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1.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 284-288, 15/12/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362329

ABSTRACT

Discovered in 1865 by Jules Bernard Luys, the subthalamic nucleus is a set of small nuclei located in the diencephalon, inferior to the thalamus and superior to the substantia nigra, that can be visualized in a posterior coronal section. Histologically, it consists of neurons compactly distributed and filled with a large number of blood vessels and sparse myelinated fibers. This review presents an analysis of this anatomical region, considering what is most recent in the literature. Subthalamic neurons are excitatory and use glutamate as the neurotransmitter. In healthy individuals, these neurons are inhibited by nerve cells located in the side globus pallidus. However, if the fibers that make up the afferent circuit are damaged, the neurons become highly excitable, thus causing motor disturbances that can be classified as hyperkinetic, for example ballism and chorea, or hypokinetic, for example Parkinson disease (PD). The advent of deep brain stimulation has given the subthalamic nucleus great visibility. Studies reveal that the stimulation of this nucleus improves themotor symptoms of PD.


Subject(s)
Subthalamic Nucleus/anatomy & histology , Subthalamic Nucleus/abnormalities , Subthalamic Nucleus/surgery , Parkinson Disease , Substantia Nigra/anatomy & histology , Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology , Corpus Striatum/anatomy & histology , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Globus Pallidus/anatomy & histology , Motor Cortex/anatomy & histology
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 765-776, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878224

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that single-unit activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum represented visual stimulus and reward information. But how to encode these pieces of information is quite complex from the view of single-neuron activity. Different neurons represented stimulus or reward information in different task epochs with increasing or decreasing their activities relative to their baseline firing rates. The present paper was aimed to study whether population neurons in the two brain areas could stably encode task-relevant parameters in a whole trial period. We recorded single-unit activities in the lateral PFC (LPFC) and striatum while the monkey was performing a stimulus- reward prediction task, and analyzed the neuronal activities by the method of a multi-variable regression model and the linear support vector machine. The results showed that, although proportions of task-related neurons in the two areas varied largely in the whole trial period, LPFC population neurons encoded reward and stimulus information stably and reliably. Population neurons in the striatum encoded only reward information, not stimulus information. A group of neurons in the two areas represented combined information of stimulus and reward. Further analysis showed that LPFC neurons encoded reward information for a group of relevant stimuli, while striatal neurons encoded reward information for a specific stimulus. These results suggest that both LPFC and striatal population neurons are able to stably represent task-relevant information, but from different aspects of the task. The different strategies to encode information in the LPFC and striatum suggest their different contributions in reward-based decision making.


Subject(s)
Animals , Corpus Striatum , Neurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Primates , Reward
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 315-324, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775449

ABSTRACT

The thalamostriatal pathway is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, PD-related changes in the relationship between oscillatory activity in the centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM/Pf, or the Pf in rodents) and the dorsal striatum (DS) remain unclear. Therefore, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in both the Pf and DS of hemiparkinsonian and control rats during epochs of rest or treadmill walking. The dopamine-lesioned rats showed increased LFP power in the beta band (12 Hz-35 Hz) in the Pf and DS during both epochs, but decreased LFP power in the delta (0.5 Hz-3 Hz) band in the Pf during rest epochs and in the DS during both epochs, compared to control rats. In addition, exaggerated low gamma (35 Hz-70 Hz) oscillations after dopamine loss were restricted to the Pf regardless of the behavioral state. Furthermore, enhanced synchronization of LFP oscillations was found between the Pf and DS after the dopamine lesion. Significant increases occurred in the mean coherence in both theta (3 Hz-7 Hz) and beta bands, and a significant increase was also noted in the phase coherence in the beta band between the Pf and DS during rest epochs. During the treadmill walking epochs, significant increases were found in both the alpha (7 Hz-12 Hz) and beta bands for two coherence measures. Collectively, dramatic changes in the relative LFP power and coherence in the thalamostriatal pathway may underlie the dysfunction of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network circuits in PD, contributing to some of the motor and non-motor symptoms of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Waves , Physiology , Corpus Striatum , Cortical Synchronization , Physiology , Dopaminergic Neurons , Physiology , Electrocorticography , Male , Neural Pathways , Oxidopamine , Parkinsonian Disorders , Rats, Wistar , Thalamic Nuclei , Walking , Physiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a fatal and progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system. Until recently, its promising treatment and underlying mechanisms for neuronal death are poorly understood. This study was investigated to identify the molecular mechanism of neuronal death in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum of PD. METHODS: The soluble RAGE (sRAGE) secreting Umbilical Cord Blood—derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell (UCB-MSC) was generated by gene editing method using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). These cells were transplanted into Corpus Striatum of rotenone-induced PD animal models then behavioral test, morphological analysis, and immunohistochemical experiments were performed to determine the neuronal cell death and recovery of movement. RESULTS: The neuronal cell death in Corpus Striatum and Substantia Nigra was dramatically reduced and the movement was improved after sRAGE secreting UCB-MSC treatment in PD mice by inhibition of RAGE in neuronal cells. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sRAGE secreting UCB-MSC based therapeutic approach could be a potential treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disease including PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Cell Death , Corpus Striatum , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Mice , Microglia , Models, Animal , Nervous System , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Rage , Substantia Nigra , Umbilical Cord
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 547-554, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777157

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to reveal the role of cortical-striatum postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in improving motor behavioral dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) mice by exercise. C57/BL6 male adult mice were randomly divided into control, PD and PD plus exercise groups. The mice were injected with 6-OHDA in striatum to establish a unilateral injury PD model. The exercise intervention program was uniform speed running (16 m/min, 40 min/d, 5 d per week for 4 weeks). Autonomic activity of mice was tested by open field test. Cortical-striatum synaptic transmission efficiency was assessed by peak amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recorded from in vitro brain slides. Meanwhile, the effects of D2R agonist on autonomic activity and cortical-striatal synaptic transmission were observed. The results showed that, compared with PD group, PD plus exercise group exhibited significantly increased autonomic motor distance and proportion of fast-moving (P < 0.05), as well as decreased maximum amplitude of fEPSP under increasing stimulation intensity (0.75-3.00 pA) (P < 0.05) and slope of stimulus-response curve. Compared with PD mice without D2R agonist, the movement distance and rapid movement ratio of PD mice treated with D2R agonist were increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas fEPSP peak amplitude (P < 0.05) and the slope of stimulus-response curve were decreased. These results indicate that either early exercise intervention or D2R agonist treatment can inhibit the abnormal increase of cortical-striatum synaptic transmission and improve the autonomic motor ability in PD mice, suggesting that the cortical-striatum synaptic D2R may be an important molecular target for exercise to improve the autonomic motor ability of PD mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Corpus Striatum , Physiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidopamine , Parkinson Disease , Therapeutics , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Random Allocation , Receptors, Dopamine D2 , Physiology , Synaptic Transmission
6.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 40(4): 376-381, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959259

ABSTRACT

Objective: Sleep apnea has been associated with anxiety, but the mechanisms of the sleep apnea-anxiety relationship are unresolved. Sleep apnea causes oxidative stress, which might enhance anxiety-like behavior in rodents. To clarify the apnea-anxiety connection, we tested the effect of intermittent hypoxia, a model of sleep apnea, on the anxiety behavior of mice. Methods: The rodents were exposed daily to 480 one-minute cycles of intermittent hypoxia to a nadir of 7±1% inspiratory oxygen fraction or to a sham procedure with room air. After 7 days, the mice from both groups were placed in an elevated plus maze and were video recorded for 10 min to allow analysis of latency, frequency, and duration in open and closed arms. Glyoxalase-1 (Glo1) and glutathione reductase-1 (GR1) were measured in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum by Western blotting. Results: Compared to controls, the intermittent hypoxia group displayed less anxiety-like behavior, perceived by a statistically significant increase in the number of entries and total time spent in open arms. A higher expression of GR1 in the cortex was also observed. Conclusion: The lack of a clear anxiety response as an outcome of intermittent hypoxia exposure suggests the existence of additional layers in the anxiety mechanism in sleep apnea, possibly represented by sleepiness and irreversible neuronal damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anxiety/etiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications , Glutathione Reductase/analysis , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/analysis , Hypoxia/complications , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/enzymology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/psychology , Cerebral Cortex/enzymology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Corpus Striatum/enzymology , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/metabolism , Hypoxia/enzymology , Hypoxia/psychology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
7.
Diagn. tratamento ; 23(1): 24-27, 06/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882169

ABSTRACT

Em diversos estudos, as mulheres são definidas como mais propensas a atitudes pró-sociais, em comparação aos homens. Especula-se que essas diferenças de comportamento se devem às influências sociais. Entretanto, pesquisadores da Universidade de Zurich creditam essa diferença a questões de ordem biológica. O presente artigo consiste em síntese e comentário desse estudo, intitulado "The dopaminergic reward system underpins gender differences in social preferences", o qual verificou que o sistema de recompensa dopaminérgico das mulheres reage mais fortemente a comportamentos pró-sociais e o dos homens a comportamentos não sociais. Estudos anteriores já haviam demonstrado diferenças nas preferências entre os gêneros de bebês recém-nascidos e a influência no nível de testosterona fetal na tendência de crianças para sistematizar (analisar e construir sistemas) ou "empatizar" (perceber informações não verbais no comportamento). Diferenças de gênero entre habilidades e tendências comportamentais podem ter uma base biológica subjacente para além de influências sociais. Esta base incluiria a atuação hormonal no período gestacional e uma consequente diferenciação de funcionamento das estruturas cerebrais, em especial do sistema de recompensa e do sistema límbico.


Subject(s)
Choice Behavior , Corpus Striatum , Dopamine Agents , Gender Identity , Reward
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 849-853, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775507

ABSTRACT

As an environmental risk factor, psychological stress may trigger the onset or accelerate the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we evaluated the effects of acute restraint stress on striatal dopaminergic terminals and the brain metabolism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which has been widely used for creating a mouse model of PD. Exposure to 2 h of restraint stress immediately after injection of a low dose of MPTP caused a severe loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals as indicated by decreases in the dopamine transporter protein and dopamine levels compared with MPTP administration alone. Both striatal 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP) and MPTP concentrations were significantly increased by the application of restraint stress. Striatal monoamine oxidase-B, which catalyzes the oxidation of MPTP to MPP, was not changed by the restraint stress. Our results indicate that the enhanced striatal dopaminergic terminal loss in the stressed mice is associated with an increase in the transport of neurotoxin into the brain.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Metabolism , 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium , Metabolism , Animals , Corpus Striatum , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dopaminergic Neurons , MPTP Poisoning , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurotoxins , Metabolism , Restraint, Physical , Stress, Psychological , Metabolism
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 270-282, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777057

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), a non-invasive physical treatment, on neuroinflammatory responses in a mouse model of parkinsonism induced by intoxication with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), were investigated in vivo. We found that the REAC tissue optimization treatment specific for neuro-regenerative purposes (REAC TO-RGN-N) attenuated the inflammatory picture evoked by MPTP-induced nigro-striatal damage in mice, decreasing the levels of pro-inflammatory molecules and increasing anti-inflammatory mediators. Besides, there was a significant reduction of both astrocyte and microglial activation in MPTP-treated mice exposed to REAC TO-RGN-N. These results indicated that REAC TO-RGN-N treatment modulates the pro-inflammatory responses and reduces neuronal damage in MPTP-induced parkinsonism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Corpus Striatum , Pathology , Electric Stimulation , Methods , Inflammation , Pathology , Male , Mice , Nerve Degeneration , Pathology , Nerve Regeneration , Physiology , Parkinsonian Disorders , Pathology
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 405-418, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777039

ABSTRACT

The striatum and globus pallidus are principal nuclei of the basal ganglia. Nissl- and acetylcholinesterase-stained sections of the tree shrew brain showed the neuroanatomical features of the caudate nucleus (Cd), internal capsule (ic), putamen (Pu), accumbens, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus. The ic separated the dorsal striatum into the Cd and Pu in the tree shrew, but not in rats and mice. In addition, computer-based 3D images allowed a better understanding of the position and orientation of these structures. These data provided a large-scale atlas of the striatum and globus pallidus in the coronal, sagittal, and horizontal planes, the first detailed distribution of parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells in the tree shrew, and the differences in morphological characteristics and density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons between tree shrew and rat. Our findings support the tree shrew as a potential model for human striatal disorders.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Brain Mapping , Corpus Striatum , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Globus Pallidus , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Neurological , Neurons , Metabolism , Parvalbumins , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tupaiidae
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 566-572, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777038

ABSTRACT

The neurocircuitries that constitute the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit provide a framework for bridging gaps between neuroscience and executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been difficult to identify the mechanisms for regulating emotional problems from the understanding of ADHD comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Research based on "cool" and "hot" executive functional theory and the dual pathway models, which are thought of as applied response inhibition and delay aversion, respectively, within the neuropsychological view of ADHD, has shed light on emotional responding before and after decontextualized stimuli, while CSTC circuit-related domains have been suggested to explain the different emotional symptoms of ADHD with or without comorbid DBD. This review discusses the role of abnormal connections in each CSTC circuit, especially in the emotion circuit, which may be responsible for targeted executive dysfunction at the neuroscience level. Thus, the two major domains - abstract thinking (cool) and emotional trait (hot) - trigger the mechanism of onset of ADHD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Pathology , Psychology , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders , Pathology , Psychology , Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Corpus Striatum , Emotions , Humans , Inhibition, Psychological , Neuropsychological Tests , Thalamus
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 497-506, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777033

ABSTRACT

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that has been linked to the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 49 children with ADHD. All participants were classified as either carriers of the DRD4 4-repeat/4-repeat (4R/4R) allele (n = 30) or the DRD4 2-repeat (2R) allele (n = 19). The results showed that participants with the DRD4 2R allele had decreased ReHo bilaterally in the posterior lobes of the cerebellum, while ReHo was increased in the left angular gyrus. Compared with participants carrying the DRD4 4R/4R allele, those with the DRD4 2R allele showed decreased FC to the left angular gyrus in the left striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral lobes of the cerebellum. The increased FC regions included the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and rectus gyrus. These data suggest that the DRD4 polymorphisms are associated with localized brain activity and specific functional connections, including abnormality in the frontal-striatal-cerebellar loop. Our study not only enhances the understanding of the correlation between the cerebellar lobes and ADHD, but also provides an imaging basis for explaining the neural mechanisms underlying ADHD in children.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Diagnostic Imaging , Genetics , Pathology , Brain , Diagnostic Imaging , Cerebellum , Diagnostic Imaging , Child , Corpus Striatum , Diagnostic Imaging , Female , Frontal Lobe , Diagnostic Imaging , Genotype , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Minisatellite Repeats , Genetics , Neural Pathways , Diagnostic Imaging , Oxygen , Blood , Receptors, Dopamine D4 , Genetics , Metabolism , Rest
13.
Fisioter. Bras ; 19(3): f:353-l:361, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-947458

ABSTRACT

A acne é uma doença bem comum, que vem a causar transtornos estéticos e psicológicos nas pessoas acometidas por esta patologia, que atinge principalmente o público jovem, deixando cicatrizes como sequelas. Visando uma atenuação dessas cicatrizes, muitos métodos propõem uma associação de procedimentos, sendo bastante eficazes, porem uma das fontes mais utilizadas atualmente na estética é a fototerapia, que vem sendo aplicada em vários tratamentos como: estrias, manchas celulite, acne, alopecia, rejuvenescimento, cicatrização da pele entre outros, e que nada mais é que a interação da luz com a pele com o âmbito de potencializar e acelerar o processo de reparação da epiderme. O advento Lasers e LEDs mensuram entre diferentes comprimentos de onda ou cores, permitindo realizar de forma controlada com efetividade e segurança do tratamento almejado e associando-se à técnica de microagulhamento também promissora nesses casos, promovendo micro lesões no tecido através de um "roller", estimulando a produção de colágeno, que é fundamental no processo de cicatrização, sendo que a aplicação dessa técnica é dividida em sessões, que variam de acordo com a necessidade de cada indivíduo. Dessa forma, o objetivo foi constatar a eficácia da aplicação da fototerapia e a técnica de microagulhamento, aperfeiçoando os resultados de cicatriz de acne, esperando potencializar os efeitos, tendo uma melhora nítida no quadro da cicatriz de acne. (AU)


Acne is a very common disease, which causes aesthetic and psychological disorders in people affected by this pathology, which mainly affects the young public, leaving scars as sequels. Aiming at attenuating these scars, many methods propose an association of procedures, being quite effective, but one of the most commonly used sources in esthetics today is phototherapy, which has been applied in several treatments such as stretch marks, cellulite spots, acne, alopecia, rejuvenation , skin healing among others, and that is nothing more than the interaction of light with skin with the scope to potentiate and accelerate the process of repairing the epidermis, the advent Lasers and LEDs measure between different wavelengths or colors, allowing to perform in a controlled manner with the effectiveness and safety of the targeted treatment and associated with the microaggregation technique also promising in these cases, promoting micro-lesions in the tissue through a roller, stimulating the production of collagen, which is fundamental in the cicatrization process, being that the application of this technique is divided into sessions, which vary according to the of each individual. Thus, the objective was to verify the effectiveness of the application of phototherapy and the technique of microneedle, improving the results of acne scar, hoping to potentiate the effects, having a clear improvement in the framework of the acne scar. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Cicatrix , Acne Vulgaris , Corpus Striatum , Phototherapy , Therapeutics
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1133-1141, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886699

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Studies have shown that schizophrenic patients seem to have nutritional deficiencies. Ascorbic acid (AA) has an important antioxidant effect and neuromodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AA on locomotor activity and the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ). Rats were supplemented with AA (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg), or water for 14 days (gavage). Between the 9th and 15th days, the animals received Ketamine (Ket) (25 mg/kg) or saline (i.p). After the last administration (30 min) rats were subjected to the behavioral test. Brain structures were dissected for biochemical analysis. There was a significant increase in the locomotor activity in Ket treated. AA prevented the hyperlocomotion induced by ket. Ket also showed an increase of AChE activity within the prefrontal cortex and striatum prevented by AA. Our data indicates an effect for AA in preventing alterations induced by Ket in an animal model of SZ, suggesting that it may be an adjuvant approach for the development of new therapeutic strategies within this psychiatric disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcholinesterase/analysis , Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Schizophrenia/enzymology , Locomotion/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/physiology , Schizophrenia/prevention & control , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists , Dietary Supplements , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Corpus Striatum/enzymology , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hippocampus/enzymology , Ketamine , Locomotion/physiology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286329

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of salidroside on tic behavior and in vivo dopamine DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in Tourette syndrome (TS) model rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, the TS model group, the haloperidol-treated group (0.5 mg/kg x d(-1)), and the salidroside-treated group (50 mg/kg x d(-1)), 10 in each group. TS rat model was induced by imino-dipropio-nitrile (IDPN). Peritoneal injection of haloperidol and salidroside was started from the 4th day of modeling in the haloperidol-treated group and the salidroside-treated group respectively. Normal saline was peritoneally injected to rats in the blank control group and the TS model group respectively. Stereotyped behavior was scored, and changes of DA and 5-HT levels in blood and striatum were measured before modeling, after modeling, and after intervention.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the blank control group, the score of the tic behavior was elevated (P < 0.01) , levels of DA and 5-HT in plasma and striatum were reduced in the model group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the same group after modeling, the tic behavior score decreased and plasma DA levels increased in the two treated groups after intervention (P < 0.01). 5-HT content increased in the salidroside-treated group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group after intervention, the tic behavior score was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and DA levels in plasma and striatum were elevated (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) in the salidroside-treated group and the haloperidol-treated group. Compared with the haloperidol-treated group, the tic behavior score increased (P < 0.01), DA levels in plasma and striatum were lowered (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), the 5-HT level increased in plasma and striatum (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) in the salidroside-treated group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In the salidroside-treated group, the tic behavior was significantly reduced, and DA levels in plasma and striatum were elevated. Its mechanism might be related to regulating activities of dopamine neurons in striatum.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Corpus Striatum , Dopamine , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Glucosides , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Haloperidol , Phenols , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Serotonin , Stereotyped Behavior , Tics , Drug Therapy , Tourette Syndrome , Drug Therapy
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 942-945, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328127

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Few studies have addressed whether abnormalities in the lenticular nucleus (LN) are characteristic transcranial sonography (TCS) echo features in patients with primary dystonia. This study aimed to explore alterations in the basal ganglia in different forms of primary focal dystonia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>cross-sectional observational study was performed between December 2013 and December 2014 in 80 patients with different forms of primary focal dystonia and 55 neurologically normal control subjects. TCS was performed in patients and control subjects. Multiple comparisons of multiple rates were used to compare LN hyperechogenicity ratios between control and patient groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Thirteen individuals were excluded due to poor temporal bone windows, and two subjects were excluded due to disagreement in evaluation by sonologists. Totally, 70 patients (cervical dystonia, n = 30; blepharospasm, n = 30; oromandibular dystonia, n = 10) and 50 normal controls were included in the final analysis. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 51% (36/70) of patients with primary focal dystonia, compared with 12% (6/50) of controls (P < 0.001). Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity did not differ between the two groups. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 73% (22/30) of patients with cervical dystonia, a greater prevalence than in patients with blepharospasm (33%, 10/30, P = 0.002) and oromandibular dystonia (40%, 4/10, P = 0.126). LN hyperechogenicity was more frequently observed in patients with cervical dystonia compared with controls (73% vs. 12%, P < 0.001); however, no significant difference was detected in patients with blepharospasm (33% vs. 12%, P = 0.021) or oromandibular dystonia (40% vs. 12%, P = 0.088).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>LN hyperechogenicity is more frequently observed in patients with primary focal dystonia than in controls. It does not appear to be a characteristic TCS echo feature in patients with blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Blepharospasm , Diagnostic Imaging , Corpus Striatum , Diagnostic Imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dystonic Disorders , Diagnostic Imaging , Echoencephalography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155953

ABSTRACT

Corpus striatum is subcortical nuclei composed of caudate nucleus and putamen. It has been considered to be associated with motor control and learning. Dysfunction of the striatum is related to Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. Nevertheless, standard Korean striatum volume was not set yet. Here, we report the striatum volume in healthy Korean youths. The subjects were composed of 57 youths (male, 28; female, 29). The MRI study was undertaken after a brief history taking and neurological examination. The DICOM files were imported into V-Works program. Volume models of the intracranial cavity, whole brain, caudate nucleus, and putamen were made and their volumes were calculated by the program. The average caudate volume was 7.23±1.18 cm³ in male group and 6.23±0.96 cm³ in female group. The average volume of putamen was 7.19±1.25 cm³ in male group and 6.38±0.86 cm³ in female group. Interestingly the right caudate volume is significantly larger in both group, although there is no difference in putamen volume. This study reports Korean corpus striatum volume in healthy volunteers. These results would provide an important standard reference for further study.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Brain , Caudate Nucleus , Corpus Striatum , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Huntington Disease , Learning , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neurologic Examination , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Putamen , Schizophrenia , Tourette Syndrome
18.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-9, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chitosan, the N-deacetylated derivative of chitin, is a cationic polyelectrolyte due to the presence of amino groups, one of the few occurring in nature. The use of chitosan in protein and drug delivery systems is being actively researched and reported in the literature RESULTS: In this study, we used chitosan-coated levodopa liposomes to investigate the behavioral character and the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phos-phoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) and FosB/AFosB in striatum of rat model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). We found that scores of abnormal involuntary movement (AIM) decreased significantly in liposome group (P < 0.05), compared with levodopa group. Levels of phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Thr34 DARPP-32 and FosB/AFosB in striatum decreased significantly in liposome group lesion side compared with levodopa group (P < 0.05). However, both of two groups above have significantly differences compared with the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Chitosan-coated levodopa liposomes may be useful in reducing dyskinesias inducing for Parkinson disease. The mechanism might be involved the pathway of signaling molecular phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Thr34 DARPP-32 and AFosB in striatum


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dopamine Agents/pharmacology , Levodopa/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Chitosan/pharmacology , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/metabolism , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/prevention & control , Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced/etiology , Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32/analysis , Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32/drug effects , Nanoparticles , Liposomes
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1156-1159, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762922

ABSTRACT

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising medical imaging technique that uses light to capture real-time cross-sectional images from biological tissues in micrometer resolution. Commercially available optical coherence tomography systems are employed in diverse applications, including art conservation and diagnostic medicine, notably in cardiology and ophthalmology. Application of this technology in the brain may enable distinction between white matter and gray matter, and obtainment of detailed images from within the encephalon. We present, herein, the in vivo implementation of OCT imaging in the rat brain striatum. For this, two male 60-day-old rats (Rattus norvegicus, Albinus variation, Wistar) were stereotactically implanted with guide cannulas into the striatum to guide a 2.7-French diameter high-definition OCT imaging catheter (Dragonfly™, St. Jude Medical, USA). Obtained images were compared with corresponding histologically stained sections to collect imaging samples. A brief analysis of OCT technology and its current applications is also reported, as well as intra-cerebral OCT feasibility on brain mapping during neurosurgical procedures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Basal Ganglia/anatomy & histology , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Computer Systems/standards , Corpus Striatum/anatomy & histology , Feasibility Studies , Rats, Wistar , Stereotaxic Techniques , Tomography, Optical Coherence/standards
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 113(5): e260-e263, oct. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757066

ABSTRACT

El trauma ocular pediátrico es frecuente y es la principal causa de ceguera unilateral no congénita. La información en países en vías de desarrollo es escasa. El objetivo de esta serie de casos es describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas del trauma ocular en niños menores de 14 años que consultaron al Hospital Dr. Rodolfo Robles Val verde en la Ciudad de Guatemala durante el año 2010. Se incluyeron 119 pacientes en el estudio. El género masculino en edad escolar (7-9 años) fue el más comprometido. El trauma más común fue el de globo cerrado. Los objetos más frecuentes causantes de la lesión fueron madera, juguetes y químicos. La vivienda fue el lugar donde más ocurrió el trauma. Se intervinieron 21 pacientes. Son necesarios programas de educación y prevención.


Pediatric ocular trauma is common and the leading cause of non congenital unilateral blindness. The information in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this case series is to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ocular trauma in children under 14 years of age who visited Hospital Dr. Rodolfo Robles Valverde in Guatemala City in 2010. In this study 119 patients were included. School-aged (7-9 years) male gender was the most affected. Closed globe injury was the commonest. The most frequent objects causing the lesions were: wooden objects, toys and chemicals. Trauma occurred most frequently at home. Twenty one of the patients were surgically intervened. Education and prevention programs for pediatric ocular trauma are necessary.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects , Endosulfan/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Substantia Nigra/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Cell Survival/drug effects , Corpus Striatum/metabolism , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , MPTP Poisoning , Neuroblastoma , Sex Factors , Substantia Nigra/metabolism
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