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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 125-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880937

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to define the most consistent white matter microarchitecture pattern in Parkinson's disease (PD) reflected by fractional anisotropy (FA), addressing clinical profiles and methodology-related heterogeneity. Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging studies comparing PD with healthy controls (HC) using the anisotropic effect size-signed differential mapping. A total of 808 patients with PD and 760 HC coming from 27 databases were finally included. Subgroup analyses were conducted considering heterogeneity with respect to medication status, disease stage, analysis methods, and the number of diffusion directions in acquisition. Compared with HC, patients with PD had decreased FA in the left middle cerebellar peduncle, corpus callosum (CC), left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Most of the main results remained unchanged in subgroup meta-analyses of medicated patients, early stage patients, voxel-based analysis, and acquisition with 30 diffusion directions. The subgroup meta-analysis of medication-free patients showed FA decrease in the right olfactory cortex. The cerebellum and CC, associated with typical motor impairment, showed the most consistent FA decreases in PD. Medication status, analysis approaches, and the number of diffusion directions have an important impact on the findings, needing careful evaluation in future meta-analyses.


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Corpus Callosum , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Humans , Parkinson Disease/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021323, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339244

ABSTRACT

Fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS), or Pena-Shokeir phenotype is a constellation of deformational changes resulting from decreased or absent fetal movement, and include arthrogryposis, and craniofacial and central nervous system anomalies. We report an autopsy case of a 36-6/7week female neonate with a normal female karyotype and chromosome microarray demonstrating findings consistent with FADS. We provide a detailed examination of the severe and complex central nervous system abnormalities, including marked pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cortical and cerebellar migration and gyration defects. This case represents a rare detailed examination of the central nervous system of a patient with FADS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Arthrogryposis/pathology , Phenotype , Autopsy , Central Nervous System/abnormalities , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Fetal Movement , Karyotype
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 505-512, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056469

ABSTRACT

Sexual dimorphism exists at all levels of the nervous system. These sex differences could underlie genderrelated differences in behavior and neuropsychological function, as well as the gender differences in the prevalence of various mental disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorders, and schizophrenia. Myelination, on the other hand, is a unique cellular process that can have a dramatic impact on the structure and physiology of an axon and its surrounding tissue. The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest of the brain commissures, which connects the cerebral cortices of the two hemispheres, and provides interhemispheric connectivity for information transfer and processing between cortical regions. Variation in the axonal properties of CC will alter the interhemispheric connectivity. The CC consists of myelinated and unmyelinated axons, glial cells and blood vessels. Several functional studies have reported that the function of CC is associated with its axons density and myelination properties. The sexual dimorphism in the axonal content of the CC has always been controversial; hence, the aim of this study was to analyze the differences in axons' diameter and myelin sheath thickness of the CC between male and female rats. For this purpose, five pairs of adult male and female rats were perfused and the CC were removed and sectioned. Four sections from different subregions of the corpus callosum that represent the genu, anterior body, posterior body, and splenium of the CC were stained and electron microscopic images were captured using stereological guidelines. Later, the axons diameter and myelin sheath thickness for each subregion were calculated and compared between males and females. Our preliminary findings of the present study indicated region specific differences in the myelinated axon thickness and diameter in the CC between male and female rats.


El dimorfismo sexual existe en todos los niveles del sistema nervioso. Estas diferencias de sexo podrían ser la base de las diferencias de comportamiento y función neuropsicológica relacionadas con el sexo, así como las diferencias en la prevalencia de diversos trastornos mentales, como el autismo, los trastornos por déficit de atención y la esquizofrenia. La mielinización, por otro lado, es un proceso celular único que puede tener un impacto dramático en la estructura y fisiología de un axón y su tejido circundante. El cuerpo calloso (CC) es la mayor comisura cerebral, que conecta las cortezas cerebrales de ambos hemisferios, y proporciona la conectividad interhemisférica para la transferencia y el procesamiento de información entre regiones corticales. La variación en las propiedades axonales de CC alterará la conectividad interhemisférica. El CC consiste en axones mielinizados y no mielinizados, células gliales y vasos sanguíneos. Varios estudios funcionales han informado que la función de CC está asociada con la densidad de axones y las propiedades de mielinización. El dimorfismo sexual en el contenido axonal del CC siempre ha sido controvertido; por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las diferencias en el diámetro de los axones y el grosor de la vaina de mielina del CC entre ratas macho y hembra. Para este propósito, se perfundieron cinco pares de ratas macho y hembra adultas y se extrajeron y seccionaron las CC. Se tiñeron cuatro secciones de diferentes subregiones del cuerpo calloso que representan el genu, el cuerpo anterior, el cuerpo posterior y el esplenio y se capturaron imágenes de microscopía electrónicas utilizando referencias estereológicas. Posteriormente se calculó el diámetro de los axones y el grosor de la vaina de mielina para cada subregión y se compararon entre machos y hembras. Nuestros hallazgos preliminares del presente estudio indicaron diferencias específicas en el grosor y diámetro del axón mielinizado en el CC entre ratas macho y hembra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Axons/ultrastructure , Sex Characteristics , Corpus Callosum/ultrastructure , Myelin Sheath/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Corpus Callosum/cytology
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(1): 10-18, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aims: To investigate hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) in a pediatric Brazilian sample. Methods: Epidemiological, clinical, radiological and laboratory data were analyzed in 35 patients. Results: Simple HSP (HSP-S) was detected in 12 patients, and complicated HSP (HSP-C) was detected in 23 patients. The mean age of onset of symptoms was 2.9 years in HSP-S and 1.6 years in HSP-C (p = 0.023). The disease was more severe in HSP-C. There were no differences in sex, ethnic background, or family history between groups. Intellectual disability was the most frequent finding associated with HSP-C. Peripheral axonal neuropathy was found in three patients. In the HSP-C group, MRI was abnormal in 13 patients. The MRI abnormalities included nonspecific white matter lesions, cerebellar atrophy, thinning of the corpus callosum and the "ear of the lynx sign". Conclusions: In children with spastic paraplegia, HSP must be considered whenever similar pathologies, mainly diplegic cerebral palsy, are ruled out.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar paraplegia espástica hereditária (PEH) em uma amostra brasileira de pacientes pediátricos. Métodos: Foram colhidos dados clínicos, epidemiológicos, radiológicos e laboratoriais de 35 pacientes. Resultados: Doze pacientes foram classificados como PEH simples (PEH-S), e 23 como PEH complicada (PEH-C). A média de idade de início dos sintomas foi de 2,9 anos na PEH-S e 1,6 anos na PEH-C (p = 0,023). A doença foi mais grave na PEH-C. Não houve diferença de sexo, etnia e histórico familial entre os dois grupos. Deficiência intelectual foi a associação clínica mais frequente na PEH-C. Neuropatia periférica axonal foi encontrada em três pacientes. A RM foi normal em 13 casos de PEH-C. Anormalidades de RM incluiram alterações inespecíficas da substância branca, atrofia de cerebelo, afilamento de corpo caloso e o "sinal da orelha de lince". Conclusões: PEH deve ser considerada em crianças com paraparesia espástica sempre que descartadas condições patológicas similares, principalmente paralisia cerebral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/pathology , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/diagnostic imaging , Sex Distribution , Age of Onset , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging
8.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 30(2): 5147-5152, Jun. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1290845

ABSTRACT

Las alteraciones del cuerpo calloso tienen una prevalencia en general de 1 por 1.000 nacidos vivos, estas alteraciones se encuentran en un 2-3 % de los niños con discapacidad o alteraciones del neurodesarrollo. Dentro de estos trastornos se incluyen la agenesia, la disgenesia, la hipoplasia y la hiperplasia. Debido a que estas alteraciones se asocian en un gran porcentaje con diferentes anomalías cerebrales y síndromes es relevante realizar un adecuado abordaje diagnóstico prenatal. Existen varios signos clave en la ecografía prenatal que permiten determinar si existe alguna alteración en el cuerpo calloso. La resonancia magnética se indica en casos de sospecha de alguna alteración en la ecografía prenatal y permite evaluar de manera más específica si existe alguna anomalía cerebral adicional. Esto es importante para determinar el pronóstico neurológico y realizar intervenciones oportunas.


Alterations of the corpus callosum have a general prevalence of 1/1,000 live births, and are found in 2-3% of children with developmental disabilities. These disabilities include agenesis, dysgenesis, hypoplasia and hyperplasia. Because these alterations are associated in a large percentage to different brain anomalies and syndromes, it is relevant to perform an adequate prenatal diagnostic approach. There are several key signs in the prenatal ultrasound that determine if there is any alteration in the corpus callosum. Magnetic resonance is indicated in cases of suspected anomalies in the prenatal ultrasound, and it can also evaluate more specifically if an additional cerebral anomaly is present. This is important because it allows to determine the neurological prognosis and to perform promptly interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Corpus Callosum , Agenesis of Corpus Callosum , Prenatal Diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 119-129, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739526

ABSTRACT

Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is a progressive degenerative white matter disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the CSF1R gene. ALSP is often misdiagnosed as other diseases due to its rarity and various clinical presentations such as Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric symptoms. We describe an autopsy case of ALSP with a CSF1R mutation. A 61-year-old woman presented insidious-onset gait difficulty for 12 years since her age of 49, and premature ovarian failure since her age of 35. At initial hospital visit, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus. Initially, Parkinson's syndrome was diagnosed, and she was prescribed L-dopa/carbidopa because of spasticity and rigidity of extremities, which had worsened. Subsequently, severe neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment developed and radiologically, features of leukoencephalopathy or leukodystrophy were detected. She showed a down-hill course and died, 12 years after initial diagnosis. At autopsy, the brain showed severe symmetric atrophy of bilateral white matter, paper-thin corpus callosum, thin internal capsule, and marked hydrocephalus. Microscopically, diffuse loss of white matter, relatively preserved subcortical U-fibers, and many eosinophilic bulbous neuroaxonal spheroids were noted, but there was no calcification. Pigmented glia with brown cytoplasmic pigmentation were readily found in the white matter, which were positive for Periodic acid-Schiff, p62, and CD163 stains, but almost negative for CD68. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing revealed a CSF1R mutation (c.2539G>A, p.Glu847Lys) which was reported in prior one ALSP case. This example demonstrates that ALSP could be associated with premature ovarian failure.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Autopsy , Axons , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Coloring Agents , Corpus Callosum , Cytoplasm , Diagnosis , Eosinophils , Extremities , Female , Gait , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Internal Capsule , Leukoencephalopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Muscle Spasticity , Neuroglia , Parkinsonian Disorders , Pigmentation , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , White Matter
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739327

ABSTRACT

Crossed aphasia (CA) is defined as language impairment following right-hemispheric brain lesion in right-handed person. Exact mechanism responsible for CA is ambiguous, and recently several brain lesions have been proposed to be associated with aphasia using lesion mapping method. Corpus callosum has dual bloody supply which makes it less vulnerable to infarction. Speech difficulties such as stuttering after corpus callosum infarction have been reported in the past, but aphasia is rare, which makes CA more unique. We report an extraordinary case of CA after right corpus callosum infarction. A 74-year-old female patient with a previous history of right thalamus infarction with no neurologic sequela has developed language disturbance without apraxia 1 month ago and a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed newly developed infarction at right corpus callosum. The aphasia quotient of the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 2.5, implying severe global aphasia. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed decreased metabolism in right corpus callosum and left frontal and temporal cortex, suggesting that interhemispheric diaschisis may be responsible for the CA. This is an extraordinary case report of an isolated manifestation of CA secondary to right corpus callosum infarction.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aphasia , Apraxias , Brain , Brain Infarction , Corpus Callosum , Electrons , Female , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metabolism , Methods , Stuttering , Temporal Lobe , Thalamus
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Horizontal visual field defects are generally caused by lesions before the optic chiasm, but we report a case with bilateral inferior altitudinal defects secondary to bilateral occipital lobe infarction. CASE SUMMARY: A 57-year-old male with a history of diabetes and hypertension presented with a month of blurring in the inferior visual field. His corrected visual acuity was 1.0 in the right eye and 0.63 in the left eye, and the intraocular pressure was normal in each eye. Pupillary response, ocular movement, and color vision tests were normal in both eyes. There was no specific finding of the optic disc and macula on fundus examination. Visual field examination revealed an inferior congruous homonymous hemianopia with horizontal meridian sparing and a left incongruous homonymous quadrantanopia. Optical coherence tomography for peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness revealed a mild decrease in the inferior disc of both eyes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of an acute infarction confined with upper medial calcarine fissures of bilateral occipital lobe and the right splenium of the corpus callosum, which were consistent with inferior altitudinal hemianopia and left superior incongruous quadrantanopia, respectively. Brain magnetic resonance angiography showed multiple stenosis of bilateral posterior cerebral arteries. CONCLUSIONS: The altitudinal visual field defects could be caused by the occipital lesion medial to the calcarine fissure, and unusual visual defects could be due to a combination of multiple lesions.


Subject(s)
Brain , Color Vision , Constriction, Pathologic , Corpus Callosum , Hemianopsia , Humans , Hypertension , Infarction , Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery , Intraocular Pressure , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nerve Fibers , Occipital Lobe , Optic Chiasm , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Retinaldehyde , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781647

ABSTRACT

The magnetic resonance imaging findings of multicystic encephalomalacia are featured by bilateral frontal large cystic lesion with corpus callosum involvement,evident heterogeneous enhancement of the lesion margin,ring hyperintensity on diffusion weighted imaging,and high choline peak and low N-acetylaspartate peak of the enhanced lesion margin on magnetic resonance spectroscopy.This article reports a case of multicystic encephalomalacia.


Subject(s)
Corpus Callosum , Encephalomalacia , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with persistent vegetative state (PVS) show no evidence of awareness of self or their environment, and those with minimally conscious state (MCS) have severely impaired consciousness with minimal but definite behavioral evidence of self or environmental awareness after stroke. Neuroimaging and clinical characteristics separating these two close consciousness states after stroke were insufficiently studied. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based cohort study of all patients with stroke (2011 to 2017) who underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging and consciousness assessment after 3 months of inclusion. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risk of neuroimaging markers for differentiation of PVS and MCS. RESULTS: Of 3,600 eligible subjects, 323 patients (0.09%) had PVS and 93 (0.02%) had MCS (mean age, 62.25±13.4 years). Higher stroke volume was strongly associated with PVS compared to MCS (odds ratio [OR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.00; P=0.001). On univariate analysis, cingulate gyrus (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.62 to 4.36; P=0.001) and corpus callosum (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.28 to 3.44; P=0.003) involvement was significantly associated with PVS. However, on multivariate analysis, only cingulate gyrus involvement was independently associated with PVS (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.33 to 3.72; P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that PVS and MCS are different consciousness states according to clinical and neuroimaging findings. To predict outcome, cognitive performance of these patients should be well questioned after stroke.


Subject(s)
Cognition Disorders , Cohort Studies , Consciousness , Corpus Callosum , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Neuroimaging , Persistent Vegetative State , Stroke Volume , Stroke
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764671

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of ghrelin on memory impairment in a rat model of vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS: Randomized controlled groups and the posttest design were used. We established the representative animal model of vascular dementia caused by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion and administered 80 µg/kg ghrelin intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. First, behavioral studies were performed to evaluate spatial memory. Second, we used molecular biology techniques to determine whether ghrelin ameliorates the damage to the structure and function of the white matter and hippocampus, which are crucial to learning and memory. RESULTS: Ghrelin improved the spatial memory impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze test. In the white matter, demyelination and atrophy of the corpus callosum were significantly decreased in the ghrelin-treated group. In the hippocampus, ghrelin increased the length of hippocampal microvessels and reduced the microvessels pathology. Further, we confirmed angiogenesis enhancement through the fact that ghrelin treatment increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related protein levels, which are the most powerful mediators of angiogenesis in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: We found that ghrelin affected the damaged myelin sheaths and microvessels by increasing angiogenesis, which then led to neuroprotection and improved memory function. We suggest that further studies continue to accumulate evidence of the effect of ghrelin. Further, we believe that the development of therapeutic interventions that increase ghrelin may contribute to memory improvement in patients with vascular dementia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrophy , Carotid Artery, Common , Corpus Callosum , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Demyelinating Diseases , Ghrelin , Hippocampus , Humans , Learning , Memory Disorders , Memory , Microvessels , Models, Animal , Molecular Biology , Myelin Sheath , Neuroprotection , Pathology , Rats , Spatial Memory , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Water , White Matter
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764181

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between quantitative magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers, and clinical performances in chronic phase of carbon monoxide intoxication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen magnetic resonance scans and cognitive evaluations were performed, on patients with carbon monoxide intoxication in chronic phase. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios of affected versus unaffected centrum semiovale, and corpus callosum were obtained. Signal intensity (SI) ratios between affected centrum semiovale, and normal pons in T2-FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) images were obtained. The Mini-Mental State Exam, and clinical outcome scores were assessed. Correlation coefficients were calculated, between MRI and clinical markers. Patients were further classified into poor-outcome and good-outcome groups based on clinical performance, and imaging parameters were compared. T2-SI ratio of centrum semiovale was compared, with that of 18 sex-matched and age-matched controls. RESULTS: T2-SI ratio of centrum semiovale was significantly higher in the poor-outcome group, than that in the good-outcome group and was strongly inversely correlated, with results from the Mini-Mental State Exam. ADC ratios of centrum semiovale were significantly lower in the poor outcome group than in the good outcome group, and were moderately correlated with the Mini-Mental State Exam score. CONCLUSION: A higher T2-SI and a lower ratio of ADC values in the centrum semiovale, may indicate presence of more severe white matter injury and clinical impairment. T2-SI ratio and ADC values in the centrum semiovale, are useful quantitative imaging biomarkers for correlation with clinical performance in individuals with carbon monoxide intoxication.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Corpus Callosum , Diffusion , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pons , White Matter
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758485

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy of the white matter (WM) to gray matter (GM) signal intensity ratio (SIR) in predicting the clinical prognosis of cardiac arrest patients. METHODS: Thirty-one patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated retrospectively. Thirty one subjects with normal brain MRI findings served as the controls. The signal intensities (SI) were measured on T2-weighted image (T2WI). The circular regions of measurement (2–10 mm²) were placed over the regions of interest, and the average signals in GM and WM were recorded in the caudate nucleus (CN), putamen, anterior limb of the internal capsule, corpus callosum (CC), and in the cortex and WM of the frontal lobe. Cerebral performance category (CPC) 1–2 were classified as a good prognosis, and CPC 3–5 were classified as a poor prognosis. RESULTS: Most combinations of the SIR of WM to GM and most SIs of GM, except the frontal cortex, were significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, the SI of WM was insignificant between both groups. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the SIR of the CC to CN had an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.59 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%), the SIR of the CC to putamen had also an AUROC of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.43 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%). CONCLUSION: The SIR of WM to GM measured on a T2WI is related to the neurological outcome after a cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
Brain , Caudate Nucleus , Coma , Corpus Callosum , Extremities , Frontal Lobe , Gray Matter , Hand , Heart Arrest , Humans , Internal Capsule , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prognosis , Putamen , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , White Matter
20.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 271-279, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the cerebral white matter changes that are associated with phantom limb pain in patients with unilateral arm amputation. It was anticipated that this would complement previous research in which we had shown that changes in cerebral blood volume were associated with the cerebral pain network. METHODS: Ten patients with phantom limb pain due to unilateral arm amputation and sixteen healthy age-matched controls were enrolled. The intensity of phantom limb pain was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and depressive mood was assessed by the Hamilton depression rating scale. Diffusion tensor-derived parameters, including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), were computed from the DTI. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the cases had alterations in the cerebral white matter as a consequence of phantom limb pain, manifesting a higher AD of white matter in both hemispheres symmetrically after adjusting for individual depressive moods. In addition, there were associations between the RD of white matter and VAS scores primarily in the hemispheres related to the missing hand and in the corpus callosum. CONCLUSIONS: The phantom limb pain after unilateral arm amputation induced plasticity in the white matter. We conclude that loss of white matter integrity, particularly in the hemisphere connected with the missing hand, is significantly correlated with phantom limb pain.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Anisotropy , Arm , Blood Volume , Brain , Chronic Pain , Complement System Proteins , Corpus Callosum , Depression , Diffusion , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Hand , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuronal Plasticity , Phantom Limb , Plastics , White Matter
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