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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 505-511, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287203

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia COVID-19 provocada por el betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 exige rápidas respuestas desde el campo de la medicina. El riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y arterial está aumentado durante la infección, especialmente en pacientes críticos. En ese contexto se destaca una coagulopatía caracterizada por niveles elevados de dímero D, con tendencia a la falla multiorgánica, y aumento de la mortalidad. Esas anormalidades de la hemostasia responden a varios mecanismos que deben tenerse en cuenta para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. Analizamos la evidencia científica disponible en la que se fundamenta el enfoque terapéutico de la coagulopatía descripta y sus complicaciones, con el objetivo de diseñar recomendaciones terapéuticas realistas tendientes a disminuir la morbilidad y la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19.


Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires rapid medical responses. The risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism increases in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a hypercoagulable state that includes elevated levels of D-dimer, with an increased risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The abnormalities described in hemostasis should be considered for therapeutic decision making. We analyzed the available scientific evidence for the therapeutic approach of coagulopathy in the course of the disease with the objective of designing realistic therapeutic recommendations aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thromboembolism/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Argentina/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Cytokines , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.3): 31-36, June 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135188

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019 un nuevo coronavirus se identificó como causa de un brote de neumonía y distrés respiratorio en Wuhan, China. En marzo de 2020 fue declarado pandemia. Resulta importante conocer predictores de mala evolución para optimizar estrategias de cuidados. El índice neutrófilo-linfocito (INL) constituye un novedoso marcador pronóstico en enfermedades cardiovasculares, oncológicas e infecciosas. Este trabajo analiza su valor pronóstico en COVID-19. Se evaluó una cohorte retrospectiva de 131 pacientes con COVID-19 confirmado, entre marzo y mayo de 2020. Se analizaron las características basales de la población, la asociación del INL ≥ 3 con COVID-19 grave y la tasa de mortalidad de la enfermedad. La mediana de edad fue de 52 años, 54% fueron hombres. En 21 pacientes se encontraron criterios de gravedad, 9 de ellos requirieron ventilación mecánica. Presentó INL ≥ 3 el 81% (18/21) de los pacientes graves y el 33% (36/110) de los pacientes leves (OR = 8.74. IC del 95%: 2.74-27.86; p < 0.001). La edad y la hipertensión se asociaron con enfermedad grave. La mortalidad observada en la cohorte fue del 7% (9). En 7 de los 9 pacientes fallecidos se observó un INL ≥ 3 (p = 0.03). El INL, en conjunto con otros predictores, podría usarse como un marcador pronóstico temprano dada la alta accesibilidad y el bajo costo de la prueba.


In December 2019, a new coronavirus was identified as the cause of an outbreak of pneumonia and respiratory distress in Wuhan, China. It was declared pandemic in March 2020. It is important to know predictors of poor outcomes in order to optimize the strategies of care in newly diagnosed patients. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) constitutes a novel prognostic marker for oncologic, cardiovascular and infectious diseases. We aimed to assess its prognostic value in COVID-19. We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 131 patients with COVID-19 from March to May 2020. We analyzed the association of an NLR ≥ 3 with severe COVID-19, baseline characteristics of the population and the mortality rate. The median age was 52 years, and 54% were men. 21 patients presented criteria of severe disease, 9 of them required mechanical ventilation. NLR ≥ 3 was found in 81% (18/21) of severe patients and in 33% (36/110) of mild patients (OR = 8.74. 95% CI 2.74-27.86; p < 0.001). Age and hypertension were associated with severe disease. A mortality rate of 7% (9) was obtained. Seven of the 9 patients who died presented NLR ≥ 3, with a significant association between mortality and NLR ≥ 3 (p = 0.03). NLR could be used in conjunction with other predictors, as an early prognostic marker in COVID-19 given its accessibility and low cost.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Lymphocytes/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Neutrophils/physiology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Hypertension/complications , Neutrophils/cytology
5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(Suppl 2): 86-90, 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136402

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY AIM The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic significance of ABO and Rh blood group antigens along with various parameters in patients followed-up with the diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS We evaluated 397 patients who were follow-up and treated due to COVID-19 infections. The ages, genders, chronic diseases, ABO and Rh blood group antigens, admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU), and mortality rates of the patients were analyzed. FINDINGS The mean age of the 397 patients with COVID-19 was 47±17 years. In the blood group analysis of the patients, A Rh-positive (A +) was the most frequently seen blood type (176 patients, 44.3%) followed by O Rh-positive (0 +) (109 patients, 27,5%); 38 patients were Rh negative (Rh -) (9,6%). 53 of the patients (13,4%) were followed in ICU and 29 patients died (7,3%). Neither mortality nor admission to ICU was seen for Rh - group. The comparison of Rh groups concerning the need for ICU admission revealed a significantly high rate of ICU admission in the Rh + group (p=0,011), while no significant relationship was found between mortality and Rh antigen (p=0,069). CONCLUSION The most frequently seen blood type among COVID-19 patients was A +. The Rh + blood group was found in all cases who were admitted to ICU and had a death outcome. The Rh + blood group was found in a significantly high number of patients who were admitted to ICU, while no significant relationship was found between mortality and Rh blood group.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o significado prognóstico dos antígenos do grupo sanguíneo ABO e Rh, juntamente com vários parâmetros em pacientes acompanhados com o diagnóstico de COVID-19. MÉTODOS Foram avaliados 397 pacientes que foram acompanhados e tratados devido à infecção por COVID-19. Foram analisadas as idades, gêneros, doenças crônicas, antígenos do grupo sanguíneo ABO e Rh, taxas de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI) e taxas de mortalidade dos pacientes. A idade média de 397 pacientes com COVID foi de 47 ± 17 anos. Na análise do grupo sanguíneo dos pacientes, A Rh positivo (A +) foi o tipo sanguíneo mais frequentemente observado (176 dos pacientes, 44,3%), seguido pelo O Rh positivo (0 +) (109 dos pacientes, 27,5%) 38 dos pacientes eram Rh negativos (Rh -) (9,6%). 53 dos pacientes (13,4%) foram acompanhados em UTI e 29 faleceram (7,3%). Não houve mortalidade nem admissão na UTI para o grupo Rh. A comparação dos grupos Rh quanto à necessidade de admissão na UTI revelou uma taxa significativamente alta de admissão na UTI no grupo Rh + (p = 0,011), enquanto não foi encontrada relação significativa entre mortalidade e antígeno Rh (p = 0,069). CONCLUSÃO O tipo sanguíneo mais frequentemente observado foi o A + entre os pacientes com COVID-19. O grupo sanguíneo Rh + foi encontrado em todos os casos admitidos na UTI e com evolução mortal. O grupo sanguíneo Rh + foi encontrado em um número significativamente alto de pacientes internados na UTI, enquanto nenhuma relação significativa foi encontrada entre a mortalidade e o grupo sanguíneo Rh.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Blood Group Antigens , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Hospital Mortality , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Middle Aged
6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(Suppl 2): 77-81, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136395

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND Coronavirus Disease 2019 is an acute inflammatory respiratory disease. It causes many changes in hemogram parameters. Low albumin levels are associated with mortality risk in hospitalized patients. The aim of the present study is to reveal the place of neutrophil count to albumin ratio in predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS 144 patients, 65 females and 79 males, were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was the non-severe group (n:85), and Group 2 was severe (n:59). Demographic data, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were recorded. Neutrophil count to albumin ratio (NAR) was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil counts by the albumin levels. The NAR and levels of the two groups were then compared. RESULTS There were no significant differences in gender and platelet count (201 vs. 211 K/mL) between the groups (p>0,05). Ages (62.0 ± 14.3 vs 68.6 ± 12.2 years), albumin (33.1 vs 29.9 gr/L), CRP (33 vs 113 mg/l), neutrophil count (4 vs 7.24 K/mL), WBC counts (6.70 vs 8.50 K/mL), NAR values (113.5 vs 267.2) and number of Death (5 vs 33) were found to be statistically higher (p <0.001) in Group 2 than in Group 1. The NAR value of 201.5 showed mortality in all patients with COVID-19 to have 71.1% sensitivity and 71.7% specificity (AUC:0.736, 95% CI: 0.641-0.832, p<0.001) CONCLUSION The present study showed that NAR levels can be a cheap and simple marker for predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19.


RESUMO ANTECEDENTES A doença de coronavírus 2019 é uma doença respiratória inflamatória aguda. Causa muitas alterações nos parâmetros do hemograma. Baixos níveis de albumina estão associados ao risco de mortalidade em pacientes hospitalizados. O objetivo do presente estudo é revelar o local da razão entre contagem de neutrófilos e albumina na predição de mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19. MÉTODOS Cento e quarenta e quatro pacientes do sexo feminino e 79 do sexo masculino foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 não grave (n: 85), Grupo 2 grave (n: 59). Dados demográficos, contagem de neutrófilos, linfócitos e plaquetas, níveis de albumina e proteína C reativa (PCR) foram registrados. A razão de contagem de neutrófilos para albumina (NAR) foi calculada dividindo-se as contagens absolutas de neutrófilos pelos níveis de albumina. O NAR e os níveis dos dois grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS Não houve diferenças significativas no sexo e na contagem de plaquetas (201 vs 211 K/mL) entre os grupos (p>0,05). Idade (62,0±14,3 vs 68,6±12,2 anos), albumina (33,1 vs 29,9 gr/L), PCR (33 vs 113 mg/l), contagem de neutrófilos (4 vs 7,24 K/mL), contagem de leucócitos (6,70 vs 8,50 K/mL), valores de NAR (113,5 vs 267,2) e número de óbitos (5 vs 33) foram estatisticamente maiores (p<0,001) no Grupo 2 que no Grupo 1. O valor NAR de 201,5 mostrou mortalidade em todos os pacientes com COVID-19 com sensibilidade de 71,1% e especificidade de 71,7% (AUC: 0,736, IC 95%: 0,641-0,832, p<0,001). CONCLUSÃO O presente estudo mostrou que os níveis de NAR podem ser um marcador barato e simples para predizer mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Albumins , Pandemics , Neutrophils , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Betacoronavirus , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 69, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. This study reports crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, population weighted prevalence for the state, and prevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression models were used to establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. For the analysis, we considered collection period and site, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. RESULTS The proportion of positive tests for SARS-Cov-2, without any adjustment, was 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95%CI 3.1-4.5%). We found lower estimates after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity: 3.6% (95%CI 2.7-4.4%) for the non-weighted prevalence, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.6-4.1%) for the weighted prevalence. Collection period was the variable most significantly associated with crude prevalence: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the younger the blood donor, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the education level, the higher the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 antibody. We found similar results for weighted prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Our findings comply with some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, as the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; and the higher prevalence among both the youngest, for moving around more than older age groups, and the less educated, for encountering more difficulties in following social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, we may infer that Rio de Janeiro is far from reaching the required levels of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
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