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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 253-270, jun. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125077

ABSTRACT

Una de cada 4 coronariografías realizadas por isquemia miocárdica presenta lesiones menores al 50% Este dato desencadenó un creciente interés en la comunidad médica. La Sociedad Americana de Cardiología publicó recientemente un artículo que describe la posición consensuada de un grupo de expertos sobre la fisiopatología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta entidad. Nuestro trabajo refleja una revisión narrativa y la posición de un grupo de expertos pertenecientes a diferentes instituciones con servicios de Cardiología jerarquizados. Aborda aspectos fisiopatológicos y diagnósticos para comprender el enfoque actual del tratamiento, tanto en pacientes que ingresan con diagnóstico de MINOCA (infa rto de miocardio con lesiones angiográficas no graves) o de INOCA (angina e isquemia demostradas, pero sin lesiones coronarias que justifiquen este síndrome).


One in every four coronarographies performed to study myocardial ischemia shows coronary angiographic stenosis less than 50%. This data triggered an increasing interest in the medical community. The American Society of Cardiology recently published a position paper about the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this entity. Our group performed a narrative review reflecting the opinion of cardiology experts from different centers in Argentina. It aims physiopatologic and diagnostic aspect to understand the current approach in patients with MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries) e INOCA (demonstrated angina and ischemia but without coronary lesions that justify this syndrome).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Decision-Making , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cineangiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1114-1118, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055056

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Coronary dilatation is the most important complication of Kawasaki disease (KD) and, in addition to some clinical characteristics, is common to KD and febrile exanthematous illnesses (FEIs). Objective: To assess whether children with FEI, who do not meet the criteria for KD, have changes in coronary arteries dimensions. Methods: Echocardiography was performed within the first two weeks of the disease in patients < 10 years with fever and exanthema without other KD criteria. To make a comparison with KD patients, we reviewed the echocardiograms and medical records of patients with a diagnosis of KD of the last five years. Coronary ectasia was assessed using Z scores of coronary arteries. The means of the dimensions of the coronary arteries were compared with a z test and a level of significance of 0.05 was adopted. Results: A total of 34 patients were included, 22 (64.7%) with FEI, and 12(35.2%) with a diagnosis of KD. Using the Z scores of coronary artery, a dilation of any of the coronary artery branches was observed in six (27.2%) patients with FEI. Conclusions: An important percentage of patients with FEI has coronary artery dilation.


Resumo Fundamento: A dilatação das artérias coronárias é a principal complicação da Doença de Kawasaki (DK) e, além de algumas características clínicas, é comum à DK e a doenças exantemáticas febris (DEFs). Objetivo: Avaliar se crianças com DEF e que não têm critério para DK apresentam alterações nas dimensões das artérias coronárias. Métodos: Foi realizada ecocardiografia nas primeiras duas semanas da doença em crianças com idade inferior a 10 anos, que apresentaram febre e exantema e nenhum outro critério de DK. Para comparar com pacientes com DK, fizemos a revisão de ecocardiogramas e prontuários médicos de pacientes com diagnóstico de DK dos últimos cinco anos. Ectasia coronária foi avaliada usando escore Z das artérias coronárias. As médias das dimensões das artérias coronárias foram comparadas pelo teste z, e um nível de significância de 0,05 foi adotado. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 34 pacientes, 22 (64,7%) com diagnóstico de DEF e 12 (35,2%) com diagnóstico de DK. Usando o escore Z das artérias coronárias, observou-se dilatação em algum dos ramos da artéria coronária em seis (27,2%) pacientes com DEF. Conclusão: Uma porcentagem importante dos pacientes com DEFs apresenta dilatação das artérias coronárias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Dilatation, Pathologic/etiology , Fever/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Exanthema , Mexico
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 154-162, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983823

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, leading to endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis impairment . MiR-126 and miR-210 support angiogenic response in endothelial cells. Objective: The present study sought to explore the effect of garlic and voluntary exercise, alone or together, on miR-126 and miR-210 expressions and cardiac angiogenesis in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): Control, Diabetes, Diabetes+Garlic, Diabetes+Exercise, and Diabetes+Garlic+Exercise. Diabetes was induced in the animals by streptozotocin (ip, 50 mg/kg). The rats were then fed raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) or were subjected to voluntary exercise, or to combined garlic and voluntary exercise for 6 weeks. MiR-126 and miR-210 expressions in the myocardium were determined by real time PCR, and the serum lipid profile was measured by enzymatic kits. Angiogenesis was evaluated by immunostaining for PECAM-1/ CD31 in the myocardium. Results: Diabetes reduced both cardiac miR-126 expression and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there was a miR-210 expression increase in the myocardium of diabetic animals (p < 0.001). However, those effects reversed either with garlic or voluntary exercise (p < 0.01). Moreover, treating diabetic rats with garlic and voluntary exercise combined had an additional effect on the expressions of miR-126 and miR-210 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, both voluntary exercise and garlic significantly improved serum lipid profiles (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The induction of diabetes decreased angiogenesis in the myocardium, whereas our treatment using long-term voluntary exercise and garlic improved myocardial angiogenesis. These changes were possibly owing to the enhancement of myocardial miR-126 and miR-210 expressions.


Resumo Fundamento: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é um dos principais fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, levando à disfunção endotelial e inibição da angiogênese. O miRNA-126 e o miRNA-210 promovem a resposta angiogênica em células endoteliais. Objetivo: O presente estudo buscou explorar o efeito do alho e de exercícios físicos voluntários, isoladamente ou em conjunto, nas expressões do miRNA-126 e do miR-210 e na angiogênese cardíaca em ratos com diabetes tipo 1. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7): Controle, Diabetes, Diabetes+Alho, Diabetes+Exercícios e Diabetes+Alho+Exercícios. Introduziu-se diabetes nos animais por estreptozotocina (ip, 50 mg/kg). Os ratos foram então alimentados com homogenato de alho fresco cru (250 mg/kg), ou foram submetidos a exercícios voluntários, ou a uma combinação de alho e exercícios voluntários, durante 6 semanas. As expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 no miocárdio foram determinadas por PCR em tempo real, e o perfil lipídico sérico foi medido por kits enzimáticos. A angiogênese foi avaliada por imunocoloração por PECAM-1/CD31 no miocárdio Resultados: O diabetes reduziu a expressão do miRNA-126 cardíaco e da angiogênese (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, houve um aumento da expressão do miRNA-210 no miocárdio dos animais diabéticos (p < 0,001). No entanto, tais efeitos foram revertidos com alho ou exercícios voluntários (p < 0,01). Além disso, o tratamento de ratos diabéticos conjuntamente com alho e exercícios voluntários teve um efeito adicional sobre as expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 (p < 0,001). Além disso, tanto os exercícios voluntários quanto o alho melhoraram significativamente os perfis lipídicos séricos (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A indução de diabetes diminuiu a angiogênese no miocárdio, enquanto nosso tratamento com exercícios voluntários de longa duração e alho melhorou a angiogênese miocárdica. Estas alterações devem-se, possivelmente, ao aumento das expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA no miocárdio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Garlic/chemistry , Triglycerides/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart/physiopathology
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 211-216, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958403

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The present study aimed the functional recovery evaluation after long term of cardiac arrest induced by Custodiol (crystalloid-based) versus del Nido (blood-based) solutions, both added lidocaine and pinacidil as cardioplegic agents. Experiments were performed in isolated rat heart perfusion models. Methods: Male rat heart perfusions, according to Langendorff technique, were induced to cause 3 hours of cardiac arrest with a single dose. The hearts were assigned to one of the following three groups: (I) control; (II) Custodiol-LP; and (III) del Nido-LP. They were evaluated after ischemia throughout 90 minutes of reperfusion. Left ventricular contractility function was reported as percentage of recovery, expressed by developed pressure, maximum dP/dt, minimum dP/dt, and rate pressure product variables. In addition, coronary resistance and myocardial injury marker by alpha-fodrin degradation were also evaluated. Results: At 90 minutes of reperfusion, both solutions had superior left ventricular contractile recovery function than the control group. Del Nido-LP was superior to Custodiol-LP in maximum dP/dt (46%±8 vs. 67%±7, P<0.05) and minimum dP/dt (31%±4 vs. 51%±9, P<0.05) variables. Coronary resistance was lower in del Nido-LP group than in Custodiol-LP (395%±50 vs. 307%±13, P<0.05), as well as alpha-fodrin degradation, with lower levels in del Nido-LP group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Del Nido-LP cardioplegia showed higher functional recovery after 3 hours of ischemia. The analysis of alpha-fodrin degradation showed del Nido-LP solution provided greater protection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Potassium Compounds/pharmacology , Pinacidil/pharmacology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Cardioplegic Solutions/chemistry , Carrier Proteins/analysis , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose/chemistry , Heart/drug effects , Mannitol/pharmacology , Mannitol/chemistry , Microfilament Proteins/analysis
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 354-361, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-888050

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Unstable angina (UA) is a common cause of hospital admission; risk stratification helps determine strategies for treatment. Objective: To determine the applicability of two-dimensional longitudinal strain (SL2D) for the identification of myocardial ischemia in patients with UA. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study lasting 60 days. The sample consisted of 78 patients, of which fifteen (19.2%) were eligible for longitudinal strain analysis. The value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The group of ineligible patients presented: a lower proportion of women, a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), use of ASA, statins and beta-blockers and larger cavity diameters. The main causes of non-applicability were: presence of previous infarction (56.4%), previous CTA (22.1%), previous MRI (11.5%) or both (16.7%) and the presence of specific electrocardiographic abnormalities (12.8%). SL2D assessment revealed a lower global strain value in those with stenosis greater than 70% in some epicardial coronary arteries (17.1 [3.1] versus 20.2 [6.7], with p = 0.014). Segmental strain assessment showed an association between severe CX and RD lesions with longitudinal strain reduction of lateral and inferior walls basal segments; (14 [5] versus 21 [10], with p = 0.04) and (12.5 [6] versus 19 [8], respectively). Conclusion: There was very low SL2D applicability to assess ischemia in the studied population. However, the global strain showed a correlation with the presence of significant coronary lesion, which could be included in the UA diagnostic arsenal in the future.


Resumo Fundamento: A angina instável (AI) é uma causa comum de internação hospitalar, a estratificação de risco ajuda a determinar estratégias para o tratamento. Objetivo: Determinar a aplicabilidade do strain longitudinal bidimensional (SL2D) para identificação de isquemia miocárdica, em pacientes com AI. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal, descritivo, com duração de 60 dias. A amostra foi composta por 78 pacientes, sendo quinze (19,2%) elegíveis para análise do strain longitudinal. O valor de p < 0.05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: O grupo dos não elegíveis apresentou: menor proporção de mulheres, maior prevalência de diabetes mellitus (DM), do uso de AAS, estatinas e betabloqueadores e maiores diâmetros cavitários. As principais causas da não aplicabilidade foram: presença de infarto prévio (56,4%), ATC prévia (22,1%), RM prévia (11,5%) ou ambos (16,7%) e presença de alterações eletrocardiográficas específicas (12,8%). A avaliação do SL2D revelou um valor de strain global inferior naqueles com estenose maior que 70% em alguma coronária epicárdica (17,1 [3,1] versus 20,2 [6,7], com p = 0,014). A avaliação do strain segmentar demonstrou associação entre lesão grave nas coronárias CX e CD com redução do strain longitudinal dos segmentos basais das paredes lateral e inferior; (14 [5] versus 21 [10], com p = 0,04) e (12,5 [6] versus 19 [8], com p = 0,026), respectivamente. Conclusão: Houve aplicabilidade muito baixa do SL2D para avaliar isquemia na população estudada. Entretanto, o strain global apresentou correlação com presença de lesão coronária significativa, podendo, futuramente, ser incluído no arsenal diagnóstico da AI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Angina, Unstable/physiopathology , Angina, Unstable/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Pressure/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography/methods
6.
Rev. mex. cardiol ; 28(4): 200-205, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961311

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: In some cases, ST segment elevation in right precordial leads in conjunction with inferior leads can be originated by an obstruction of the right coronary artery in its proximal portion, generating an inferior myocardial infarction which involves the right ventricle. Case presentation: We present the case of a 57-year-old male, which presents symptoms of acute coronary syndrome. The electrocardiogram shows subepicardial injury in anteroseptal leads (V1-V3) and elevation of ST segment in inferior leads (DIII, AVF). A coronariography is performed finding a complete obstruction of right coronary artery in the proximal portion, left coronary artery without lesions. Analysis: In right ventricular infarction or anteroseptal infarction, the ST segment vector always has a posterior- anterior direction in horizontal plane, the direction of this vector will produce an elevation of ST segment in leads V1 to V3 (even V4). Conclusion: It is necessary to do a correct analysis of the electrocardiogram for understanding the mentioned changes and to not assume that the electrocardiographic manifestations are a consequence of multivessel disease.(AU)


Resumen: Introducción: En algunos casos, la elevación del segmento ST en derivaciones precordiales derechas en conjunción con derivaciones inferiores, puede originarse por una obstrucción de la arteria coronaria derecha en su porción proximal, generando así un infarto de miocardio inferior que involucra al ventrículo derecho. Presentación del caso: Presentamos el caso de un paciente varón de 57 años, que presenta síntomas de síndrome coronario agudo, el electrocardiograma muestra lesión subepicárdica en derivaciones anteroseptales (V1-V3) y elevación del segmento ST en derivaciones inferiores (DIII, AVF). Una coronariografía se realiza encontrando una obstrucción completa de la arteria coronaria derecha en la porción proximal, arteria coronaria izquierda sin lesiones. Análisis: En el infarto ventricular derecho o infarto anteroseptal, el vector del segmento ST siempre tiene una dirección posterior-anterior en el plano horizontal, la dirección de este vector producirá una elevación del segmento ST en las derivaciones V1 a V3 (incluso V4). Conclusión: Es necesario hacer un análisis correcto del electrocardiograma para comprender los cambios mencionados y no asumir que las manifestaciones electrocardiográficas son consecuencia de la enfermedad multivaso.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Angiography/instrumentation , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Electrocardiography/instrumentation , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(2): f:163-l:170, mar.-abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833934

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho faz uma revisão sobre o tema de tortuosidade coronariana abordando várias situações na prática clínica aonde a tortuosidade coronariana pode desempenhar um papel relevante e procura avaliar se há correlação entre tortuosidade coronariana e a presença de isquemia miocárdica em pacientes sem obstruções coronarianas fazendo uma busca na literatura das evidências científicas. Livro-texto de Fisiologia em Cardiologia com estudo da circulação coronariana, artigos teóricos com estudos de Hemodinâmica, Dinâmica de Fluidos e de Mecânica e artigos experimentais com simulação em computadores serviram de sustentação para a formulação da hipótese a ser verificada


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Age Factors , Aging , Echocardiography/methods , Heart , Hypertension/complications , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(1): 38-46, Jan. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838681

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Functional assessment of coronary artery obstruction is used in cardiology practice to correlate anatomic obstructions with flow decrease. Among such assessments, the study of the coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR) has become the most widely used. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between FFR and findings of ischemia obtained by noninvasive methods including stress echocardiography and nuclear medicine and the presence of critical coronary artery obstruction. Methods: Retrospective study of cases treated with systematized and standardized procedures for coronary disease between March 2011 and August 2014. We included 96 patients with 107 critical coronary obstructions (> 50% in the coronary trunk and/or ≥ 70% in other segments) estimated by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS). All cases presented ischemia in one of the noninvasive studies. Results: All 96 patients presented ischemia (100%) in one of the functional tests. On FFR study with adenosine 140 g/kg/min, 52% of the cases had values ≤ 0.80. On correlation analysis for FFR ≤ 0.80, the evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and ROC curve in relation to the stenosis degree and length, and presence of ischemia, no significant values or strong correlation were observed. Conclusion: Coronary FFR using a cut-off value of 0.80 showed no correlation with noninvasive ischemia tests in patients with severe coronary artery obstructions on QCA and ICUS.


Resumo Fundamento: A avaliação funcional da obstrução arterial coronariana é empregada na prática cardiológica para correlacionar a obstrução anatômica e a queda de fluxo. Dentre as formas de avaliação, o estudo da reserva fracionada de fluxo (RFF) coronariano se tornou a mais utilizada. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre a RFF com achados de isquemia, obtidos por métodos não invasivos como a ecocardiografia de estresse ou medicina nuclear, e a presença de obstrução crítica da artéria coronária. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de casos tratados com procedimentos sistematizados e padronizados para doença coronariana entre março de 2011 e agosto de 2014. Foram incluídos 96 pacientes com 107 obstruções coronarianas críticas (> 50% no tronco da coronária e/ou ≥ 70% nos demais segmentos) estimadas por angiografia coronariana quantitativa (ACQ) e ultrassonografia intracoronariana (USIC). Todos os casos apresentaram isquemia em um dos estudos não invasivos. Resultados: Ao estudo da RFF com adenosina na dose de 140 µg/kg/min, valores ≤ 0,80 foram encontrados em 52% dos casos. Na análise de correlação para RFF ≤ 0,80, avaliando-se sensibilidade/especificidade, valor preditivo positivo/negativo, acurácia e curva ROC em relação ao grau de estenose, extensão da estenose e presença de isquemia, não foram observados valores de significância ou de forte correlação. Conclusão: A RFF coronariana a um valor de corte de 0,80 não apresentou correlação com testes não invasivos de isquemia em pacientes com obstruções coronarianas graves à ACQ e USIC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial/physiology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Cineangiography/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronary Angiography/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Stenosis/physiopathology , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods
9.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 259-262, 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-859866

ABSTRACT

Roubo coronariano da subclávia (RCS) é um fenômeno raro que ocorre em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica com enxerto de artéria torácica interna esquerda (ATIE) e que causa estenose da artéria subclávia ipsilateral e proximal à origem da ATIE. Relatamos o caso de um paciente masculino de 65 anos que apresentou quadro atípico de síndrome do RCS, manifestando-se como síndrome coronariana aguda no pós-operatório de cirurgia vascular (AU)


Coronary subclavian steal (CSS) is a rare phenomenon that occurs in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery using the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) causing stenosis of the ipsilateral subclavian artery proximal to the origin of the LITA. We report the case of a 65-year-old male patient who presented with atypical CSS syndrome, manifesting as acute coronary syndrome after vascular surgery (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Myocardial Revascularization/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/surgery
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 339-347, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827852

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. Objective: We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Method: Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group): control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate) was added to drinking water (100 mg/L) for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline) and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO metabolites (NOx). Results: Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Conclusion: Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart.


Resumo Fundamentos: A doença arterial coronariana é duas a três vezes mais comum em indivíduos diabéticos. O nitrato/nitrito dietético tem efeitos benéficos tanto para o diabetes quanto para a doença cardiovascular, assim como efeitos protetores contra a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (IR) miocárdica em animais saudáveis. Porém, os efeitos do nitrato na lesão de IR miocárdica em ratos diabéticos ainda não foram investigados. Objetivos: Foram examinados os efeitos sobre a lesão de IR miocárdica da adição de nitrato à dieta de ratos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 induzido por estreptozotocina-nicotinamida. Métodos: Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 7 em cada grupo): controle, controle+nitrato, diabetes e diabetes+nitrato. O diabetes foi induzido nos animais por injeção de estreptozotocina e nicotinamida. Nitrato (nitrato de sódio) foi adicionado à água de beber (100 mg/L) por 2 meses. Os corações foram perfundidos em sistema de Langendorff aos 2 meses e avaliados antes (basal) e após IR miocárdica em relação aos seguintes parâmetros: pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), taxas máximas de variação positiva e negativa da pressão ventricular esquerda (±dP/dt), expressão do RNAm da óxido nítrico (NO) sintase (NOS) endotelial (eNOS) e da NOS induzível (iNOS), além de níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) e metabólitos do óxido nítrico (NOx). Resultados: A recuperação da PDVE e ±dP/dt foi inferior nos ratos diabéticos versus controles, mas quase normalizou após ingestão de nitrato. Ratos diabéticos apresentaram expressão diminuída de eNOS e aumentada de iNOS tanto no estado basal quanto após IR, e o consumo dietético de nitrato restaurou estes valores para o estado normal após a IR. O nível de NOx cardíaco foi menor nos ratos diabéticos em comparação aos controles no momento basal, mas foi superior após a IR. Ratos diabéticos apresentaram níveis mais elevados de MDA tanto no estado basal quanto após IR que, juntamente com os níveis cardíacos de NOx, reduziram após consumo dietético do nitrato. Conclusões: O consumo dietético de nitrato por ratos diabéticos ofereceu cardioproteção contra a lesão de IR através da regulação da expressão de eNOS e iNOS e inibição da peroxidação lipídica no coração.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Nitrates/therapeutic use , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Streptozocin , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hemodynamics , Malondialdehyde/analysis
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(4): f:262-l:269, jul.-ago. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831823

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: A revascularização do miocárdio na doença triarterial e de tronco da coronária esquerda (TCE) pode ser realizada por intervenção coronariana percutânea (ICP) ou cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM). O estudo SYNTAX demonstrou resultados clínicos equivalentes em pacientes de baixa a moderada complexidade anatômica submetidos a CRM ou ICP. Objetivos: Avaliar a incidência de eventos cardiovasculares e taxa de nova revascularização coronariana em pacientes com lesão de TCE e triarterial submetidos à ICP. Métodos: Estudo de coorte observacional não randomizado que avaliou pacientes com doença coronariana triarterial ou de TCE submetidos à ICP com stent farmacológico no período de junho de 2013 a maio de 2015 no Hospital SOS Cardio de Florianópolis. Foram relatados dados basais, características anatômicas principais e desfechos clínicos durante a fase intra-hospitalar e durante seguimento de 12 meses. Resultados: Foram avaliados 46 pacientes com idade média de 69,9 anos. No momento basal, 39,1% apresentavam diabetes mellitus, 19,6% eram tabagistas, 78,3% eram dislipidêmicos, 10,9% apresentavam disfunção renal crônica e 15,2% disfunção ventricular moderada a severa. Quanto ao número de artérias acometidas, 24% eram triarteriais e 76% apresentavam lesão em TCE. Durante o período intra-hospitalar, ocorreu uma taxa de 4,34% de infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnível de ST. Durante esse período, não foi necessária reintervenção e não ocorreram óbitos. No seguimento de 12 meses, a mortalidade por causa cardiovascular foi de 4,35%. A taxa de nova revascularização por CRM foi de 4,3% e por angioplastia foi de 2,2%. Conclusão: Ocorreram baixas taxas de eventos cardiovasculares, indicando que a ICP pode ser uma alternativa aceitável em casos selecionados


Background: Myocardial revascularization in triple-vessel and left main coronary artery (LMCA) diseases can be performed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The SYNTAX trial demonstrated equivalent clinical results in patients with low to moderate anatomical complexity undergoing CABG or PCI. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of cardiovascular events and rates of new myocardial revascularization in patients with LMCA and triple-vessel lesions undergoing PCI. Methods: Nonrandomized, observational cohort study that evaluated patients with triple-vessel or LMCA diseases undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stent in the period from June 2013 to May 2015 at the Hospital SOS Cardio in Florianópolis. Baseline data, main anatomical features, and clinical outcomes were reported during the in-hospital phase and during a 12-month follow-up. Results: In total, 46 patients with a mean age of 69.9 years were evaluated. At baseline, 39.1% had diabetes mellitus, 19.6% were smokers, 78.3% had dyslipidemia, 10.9% had chronic renal dysfunction, and 15.2% had moderate to severe ventricular dysfunction. As regards the number of arteries affected, 24% had triple-vessel disease and 76% had lesions in the LMCA. During the in-hospital period, there was a 4.34% rate of acute myocardial infarction without ST elevation. During this period, reintervention was not required and no deaths occurred. In the 12-month follow-up, mortality from cardiovascular causes was 4.35%. The rate of new revascularization was 4.3% by CABG and 2.2% by angioplasty. Conclusion: The rates of cardiovascular events were low, indicating that PCI may be an acceptable alternative in selected cases


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/therapy , Coronary Vessels , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Cardiac Catheterization , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Heart Ventricles , Observational Studies as Topic , Risk Factors , Stents , Treatment Outcome
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(4): 390-398, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764464

ABSTRACT

Background:Vascular remodeling, the dynamic dimensional change in face of stress, can assume different directions as well as magnitudes in atherosclerotic disease. Classical measurements rely on reference to segments at a distance, risking inappropriate comparison between dislike vessel portions.Objective:to explore a new method for quantifying vessel remodeling, based on the comparison between a given target segment and its inferred normal dimensions.Methods:Geometric parameters and plaque composition were determined in 67 patients using three-vessel intravascular ultrasound with virtual histology (IVUS-VH). Coronary vessel remodeling at cross-section (n = 27.639) and lesion (n = 618) levels was assessed using classical metrics and a novel analytic algorithm based on the fractional vessel remodeling index (FVRI), which quantifies the total change in arterial wall dimensions related to the estimated normal dimension of the vessel. A prediction model was built to estimate the normal dimension of the vessel for calculation of FVRI.Results:According to the new algorithm, “Ectatic” remodeling pattern was least common, “Complete compensatory” remodeling was present in approximately half of the instances, and “Negative” and “Incomplete compensatory” remodeling types were detected in the remaining. Compared to a traditional diagnostic scheme, FVRI-based classification seemed to better discriminate plaque composition by IVUS-VH.Conclusion:Quantitative assessment of coronary remodeling using target segment dimensions offers a promising approach to evaluate the vessel response to plaque growth/regression.


Fundamento:O remodelamento vascular, alteração dimensional dinâmica frente ao estresse, pode assumir diferentes direções e magnitudes na doença aterosclerótica. As medidas clássicas baseiam-se em referências a distância do segmento-alvo, com risco de comparação inadequada pela seleção de porções vasculares indesejáveis.Objetivo:Explorar um novo método para quantificar remodelamento vascular, baseado na comparação entre um determinado segmento-alvo e suas dimensões normais inferidas.Métodos:Parâmetros geométricos e a composição da placa foram determinados em 67 pacientes usando-se ultrassom intravascular de três vasos com histologia virtual (IVUS-VH). Avaliou-se o remodelamento coronário ao nível da seção transversal (n = 27.639) e da lesão (n = 618) usando-se métrica clássica e um novo algoritmo analítico baseado no índice de remodelamento vascular fracionado (FVRI) que quantifica a alteração total nas dimensões da parede arterial em relação a dimensão normal estimada do vaso. Construiu-se um modelo preditivo para estimar a dimensão normal do vaso para calcular o FVRI.Resultados:De acordo com o novo algoritmo, o padrão de remodelamento “ectásico” foi o menos comum, o remodelamento “completo compensatório” foi observado em metade dos casos, e os tipos “negativo” e “incompleto compensatório” foram detectados nos restantes. Comparada ao esquema tradicional diagnóstico, a classificação baseada no FVRI pareceu melhor discriminar a composição da placa através de IVUS-VH.Conclusão:A análise quantitativa do remodelamento coronário utilizando dimensões do segmento-alvo oferece uma abordagem promissora para avaliar a resposta vascular ao crescimento e à regressão da placa.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Algorithms , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology , Vascular Remodeling/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/physiopathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography, Interventional
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214121

ABSTRACT

In women receiving evaluation for suspected ischemic symptoms, a "normal" diagnosis is five times more common than it is in men. These women are often labeled as having cardiac syndrome X, also known as microvascular angina (MVA). MVA is defined as angina pectoris caused by abnormalities of the small coronary arteries, and is characterized by effort chest pain and evidence of myocardial ischemia with a non-invasive stress test, although the coronary arteries can appear normal or near normal by angiography. MVA patients are often neglected due to the assumption of a good prognosis. However, MVA has important prognostic implications and a proper diagnosis is necessary in order to relieve the patients' symptoms and improve clinical outcomes. The coronary microvasculature cannot be directly imaged using coronary angiography, due to the small diameter of the vessels; therefore, the coronary microvascular must be assessed functionally. Treatment of MVA initially includes standard anti-ischemic drugs (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates), although control of symptoms is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MVA.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Female , Heart Function Tests , Humans , Male , Microcirculation , Microvascular Angina/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although drug-eluting stents (DESs) effectively reduce restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), they also delay re-endothelialization and impair microvascular function, resulting in adverse clinical outcomes. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) capturing stents, by providing a functional endothelial layer on the stent, have beneficial effects on microvascular function. However, data on coronary microvascular function in patients with EPC stents versus DESs are lacking. METHODS: Seventy-four patients who previously underwent PCI were enrolled in this study. Microvascular function was evaluated 6 months after PCI based on the index of microvascular resistance (IMR) and the coronary flow reserve (CFR). IMR was calculated as the ratio of the mean distal coronary pressure at maximal hyperemia to the inverse of the hyperemic mean transit time (hTmn). The CFR was calculated by dividing the hTmn by the baseline mean transit time. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (age, 67.2 +/- 9.6 years; male:female, 15:6) with an EPC stent and 53 patients (age, 61.5 +/- 14.7 years; male:female, 40:13) with second-generation DESs were included in the study. There were no significant differences in the baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of the two groups. Angiography performed 6 months postoperatively did not show significant differences in their CFR values. However, patients with the EPC stent had a significantly lower IMR than patients with second-generation DESs (median, 25.5 [interquartile range, 12.85 to 28.18] vs. 29.0 [interquartile range, 15.42 to 39.23]; p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular dysfunction was significantly improved after 6 months in patients with EPC stents compared to those with DESs. The complete re-endothelialization achieved with the EPC stent may provide clinical benefits over DESs, especially in patients with microvascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Flow Velocity , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Drug-Eluting Stents , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Microvessels/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/instrumentation , Prosthesis Design , Re-Epithelialization , Stents , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Resistance
16.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 22(4): 324-332, Oct-Dec/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744581

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O stent farmacológico liberador de sirolimus Firebird® já demonstrou eficácia na inibição de hiperplasia neointimal em pacientes selecionados submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho e o resultado clínico tardio do dispositivo Firebird® em pacientes submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea na prática diária nacional. Métodos: O Registro CLARIFIRE foi um estudo prospectivo, não randomizado, multicêntrico, que incluiu 455 pacientes (536 lesões) em 14 centros no Brasil entre dezembro de 2008 e maio de 2011. O seguimento clínico foi realizado aos 1, 6, 12 e 24 meses, e os eventos adversos foram adjudicados por um Comitê de Eventos Clínicos independente. Resultados: A média das idades foi de 61,1 ± 10,4 anos, 30,8% eram do sexo feminino, 41,9% tinham diabetes e 58,2% apresentaram-se com angina estável. O vaso-alvo mais prevalente foi a artéria descendente anterior (46,5%), 29,9% eram lesões reestenóticas e 8% lesões em bifurcação. Foram implantados 613 stents e as médias de extensão e diâmetro nominal dos stents foram 22,0 ± 6,4 mm e 2,90 ± 0,40 mm, respectivamente. O sucesso do procedimento foi de 97,6%. A taxa cumulativa de eventos cardíacos adversos maiores aos 12 meses (desfecho primário) foi 8,1%. Considerando-se os eventos pós-hospitalização até 24 meses (409/455), observaram-se eventos cardíacos adversos maiores em 9,8%, morte cardíaca em 3,9% e revascularização do vaso-alvo em 7,6%. Já a trombose de stent (definitiva/provável) ocorreu em nove casos (2%) até 30 dias, sem ocorrências subsequentes. Conclusões: O stent farmacológico liberador de sirolimus Firebird ® demonstrou desempenho favorável, Além de segurança e eficácia sustentadas no tratamento de pacientes da prática diária, conforme evidenciado pela elevada taxa de sucesso do procedimento e pela ocorrência relativamente baixa de eventos adversos ao final de 2 anos...


Background: The Firebird™ sirolimus-eluting stent has proven to be effective in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in selected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Our objective was to evaluate the performance and long-term outcomes of Firebird ™ in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in daily practice in Brazil. Methods: The CLARIFIRE Registry was a prospective, non-randomized, multicenter study enrolling 455 patients (536 lesions) in 14 Brazilian sites between December 2008 and May 2011. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months, and adverse events were adjudicated by the independent Clinical Events Committee. Results: Mean age was 61.1 ± 10.4 years, 30.8% were women, 41.9% had diabetes, and 58.2% had stable angina. The left anterior descending artery was the most prevalent target vessel (46.5%), 29.9% were restenotic lesions, and 8% were bifurcations. Six hundred and thirteen stents were implanted, and the mean nominal stent length and diameter were 22.0 ± 6.4 mm and 2.90 ± 0.40 mm, respectively. Procedural success was 97.6%. The cumulative major adverse cardiac events rate at 12 months (primary endpoint) was 8.1%. Considering post-discharge events up to 24 months (409/455), major adverse cardiac events were observed in 9.8%, cardiac death in 3.9%, and target vessel revascularization in 7.6% of the patients. Definite/probable stent thrombosis was observed in nine cases (2%) up to 30 days, and no further occurrences were found. Conclusions: The Firebird ™ sirolimus-eluting stent has demonstrated good performance and sustained safety and efficacy for patients treated in daily practice, as evidenced by the high procedural success rates and relatively low adverse event rates after 2 years...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Drug-Eluting Stents , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Sirolimus , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus , Electrocardiography/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Polymers , Prospective Studies , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(4): 505-512, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741730

ABSTRACT

Objective: To perform a comparative assessment of two surgical techniques that are used creating an acute myocardial infarc by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery in order to generate rats with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Methods: The study was completely randomized and comprised 89 halothane-anaesthetised rats, which were divided into three groups. The control group (SHAM) comprised fourteen rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was not occluded. Group 1 (G1): comprised by 35 endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Group 2 (G2): comprised 40 rats being manually ventilated using a nasal respirator whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Other differences between the two techniques include the method of performing the thoracotomy and removing the pericardium in order to expose the heart, and the use of different methods and suture types for closing the thorax. Seven days after surgery, the cardiac function of all surviving rats was determined by echocardiography. Results: No rats SHAM group had progressed to death or had left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%. Nine of the 16 surviving G1 rats (56.3%) and six of the 20 surviving G2 rats (30%) had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Conclusion: The results indicate a tendency of the technique used in G1 to be better than in G2. This improvement is probably due to the greater duration of the open thorax, which reduces the pressure over time from the surgeon, allowing occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery with higher accuracy. .


Objetivo: Realizar uma avaliação comparativa de duas técnicas cirúrgicas que são usadas para criar um infarto agudo do miocárdio pela oclusão da artéria coronária descendente anterior esquerda, a fim de gerar ratos com uma fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda inferior a 40%. Métodos: O estudo foi completamente randomizado e composto por 89 ratos anestesiados com halotano, que foram divididos dentro de três grupos. O grupo controle (SHAM) composto por 14 ratos, cuja artéria coronária descendente anterior esquerda não foi ocluída. Grupo 1 (G1): composto por 35 ratos intubados endotraquealmente e ventilados mecanicamente, cuja artéria coronária descendente anterior esquerda foi ocluída. Grupo 2 (G2): constituído por 40 ratos sendo ventilados manualmente utilizando um respirador nasal, cuja artéria coronária descendente anterior esquerda foi ocluída. Outras diferenças entre as duas técnicas incluem o método de realizar a toracotomia e remover o pericárdio, a fim de expor o coração, e o uso de diferentes métodos e tipos de sutura para fechar o tórax. Sete dias após a cirurgia, a função cardíaca de todos os ratos sobreviventes foi determinada por ecocardiografia. Resultados: Nenhum rato do grupo SHAM foi a óbito ou teve fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda menor que 40%. Nove dos 16 ratos sobreviventes do G1 (56,3%) e seis dos 20 ratos sobreviventes do G2 (30%) tiveram uma fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda inferior a 40%. Conclusão: Os resultados indicam uma tendência da técnica utilizada no G1 ser melhor do que a do G2. Esta melhora deve-se provavelmente à maior duração do tórax aberto, o que reduz a pressão de tempo sobre o cirurgião, permitindo uma oclusão da artéria coronária descendente anterior esquerda com maior acurácia. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Coronary Occlusion/etiology , Coronary Vessels/surgery , Disease Models, Animal , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Coronary Occlusion/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Heart/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(2): 192-201, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719403

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a perviedade da artéria torácica interna direita pediculada, anteroaórtica em anastomose para o ramo interventricular anterior na revascularização do miocárdio, em relação à artéria torácica interna esquerda, com o uso de angiotomografia coronária, no 6º mês de pós-operatório. Métodos: No período de dezembro de 2008 a dezembro de 2011, 100 pacientes foram selecionados, prospectivamente, para cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea. Foram agrupados em Grupo-1 (G-1) e Grupo-2 (G-2), com 50 pacientes cada, randomização por computador e conhecimento da técnica no início da cirurgia. No G-1, os pacientes receberam artéria torácica interna esquerda para o ramo interventricular anterior e complementação da revascularização do miocárdio com a artéria torácica interna direita livre para ramos da circunflexa. Os pacientes do G-2 receberam artéria torácica interna direita pediculada para o ramo interventricular anterior e complementação da revascularização do miocárdio com artéria torácica interna esquerda, pediculada, para ramos da circunflexa. Resultados: Os grupos eram semelhantes quanto aos dados clínicos de pré-operatório. Houve predominância do sexo masculino, 75,6% e 88% nos grupos 1 e 2 respectivamente. Cinco pacientes migraram do G-1 para o G-2 devido à doença ateromatosa na aorta ascendente. A média de anastomoses distais no G-1 foi de 3,48 (DP=0,72), e no G-2 foi de 3,20 (DP=0,76). Os resultados das angiotomografias coronarianas em 96 pacientes reestudados mostraram que todas as artérias torácicas internas, direita ou esquerda, utilizadas pediculadas para a região anterior do coração encontravam-se ...


Objective: To assess the patency of the pedicled right internal thoracic artery with an anteroaortic course and compare it to the patency of the left internal thoracic artery , in anastomosis to the left anterior descending artery in coronary artery bypass grafting by using coronary CT angiography at 6 months postoperatively. Methods: Between December 2008 and December 2011, 100 patients were selected to undergo a prospective coronary artery bypass grafting procedure without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided by a computer-generated list into Group-1 (G-1) and Group-2 (G-2), comprising 50 patients each, the technique used was known at the beginning of the surgery. In G-1, coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using the left internal thoracic artery for the left anterior descending and the free right internal thoracic artery for the circumflex, and in G-2, coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using the right internal thoracic artery pedicled to the left anterior descending and the left internal thoracic artery pedicled to the circumflex territory. Results: The groups were similar with regard to the preoperative clinical data. A male predominance of 75.6% and 88% was observed in G-1 and G-2, respectively. Five patients migrated from G-1 to G-2 because of atheromatous disease in the ascending aorta. The average number of distal anastomoses was 3.48 (SD=0.72) in G-1 and 3.20 (SD=0.76) in G-2. Coronary CT angiography in 96 re-evaluated patients showed that all ITAs, right or left, used in situ for the left anterior descending were patent. There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion: Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery involving anastomosis of the anteroaortic right internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery has an outcome similar to that obtained using the left internal thoracic artery for the same coronary site. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis/methods , Mammary Arteries/physiopathology , Vascular Patency/physiology , Anastomosis, Surgical , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels , Medical Illustration , Mammary Arteries , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
19.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 22(2): 183-187, Apr-Jun/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722251

ABSTRACT

A intervenção coronariana percutânea com balão farmacológico surgiu como estratégia adjunta no cenário da Cardiologia Intervencionista. Em comparação com o stent farmacológico, o balão farmacológico oferece vantagens, como a liberação imediata e homogênea do fármaco na parede arterial, a ausência de polímeros que podem induzir a reações inflamatórias crônicas e o potencial de utilizar a dupla antiagregação plaquetária por menor tempo. Além disso, em algumas situações, não são desejáveis implantes adicionais de stents, o que torna essa modalidade uma opção interessante. Relatamos aqui o caso de uma paciente em síndrome coronariana aguda, em que foi feita a opção por esse tipo de intervenção em uma reestenose de stent não farmacológico em óstio de artéria descendente anterior...


Percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting balloons has emerged as an adjunctive strategy in the setting of Interventional Cardiology. When compared to drug-eluting stents, drug-eluting balloons offer advantages such as immediate and homogeneous drug release in the arterial wall, absence of polymers that can induce chronic inflammatory reactions, and the potential for using dual antiplatelet therapy for a shorter period of time. Furthermore, in some situations, additional stenting is not desirable, which turns this modality into an interesting option. We report the case of a patient with acute coronary syndrome in whom this intervention was chosen to treat an ostial left anterior descending artery in-stent restenosis...


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon , Coronary Restenosis/therapy , Stents/adverse effects , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy
20.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 22(1): 32-35, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-712738

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A dissecção espontânea de artéria coronária é causa rara de síndrome coronariana aguda e, em mais de 70% das vezes, o diagnóstico é feito por meio de necrópsia. O tratamento ideal ainda é incerto, sendo a intervenção coronária percutânea, a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica e o tratamento clínico as opções terapêuticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características clínicas, o tratamento e a evolução de uma série de casos de dissecção espontânea de artéria coronária. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, unicêntrico, baseado em análise de banco de dados de um serviço de alta complexidade em cardiologia. Resultados: Identificamos 25 pacientes com dissecção espontânea de artéria coronária, dos quais 56% eram do sexo feminino, com idade de 48,8 ± 10 anos. Apenas 24% não apresentaram fator de risco para aterosclerose e, em 92% dos casos, o quadro clínico foi de síndrome coronária aguda. A artéria descendente anterior foi o vaso mais acometido (48%) e houve apenas um caso envolvendo múltiplos vasos. A estratégia conservadora foi realizada em 56%, a intervenção coronária percutânea em 40% e a revascularização miocárdica em 4%. A taxa livre de eventos hospitalares e tardios foi de 92 e 84,2%, respectivamente. Conclusões: A dissecção espontânea de artéria coronária foi predominante em mulheres jovens, com pelo menos um fator de risco para doença arterial coronariana. A escolha de diferentes estratégias terapêuticas confirma a natureza ainda controversa da abordagem ideal da dissecção espontânea de artéria coronária. Acreditamos que o tratamento ideal ainda seja o individualizado.


Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and diagnosis is made by necropsy in more than 70% of the cases. Optimal treatment is still uncertain, and the treatment options are percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass surgery and medical therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and outcome of a series of cases with spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Methods: Retrospective, single-center study, based on the analysis of the database at a high-complexity cardiology service. Results: We identified 25 patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection, 56% were female, with a mean age of 48.8 ± 10 years. Only 24% had no risk factor for atherosclerosis and in 92% of the cases, the clinical presentation was of acute coronary syndrome. The left anterior descending artery was the most commonly affected vessel (48,1%) and there was only one case involving multiple vessels. The conservative approach was used in 56%, percutaneous coronary intervention in 40% and coronary artery bypass grafting in 4%. The in-hospital and late event-free survival was 92% and 84.2%, respectively. Conclusions: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection predominated in young women, with at least one risk factor for coronary artery disease. The choice of different therapeutic strategies confirms the still controversial nature of the optimal approach for spontaneous coronary artery dissection. We believe that individualized therapy is still the optimal modality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Dissection , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology
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