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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927367


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the influence of acupoint application on the use of antibiotics in primary clinic practice, and explore the effect of acupoint application and its influence on the use of antibiotics based on common diseases in primary clinic (fever, cough, diarrhea, sore throat).@*METHODS@#With the help of the internet electronic diagnosis and treatment platform (the main TCM suitable technology promoted by this platform is acupoint application therapy), the diagnosis and treatment data of 1.23 million patients in 2 000 primary clinics from August 24, 2020 to March 31, 2021 were collected. The patients were divided into an application group (acupoint application treatment) and a non-application group (non-acupoint application treatment), and the proportion of antibiotic use in the two groups was compared. The propensity score was used to match age, gender, concomitant symptoms, diagnosed diseases and other confounding factors of treatment, and the disappearance rate of symptoms (fever, cough, diarrhea, sore throat) and the time to first disappearance of symptoms were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1 230 923 patients were analyzed, including 1 048 382 cases in the application group, accounting for 85.2%; 182 541 cases in the non-application group, accounting for 14.8%. The most patients who used acupoint application treatment were 0-2 years old, followed by 3-6 years old, and the patients over 15 years old who did not use acupoint application treatment were the most. The proportion of antibiotic use in the application group was 2.4%, lower than that in the non-application group (44.2%, P<0.001). The proportion of antibiotic use in all ages of patients in the application group was lower than that in the non-application group (P<0.001). Among the common diseases in primary clinic (fever, cough, diarrhea and sore throat), the proportion of antibiotic use in the application group was lower than that in the non-application group (P<0.01); the disappearance rate of symptoms in the application group was higher than that in the non-application group, and the time to first disappearance of symptoms was shorter than that in the non-application group (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupoint application has a certain influence on the use of antibiotics in primary clinic patients. In the treatment of common diseases, patients treated with acupoint application have better curative effect and lower proportion of antibiotic use.

Acupuncture Points , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/drug therapy , Diarrhea , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pharyngitis/drug therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939793


BACKGROUND@#Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the world since its outbreak, and there is no ascertained effective drug up to now. Lianhua Qingwen (LHQW) has been widely used in China and overseas Chinese, which had some advantages in the treatment of COVID-19.@*OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of LHQW for COVID-19 by conducting a systematic review with meta-analysis.@*METHODS@#A comprehensive literature search was conducted in 12 electronic databases from their establishment to October 30, 2021. Note Express 3.2.0 was used for screening of trials, and the data was independently extracted in duplicate by 2 researchers. The risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective studies were assessed by using the Cochrane collaboration tool and Newcastle Ottawa Scale, respectively, followed by data analysis using RevMan 5.3. The RCTs or retrospective studies to treat COVID-19 using LHQW were included. The intervention measures in the experimental group were LHQW alone or combined with chemical drugs (LCWC), and that in the control group were chemical drugs (CDs). Outcome measures included computed tomography (CT) recovery rate, disappearance rates of primary (fever, cough, fatigue), respiratory, gastrointestinal and other symptoms, exacerbation rate and adverse reaction. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to whether LHQW was combined with CDs and the different treatment methods in the control group.@*RESULTS@#Nine trials with 1,152 participants with COVID-19 were included. The CT recovery rates of LHQW and LCWC were 1.36 and 1.32 times of CDs, respectively (P<0.05). Compared with CDs, LCWC remarkably increased the disappearance rates of fever, cough, fatigue, expectoration, shortness of breath, and muscle soreness (P<0.05). LHQW also obviously decreased the exacerbation rate, which was 0.45 times of CDs alone (P<0.05). There was no obvious difference between LCWC and CDs in adverse reaction (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#LHQW was more suitable for treating COVID-19 patients with obvious expectoration, shortness of breath and muscle soreness. LHQW had advantages in treating COVID-19 with no obvious exacerbation. (PROSPERO No. CRD42021235937).

COVID-19/drug therapy , Cough/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Fatigue/drug therapy , Humans , Myalgia/drug therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928953


OBJECTIVE@#To assess the effectiveness of Jiuwei Zhuhuang Powder (JWZH), a Tibetan patent medicine in treating upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) associated cough in children.@*METHODS@#The study was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial. A total of 142 children aged 2 to 14 years old, with URTI-associated cough within 48 h of onset, were randomly assigned to two groups at a 1:1 ratio by computer-generated randomization sequence. Children were treated with JWZH (1 to 1.5 g, twice to thrice daily) in the treatment group or conventional treatment (Pediatric Paracetamol, Artificial Cow-bezoar and Chlorphenamine Maleate Granules, 0.25 to 1 g, thrice daily) in the control group for 5 days. The primary endpoints were the time to cough resolution and 4-day cough resolution rate. The secondary endpoints were the daily improvement in symptom scores and cough resolution rate during the study period.@*RESULTS@#A total of 138 children were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, with 71 cases in the treatment group and 67 cases in the control group. Compared with the conventional treatment, the children receiving JWZH had a shorter time to cough resolution [hazard ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-3.40; P=0.003]. The median time to cough resolution for children receiving JWZH was shorter than that of the conventional treatment (2 days vs. 3 days; P<0.001). The 4-day cough resolution rate in the JWZH group was higher than that of the control group (94.4% vs. 74.6%; risk difference: 19.8%, 95% CI: 8.1%-31.5%; relative risk: 1.265, 95% CI: 1.088-1.470; P=0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the improvement of other symptoms caused by URTI (P>0.05). Adverse events was reported in 5.6% (4/71) and 4.5% (3/67) in participants of JWZH and PPACCM groups (P>0.05), respectively, which were all mild and resolved without treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#JWZH seemed to be a safe and effective therapy for URTI-associated cough in children. (Trial registration No. ChiCTR2000039421).

Child , Cough/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Nonprescription Drugs , Powders , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921712


This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antitussive, expectorant, and anti-asthmatic effects of Qinbaohong Oral Liquid in mouse experiments and explore its action mechanism based on network pharmacology. The mouse auricle swelling was induced by xylene for detecting the anti-inflammatory effect of Qinbaohong Oral Liquid, whose antitussive effect was then examined in mice with cough after exposure to ammonium hydroxide. The expectorant effect was determined based on the excretion of phenol red into the mouse trachea. The mouse model of asthma induced by histamine phosphate and acetylcholine chloride was used to observe the anti-asthmatic effect. The chemical components of Qinbaohong Oral Liquid were retrieved from TCMSP and literature, followed by target prediction based on BATMAN-TCM. The targets of inflammation, cough, expectoration, and asthma collected from GeneCards were intersected with drug targets for GO and KEGG enrichment analysis using Metascape. The results were imported into STRING for exploring protein-protein interactions and screening the key targets. As demonstrated by our findings, Qinbaohong Oral Liquid at 4.5 and 9.0 mL·kg~(-1) obviously decreased the weight(P<0.05) and thickness(P<0.01) of the right swelling ear and also the weight diffe-rence(swelling degree) between the two ears(P<0.05), prolonged the incubation period of cough(P<0.05), reduced the frequency of cough within 3 min(P<0.05), and increased the excretion of phenol red into the mouse trachea(P<0.01). Qinbaohong Oral Li-quid at 2.3, 4.5, and 9.0 mL·kg~(-1) dramatically prolonged the incubation period of asthma(P<0.05). A total of 324 chemical components and 1 245 targets were harvested for the Qinbaohong Oral Liquid, together with 10 272 inflammation targets, 4 400 cough targets, 192 expectoration targets, and 7 533 asthma targets. Their intersection revealed that the anti-inflammatory, antitussive, expectorant and anti-asthmatic effects of Qinbaohong Oral Liquid were correlated with such GO biological processes as the regulation of ion transport and blood circulation and such KEGG pathways as cancer-related signaling pathways and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. Qinbaohong Oral Liquid has been confirmed by both experiments and network pharmacology analysis to be efficient in anti-inflammation, stopping cough, eliminating phlegm, and relieving asthma.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antitussive Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Cough/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Mice , Network Pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 203-214, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342225


The current study was designed to investigate the traditional recipes used to treat cough in Tehsil Piran, Malakand, Pakistan. These recipes were explored and quantitively analyzed for the first time. A total of 30 species of the plants, 6 animal products and one salt were reported to be used by the community to treat cough. Punica granatum L. and Olea ferruginea Royle dominated with Use value (UV) of 0.84 and Origanum vulgare L. with least use value of 0.1. The frequency citation (FC) of the Papaver somniferum L. is higher (98) while the lowest one is Verbascum thapsus L. (0.13). The large number of traditional recipes used for cough in this area shows that primary health care is still amalgamated in this culture. In future studies, these recipes may be further exploited as a base for modern medicine.

Este estudio fue diseñado con el propósito de investigar las recetas tradicionales utilizadas para tratar la tos en Tehsil Piran, Malakand, Pakistán. Estas recetas fueron exploradas y analizadas cuantitativamente por primera vez. Se constata que la comunidad utilizó un total de 30 especies de plantas, 6 productos animales y una sal para tratar la tos. Punica granatum L. y Olea ferruginea Royle se destacaron con un valor de uso (UV) de 0.84 y Origanum vulgare L. con un valor de uso mínimo de 0.1. La cita de frecuencia (FC) del Papaver somniferum L. es más alta (98) mientras que la más baja es Verbascum thapsus L. (0.13). La gran cantidad de recetas tradicionales utilizadas para la tos en esta área muestra que la atención primaria de salud todavía está amalgamada en esta cultura. En futuros estudios, estas recetas pueden explotarse aún más como base para la medicina moderna.

Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Cough/drug therapy , Ethnopharmacology , Pakistan
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e9271, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132527


Montelukast sodium is an effective and well-tolerated anti-asthmatic drug. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the treatment of asthma. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of montelukast sodium on children with cough-variant asthma (CVA) and the role of lncRNA prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1) in drug efficacy. The efficacy of montelukast sodium was evaluated by assessing the release of inflammatory factors and pulmonary function in CVA children after a 3-month treatment. An ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model was developed to simulate asthmatic conditions. PCGEM1 expression in clinical peripheral blood samples and lung tissues of asthmatic mice was determined. Asthmatic mice experienced nasal inhalation of PCGEM1 overexpression with simultaneous montelukast sodium to investigate the roles of PCGEM1 in asthma treatment. The NF-κB axis after PCGEM1 overexpression was detected to explore the underling mechanisms. Consequently, montelukast sodium contributed to reduced levels of pro-inflammatory factors and improved pulmonary function in CVA children. PCGEM1 was poorly expressed in OVA-sensitized asthmatic mice and highly expressed in CVA children with response to the treatment. PCGEM1 overexpression enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects and promoted effects on pulmonary function of montelukast sodium in CVA children and OVA-sensitized asthmatic mice. Furthermore, PCGEM1 inhibited the activation of the NF-κB axis. This study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and lung-protective effects of montelukast sodium on CVA, which was strengthened by overexpression of PCGEM1. Findings in this study highlighted a potential anti-asthmatic target of montelukast sodium.

Quinolines/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Cough/drug therapy , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Acetates/therapeutic use , Asthma/blood , Cough/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(4): e002075, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141362


A partir de una consulta en la central de emergencias de un niño con tos aguda, el autor del artículo realiza una búsqueda bibliográfica para revisar la evidencia sobre el uso de la miel para aliviar este síntoma. Luego de la lectura crítica de una revisión sistemática, el autor concluye que ésta podría ser una alternativa elegible frente a los jarabes para la tos, por su perfil de seguridad y su posible beneficio en el alivio de la tos. (AU)

Based on a consultation at the emergency room of a child with acute cough, the author of this article performs a bibliographic search to review the evidence on the use of honey to alleviate this symptom. After the critical appraisal of a systematic review, the author concludes that honey could be an eligible alternative to cough syrups, due to its safety profile and its possible benefit in cough relief. (AU)

Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Cough/therapy , Honey , Antitussive Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Cough/classification , Cough/physiopathology , Cough/drug therapy , Dextromethorphan/therapeutic use , Diphenhydramine/therapeutic use , Fever , Ambulatory Care/methods , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(2): e208, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126619


Introducción: El lupus eritematoso sistémico tiene múltiples formas de presentarse; entre las manifestaciones cardíacas, es frecuente la afectación pericárdica, pero es poco frecuente que su forma de debut sea el derrame pericárdico. Objetivo: Destacar la importancia del diagnóstico precoz de una de las formas menos frecuentes de debut del lupus eritamatoso sistémico. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 50 años, que ingresó porque desde hacía 3 meses sufría dolor torácico, disnea, tos, síntomas articulares, dermatológicos y generales. Luego de la sospecha y el estudio clínico, hematológico, imagenológico y biopsia de piel, se diagnosticó precozmente derrame pericárdico por lupus eritematoso sistémico. Se impuso tratamiento oportuno con esteroides, y la evolución fue favorable. Conclusiones: A pesar del bajo índice de sospecha, se tuvo en cuenta al lupus eritematoso sistémico y se procedió a las determinaciones analíticas que confirmaron el diagnóstico(AU)

Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus has multiple ways of presentation; among cardiac manifestations, pericardial involvement is frequent, but it is rare that its debut form is the pericardial effusion. Objective: To emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of one of the less frequent forms of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical case: We present the case of a 50-year-old patient, who had been admitted for 3 months because of chest pain, dyspnea, cough, joint, dermatological and general symptoms. After the suspicion and the clinical, hematological, imaging and skin biopsy, pericardial effusion was diagnosed early due to systemic lupus erythematosus. Timely treatment with steroids was imposed, and the evolution was favorable. Conclusions: Despite the low index of suspicion, the systemic lupus erythematosus was taken into account and the analytical determinations that confirmed the diagnosis were made(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pericardial Effusion/blood , Skin/microbiology , Cough/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 445-453, mar.-abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004280


RESUMEN La tos crónica en los adultos puede ser causada por muchas causas, existen cuatro principales: el síndrome de tos de la vía aérea superior, enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico, reflujo laringofaríngeo, asma bronquial, y bronquitis eosinofílica no asmática. Todos los pacientes deben evaluarse clínicamente con espirometria, y comenzar con tratamiento empírico. Otras causas potenciales incluyen el uso de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina, cambios medioambientales, uso del tabaco, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, y la apnea obstructiva del sueño. La radiografía del tórax puede orientar hacia causas infecciosas, inflamatorias, y malignas. Los pacientes con tos crónica refractaria pueden remitirse a la consulta especializada de un neumólogo u otorrinolaringólogo, además de un ensayo terapéutico con gabapentin, pregabalin, y psicoterapia.

ABSTRACT Although chronic cough in adults can be caused by many etiologies, four conditions account for most cases: upper airway cough syndrome, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, also known as laryngo- pharyngeal reflux disease, bronchial asthma, and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. All patients should be evaluated clinically with spirometry, and empiric treatment should be initiated. Other potential causes include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, environmental triggers, tobacco use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest radiography can rule out concerning infectious, inflammatory, and malignant thoracic conditions. Patients with refractory chronic cough should be referred to a pulmonologist or otolaryngologist in addition to a therapeutic trial of gabapentin, pregabalin, and psychotherapy.

Humans , Adult , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/psychology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/therapy , Cough/epidemiology , Asthma/diagnosis , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pregabalin/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(4): 383-387, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787623


Abstract Background and objectives: There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. Methods: This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Results: Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively). There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p = 0.4325). Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.009, respectively). There was no significant change in cough severity between pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p = 0.856). Conclusion: Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Há muitos estudos sobre a redução da frequência e da gravidade da tosse induzida por fentanil durante a indução da anestesia. Propomos que maleato de feniramina, um anti-histamínico, pode suprimir essa tosse. Nosso objetivo foi observar o efeito de feniramina sobre a tosse induzida por fentanil durante a indução da anestesia. Métodos: Este é um estudo clínico prospectivo, de três braços paralelos, randômico e duplo-cego, de 120 pacientes com estado físico ASA III e IV (de acordo com a Sociedade Americana de Anestesiologistas), ≥ 18 anos e programados para cirurgia cardíaca aberta eletiva sob anestesia geral. Os pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 40 pacientes cada, com números aleatórios gerados por computador: grupo placebo, grupo feniramina e grupo lidocaína. Resultados: A incidência de tosse diferiu significativamente entre os grupos. No grupo placebo, 37,5% dos pacientes apresentaram tosse, enquanto que a frequência foi significativamente reduzida no grupo feniramina (5%) e no grupo lidocaína (15%) (teste exato de Fischer, p = 0,0007 e p = 0,0188, respectivamente). Não houve alteração significativa na incidência de tosse entre os grupos feniramina (5%) e lidocaína (15%) (teste exato de Fischer, p = 0,4325). A gravidade da tosse também alterou entre os grupos. Testes post hoc com Bonferroni mostraram que a média da gravidade da tosse no grupo placebo diferiu significativamente das médias dos grupos feniramina e lidocaína (p < 0,0001 e p = 0,009, respectivamente). Não houve alteração significativa na gravidade da tosse entre o grupo feniramina e grupo lidocaína (p = 0,856). Conclusão: Feniramina por via intravenosa tem a mesma eficácia que lidocaína na prevenção da tosse induzida por fentanil. Os resultados enfatizam que feniramina é um medicamento conveniente para diminuir essa tosse.

Humans , Male , Female , Pheniramine/pharmacology , Fentanyl/adverse effects , Cough/chemically induced , Cough/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Middle Aged
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 980-986, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63322


PURPOSE: During emergence from anesthesia for a craniotomy, maintenance of hemodynamic stability and prompt evaluation of neurological status is mandatory. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil on airway reflex and hemodynamic change in patients undergoing craniotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four patients undergoing clipping of unruptured cerebral aneurysm were recruited. In the dexmedetomidine group, patients were administered dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg) for 5 minutes, while the patients of the remifentanil group were administered remifentanil with an effect site concentration of 1.5 ng/mL until endotracheal extubation. The incidence and severity of cough and hemodynamic variables were measured during the recovery period. Hemodynamic variables, respiration rate, and sedation scale were measured after extubation and in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU). RESULTS: The incidence of grade 2 and 3 cough at the point of extubation was 62.5% in the dexmedetomidine group and 53.1% in the remifentanil group (p=0.39). Mean arterial pressure (p=0.01) at admission to the PACU and heart rate (p=0.04 and 0.01, respectively) at admission and at 10 minutes in the PACU were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group. Respiration rate was significantly lower in the remifentanil group at 2 minutes (p<0.01) and 5 minutes (p<0.01) after extubation. CONCLUSION: We concluded that a single bolus of dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg) and remifentanil infusion have equal effectiveness in attenuating coughing and hemodynamic changes in patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm clipping; however, dexmedetomidine leads to better preservation of respiration.

Adult , Aged , Airway Extubation , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Cough/drug therapy , Craniotomy/adverse effects , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Piperidines/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Reflex/drug effects , Respiratory System/blood supply , Young Adult
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 819-824, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77280


PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the additive effect of the Hedera helix (HH) and Rhizoma coptidis (RC) extracts mixture on antitussive and expectorant activities in animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expectorant assay was performed with phenol red secretion in mice trachea. Mice or guinea pigs were randomly divided into groups of 8 each, including negative and positive control groups. After gastric administration of the test extracts in mice, 2.5% phenol red solution (0.2 mL) was intraperitoneally injected. Trachea was dissected and optical density of tracheal secretion was measured. After gastric administration of the test extracts in guinea pigs, the antitussive activities were assessed using a citric acid-induced cough measurement. RESULTS: The extracts of HH and RC significantly increased tracheal secretion and inhibited cough. The mixture of HH and RC extracts in a 1:1 concentration at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed a more potent effect on phenol red secretion (25.25+/-3.14) and cough inhibition (61.25+/-5.36) than the individual use of each extracts [phenol red secretion; HH 13.39+/-4.22 (p=0.000), RC 20.78+/-2.50 (p=0.010), cough inhibition; HH 9.89+/-4.14 (p=0.010), RC 30.25+/-7.69 (p=0.000)]. A 3:1 ratio mixture of HH to RC demonstrated an optimal expectorant effect (p<0.001), and this mixture showed expectorant and antitussive effects in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for antitussive and expectorant effect of a 3:1 mixture of HH and RC, which may be a useful therapeutic option for respiratory diseases.

Animals , Antitussive Agents/administration & dosage , Behavior, Addictive , Cough/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Ethanol , Expectorants/administration & dosage , Guinea Pigs , Hedera/chemistry , Male , Mice , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Trachea/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184037


We investigated the effects of indacaterol on cough and phlegm in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed a meta-analysis with five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of indacaterol in stable COPD patients. The symptom severity was defined using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). We analyzed patients treated with 150 microg (n = 945) and 300 microg (n = 832) out of 3,325 patients who completed the SGRQ from five RCTs. After a 12-week treatment of 150 microg indacaterol, cough improvement was reported in 36.5% (316/866) of patients treated with indacaterol vs. 32.2% (259/804) patients treated with placebo (Relative Ratio [RR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.29). Phlegm improvement was reported in 31.0% (247/798) of patients treated with indacaterol vs. 30.6% (225/736) of patients treated with placebo (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.87-1.18). Dyspnea improvement was reported in 39.5% (324/820) of patients treated with indacaterol vs. 31.5% (237/753) patients treated with placebo (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03-1.71; P = 0.001, I2 = 55.1%). Only dyspnea improvement was significant compared to placebo even at the 300 microg indacaterol dose. Compared to placebo, a 12-week treatment of the long-acting beta-agonist, indacaterol might not have a significant effect on cough or phlegm in stable COPD.

Administration, Inhalation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Cough/drug therapy , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Forced Expiratory Volume/drug effects , Humans , Indans/therapeutic use , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Quinolones/therapeutic use , Sputum/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2013; 19 (10): 898-899
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-159117
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 16(2): 259-268, abr.-jun. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-641637


Introdução: A tosse é o sintoma respiratório mais comum em crianças e adultos. Objetivo: Apresentar uma revisão sobre a neurofisiologia e os métodos para estudo do reflexo da tosse, bem como a farmacoterapia e terapia fonoaudiológica da tosse, baseada nos trabalhos publicados entre 2005 e 2010 e indexados nas bases Medline, Lilacs e Biblioteca Cochrane sob os unitermos "tosse" ou "antitussígenos". Síntese dos dados: O reflexo da tosse envolve ativação de múltiplos receptores vagais nas vias aéreas e de projeções neurais do núcleo do trato solitário para outras estruturas do sistema nervoso central. Técnicas experimentais permitem estudar o reflexo da tosse ao nível celular e molecular para desenvolver novos agentes antitussígenos. Não há evidências de que antitussígenos isentos de prescrição médica tenham eficácia superior à do placebo para o alívio da tosse. A terapia fonoaudiológica pode beneficiar pacientes com tosse crônica refratária ao tratamento farmacológico, sobretudo quando coexiste movimento paradoxal das pregas vocais. Comentários Finais: A abordagem multidisciplinar tem papel fundamental no diagnóstico etiológico e tratamento da tosse. O otorrinolaringologista deve informar os pacientes sobre os riscos dos antitussígenos de venda livre a fim de prevenir intoxicações e efeitos adversos, especialmente em crianças...

Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children...

Antitussive Agents/therapeutic use , Codeine/therapeutic use , Dextromethorphan , Expectorants/therapeutic use , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/therapy
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157418


The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of cough mixture containing pholcodeine and promethazine - Tixylix (CS1) to a cough mixture which has noscapine, ammonium chloride, and sodium citrate (CS2) as its constituents in treatment of children suffering from dry cough. A total of 208 patients were enrolled at 4 sites. Of these, 179 (94 receiving CS1 and 99 receiving CS2) completed the study. Results of this study suggest that both the cough mixtures were comparable as per evaluation of their primary parameters. According to global assessment for efficacy and tolerability by parents on Day 7, Group CS1 performed better than CS2. It was also observed that no AE was reported in Group CS1 as compared to 2 AEs in Group CS2. To conclude, cough mixture combination of pholcodeine and promethazine - Tixylix exhibited efficacy and safety that was comparable with cough mixture which has noscapine, ammonium chloride, and sodium citrate. It was proven to be efficacious, safe and well tolerated in the select population.

Ammonium Chloride/pharmacology , Ammonium Chloride/therapeutic use , Antitussive Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Citrates/analogs & derivatives , Citrates/pharmacology , Citrates/therapeutic use , Codeine/analogs & derivatives , Codeine/pharmacology , Codeine/therapeutic use , Cough/drug effects , Cough/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Morpholines/analogs & derivatives , Morpholines/pharmacology , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Noscapine/pharmacology , Noscapine/therapeutic use , Promethazine/analogs & derivatives , Promethazine/pharmacology , Promethazine/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
Scientific and Research Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences-JAUMS. 2011; 9 (1): 44-49
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-110479


A reflex cough is often observed after intravenous bolus of fentanyl. This study was conducted to determine whether pre-treatment with oral clonidine could attenuate fentanyl-induced cough. Two groups, containing 80 patients each, were candidated for elective surgery under general anesthesia. They were randomly divided into case group, receiving preoperative oral clonidine tablet, and control group, receiving preoperative placebo. Then gathered data was analyzed with Chi - square, Mann-Whitney U, T-Student and Tukey tests by 13 spss software, version 13. The results were evaluated as the mean +/- SD and considered statistically significant for p <0.05. Two groups were similar with demographic parameters as age, weigh and sex [p>0.05]. In the clonidine group severity and frequency of fentanyl induced cough were lower [p<0.05]. The OAA/S scaling score in two groups were similar [p>0.05]. Pre-medication with oral clonidine can effectively attenuate fentanyl-induced cough with an unknown mechanism

Humans , Premedication , Fentanyl/adverse effects , Fentanyl , Cough/drug therapy , Anesthesia, General , Placebos , Preoperative Care