13 a 26,95 semanas, en el Departamento de Anatomía Clínica, Universidad de Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, Sudáfrica. La ACD surgió del seno aórtico derecho y fue dominante en todos los especímenes. La ACI se clasificó en distintos tipos según su patrón de ramificación. La bifurcación, trifurcación y cuadrifurcación de la ACI ocurrieron en 68,3 %, 29,3 % y 2,4 % de los corazones, respectivamente. Las longitudes medias de la ACD y ACI fueron 0,98 ± 0,54 mm y 1,83 ± 0,77 mm, respectivamente. Los diámetros externos medios de la ACD y ACI fueron 0,38 ± 0,12 mm y 0,49 ± 0,17 mm, respectivamente. Hubo una correlación significativa entre la longitud de la ACD y la ACI y la edad fetal, que es indicativa de cambios significativos en la vasculatura coronaria con crecimiento fetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Fetus/anatomy & histology , Body Weights and Measures , Dissection , South Africa
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(11): 1352-1356, Nov. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-895363

ABSTRACT

Considerando a heterogeneidade anatômica e eletrofisiológica do nodo sinoatrial para a geração e propagação do potencial de ação, bem como as particularidades relacionadas a origem da sua irrigação sanguínea, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o comportamento das artérias envolvidas na irrigação do nodo sinoatrial em cães realizando uma análise descritiva e comparativa entre diferentes raças estudadas, detalhando a origem, o percurso e a ramescência dos vasos, assim como a eventual ocorrência de anastomoses. Ao todo analisamos resultados obtidos em 240 corações, os quais foram fixados em solução de formalina 10% e submetidos a diafanização de Spalteholz. A irrigação deste ocorre mediante colaterais oriundos do ramo circunflexo direito ou ramo circunflexo esquerdo, mostrando particularidades diferentes para cada raça. Assim, predominantemente, nas raças ora estudadas a irrigação arterial do nodo sinoatrial depende exclusivamente (63,6%), ou de anastomoses de colaterais da artéria coronária direita, havendo também participação dos ramo proximal atrial direito e intermédio atrial direito. Menos frequentemente (15,4%) o suprimento sanguíneo ocorre exclusivamente por conta do ramo proximal atrial esquerdo, oriundo do ramo circunflexo da artéria coronária esquerda. Os dados aqui apresentados sobre a origem da irrigação sanguínea do nodo sinoatrial e a ramescência dos vasos envolvidos nesta tarefa representam conhecimento fundamental para o desenvolvimento da clínica-cirúrgica em cães, da patologia e trabalhos de natureza experimental.(AU)


Considering the anatomical and electrophysiological heterogeneity of the sinoatrial node for generation and propagation of the action potential, as well as the particularities relating to the origin of blood nutrition, this study aimed to analyze the behavior of arteries involved in irrigation of the sinoatrial node in dogs performing a descriptive and comparative analysis between different breeds, with emphasis in the origin, pathway and branching of vessels, as well as the presence of anastomoses. Totally, 240 hearts were fixed in solution of formalin 10% and subjected to Spalteholz diaphanization. The vascularization of the sinoatrial node occurs by the right circumflex branch or left circumflex branch, showing several particularities according to the breed. Thus, predominantly in the studied breeds, the blood supply of the sinoatrial node depends exclusively (63.6%) or from anastomosis of the right coronary artery. There is also participation of right atrial proximal branch and right atrial intermediary branch. Less often (15.4%) the blood supply occurs exclusively from the left atrial proximal branch, which is a branch of the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. In summary, our results related to the origin of the sinoatrial node blood nutrition and the branching of vessels involved on that represents a fundamental knowledge for the development and improvement of surgery in dogs, as well as for pathology and experimental research.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Arteriovenous Anastomosis/anatomy & histology , Sinoatrial Node/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Blood Circulation , Models, Animal
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 925-930, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893075

ABSTRACT

This study described the anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main branches in Puma concolor. The hearts of six individuals of Puma concolor, were analyzed. The A. coronaria sinistra formed the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and the ramus circunflexus. A ramus septal was formed close to the origin of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and yielded from six to eight ventricular branches. The circumflex branch originated from two to five atrial branches and from three to seven ventricular branches. The right coronary artery formed two to six atrial branches, and four to nine ventricular branches. In half of the individuals, an accessory coronary artery was identified as the first branch of the right coronary artery. In all individuals, the subsinusal interventricular branch originated in the right coronary artery. It could be inferred that coronary circulation in Puma concolor is balanced, as each coronary artery yielded an interventricular branch and there was no significant difference in the total number of branches that originated from each coronary artery. These findings are different from the descriptions of most carnivore species, and may aid a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and synapomorphies of carnivore coronary circulation, especially in the Felidae family.


En este estudio se describió la anatomía de las arterias coronarias, y sus principales ramas, en el Puma concolor. Se analizaron los corazones de seis especímenes de Puma concolor. La arteria coronaria izquierda formó la rama interventricular paraconal y la rama circunfleja. Una rama septal se formó cerca del origen de la rama paraconal y otorgó de seis a ocho ramas ventriculares. La rama circunfleja originó de dos a cinco ramas atriales y de tres a siete ramas ventriculares. La arteria coronaria derecha originó de dos a seis ramas atriales y de cuatro a nueve ramas ventriculares. En la mitad de los especímenes, se identificó una arteria coronaria accesoria como la primera rama de la arteria coronaria derecha. En todos los individuos, la rama interventricular subsinusal se originó en la arteria coronaria derecha. Se podría inferir que la circulación coronaria en el Puma concolor es equilibrada, ya que cada arteria coronaria produce una rama interventricular y no hay diferencia significativa en el número total de ramas que se originan de cada arteria coronaria. Estos hallazgos son diferentes de las descripciones de la mayoría de las especies carnívoras y pueden ayudar a una mejor comprensión de las relaciones filogenéticas y de las sinapomorfias de la circulación de los carnívoros, especialmente en la familia Felidae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Puma/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 1148-1150, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829000

ABSTRACT

We report a case of variant origin of the right coronary artery from the left posterior aortic sinus. This was observed routinely during a medico legal autopsy of a 58 year old male who died in a road traffic accident. Initially it was believed that the right coronary artery was absent since there was no obvious right coronary artery ostium from the anterior aortic sinus. However it was found later that the right coronary ostium was present just beside the left coronary ostium in the left posterior aortic sinus and the right coronary artery was arising from the left posterior aortic sinus. The right coronary artery had an intramural course between the aorta and pulmonary trunk, which is considered as very dangerous and life threatening. We believe that the present case report will be enlightening to the cardiologist and cardiothoracic surgeon. It is also true that the conduction of medico legal autopsies of coronary arteries is important for the medico legal resolution.


Se presenta un caso de variación de origen de la arteria coronaria derecha desde el seno aórtico posterior izquierdo. Esto se observó de forma rutinaria durante una autopsia médico-legal de un hombre de 58 años que murió en un accidente de tránsito. Inicialmente se creía que la arteria coronaria derecha estaba ausente ya que no había un ostium observable desde el seno aórtico anterior. Sin embargo, se descubrió más tarde que el ostium de la arteria coronaria derecha estaba presente justo al lado del ostium de la arteria coronaria izquierda en el seno aórtico posterior izquierdo y la arteria coronaria derecha se originaba del seno aórtico posterior izquierdo. La arteria coronaria derecha presentó un recorrido intramural entre la aorta y el tronco pulmonar, que se considera como muy peligroso y potencialmente mortal. Creemos que el presente trabajo será esclarecedor para el cardiólogo y el cirujano cardiotorácico. También consideramos que el conocimiento de la anatomía de las arterias coronarias es importante durante el desarrollo de la autopsia médico-legal para lograr alcanzar una correcta resolución del proceso medicolegal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anatomic Variation , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Sinus of Valsalva/abnormalities , Autopsy , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Sinus of Valsalva/anatomy & histology
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(supl.1): 8-14, June 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: lil-798018

ABSTRACT

Com este estudo objetivou-se descrever os aspectos anatômicos e histológicos do coração do jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare), proveniente de zoocriadouro. Para tanto, estudou-se 13 exemplares da espécie, os quais foram perfundidos, conservados em solução de formaldeído a 10% e submetidos às técnicas anatômicas específicas. O coração foi separado e amostras foram colhidas e submetidas à avaliação histológica. Macroscopicamente o coração é tetracavitário, e além de dois átrios e dois ventrículos, apresenta uma estrutura denominada cone arterial, do qual emergem os vasos da base do coração. Foram identificadas duas aortas, direita e esquerda, sendo que a esquerda emerge do ventrículo direito e se comunica com o tronco sistêmico direito por meio do forame de Panizza. Histologicamente o coração possui epicárdio, miocárdio e endocárdio típicos. Concluímos que a histologia do coração, no jacaré-do-pantanal, é semelhante à de outras espécies de répteis. Contudo, anatomicamente apresenta particularidades importantes, as quais representam, possivelmente, adaptações que permitiram a perpetuação da espécie.(AU)


The aim of this study was to describe anatomical and histological aspects of the heart of Caiman yacare from a crocodile breeding center. For this purpose, we have chosen and further studied 13 specimens which were perfused and preserved in a 10% formaldehyde solution and they were subjected to the specific anatomical techniques. The heart was separated and samples were collected and submitted to the specific histological procedures. Macroscopically, the heart is four-chambered and besides two atria and two ventricles, has a structure called arterial cone from which the large vessels of the heart emerge. Two aortas, left and right, were identified. The left aorta emerges from the right ventricle and communicates with the systemic trunk through the Foramen of Panizza. From a histological point of view, the heart is typically composed of epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. According to these observations, it is assumed that the histology of the heart of "Jacaré-do-Pantanal" is similar to other species of reptiles. However, there are some anatomic particularities, which possibly represent the adaptations allowing the perpetuation of the species.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Alligators and Crocodiles/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Reptiles
13.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.43-63.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971527
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1205-1212, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772296

ABSTRACT

Revascularization surgery should ensure morphological similarity between the coronary artery and the graft. This is an important factor for its duration and permeability. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological characteristics and morphometrics of the coronary artery segments with greater occlusion. This was an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study that consisted of two phases. A macroscopic phase in which 11 cadaveric hearts were extracted and coronary dominance and length of the anterior interventricular artery (AIA), the right coronary artery (RCA) and the circumflex artery (CXA) were determined. In the microscopic phase a total of 77 segments of these arteries were obtained and the luminal diameter, wall thickness, and amount of elastic fibers and the presence and size of the atheroma were determined. Right coronary dominance was the most frequent. Total vessel length was 15.65±1.17 cm for the AIA, 12.67±2.02 cm for the RCA and 8.79±2.5 cm for the CXA. Diameters ranged from 2.3 mm in the proximal segments and between 1.1 mm to 1.8 mm in the distal segments. Wall thickness in the proximal segments was between 354 µm and 396 µm and in the distal segments it ranged from 120 µm to 305 µm. The amount of elastic fibers showed that they were muscular arteries. Atheromas were present in 35% in the CXA, and in 32.5% in the AIA and the RCA. The largest ones were found in the proximal segments. This study examined the morphology and morphometry of the segments of the coronary arteries that are more frequently occluded. It provides information on the most significant parameters to be considered for election of the vascular graft in myocardial revascularization surgery.


En la cirugía de revascularización miocárdica se debe asegurar la similitud morfológica entre la arteria coronaria y el injerto. Esto es un factor importante en su duración y permeabilidad. El objetivo fue analizar las características morfológicas y morfométricas de los segmentos de mayor oclusión de las arterias coronarias. Estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo que constó de dos fases. Una macroscópica en la que se extrajeron 11 corazones de cadáveres y se determinó la dominancia coronaria y longitud de la arteria interventricular anterior (AIA), la arteria coronaria derecha (ACD) y la arteria circunfleja (ACX). En la fase microscópica se obtuvo un total de 77 segmentos de estas arterias y se determinó el diámetro luminal, grosor de pared, cantidad de fibras elásticas y presencia y tamaño de ateroma. La dominancia coronaria derecha fue la más frecuente. La longitud total de los vasos fue de 15,65±1,17 cm para la AIA, de 12,67±2,02 cm para la ACD y 8,79±2,5 cm para la ACX. Los diámetros oscilaron entre los 2,3 mm en los segmentos proximales y entre 1,1 mm a 1,8 mm en los segmentos distales. Los grosores de pared en los segmentos proximales se presentaron entre 354 µm y 396 µm y en los segmentos distales oscilaron entre 120 µm a 305 µm. La cantidad de fibras elásticas demostró que son arterias musculares. El 35% de los ateromas se presentó en la ACX y el 32,5% en la AIA al igual que en la ACD. Los de mayor tamaño se encontraron en los segmentos proximales. Este estudio analizó la morfología y la morfometría de los segmentos de las arterias coronarias que se ocluyen con mayor frecuencia. Los resultados encontrados aporta información sobre los parámetros más significativos que se deben considerar para la elección del injerto vascular en la cirugía de revascularización miocárdica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Cadaver , Coronary Vessels/ultrastructure , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(3): 783-789, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753910

ABSTRACT

Coronary dominance in swine has been poorly evaluated. The frequencies of each type of dominance have been described, but few details have been given as to the different expressions of each one. The aim of this study was to characterize coronary dominance in commercial breed swine. One hundred and fifty eight pig hearts were evaluated. The coronary arteries (CA) were infused with synthetic resin (Palatal 85% and Styrene15%) through the ostia after channeling. The coronary artery that gives origin to the posterior interventricular artery (PIA), and the site of termination of both the circumflex arteries (CXA), and left retroventricular branch (LRVB) were determined in order to establish the coronary dominance pattern. Right coronary dominance was found in 105 hearts (66.5%), and a balanced circulation in 53 specimens (33.5%). No dominance was observed for the left coronary artery in the hearts studied. The CXA ended on the posterior aspect of the left ventricle in 101 samples (64%) and on the crux cordis in 55 specimens (34.8%). In two specimens (1.3%) it ended as a left marginal artery. In all cases the PIA was a branch of the RCA, and was long in 105 hearts (66%), 55% of which corresponded to males and 45% to females, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.77). The AIA ended on the apex in 126 specimens (80%), 71 of which (56%) corresponded to males and 55 (44%) to females (p=0.74)...


A dominância coronária em suínos tem sido pouco avaliada. Descreveram-se as frequências de cada um dos tipos, mas não detalharam as diferentes expressões de cada um deles. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a dominância coronária em suínos de raças comerciais. Avaliaram-se 158 corações de suínos. As artérias coronárias (AC) foram infundidas através da canalização dos seus ostium com resina sintética (Palatal 85% e Estireno15%). Para estabelecer o tipo de dominância coronária, determinou-se de qual coronária desprendia-se a artéria interventricular posterior (AIP) e o lugar de finalização das artérias circunflexa (ACX) e do ramo retro ventricular esquerdo (RRVI). Encontrou-se dominância coronária direita em 105 corações (66%) e circulação balanceada em 53 exemplares (34%). Não foi observada a dominância coronária esquerda nos corações estudados. O calibre proximal e médio da ACD nos casos de dominância coronária direita foi de 3,84 ± 0,80 mm. Por outro lado, encontrou-se que este mesmo calibre nos corações com dominância coronária balanceada foi de 3,97 + 0,79 mm. (p=0,88). A ACX finalizou-se na face posterior do ventrículo esquerdo em 101 amostras (64%) e na crux cordis em 55 exemplares (34,8%). A AIP emergiu em todos os casos da ACD sendo comprida em 105 corações (66%) dos quais 55% correspondia a machos e 45% a fêmeas, sem que esta diferença fosse estatisticamente significativa (p=0,77). A AIA finalizou-se no ápice em 126 exemplares (80%), dos quais 71 (56%) corresponderam a machos e 55 (44%) a fêmeas (p=0,74)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Swine/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/veterinary , Heart/anatomy & histology , Ventricular Function , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(4): 1089-1096, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722583

ABSTRACT

Diante do escasso conhecimento morfofisiológico do trato digestório do Tamandua tetradactyla, este trabalho pretendeu esclarecer a morfologia do estômago dessa espécie. Utilizaram-se seis espécimes, sendo três machos e três fêmeas jovens, provenientes da área de Mina Bauxita Paragominas - PA, doados, após morte por atropelamento, ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA). Os animais foram fixados com solução aquosa de formaldeído (10 por cento), seguido de dissecação, avaliação da topografia do estômago, com posterior descrição, mensuração e coleta de material para microscopia. As análises topográfica e macroscópica revelaram que o estômago, unicavitário, com presença de pequena e grande curvaturas, estava localizado no antímero esquerdo da cavidade abdominal, ligado cranialmente ao esôfago e caudalmente ao duodeno, e apresentou um aumento de superfície na região pilórica (toro pilórico). Histologicamente, era constituído por epitélio colunar simples (região glandular), epitélio estratificado pavimentoso (região aglandular), lâmina própria, muscular da mucosa, submucosa, muscular circular interna, muscular longitudinal externa e serosa. A região do piloro apresentou um grande espessamento da camada muscular da mucosa, e foram observadas nesta região fossetas gástricas profundas. O estômago de T. tetradactyla revelou características morfológicas macroscópicas e histológicas semelhantes às espécies domésticas e selvagens...


Given the limited morphophysiological knowledge about the digestive tract of Tamandua tetradactyla, this study aimed to clarify the morphology of the stomach of this species. We used six young specimens, three males and three females, from the area of Paragominas bauxite mine - PA, donated after death by trampling, to the Research Laboratory Animal Morphological (LaPMA). The animals were fixed with an aqueous solution of formaldehyde (10 percent), followed by dissection, evaluation of the topography of the stomach, with further description, measurement and collection of material for microscopy. The topographical and macroscopic analysis showed that the stomach was located in left on-timer of the abdominal cavity, connected entirely to the esophagus and caudally to the duodenum, was unicavitary with the presence of small and large curvature and showed a surface increase in the pyloric region (torus pylorus). Histologically it was composed of simple columnar epithelium (glandular region), stratified epithelium (aglandular region), lamina propria, muscular of mucous, submucous, muscular internal circular, muscular external longitudinal and serosa. The region of the pylorus presented a great thickening of the muscular layer of mucous, and deep gastric pits were observed in this region. The stomach of T. tetradactyla revealed macroscopic and histological morphological characteristics similar to domestic and wild species...


Subject(s)
Animals , Heart/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Cingulata/anatomy & histology , Biometry , Thoracic Cavity/anatomy & histology
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(4): 1105-1111, 08/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722586

ABSTRACT

O Tamandua tetradactyla é uma espécie da ordem Xenarthra que apresenta coloração amarelada na cabeça, nos membros e na parte anterior do dorso, sendo o restante do corpo negro, formando uma espécie de colete, por isso também é chamado de "tamanduá-de-colete". Objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, a topografia e a irrigação cardíaca do Tamandua tetradactyla. Foram utilizados quatro espécimes jovens, provenientes da área de Mina Bauxita - Paragominas, Pará, que foram doados à Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia - UFRA, após morte por atropelamento. O sistema arterial foi preenchido com látex contrastado, e os animais foram fixados em uma solução de formaldeído a 10%. A cavidade torácica foi acessada e permitiu a análise topográfica do coração, com posterior mensuração, descrição morfológica e vascular. O coração estava localizado entre o terceiro e o quinto espaço intercostal, apresentando duas artérias coronárias, direita e esquerda, que se originaram do seio aórtico. O tipo de irrigação para esta espécie variou entre a do tipo equilibrada e a direita. Nos sulcos coronários, localizavam-se os ramos circunflexos das artérias coronárias, originando os ramos interventriculares paraconal e subsinuoso. Além das quatro câmaras cardíacas, observaram-se também as valvas tricúspide e bicúspide, cordas tendíneas, trabéculas carnosas e trabéculas septo marginal, músculos papilares nas câmaras ventriculares e músculos pectiniformes nas câmaras atriais...


The Tamandua tetradactyla and a specie of the Xenarthra order that presents yellowish color in the head, limbs and anterior part of the dorsum and the rest of the black body, forming a sort of vest, so it is also called "collared anteater". This study aimed to describe the morphology, topography and cardiac irrigation of the Tamandua tetradactyla. Four young specimens were used, from the bauxite mine area - Paragominas, Pará, which were donated to the Federal Rural University of Amazon - UFRA, after death due to running over. The arterial system was filled with contrasted latex and the animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde solution. The thoracic cavity was accessed by allowing the topographic analysis of the heart, with subsequent measurement, morphological and vascular description. The heart was located between the 3rd and 5th intercostal space, showing two coronary arteries, dextra and sinistra, that originated from the Sinus aortae. The type of irrigation for this species varied between the balanced and the right. In the coronary sulcus there were branches of circumflex coronary arteries, originating the Ramus interventricularis subsinuosus and Ramus interventricularis paraconalis. In addition to the four cardiac chambers we observed the tricuspid and bicuspid valves, chordae tendineae, trabeculaes carneae and trabeculaes septomarginales, the Musculus papillaris in ventricular chambers and Musculus pectiniform in atrial chambers...


Subject(s)
Animals , Heart/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Cingulata/anatomy & histology , Myocardium , Thorax
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(2): 214-220, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719419

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In spite of its importance as an experimental model, the information on the left coronary artery in pigs is sparse. Objective: To determine the morphologic features of the left coronary artery in pigs. Methods: We evaluated 158 pig hearts. The left coronary artery was perfused with synthetic resin after their ostia had been catheterized. Diameters and courses of the vascular beds were measured with an electronic caliper (Mitutoyo(r)). Results: The diameter of left coronary artery was 6.98 ± 1.56 mm and its length was 3.51±0.99 mm. It was found to end up by bifurcating itself into the anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery in 79% of the cases, and by trifurcating in 21% of the cases, with the presence of the diagonal artery. The anterior interventricular artery ended up at the apex in 79.7% of the cases, and the circumflex artery at the posterior aspect of the left ventricle in 64% of the case, this artery never reached the posterior interventricular sulcus. An anastomosis between the terminal branches of the anterior interventricular artery and the posterior interventricular artery was found in 7.6% of the specimens. The antero-superior branch of the anterior interventricular artery occurred in 89.9% of the hearts. A left marginal branch was observed in 87.9% of the cases with a diameter of 2.25±0.55 mm. Conclusion: Compared with humans, pigs have shorter left coronary artery trunks and branches; even the circumflex artery never reaches the posterior interventricular sulcus. Our findings are useful for the design of experimental hemodynamic and procedural models. .


Introdução: Apesar de sua importância como modelo experimental, a informação sobre a artéria coronária esquerda em suínos é escassa. Objetivo: Determinar as características morfológicas da artéria coronária esquerda em suínos. Métodos: Foram avaliados 158 corações de porcos. A artéria coronária esquerda foram perfundidos com resina sintética após a sua óstios foram cateterizados. Diâmetros e cursos dos leitos vasculares foram medidos com um paquímetro eletrônico (Mitutoyo(r)). Resultados: O diâmetro da artéria coronária esquerda foi 6,98±1,56 mm e seu comprimento era de 3,51±0,99 mm. Verificou-se que acabam bifurcando-se no interior da artéria descendente anterior e da artéria circunflexa em 79 % dos casos, e dividindo-se em três em 21% dos casos, com a presença da artéria diagonal. A artéria interventricular anterior acabou no ápice em 79,7% dos casos, sendo a artéria marginal na face posterior do ventrículo esquerdo em 64% dos casos, esta artéria nunca chegou ao sulco interventricular posterior. Uma anastomose entre os ramos terminais da artéria interventricular anterior e artéria interventricular posterior foi encontrado em 7,6% das amostras. O ramo ântero-superior da artéria interventricular anterior ocorreu em 89,9% dos corações. Um ramo marginal esquerda foi observado em 87,9% dos casos, com diâmetro de 2,25±0,55 mm. Conclusão: Em comparação com os seres humanos, os porcos têm troncos das artérias coronárias esquerdas mais curtos e ramos; até a artéria circunflexa nunca atinge o sulco interventricular posterior. Nossos resultados são úteis para a concepção de hemodinâmica experimental e modelos processuais. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Models, Animal , Coronary Circulation , Cross-Over Studies , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Organ Size , Swine
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(4): 1289-1296, Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702307

ABSTRACT

A few studies conducted on the morphology of coronary arteries in pigs emphasize the description of its course and number of branches. The objective of this study was to determine the anatomic expression of the right coronary artery (RCA) in pigs of commercial stock. One hundred and fifty eight hearts obtained from pigs destined to sacrifice were studied. The RCA were perfused with polyester resin (Palatal 85 percent and Styrene 15 percent) and then subjected to KOH infusion for 5 minutes to release the subepicardial fat. Diameters were measured and courses were evaluated. Results: The diameter of the RCA in its proximal portion was 3.85 mm (SD 0.75). The right artery of the cone originated from the RCA in 100 specimens (63.3 percent) and from the aorta (third coronary) in 8 specimens (5.1 percent). The posterior interventricular branch (PIB) reached the apex in the majority of the cases (49.3 percent). Its proximal diameter was 2.75 mm (SD 0.61). The sinoatrial node branch (SAB) and the atrioventricular node branch (AVNB) originated from the RCA in 100 percent of the specimens. The diameters of the SAB and AVNB were 1.1 mm (SD 0.30) and 1.16 mm (SD 0.30), respectively. The posterior right diagonal branch was not observed. There is an agreement with most prior studies with respect to both SAB and AVNB emerging from the RCA. Morphometric and qualitative knowledge of the RCA and its branches in pigs is relevant for the design of procedural and hemodynamic models.


Los escasos estudios realizados con relación a la morfología de las arterias coronarias en porcinos enfatizan en descripciones de sus trayectorias y número de ramas. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la expresión anatómica de la arteria coronaria derecha (ACD) en cerdos de razas comerciales. Fueron estudiados 158 corazones extraídos de cerdos destinados al sacrificio. Las ACD fueron perfundidas con resina poliéster (Palatal 85 por ciento y Estireno15 por ciento) y posteriormente sometidas a infusión de KOH durante 5 minutos para liberar la grasa subepicárdica. Se midieron calibres y evaluaron trayectorias. El calibre de la ACD en su porción proximal fue 3,85 mm (DE 0,75). La arteria derecha del cono se originó de la ACD en 100 especímenes (92,6 por ciento) y de la aorta (tercera coronaria) en 8 (7,4 por ciento). La arteria interventricular posterior (AIP) alcanzó el ápex en la mayoría de los casos (49,3 por ciento.) Su calibre proximal fue 2,75 mm (DE 0,61). La rama del nodo sinusal (RNS) y la rama del nodo atrio ventricular (RNAV) se originaron de la ACD en el 100 por ciento de los especímenes. Los calibres de la RNS y RNAV fueron 1,1 mm (DE 0,30) y 1,16 mm (DE 0,30) respectivamente. No se observó rama posterolateral. Existe concordancia con la mayoría de estudios previos con relación a la emergencia desde la ACD de las ramas RNS y RNAV. El conocimiento morfométrico y cualitativo de la ACD y sus ramas en porcinos, es relevante para el diseño de modelos procedimentales y hemodinámicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sinoatrial Node/anatomy & histology , Swine/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Cross-Sectional Studies
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(4): 1393-1398, Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702323

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the left coronary artery (LCA) anatomy is important for accurate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in the management of coronary arterial diseases. This angiographic study aims to document the parameters of the LCA that may be of importance in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases. An analysis of 151 coronary angiograms obtained from the cardiac catheterization laboratory in the eThekwini Municipality area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa was performed. The mean length and diameter of the LCA were 10.4+/-4.1 mm (range 2.8-23.9 mm) and 3.8+/-0.8 mm (range 2.1-6.5 mm), respectively. The mean angle of division between the two main branches was 86.2°+/-26.1° (range 27°-68.5°). There was a positive correlation between the length and the angle of division of the LCA, with the longest LCAs having the largest angle of division. The branching patterns of the LCA were 80.8 percent, 18.5 percent and 0.7 percent for bifurcation, trifurcation and quadrifurcation, respectively. Coronary arterial dominance was 81.5 percent, 15.2 percent, and 3.3 percent for right, left, and co-dominance, respectively. This study corroborated earlier findings that the longer the length, the wider the angle of LCA division. A wide angle of LCA division, the shape and disposition of the proximal tract of LCA branches may affect flow, interfere with proper deployment of stents or may predispose to earlier atherosclerotic lesions.


La comprensión anatómica de la arteria coronaria izquierda (ACI) es importante para el diagnóstico e intervención terapéutica en el tratamiento de enfermedades arteriales coronarias. Este estudio angiográfico tuvo como objetivo documentar los parámetros de la ACI que pueden ser de importancia en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de enfermedades de las arterias coronarias. Se realizó el análisis de 151 angiografías coronarias obtenidas del laboratorio de cateterización cardíaca en el área del Municipio eThekwini de KwaZulu-Natal, Sudáfrica. La longitud y diámetro promedio de la ACI fueron 10,4+/-4,1 mm (rango 2,8 a 23,9 mm) y 3,8+/-0,8 mm (rango de 2,1 hasta 6,5 mm), respectivamente. El ángulo medio de la división entre las dos ramas principales fue 86,2°+/-26,1° (rango 27°­168,5°). Hubo una correlación positiva entre la longitud y el ángulo de división de la ACI, donde las ACI más largas tuvieron un ángulo de división más grande. Los patrones de ramificación de la ACI fueron porcentualmente 80,8 por ciento, 18,5 por ciento y 0,7 por ciento para bifurcación, trifurcación y quadrifurcación, respectivamente. La dominancia arterial coronaria fue del 81,5 por ciento, 15,2 por ciento y 3,3 por ciento para la derecha, izquierda y en co-dominio, respectivamente. Este estudio corrobora hallazgos anteriores en que cuanto mayor sea la longitud, mayor será el ángulo de la división de ACI. Un amplio ángulo de la división de la ACI, la forma y la disposición del tracto proximal de las ramas de la ACI pueden afectar el flujo, interferir con el despliegue apropiado de los stents o predisponer a las lesiones ateroscleróticas tempranas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Angiography , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels , South Africa
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