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1.
Av. enferm ; 38(1): 18-27, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1089006

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la intervención de enfermería "Alguien apoya al que cuida" sobre las percepciones de soporte social y de sobrecarga con el cuidado de cuidadores familiares de personas con enfermedad crónica. Metodología: Estudio de tipo cuantitativo cuasiexperimental con un grupo experimental y de control, al que se le realizó medición antes y después de la intervención aplicando los instrumentos de soporte social percibido de Sherbourne y Stewart y entrevista de sobrecarga de Zarit en un total de 137 participantes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión de ser cuidador principal por más de seis meses y estar vinculado al programa "Cuidando a los Cuidadores®" de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de estadística descriptiva e inferencial no paramétrica en la que se aplicó la prueba de Mann-Whitney para el análisis intergrupos. Resultados: No existe diferencia significativa entre grupos en las mediciones pre y posprueba en ninguna de las variables, además se presenta un mínimo cambio entre las medias de la variable de sobrecarga entre la pre y la posprueba del grupo experimental. Conclusión: Se advierte que el efecto mínimo de la intervención propuesta se presenta por la multidimensio-nalidad del soporte social, además del uso de otro tipo de TIC diferentes a las propuestas en este estudio.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar o efeito da intervenção de enfermagem "alguém apoia aquele que cuida" sobre as percepções de apoio social y de sobrecarga com o cuidado de cuidadores familiares de pessoas com doença crônica. Metodologia: Estudo de tipo quantitativo quase-experimental com um grupo experimental e de controle, ao qual foi realizada medição antes e depois da intervenção com aplicação dos instrumentos de apoio social percebido de Sherbourne e Stewart e entrevista de sobrecarga de Zarit em um total de 137 participantes que cumpriram com os critérios de inclusão de ser cuidador principal por mais de seis meses e estar vinculado ao programa "Cuidando aos Cuidadores®" da Faculdade de Enfermagem da Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial não paramétrica na qual se aplicou o teste de Mann-Whitney para a análise intergrupos. Resultados: Não existe diferença significativa entre grupos nas medições pré e pós-teste em nenhuma das variáveis. Além disso, apresenta-se uma alteração mínima entre as medias da variável de sobrecarga entre o pré e pós-teste do grupo experimental. Conclusão: Adverte-se que o efeito mínimo da intervenção proposta se apresenta pela multidimensionalidade do suporte social, além do uso de outro tipo de TIC diferentes às propostas neste estudo.


Abstract Objective: To determine the effect of the "someone supports a caregiver" nursing intervention on the perceptions of social support and overload with the care of family caregivers of people with chronic illness. Methodology: A quasi-experimental quantitative study with an experimental group and a control group, which was measured before and after the intervention by applying Sherbourne and Stewart's perceived social support instruments and Zarit Burden Interview. There was a total of 137 participants who met the inclusion criteria of being a primary caregiver for more than six months and being linked to the "Caring for Caregivers®" program of the Faculty of Nursing of the National University of Colombia. The data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential nonparametric statistics in which the Mann-Whitney test was applied for intergroup analysis. Results: There is no significant difference between groups in pre and post-test measurements in any of the variables, and there is a minimal change between the means of the burden variable between the pre and post-test of the experimental group. Conclusion: It is noted that the minimum effect of the proposed intervention is presented by the multidimensionality of social support, in addition to the use of different types of ICTs other than those proposed in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Support , Chronic Disease , Caregivers , Cost of Illness , Nursing , Colombia
3.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(4): 914-920, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1005735

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as repercussões psicossociais do Traumatismo Cranioencefálico causado por acidente motociclístico. Métodos: Tratou-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com recorte longitudinal, de abordagem qualitativa, do tipo estudo de caso. Foram aplicados instrumentos e realizados entrevista semiestruturada e observação no domicílio da paciente. Os dados foram analisados por meio da triangulação, buscando-se linhas de convergência entre eles e interpretados por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: Foram apresentados a partir da transcrição da entrevista, posteriormente, agruparam-se os conteúdos por similaridades de significados e desvelaram-se as categorias: "Repercussões psicossociais: dualidade do sim e do não", "Ressignificação da maternidade" e "(Re)valorização da vida". Conclusão: Ficou evidenciado que a paciente não teve nenhuma repercussão ou sequela funcional. Entretanto, percebeu-se que nem sempre as repercussões de um acidente motocilístico são visíveis, pelo contrário, as marcas invisíveis se fazem presentes e, por vezes, são difíceis de serem percebidas pelas vítimas e seus familiares


Objective: To describe the psychosocial repercussions of Cranioencephalic Trauma caused by motorcycle accident. Methods: This was a descriptive research, with a longitudinal cut, of a qualitative approach, of the case study type. Instruments were applied, with a semi-structured interview and observation at the patient's home. The data were analyzed through triangulation, searching for lines of convergence between them and interpreted through the analysis of thematic content. Results: They were presented from the transcription of the interview, later, the contents were grouped by similarities of meanings and the categories were unveiled: "Psychosocial repercussions: duality of yes and no"; "Resignation of motherhood" and "(Re) valorization of life". Conclusion: It was evidenced that the patient had no functional repercussion or sequelae. However, it has been noticed that the repercussions of a motorcycle accident are not always visible, on the contrary, the invisible 'marks' are present and sometimes difficult for the victims and their relatives to perceive


Objetivo: Describir las repercusiones psicosociales del Traumatismo Cráneoencefálico causado por accidente motociclístico. Métodos: Se trata de una investigación descriptiva, con recorte longitudinal, de abordaje cualitativo, del tipo estudio de caso. Se aplicaron instrumentos, realizada entrevista semiestructurada y observación en el domicilio de la paciente. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de la triangulación, buscando líneas de convergencia entre los mismos e interpretados a través del análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Se presentaron a partir de la transcripción de la entrevista, posteriormente, se agruparon los contenidos por semejanzas de significados y se desvelaron las categorías: "Repercusiones psicosociales: dualidad del sí y del no"; "Resignificación de la maternidad" y "(Re) valorización de la vida". Conclusión: Se evidenció que la paciente no tuvo ninguna repercusión o secuela funcional. Sin embargo, se percibió que no siempre las repercusiones de un accidente motocilístico son visibles, por el contrario, las 'marcas' invisibles se hacen presentes y, a veces, son difíciles de percibir por las víctimas y sus familiares


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic , Cost of Illness , Craniocerebral Trauma , Wounds and Injuries , Motorcycles
4.
Aquichan ; 19(2): e1928, Jan.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1038326

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the perceived burden and functional status of gastric cancer patients with gastrectomy in a center of cancer in Bogota (Colombia) between 2013 and 2016. Materials and methods: Retrospective description of patients intervened by gastrectomy distributed in three groups: Patients with gastrectomy from 1 to 12 months of surgical intervention, 13 to 14 months and 25 to 36 months. For this, it was used the disease burden perception instrument and the Karnofsky scale. Results: 127 patients were included. 63 from 1 to 12 months, 43 from 13 to 24 months, and 21 from 25 to 36 months of intervention. Gastric adenocarcinoma of intestinal pattern stage III and II predominate. More than 50 % of the patients required total gastrectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy. The majority of participants performed regular activities with mild signs and symptoms, presented low overall perceived burden and functional performance without statistically significant differences between groups. Patients from 1 to 12 months of intervention reported greater levels of physical discomfort. Conclusions: In patients with gastrectomy for gastric cancer, physical symptoms persist such as emotional disturbances, economic difficulties and limitations in the work role, findings to be included in follow-up programs.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar el seguimiento de pacientes gastrectomizados por cáncer gástrico en un centro de oncología en Bogotá, entre 2013 y 2016, y determinar el estado funcional y la percepción de la carga de enfermedad. Material y métodos: descripción retrospectiva de pacientes intervenidos por gastrectomía, distribuidos en tres grupos: de 1 a 12 meses de seguimiento luego de la intervención, de 13 a 14 meses, y de 25 a 36 meses. Se utilizó un instrumento de percepción de carga de enfermedad crónica validado y la escala de Karnofsky. Resultados: se incluyeron 127 pacientes: 63 a un año, 43 a 2 años y 21 a 3 años. Predomina el adenocarcinoma gástrico de patrón intestinal. Más del 50 % requirió gastrectomía total, más quimioterapia adyuvante, y estaba en estadios II y III. La mayoría realiza actividad normal con signos y síntomas leves, con una carga de enfermedad percibida global baja y un estado funcional sin diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Los pacientes con seguimiento de 1 a 12 meses reportaron un mayor malestar físico. Conclusiones: en pacientes gastrectomizados por cáncer gástrico, persisten síntomas físicos, alteraciones emocionales, dificultades económicas y limitación en el rol laboral, hallazgos por ser incluidos en los programas de seguimiento.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o seguimento de pacientes gastrectomizados emum centro de referêncianacidade de Bogotá entre 2013 e 2016, determinando o status funcional e a percepção da carga da doença. Material e métodos: Descriçãoretrospropectiva dos pacientes intervencionados por gastrectomiadistribuídosemtrês grupos, que têm entre 1 a 12 meses de intervençãocirúrgica, 13 a 14 meses e 25 a 36 meses. Utilizamos o instrumento de percepção da carga de doençascrônicas, desenhado, avaliado e a escala de Karnofsky. Resultados: 127 pacientes foramacompanhados por gastrectomia por câncer gástrico; 63 emum ano, 43 em 2 anos e 21em 36 meses. Do ponto de vista histopatológico, predomina o adenocarcinoma gástrico intestinal. Mais de 50 % necessitaram de gastrectomia total, além de quimioterapia adjuvante e corresponderamaosestágios II e III. A maioria dos pacientes commonitorizaçãoactividade normal realizada sinais e sintomas leves comumabaixa carga global percebida e um estado funcional, semdiferenças significativas entre os grupos namonitorização de doentesacompanhados durante 1 a 12 meses relatados maisdesconforto físico. Conclusões: Nos pacientes gastrectomizados por câncer gástrico, a percepção de sobrecarga da doença é baixa. Alguns sintomas físicos persistem, disturbios emocionais e dificuldades econômicas, bem como limitação no papel do trabalho, achados a serem considerados no desenvolvimento de programas de acompanhamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Cost of Illness , Gastrectomy , Oncology Nursing
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 193-201, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1013776

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar a disponibilidade de recursos a partir de amostra aleatória representativa das unidades de terapia intensiva do Brasil. Métodos: Realizou-se um questionário estruturado on-line para ser respondido pelo diretor médico de cada unidade participante do estudo SPREAD (Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database), um estudo de prevalência de um único dia para avaliar o ônus da sepse no Brasil. Resultados: Uma amostra representativa de 277 das 317 unidades convidadas participou por meio de resposta ao questionário estruturado. Em sua maior parte, os hospitais participantes tinham menos que 500 leitos (94,6%), com mediana de 14 leitos na unidade de terapia intensiva. A principal fonte de recursos financeiros para dois terços das unidades pesquisadas era o atendimento de pacientes do sistema público de saúde. Não havia disponibilidade de laboratório de microbiologia próprio em 26,8% das unidades de terapia intensiva pesquisadas, e 10,5% geralmente não tinham acesso à realização de hemoculturas. Em 10,5% das unidades pesquisadas geralmente não estavam disponíveis antibióticos de amplo espectro, e 21,3% das unidades geralmente não podiam obter mensurações de lactato dentro de 3 horas. As instituições com alta disponibilidade de recursos (158 unidades; 57%) eram, em geral, maiores e atendiam principalmente pacientes do sistema de saúde privado. As unidades sem alta disponibilidade de recursos geralmente não dispunham de antibióticos de amplo espectro (24,4%), vasopressores (4,2%) e cristaloides (7,6%). Conclusão: Um número importante de unidades não tem condições para realizar intervenções básicas de monitoramento e terapêutica em pacientes sépticos. Nossos resultados salientam importantes oportunidades que o Brasil tem para melhorar, em termos de adesão a intervenções simples, porém eficazes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize resource availability from a nationally representative random sample of intensive care units in Brazil. Methods: A structured online survey of participating units in the Sepsis PREvalence Assessment Database (SPREAD) study, a nationwide 1-day point prevalence survey to assess the burden of sepsis in Brazil, was sent to the medical director of each unit. Results: A representative sample of 277 of the 317 invited units responded to the resources survey. Most of the hospitals had fewer than 500 beds (94.6%) with a median of 14 beds in the intensive care unit. Providing care for public-insured patients was the main source of income in two-thirds of the surveyed units. Own microbiology laboratory was not available for 26.8% of the surveyed intensive care units, and 10.5% did not always have access to blood cultures. Broad spectrum antibiotics were not always available in 10.5% of surveyed units, and 21.3% could not always measure lactate within three hours. Those institutions with a high resource availability (158 units, 57%) were usually larger and preferentially served patients from the private health system compared to institutions without high resource availability. Otherwise, those without high resource availability did not always have broad-spectrum antibiotics (24.4%), vasopressors (4.2%) or crystalloids (7.6%). Conclusion: Our study indicates that a relevant number of units cannot perform basic monitoring and therapeutic interventions in septic patients. Our results highlight major opportunities for improvement to adhere to simple but effective interventions in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis/therapy , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cost of Illness , Sepsis/epidemiology , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data
6.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 11(1): 26-33, Abril/2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), ECOS | ID: biblio-1005626

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Calcular os custos adicionais da pessoa com deficiência física e investigar o seu impacto na renda familiar. Métodos: Seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, identificaram-se quatro perfis de deficiência com graus diferentes de severidade quanto à mobilidade dos membros inferiores e superiores. Foi construída uma matriz de necessidades para estimar os custos adicionais, seguindo o Método de Padrão Orçamentário, a partir de grupos focais. Dados foram coletados em 2013. Utilizou-se o salário mínimo nacional de 2015 (R$ 816,52) para estimar os custos. Resultados: Os custos adicionais variaram de 2 a 14 vezes o salário mínimo nacional. O perfil de menor custo adicional foi o 2, seguido do 1, 3 e 4. O perfil 4 foi o de maior custo adicional devido à grande incapacidade das pessoas. Há exigência de alta intensidade de assistência pessoal e de oferta de equipamentos. Na assistência pessoal, calculou-se o trabalho dos cuidadores dividindo-o por um período de 2, 4, 8 e 24 horas, para São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, Paraná e Brasil. Os custos com assistência pessoal são relevantes no total dos custos e variam conforme a região. Conclusões: Demonstrou-se que há um custo adicional para as pessoas com deficiência física em todos os perfis. Há risco de empobrecimento porque esses custos absorvem a renda dessas pessoas e de sua família, a qual não pode gastar em outros serviços. A renda pode ser, assim, insuficiente para as necessidades primordiais, ficando clara a necessidade de políticas públicas para prover serviços necessários ou benefícios financeiros.


Objective: To calculate the additional costs of living for people with physical disabilities and to investigate their impact on family income. Methods: We identified four profiles of deficiency with different grades of severity, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. They were related to the extent of mobility of upper and lower limbs. Additional costs were evaluated through focal groups following the Budgetary Pattern Method. We also set up a matrix to express the additional costs. Data were collected in 2013. The national minimum wage from 2015 (R$ 816,52) was considered to estimate the proportional costs. Results: Additional costs fluctuated between 2 to 14 times the national minimum wage. The profile with the minor additional cost was 2, succeeded by 1, 3 and 4. Profile 4 showed the highest additional cost since people with physical disabilities need huge intensity of personal assistance and equipment supply. In personal assistance, we calculated the work of caregivers by sharing it into 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours/day. Costs with personal assistance diversify amongst São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Brazil due to distinct minimum wage. Conclusions: This research showed the presence of an additional cost for people with physical disabilities in all profiles. There is a risk of impoverishment with sacrifice in family's income since they cannot waste in other domestic services. Thus, it is clear that there is a strong need of public policies to underpin these families with more health services or financial benefit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cost of Illness , Disabled Persons
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39: 1-12, jan.-mar.2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1022323

ABSTRACT

Com o objetivo de mapear os riscos psicossociais no Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU) do Distrito Federal, este estudo baseia-se nos preceitos da teoria da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho (PdT), para pensar as relações entre saúde e trabalho e as implicações da relação organização do trabalho, gestão e trabalhador, envolvendo a noção de intersubjetividade. Propõe-se que a intersubjetividade pode ser investigada, ainda que de maneira indireta, em instrumentos de avaliação por meio de categorias empíricas, fundamentadas teoricamente em abordagens críticas e clínicas como a Psicodinâmica do Trabalho e a Psicanálise. Como ferramenta quantitativa optou-se por aplicar o Protocolo de Avaliação dos Riscos Psicossociais (PROART), uma ferramenta desenvolvida no Brasil, que abarca a investigação de quatro dimensões que envolvem a relação trabalhador-organização do trabalho, a saber: organização prescrita do trabalho (normas e regras instituídas); estilos de gestão; sofrimento patogênico; e danos psicossociais. Como amostra de conveniência, também foram realizadas cinco entrevistas semiestruturadas para investigar os dados fornecidos referentes aos adoecimentos. Os resultados obtidos apontam que os riscos psicossociais mais críticos para o desenvolvimento da tarefa referem-se à insuficiência de recursos de trabalho, espaço físico inadequado, equipe reduzida e injustiça na distribuição de tarefas. Também é relatado o forte controle das regras e valorização da hierarquia. O sofrimento patogênico refere-se à exaustão emocional, expressa pelos respondentes na submissão do trabalho às decisões políticas, ao cansaço e desgaste pelo excesso de horas extras e esforço físico nos atendimentos. Os resultados puderam embasar discussões para ações e políticas de prevenção em saúde e trabalho....(AU)


With the goal of mapping the psychosocial risks in the Mobile Emergency Service. (SAMU) in the Federal District, this study is based on the precepts of Psychodynamic theory (PdT) to think about the relationship between health and work and the implications of the relationship of organization of work, management and workers, involving the notion of intersubjectivity. It is proposed that intersubjectivity can be investigated, even if indirectly, in evaluation tools through empirical categories theoretically based in critical approaches and clinics as the Psychodynamics work and psychoanalysis. As a quantitative tool we decided to apply the Protocol for the evaluation of psychosocial risks (PROART), a tool developed in Brazil, which includes the investigation of four dimensions involving the relation worker-organization of work, namely: prescribed organization of work (established standards and rules); management styles; pathogenic suffering. As a convenience sample, five semi-structured interviews were also carried out to investigate data provided related to the diseases. The results obtained show that the most critical psychosocial risks to the development of the task refer to insufficient work resources, inadequate physical space, reduced staff and injustice in the distribution of tasks. It is also reported the strong control of the rules and the valuation of the hierarchy. The pathogenic suffering refers to emotional exhaustion, expressed by respondents in submitting work to policy decisions, fatigue and wearing out by excess overtime and physical effort in work. The results could support discussions to prevention actions and policies on health and work....(AU)


Con el objetivo de mapear los riesgos psicosociales en el Servicio de Atención Móvil de Urgencia (SAMU) del Distrito Federal, este estudio se basa en los preceptos de la teoría de la Psicodinámica del Trabajo (PdT), para pensar las relaciones entre salud y trabajo y las implicaciones de la relación de la organización del trabajo, gestión y trabajador, envolviendo la noción de intersubjetividad.. Se propone que la intersubjetividad pueda ser investigada, aunque de manera indirecta, en instrumentos de evaluación por medio de categorías empíricas, fundamentadas teóricamente en abordajes críticos y clínicos como la Psicodinámica del Trabajo y el Psicoanálisis. Como herramienta cuantitativa se optó por aplicar el Protocolo de Evaluación de los Riesgos Psicosociales (PROART), una herramienta desarrollada en Brasil, que abarca la investigación de cuatro dimensiones que envuelven la relación trabajadororganización del trabajo, a saber: organización prescrita del trabajo (organización) normas y normas establecidas); estilos de gestión; sufrimiento patógeno; y daños psicosociales. Como muestra de conveniencia, también se realizaron cinco entrevistas emiestructuradas para investigar los datos suministrados referentes a las enfermedades. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan que los riesgos psicosociales más críticos para el desarrollo de la tarea se refieren a la insuficiencia de recursos de trabajo, espacio físico inadecuado, equipo reducido e injusticia en la distribución de tareas. También se informa el fuerte control de las reglas y la valoración de la jerarquía. El sufrimiento patogénico se refiere al agotamiento emocional, expresado por los respondedores en la sumisión del trabajo a las decisiones políticas, al cansancio y desgaste por el exceso de horas extras y esfuerzo físico en las atenciones. Los resultados pudieron basar discusiones para acciones y políticas de prevención en salud y trabajo....(AU)


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Cost of Illness , Emergency Medical Services , Psychology
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(1): 12-18, feb. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-983771

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En Argentina, se estiman 400 000 casos anuales de varicela. Dado el subregistro de casos existentes, la carga de enfermedad real se desconoce. Objetivo. Evaluar la carga de enfermedad por varicela antes de la introducción de la vacuna al Calendario Nacional. Materiales y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo, analítico, observacional, realizado en tres centros asistenciales del país. Revisión de los registros de consultas ambulatorias a los Servicios de Urgencias y de las historias clínicas de las internaciones por varicela en pacientes < 18 años. Período: 1/2011-12/2013. Resultados. Fueron asistidas un total de 382782 consultas ambulatorias; 3367 (0,88 %) correspondieron a consultas por varicela; el 57,6 %, < 4 años. Requirieron internación 164 (4,9 %) con una tasa de hospitalización global de 65,3/10000 hospitalizados/año (IC 95 %: 55,4-76,5); tasa de hospitalización en niños sanos: 57,2/10 000 (IC 95 %: 67,7-48,0); mediana de edad: 31,5 meses. Las causas de internación más frecuentes fueron infecciones de piel y/o partes blandas (61,1 %) y respiratorias (10,1 %). El 54,3 % recibió tratamiento con aciclovir, y el 73,1 %, con antibióticos. Presentaron bacteriemia 5/67 (7,5 %), todas por cocos Gram(+) y en inmunocompetentes. De los 19 pacientes inmunocomprometidos, el 36,8 % tuvo complicaciones (5 infecciones de piel y/o partes blandas y 2 neumonías). La mediana de días de internación fue 4, significativamente más prolongada en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Un paciente requirió cuidados intensivos. No hubo fallecidos. Conclusión. La carga de enfermedad registrada fue significativa, con impacto considerable en pacientes sin patología de base.


Introduction. In Argentina, an estimated 400 000 varicella cases occur annually. Given the under-recording of existing cases, the actual burden of disease is unknown. Objective. To assess the burden of varicella before the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule. Materials and methods. Retrospective, analytical, observational study carried out in three hospitals of Argentina. Review of medical records from outpatient visits to the Emergency Department and from patients younger than 18 years hospitalized for varicella. Period: 1/2011-12/2013. Results. A total of 382 782 outpatients were seen; 3367(0.88%) corresponded to visits due to varicella; 57.6 % were < 4 years old. A total of 164 (4.9 %) patients required hospitalization, with an overall hospitalization rate of 65.3/10 000 hospitalized patients/year (95 % confidence interval -#91;CI-#93;: 55.4-76.5); hospitalization rate in healthy children: 57.2/10 000 (95 % CI: 67.7-48.0); median age: 31.5 months. The most common causes of hospitalization were skin and/or soft tissue infections (61.1 %) and respiratory infections (10.1 %). Also, 54.3 % were treated with acyclovir and 73.1 %, with antibiotics. Bacteremia developed in 5/67 patients (7.5 %), all cases were caused by Gram-positive cocci and occurred in immunocompetent patients. Out of 19 immunocompromised patients, 36.8 % had complications (5 skin and/or soft tissue infection and 2 pneumonia cases). The median length of stay was 4 days, which is significantly more prolonged in immunocompromised patients. One patient required intensive care. No patient died. Conclusion. The burden of disease was significant, with a considerable impact in patients without an underlying disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Argentina/epidemiology , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Chickenpox/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Ambulatory Care , Hospitalization
9.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 18(1): 126-137, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1004127

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer constituye actualmente en Cuba la segunda causa de muerte para todas las edades y es una enfermedad compleja, cuya connotación psicosocial repercute no solo en el paciente, sino en todos aquellos que conforman su red de apoyo social. Objetivo: caracterizar la carga del cuidador en cuidadores informales primarios de pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello, hospitalizados en el Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología de La Habana, desde diciembre de 2016 a marzo de 2017. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-correlacional, desde una metodología mixta, a 100 pacientes que cumplieron con determinados criterios de inclusión. Se aplicó para la recogida de la información una entrevista a sujetos tipos, y el instrumento Cuestionario de Carga del Cuidador de Zarit, y se solicitó el consentimiento informado de los cuidadores para su participación. Resultados: Los resultados revelaron altos niveles de carga del cuidador, siendo la dimensión impacto del cuidado la más afectada y la carga interpersonal la menos dañada. Se demostró que, a menor conocimiento del cuidador sobre la enfermedad del paciente, mayor carga del cuidador y carga interpersonal. Conclusiones: Se obtuvo que el nivel de moderado a severo de la carga de los cuidadores informales primarios del estudio se debió fundamentalmente a las afectaciones en la salud física y psíquica, limitaciones en las áreas personal y laboral, y estados emocionales negativos: ansiedad, preocupación y rasgos depresivos(AU)


Introduction: Cancer in Cuba is currently the second cause of death at all ages for being an extremely complex disease because of the various characteristics in terms of etiology, location, evolution and prognosis. In addition, it has a psychosocial connotation and a negative emotional impact not only for the patient, but also for all those people who are part of a network of social support. Objective: The objective of this research was to characterize the caregiver burden in primary caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer, hospitalized at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology from December 2016 to March 2017. Materials and methods: A mixed methodology descriptive-correlational study was carried out on 100 patients who met certain inclusion criteria. An interview for the collection of the information and the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale were applied to subject types. Informed consent of the caregivers was obtained for their participation in the study. Results: The results revealed high levels of caregiver burden. The most affected dimension was the impact of care whereas the interpersonal burden was the least damaged dimension. It was demonstrated that, to a lesser knowledge of the caregiver about the patient's illness, greater caregiver burden and interpersonal burden. Conclusions: It was concluded that the moderate to severe level of the burden of the primary informal caregivers of the study was mainly due to the affectations in the physical and mental health, the limitations in the personal and work areas, and the existence of negative emotional states: anxiety, worry, and depressive traits(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Caregivers/psychology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/psychology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cost of Illness
10.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180057, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1004086

ABSTRACT

Resumo OBJETIVOS Identificar a ocorrência de depressão em cuidadores familiares de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e a correlação de outras variáveis com a depressão. MÉTODO A busca bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases de dados Web of Science, Medline, LILACS e PubMed, em março de 2017. Artigos publicados entre 2004 e 2016, escritos em inglês, espanhol ou português, utilizando os descritores saúde, insuficiência cardíaca, depressão, cuidadores e familiares foram incluídos. RESULTADOS Foram selecionados 26 trabalhos. 6% a 64% reportaram sintomas depressivos. Os sintomas depressivos foram associados com as características dos pacientes e cuidadores. Em sua maioria, os sintomas depressivos foram maiores entre os cuidadores familiares que a população em geral e se relacionou principalmente com a sobrecarga do cuidado e a qualidade de vida. CONCLUSÃO Os estudos identificaram sintomas depressivos nos cuidadores de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca.


Resumen OBJETIVOS Identificar la ocurrencia de síntomas depressivos en los cuidadores familiares de pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca y la correlación de otras variables con los síntomas depressivos. MÉTODO La búsqueda bibliográfica se realizó en las bases de datos Web of Science, Medline, LILACS y PubMed en marzo de 2017. Se incluyeron artículos publicados entre 2004 y 2016, escritos en inglés, español o portugués, utilizando los descriptores de salud, insuficiencia cardíaca, depresión, cuidadores y familia. RESULTADOS Se seleccionaron 26 trabajos. De 6% a 64% reportaron síntomas depresivos. Los síntomas depressivos se asociaron a características de pacientes y cuidadores. En la mayoría de los casos, los síntomas depresivos fueron mayores entre los cuidadores familiares que en la población general y se relacionaron principalmente con la carga asistencial y la calidad de vida. CONCLUSIONES Los estudios identificaron síntomas depresivos en los cuidadores de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca.


Abstract AIMS Identify the occurrence of depressive symptoms in family caregivers of patients with heart failure and the correlation of other variables with depressive symptoms. DESIGN/METHOD The literature review was conducted in the Web of Science, Medline, LILACS and PubMed databases in March 2017. Papers published between 2004 and 2016, written in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. The descriptors used were health, heart failure, depression, caregivers, and family. RESULTS 26 papers were selected. 6% to 64% reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with patients' and caregivers' characteristics. In most cases, depressive symptoms were greater among family caregivers than in the general population and were mainly associated with care burden and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The studies report depressive symptoms in caregivers of patients with heart failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Family/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Heart Failure/nursing , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cost of Illness , Depression/etiology , Checklist , Middle Aged
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-976240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis mansoni/rehabilitation , Schistosomiasis mansoni/therapy , Cost of Illness
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739394

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, prescription pattern and burden of pediatric asthma in Korea by analyzing the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the insurance claim records from the Korean NHI claims database from January 2010 to December 2014. Asthmatic patients were defined as children younger than 18 years, with appropriate 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases codes (J45 or J46) and a prescription for 1 or more asthma maintenance medications at the same date. Hospitalization and emergency department visits for asthma were defined as use of short-acting beta2-agonists during hospital visits among asthmatic patients. RESULTS: There were 1,172,807 asthmatic children in 2010, which increased steadily to 1,590,228 in 2014 in Korea. The prevalence showed an increasing trend annually for all ages. The mean prevalence by age in those older than 2 years decreased during the study period (from 39.4% in the 2–3 year age group to 2.6% in the 15–18 year age group). In an outpatient prescription, leukotriene receptor antagonists were the most commonly prescribed medication for all ages. Patients older than 6 years for whom inhaled corticosteroids were prescribed comprised less than 15% of asthmatic patients. The total direct medical cost for asthma between 2010 and 2014 ranged from $376 to $483 million. Asthma-related medical cost per person reached its peak in $366 in 2011 and decreased to $275 in 2014. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of pediatric asthma increased annually and decreased with age. Individual cost of asthma showed a decreasing trend in Korean children.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Asthma , Child , Cost of Illness , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Insurance , International Classification of Diseases , Korea , Leukotriene Antagonists , National Health Programs , Outpatients , Prescriptions , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
13.
Investig. enferm ; 21(1)2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), COLNAL | ID: biblio-995502

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La experiencia de vivir con un cáncer repercute significativamente en la vida, pues afecta todo el ser, lo que demanda de enfermería comprender las características del cuidado de las personas y de sus seres queridos para poderlo cuidar. Objetivo: Describir y comparar la caracterización para el cuidado de los pacientes con cáncer. Método: Estudio descriptivo comparativo realizado con 131 pacientes con cáncer atendidos en tres servicios oncológicos, determinando el perfil sociodemográfico, la carga percibida y la apropiación de las tecnologías para el cuidado. El análisis se realizó utilizando estadística descriptiva, la comparación con prueba chi cuadrado y de Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: Predomina el género femenino, edad promedio de 54 años (DE: 17,4), baja dependencia y estado cognitivo intacto, baja escolaridad, falta de ocupación laboral, nivel socioeconómico bajo y alto nivel de apoyo familiar. La percepción de bienestar es positiva en el aspecto físico, social y espiritual, para la mayoría. La apropiación de las tecnologías es media. Excepto por algunas variaciones, los pacientes presentan condiciones comunes para el cuidado. Conclusión: Los pacientes perciben apoyo, en especial familiar, bienestar físico, social y espiritual, excepto psicológico, lo que permite planear un cuidado de enfermería que garantice mejor acceso, seguridad y continuidad.


Introduction: The experience of living with cancer impacts significantly the life as it affects the whole being. In the nursing practice all this demands to understand the care characteristics of people living with cancer and their beloved ones in order to be able to care them. Objective: To describe and compare the characterization of care for cancer patients. Method: This is a comparative descriptive study conducted using 131 cancer patients who received health care in three oncologic services; it is intended to determine the sociodemographic profile, the measured load and the appropriation of care technologies. The analysis was carried out by using descriptive statistics and comparisons based on chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Most of the patients were women with an average age of 54 years (SD: 17.4); they showed low drug-dependence, intact cognitive condition, and low schooling levels; many of them lacked a job and had a low socio-economic status but with strong family support. The well-being perception was positive regarding the physical, social, and spiritual aspects for most of the patients. There was a mean appropriation of technologies. Except for some variations, the patients show some conditions requiring a common care. Conclusion: Patients perceive support, especially from their families, with physical, social and spiritual wellbeing, but not psychological well-being. This allows to plan the nursing care so as to ensure a better access, safety and continuity.


Introdução: A experiência de conviver com cancro afeta significativamente a vida, pois magoa o ser tudo, e isso demanda da enfermagem compreender as carateristicas do cuidado das pessoas e seus seres queridos para puderem cuidá-los. Objetivo: Descrever e comparar a caracterização para o atendimento de pacientes com cancro. Método: Estudo descritivo comparativo realizado com 131 pacientes com cancro atendidos em três serviços oncológicos, determinando o perfil sociodemográfico, a sobrecarga percebida e a apropriação das tecnologias para o cuidado. A análise foi feita mediante estatística descritiva, a comparação com teste qui-quadrado e de Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: Predomina o género feminino, idade média de 54 anos (SD: 17,4), baixa dependência e estado cognitivo intacto, baixa escolaridade, falta de ocupação laborai, baixas rendas e alto nível de apoio familiar. A percepção de bem-estar é positiva no aspecto físico, social e espiritual, para a maioria. A apropriação das tecnologias é média. Com exceção de algumas variações, os pacientes apresentam condições comuns para o cuidado. Conclusão: Os pacientes percebem apoio, em especial familiar, bem-estar físico, social e espiritual, exceto psicológico, o que permite planejar um cuidado de enfermagem garantindo melhor acesso, segurança e continuidade.


Subject(s)
Oncology Nursing/organization & administration , Cost of Illness , Socioeconomic Survey , Nursing Care
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-766151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Estimating influenza-associated mortality is important since seasonal influenza affects persons of all ages, causing severe illness or death. This study aimed to estimate influenza-associated mortality, considering both periodic changes and age-specific mortality by influenza subtypes. METHODS: Using the Microdata Integrated Service from Statistics Korea, we collected weekly mortality data including cause of death. Laboratory surveillance data of respiratory viruses from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After adjusting for the annual age-specific population size, we used a negative binomial regression model by age group and influenza subtype. RESULTS: Overall, 1 859 890 deaths were observed and the average rate of influenza virus positivity was 14.7% (standard deviation [SD], 5.8), with the following subtype distribution: A(H1N1), 5.0% (SD, 5.8); A(H3N2), 4.4% (SD, 3.4); and B, 5.3% (SD, 3.7). As a result, among individuals under 65 years old, 6774 (0.51%) all-cause deaths, 2521 (3.05%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 1048 (18.23%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. Among those 65 years of age or older, 30 414 (2.27%) all-cause deaths, 16 411 (3.42%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 4906 (6.87%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was the major contributor to influenza-associated all-cause and respiratory or circulatory deaths in both age groups. However, influenza A(H1N1) virus–associated influenza or pneumonia deaths were more common in those under 65 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza-associated mortality was substantial during this period, especially in the elderly. By subtype, influenza A(H3N2) virus made the largest contribution to influenza-associated mortality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cause of Death , Cost of Illness , Humans , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Pneumonia , Population Density , Seasons
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-760007

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to identify the effects of caring burden and the way of coping on burnout in caregivers of cancer patients. METHODS: One-hundred and forty family caregivers of cancer patients who visited the cancer center at one tertiary hospital in metropolitan city B were included. The data collection was conducted from August 1st to October 1st, 2018, using a structured, self-reported questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression. RESULTS: In the multiple regression analysis, the subject's gender (β=.12, p=.028) and caring burden (β=.74, p<.001) had a significant effect on burnout. The explanatory power of the subject's gender, education level, religion, caring time, number of family caregivers, monthly income, economic burden, expectation for treatment, caring burden, the way of aggressive coping, and the way of passive coping with burnout was 63.8% (F=23.28, p<.001). CONCLUSION: Reducing the caring burden in family caregivers of cancer patients will ultimately contribute to reducing burnout, thereby contributing to an improvement in the psychological well-being and quality of life of family members, as well as positively contributing to the recovery of patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Caregivers , Cost of Illness , Data Collection , Education , Humans , Quality of Life , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 138-141, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-771619

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Pelvic fractures are severe injuries and are often associated with multiple system injuries, exacerbating the overall outcome. In India, the incidence of pelvic fractures is on a rise due to suboptimal roads and traffics but related literature regarding the overall epidemiology of these injuries is scarce and scanty. Our aim was to study the epidemiology of patients admitted with pelvic fractures at a level 1 trauma centre in India.@*METHODS@#A 16-month (between September 2015 and December 2016) prospective observational study was carried out on trauma patients with pelvic fractures at a level 1 trauma centre of a tertiary care hospital. Demography of patients, mechanism of injuries and complications were recorded prospectively.@*RESULTS@#We observed 75 patients who presented with pelvic fractures, where 56 were males and 19 were females. Mean age of the study population was 37.57 years. Road traffic accidents were the most common mode of injuries. Lateral compression injuries were the most common pattern. Associated injuries frequently encountered were lower extremities and acetabulum fractures, blunt abdominal trauma, urogenital injuries and head injuries. Out of the 75 patients, 52 were treated surgically and 23 were managed by conservative methods. Associated injuries of the extremities, head, abdomen and urogenital system indicated a longer hospital stay.@*CONCLUSION@#Pelvic fractures, although belong to a relatively rare trauma subset, cause a high morbidity and mortality with considerable burden on the economy. Proper road safety training and driving etiquettes along with its strict implementation in true sense and spirit are the need of the hour.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Cost of Illness , Female , Fractures, Bone , Economics , Epidemiology , Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pelvic Bones , Wounds and Injuries , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors , Young Adult
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-813091

ABSTRACT

To examine differences in burden of disease among people aged ≥70 years old in countries with different developmental levels from 1990 to 2016. 
 Methods: The sociodemographic index (SDI) of global burden of disease (GBD) was used to divide 195 countries into five developmental levels: high, high middle, middle, low middle and low. The results of the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2016 (GBD 2016) were extracted to examine disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and the health loss from the top 10 diseases and risk factors among the people aged ≥70 years old in countries with different SDIs. 
 Results: Between 1990 and 2016, the age-standardized DALY rate among people aged ≥70 years old in countries with different SDIs all showed a downward trend. Different decreases in DALY rate in over-seventy old people were observed across countries with different SDI levels: -23.9% in high SDI, -21.3% in high-middle SDI, -23.4% in middle SDI, -18.8% in low-middle SDI and -16.3% in low SDI. In 1990, the age-standardized DALY rate among people aged ≥70 years old in low and low middle SDI countries was 1.67 and 1.49 times of that in high SDI countries; and the gaps rose to 1.83 and 1.59 times in 2016. The DALY rate of the aged people remained remarkably higher in low middle and low SDI countries in 2016, and the gap widened compared with that in 1990. The reduction of age-standardized DALY rate was mainly due to the decrease of years of life lost (YLL). In 2016, low SDI and low-middle SDI countries suffered much higher burden of disease from infectious diseases and chronic non-communicable diseases. Analysis of leading causes and risk factors of DALY showed significant disparities across different SDI countries; burden of disease caused by environmental pollution and adverse health conditions was much higher in the low SDI and lower-middle SDI countries than that in the other countries.
 Conclusion: During 1990-2016, the burden of disease in countries of all 5 SDI levels declined. But the reductions in the developing countries were less than those in the developed countries, widening health disparities for the elderly between low and high SDI countries. International organizations and individual governments should take measures to narrow health gaps among old adults across countries with different developmental levels.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cost of Illness , Disabled Persons , Global Health , Humans , Life Expectancy , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-766896

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate the annual socioeconomic costs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: We estimated the costs of illness to society of AMD patients, including medical, nonmedical, and productivity costs. The medical costs included official and nonofficial medical costs, and the nonmedical costs consisted of transportation, time, and nursing costs. We used Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database, National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, and Korea Health Panel study data in the analysis. RESULTS: The socioeconomic costs of AMD were estimated to be 694 billion Korean won (KRW) in 2016. This figure was divided into 501 billion KRW (72.1%) for medical costs, 61 billion KRW (8.8%) for nonmedical costs, and 133 billion KRW (19.1%) for productivity costs. The annual per capita socioeconomic cost of AMD was 1.32 million KRW. CONCLUSIONS: We determined the scale and composition of the socioeconomic costs of AMD. Importantly, the productivity costs accounted for approximately 20% of all costs, suggesting that AMD had a significant impact on productivity. Because the disease costs of AMD are expected to increase continuously with the aging population, effective planning at the governmental level for prevention and treatment of AMD should be considered to reduce socioeconomic costs.


Subject(s)
Aging , Cohort Studies , Cost of Illness , Efficiency , Humans , Korea , Macular Degeneration , National Health Programs , Nursing , Republic of Korea , Transportation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-760702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has a substantial financial impact on healthcare systems in the US. This study aimed to examine the impact of CVD on health insurance coverage and health service use under economic stress as indicated by the Great Recession in the US (December 2007–June 2009). METHODS: Data of 26,483 adults aged ≥ 20 years from the 2003–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. There were 9,479 adults assigned to the group “before the Great Recession” (2003–2006), 5,674 adults assigned to “during the Great Recession” (2007–2008), and 11,330 adults assigned to “after the Great Recession” (2009–2012). RESULTS: Patients with CVD from low-income families were more likely to have health insurance during the recession (OR:1.57, 95% CI: 1.01,2.45). Those participants without CVD, who were from low-income families or < 65 years, were more likely to use the emergency room rather than primary care facilities to gain access to routine healthcare (p < 0.05). Patients with CVD from high-income families were also more likely to use the emergency room (p < 0.05). Patients with CVD but not those without CVD, who reported a high family income or were ≥ 65 years old, were less likely to use mental health services during the recession than before the recession. CONCLUSION: Effective strategies need to be developed to promote primary care use among the general adult American population. In addition, use of mental health services among patients with CVD needs to be improved when financial stress occurs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chronic Disease , Cost of Illness , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , Health Services , Humans , Insurance, Health , Mental Health Services , Nutrition Surveys , Primary Health Care
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