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1.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8231, jul. 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284247

ABSTRACT

Objetivos Describir las características clínicas y evaluar los factores asociados con la mortalidad de los pacientes adultos con la nueva enfermedad causada por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ingresados a un hospital de referencia nacional de Perú. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyó a pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados con el diagnóstico de infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2). Se excluyó a quienes ingresaron con prueba rápida serológica positiva al ingreso, sin clínica sugestiva ni imágenes compatibles. Los datos se recolectaron a partir de la historia clínica. Resultados Se incluyó un total de 813 adultos, 544 (66,9%) tuvieron COVID-19 confirmado. La media de la edad fue de 61,2 años (desviación estándar: 15) y 575 (70,5%) fueron de sexo masculino. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (34,1%) y obesidad (25,9%). Los síntomas más frecuentes al ingreso fueron disnea (82,2%) y tos (53,9%). Un total de 114 (14%) pacientes recibieron ventilación mecánica, 38 (4,7%) ingresaron a unidad de cuidados intensivos y 377 (46,4%) fallecieron. Se asociaron a la mortalidad el requerimiento de soporte ventilatorio, el mayor compromiso pulmonar y los marcadores inflamatorios. Encontramos que por cada 10 años que aumentó la edad, el riesgo de morir se incrementó en 32% (riesgo relativo: 1,32; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,25 a 1,38). Aquellos pacientes que requirieron ingreso a unidad de cuidados intensivos y ventilación mecánica tuvieron 1,39 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,13 a 1,69) y 1,97 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,69 a 2,29) veces el riesgo de morir, respectivamente. Conclusión La mortalidad encontrada en nuestro estudio fue alta y estuvo asociada a la edad, marcadores inflamatorios y compromiso respiratorio.


Objectives To describe and assess clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a national referral hospital in Peru. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study that included hospitalized patients older than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis. Patients with a positive rapid serological test on admission but no respiratory symptoms nor compatible images were excluded. We collected the data from clinical records. Results A total of 813 adults were included, 544 (66.9%) with confirmed COVID-19. The mean age was 61.2 years (standard deviation: 15.0), and 575 (70.5%) were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (34.1%) and obesity (25.9%). On admission, the most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (82.2%) and cough (53.9%). A total of 114 (14.0%) patients received mechanical ventilation, 38 (4.7%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 377 (46.4%) died. The requirement for ventilatory support, greater lung involvement, and inflammatory markers were associated with higher mortality. It was found that for every 10-year age increase, the risk of dying increased 32% (relative risk: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 1.38). Those who were admitted to the intensive care unit and and were placed on mechanical ventilation had 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 1.69) and 1.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.69 to 2.29) times the risk of dying compared to those who did not, respectively. Conclusion We found a high mortality rate among hospitalized patients associated with older age, higher inflammatory markers, and greater lung involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(1): e20190006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, according to body mass index (BMI), as well as to evaluate factors associated with physician-diagnosed asthma, in individuals ≥ 40 years of age. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in Florianópolis, Brazil, with probability sampling. Data were collected during home visits. Demographic data were collected, as were reports of physician-diagnosed asthma, respiratory symptoms, medications in use, and comorbidities. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Individuals also underwent spirometry before and after bronchodilator administration. Individuals were categorized as being of normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 ≥ BMI < 30 kg/m2), or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Results: A total of 1,026 individuals were evaluated, 274 (26.7%) were of normal weight, 436 (42.5%) were overweight, and 316 (30.8%) were obese. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 11.0%. The prevalence of obesity was higher in women (p = 0.03), as it was in respondents with ≤ 4 years of schooling (p < 0.001) or a family income of 3-10 times the national minimum wage. Physician-diagnosed asthma was more common among obese individuals than among those who were overweight and those of normal weight (16.1%, 9.9%, and 8.0%, respectively; p = 0.04), as were dyspnea (35.5%, 22.5%, and 17.9%, respectively; p < 0.001) and wheezing in the last year (25.6%, 11.9%, and 14.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). These results were independent of patient smoking status. In addition, obese individuals were three times more likely to report physician-diagnosed asthma than were those of normal weight (p = 0.005). Conclusions: A report of physician-diagnosed asthma showed a significant association with being ≥ 40 years of age and with having a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Being obese tripled the chance of physician-diagnosed asthma.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de sintomas respiratórios e asma de acordo com o índice de massa corpórea (IMC) em indivíduos com idade ≥ 40 anos e avaliar os fatores associados ao relato de diagnóstico médico de asma. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado no município de Florianópolis (SC), com coleta domiciliar de dados e processo de amostragem probabilístico. Foram coletadas informações demográficas, assim como sobre relato de diagnóstico médico de asma, sintomas respiratórios, medicações em uso e comorbidades. Também foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e espirometria pré- e pós-broncodilatador. O IMC foi categorizado em normal (IMC < 25 kg/m2), sobrepeso (25 kg/m2 ≥ IMC < 30 kg/m2) e obesidade (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2). Resultados: Foram avaliados 1.026 indivíduos, 274 (26,7%) com IMC normal, 436 (42,5%) com sobrepeso e 316 (30,8%) obesos. A prevalência de diagnóstico médico de asma foi de 11,0%. A prevalência de obesidade foi maior em mulheres (p = 0,03) e em entrevistados com escolaridade < 4 anos (p < 0,001) ou com renda familiar entre 3-10 salários mínimos. Obesos, quando comparados com aqueles com sobrepeso e peso normal, relataram mais frequentemente diagnóstico médico de asma (16,1%, 9,9% e 8,0%, respectivamente; p = 0,04), dispneia (35,5%, 22,5% e 17,9%, respectivamente; p < 0,001) e sibilos no último ano (25,6%, 11,9% e 14,6%, respectivamente; p < 0,001). Esses resultados foram independentes do status tabágico. Além disso, obesos tinham uma chance três vezes maior de relato de diagnóstico médico de asma do que não obesos (p = 0,005). Conclusões: Houve associação significativa entre o relato de diagnóstico médico de asma em indivíduos com idade ≥ 40 anos e IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2. Ser obeso triplicou a chance de diagnóstico médico de asma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/etiology , Obesity/complications , Socioeconomic Factors , Spirometry , Brazil/epidemiology , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Body Mass Index , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Prevalence , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
4.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7994, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El personal de salud, entre ellos los médicos, es parte fundamental en primera línea de defensa ante la pandemia de COVID-19, causada por SARS-Cov-2. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la clínica y evolución de los primeros casos de contagio por coronavirus en médicos de Perú. METODOLOGÍA: Se presentan una serie de seis casos de médicos infectados por coronavirus, con positividad confirmada para COVID-19, mostrando la evolución diaria desde el diagnóstico de la enfermedad, sus principales signos y síntomas, la evolución de los mismos y hasta el desenlace en cada caso. RESULTADOS: De los casos estudiados, cinco fueron hombres, tenían una mediana de edad de 28 años (rango intercuartílico: 27 a 33). Tres de ellos trabajaban más de 12 horas al día en servicios de hospitalización y emergencia; y tres no contaban con mascarilla como método de protección personal. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron la temperatura axilar superior a 38 grados Celsius, el malestar general, la tos seca y la odinofagia (este último en tres pacientes). En cuanto al diagnóstico con la prueba molecular, tuvo una mediana de tres días de demora (con rango: de 2 a 6 días). Los síntomas que más persistieron fueron la tos seca (presente durante 10 días en cuatro médicos), y la disgeusia como síntoma único, que tuvo la mayor duración (15 días en un solo médico). En los seis casos la evolución fue favorable. Sin embargo, aún se tienen deficiencias para la definición de reincorporación laboral a sus centros hospitalarios. DISCUSIÓN: A pesar de ser un número pequeño de casos, es el primer reporte en personal de salud y que detalla día a día la evolución de los síntomas de COVID-19. Esto puede servir para la salud ocupacional, e incluso como base para la vigilancia y monitorización de los casos en una población mayor.


INTRODUCTION: Health personnel, including physicians, are a fundamental part of the first line of defense against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical manifestations and course of the first cases of contagion by SARS-CoV-2 in doctors of Peru. METHODOLOGY: We present a series of six cases of doctors infected by SARS-CoV-2, with confirmed positivity for COVID-19, showing the daily evolution from the diagnosis of the disease, its main signs and symptoms, evolution, and until the outcome in each case. RESULTS: Five were men. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 27 to 33). In three cases the physician worked more than 12 hours a day in emergency and hospitalization services and not wear a mask at all times. The most frequent symptoms were axillary temperature above 38°C, malaise, dry cough, and odynophagia (the latter in three of the cases). The diagnosis was made at a median of 3 days (interquartile range: 3 to 4 days). The symptoms that persisted the most were dry cough (present during ten days in four doctors). Dysgeusia was the only symptom with the most extended duration (15 days in only one doctor). In the six cases, the course was favorable. However, these doctors found it difficult to return to functions in their hospital centers adequately. DISCUSSION: Despite a small number of cases, it is the first report detailing the evolution of symptoms day by day, which can help for occupational health and even for case surveillance and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Physicians , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/physiopathology , Peru , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/virology , Pandemics , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Masks/statistics & numerical data
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 445-453, mar.-abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004280

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La tos crónica en los adultos puede ser causada por muchas causas, existen cuatro principales: el síndrome de tos de la vía aérea superior, enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico, reflujo laringofaríngeo, asma bronquial, y bronquitis eosinofílica no asmática. Todos los pacientes deben evaluarse clínicamente con espirometria, y comenzar con tratamiento empírico. Otras causas potenciales incluyen el uso de inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina, cambios medioambientales, uso del tabaco, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, y la apnea obstructiva del sueño. La radiografía del tórax puede orientar hacia causas infecciosas, inflamatorias, y malignas. Los pacientes con tos crónica refractaria pueden remitirse a la consulta especializada de un neumólogo u otorrinolaringólogo, además de un ensayo terapéutico con gabapentin, pregabalin, y psicoterapia.


ABSTRACT Although chronic cough in adults can be caused by many etiologies, four conditions account for most cases: upper airway cough syndrome, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, also known as laryngo- pharyngeal reflux disease, bronchial asthma, and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. All patients should be evaluated clinically with spirometry, and empiric treatment should be initiated. Other potential causes include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, environmental triggers, tobacco use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest radiography can rule out concerning infectious, inflammatory, and malignant thoracic conditions. Patients with refractory chronic cough should be referred to a pulmonologist or otolaryngologist in addition to a therapeutic trial of gabapentin, pregabalin, and psychotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/psychology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/therapy , Cough/epidemiology , Asthma/diagnosis , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pregabalin/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70182

ABSTRACT

We investigated the prevalence of pertussis in Korean adolescents and adults with persistent cough. Study population was adolescents (aged 11-20 yr) and adults (> or = 21 yr old) who showed persistent cough of 1-8 weeks' duration. Pertussis was diagnosed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. A total of 310 subjects participated in this study, and 76 cases (24.5%) met the criteria for laboratory-confirmed pertussis. The majority of the pertussis cases (66/76) were confirmed by serology, while 3 cases (1.0%) were diagnosed with culture, and 10 cases (3.2%) were detected with PCR. Of the 76 subjects diagnosed with pertussis, 20/86 cases were adolescents and 56/224 cases were adults. Neither adolescents nor adults received adolescent-adult booster against pertussis within the previous 5 yr. Pertussis can be a primary cause of persistent cough in Korean adolescents and adults.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bordetella pertussis/immunology , Child , Cough/epidemiology , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(2): 128-137, mar.-abr. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-673303

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Descrever as prevalências de asma e rinite em adolescentes de 13-14 anos de idade em Fortaleza (CE) em 2010 e compará-las com as prevalências obtidas em um inquérito em 2006-2007. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo uma amostragem probabilística de 3.015 e 3.020 adolescentes, respectivamente, em 2006-2007 e 2010, utilizando o protocolo do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. RESULTADOS: Na comparação entre os dois períodos, não houve diferenças significativas em relação a sibilos cumulativos, asma ativa, quatro ou mais crises de sibilos no último ano, prejuízo do sono por sibilos > 1 noite/semana e crises limitando a fala. Em 2010, houve um aumento significativo na prevalência de sibilos após exercícios, tosse seca noturna e asma diagnosticada (p < 0,01 para todos). Em 2010, houve uma redução significativa na prevalência de rinite diagnosticada (p = 0,01), enquanto não houve diferenças significativas entre os dois períodos nas prevalências de rinite cumulativa, rinite atual e rinoconjuntivite. Em ambos os períodos, tosse seca noturna, rinite atual e rinoconjuntivite foram significativamente mais prevalentes nas mulheres que nos homens (p < 0,01 para todos). Também nos dois períodos, asma ativa, rinite atual e rinoconjuntivite foram significativamente mais prevalentes nos alunos das escolas particulares do que naqueles das escolas públicas (p < 0,01 para todos). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados mostram que as prevalências de sintomas de asma e rinite continuam altas entre os adolescentes de 13-14 anos em Fortaleza, com predomínio no gênero feminino e em alunos de escolas particulares.


OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions. RESULTS: Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 20062007 period (p < 0.01 for all). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed rhinitis was significantly lower in 2010 (p = 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences between the two periods regarding cumulative rhinitis, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. In both periods, dry cough at night, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (p < 0.01 for all). Also in both periods, active asthma, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were more prevalent in private school students than in public school students (p < 0.01 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis symptoms remain high among females and private school students.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Asthma/epidemiology , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
9.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(5): 470-478, sept.-oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649919

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify associated factors to compliance for multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and vitamin A (IVITA) supplementation, in children (3 to 24 months old). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database (n=465 children) from a randomized, controlled, clinical trial, carried out in a semi-rural setting in Mexico, was analyzed. The compliance rate of MM and IVITA supplements was calculated. Adequate compliance rate (AC>80%), and its association with children and households characteristics, was determined. RESULTS: The compliance mean was high (MM:78.2%, IVITA:80.1%; p<0.05). The odds of AC were 59% greater in the children of IVITA than with MM group, although the estimate was only marginally significant (p=0.052). Maternal education (p<0.001), child birth weight (p=0.003), and children with cough (p<0.001) or fever (p=0.024) were significantly associated with AC and significantly marginal was maternal indigenous (p=0.071). CONCLUSION: The high AC was consistent with others efficacy studies. More research is needed to document physiological, cultural, social and operative factors affecting compliance with supplementation.


OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados con el cumplimiento del consumo de suplementos con micronutrimentos múltiples (MM) o con hierro y vitamina A (FEVITA) en niños (<24 meses de edad). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Información de un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, doble ciego en una localidad semirrural en México. Se calculó el porcentaje de cumplimiento (n=465 niños), cumplimiento adecuado (CA: >80%) y su asociación con varias características. RESULTADOS: El cumplimiento fue alto (MM: 78.2%, FEVITA: 80.1%; p<0.05). Los momios de CA fueron 59% mayores en niños del grupo FEVITA que en MM (p=0.052). Escolaridad materna (p<0.001), peso al nacer del niño (p=0.003), porcentaje de tiempo con tos (p<0.001) y con fiebre (p=0.024) y marginalmente, la condición indígena materna (p=0.071) se asociaron con el CA. CONCLUSIONES: La alta tasa de cumplimiento fue consistente con otros estudios. Es necesaria mayor investigación sobre factores fisiológicos, culturales, sociales y operativos relacionados con el cumplimiento del consumo de suplementos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Dietary Supplements , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Birth Weight , Breast Feeding , Cough/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Educational Status , Fever/epidemiology , Hemoglobins/analysis , Infant Food , Indians, North American/statistics & numerical data , Iron/administration & dosage , Mexico , Medication Adherence/ethnology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Vitamin A/administration & dosage
10.
Alerg. inmunol. clin ; 31(1/2): 6-13, 2012. graf, tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-707984

ABSTRACT

La tos es un mecanismo defensivo fisiológico que contribuye a liberar a la vía aérea de material extraño y generalmentees consecuencia de procesos breves y autolimitados. La tos crónica, definida, por su persistencia por más de 8 semanas,debe obligar al pediatra clínico a agudizar su ingenio en busca del diagnóstico etiológico.Una cuidadosa historia clínica y un examen físico detallado son los pilares fundamentales del diagnóstico; la indicaciónde estudios complementarios dependerá de los resultados de la valoración clínica inicial.La exacta identificación etiológica de la tos crónica debe ser seguida por un tratamiento específico. El abordaje sintomáticocon antitusivos y mucolíticos es excepcionalmente necesario, generalmente decepcionante y no exento de efectostóxicos. Es imperativo evitar la masiva prescripción de estos fármacos puesto que en la mayoría de los casos propende a laprolongación del síntoma con la consecuente alteración de la calidad de vida de los niños.


Cough is a physiological defense mechanism to help clear excessive secretions and foreign material from the airways andis usually short and therefore self-limiting process. Chronic cough, defined by its persistence for more than 8 weeks, is areal clinical challenge for pediatricians who should focus their efforts in search for etiological diagnosis.A careful medical history and physical examination are the mainstays of diagnosis; the indication of further studiesdepends on the results of initial clinical assessment.The exact etiological identification of chronic cough must be followed by specific treatment. The symptomatic approachwith over the counter medications such as antitussives and mucolytic drugs is exceptionally necessary and generally disappointingbecause they may have toxic effects. Is imperative to avoid the massive prescription of these drugs because in mostcases tends to prolongation of symptoms with a consequent impact on the quality of life of children.


Subject(s)
Child , Asthma , Cough , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Rhinitis , Cough/epidemiology
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(6): 451-456, June 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-608277

ABSTRACT

A captação de sintomáticos respiratórios (SR) é importante para a detecção precoce de tuberculose. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de SR em três regiões administrativas (RA) do Distrito Federal, Brasil. Para tanto, foi utilizada a técnica de amostragem por conglomerados (30 por 7) proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram definidos como SR os indivíduos com 15 anos ou mais residentes nas RAs Estrutural, Itapoã ou Varjão e que apresentassem tosse há pelo menos 3 semanas na data da entrevista. A prevalência de SR em Estrutural e Varjão foi de 5,7 por cento (IC95 por cento: 2,4 a 9,0), e em Itapoã, de 4,8 por cento (IC95 por cento: 1,6 a 7,9), com efeito de desenho próximo de 1,0. Em Estrutural e Itapoã, menos anos de estudo, e em Itapoã e Varjão, menor renda, estiveram associados com ser SR. O tabagismo esteve associado com a presença de sintomas respiratórios em todas as RAs. A prevalência de SR está de acordo com aquela encontrada em outras áreas com perfil socioeconômico semelhante ao das áreas estudadas.


The identification of individuals with respiratory symptoms (RS) is important for the early detection of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of RS in three administrative regions of the Federal District, Brazil. For this, we used the 30 by 7 cluster sampling technique proposed by the World Health Organization. Individuals with RS were defined as those aged 15 years or older living in the administrative regions of Estrutural, Itapoã, or Varjão and reporting a cough lasting at least 3 weeks at the date of the interview. The prevalence of RS was 5.7 percent in Estrutural and Varjão (95 percent CI: 2.4-9.0) and 4.8 percent in Itapoã (95 percentCI: 1.6-7.9), with a design effect close to 1.0. In Estrutural and Itapoã, fewer years of schooling, and in Itapoã and Varjão, lower income, were associated with RS. Cigarette smoking was associated with the presence of RS in all regions. The prevalence of RS in the three administrative regions investigated is consistent with that of other areas with a similar socioeconomic profile.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cough/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Early Diagnosis , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Smoking/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data
12.
J. bras. pneumol ; 36(3): 325-331, maio-jun. 2010. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-551119

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores associados à tosse seca, tosse produtiva e tosse noturna entre jovens adultos na Nigéria. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 498 indivíduos com 20-44 anos de idade em Ilorin, Nigéria, utilizando-se o questionário European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), administrado por entrevistadores treinados. RESULTADOS: A tosse noturna apresentou associações com asma (OR = 10,87; p < 0,01), alergia nasal (OR = 6,33; p < 0,01), tabagismo (OR = 3,10; p < 0,01), trabalho manual e trabalho não manual especializados (OR = 2,86 e 2,10, respectivamente; p < 0,01 para ambos) e gênero feminino (OR = 1,33; p = 0,17). A tosse produtiva apresentou associações com trabalho manual e trabalho não manual especializados (OR = 3,82 e 3,03, respectivamente; p < 0,01 para ambos), tabagismo (OR = 3,10; p < 0,01), asma (OR = 3,27; p < 0,01) e alergia nasal (OR = 5,81; p < 0,01). A tosse seca apresentou associações com asma (OR =5,18; p < 0,01) obesidade (OR =1,88; p = 0,19), tabagismo (OR = 1,77; p = 1,44), alergia nasal (OR = 1,45; p = 0,26) e gênero feminino (OR =1,36; p = 0,33). A idade, o gênero, o tipo de residência e a obesidade não se associaram significativamente a nenhum tipo de tosse (p > 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A prevenção precoce e o tratamento de condições associadas à tosse, assim como a modificação de fatores sociais comumente associados à tosse, são necessários a fim de reduzir a morbidade respiratória.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with nocturnal, productive and dry cough among young adults in Nigeria. METHODS: We evaluated 498 subjects, 20-44 years of age, in Ilorin, Nigeria, using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire, administered by trained interviewers. RESULTS: Nocturnal cough was associated with asthma (OR = 10.87; p < 0.01), nasal allergy (OR = 6.33; p < 0.01), smoking (OR = 3.10; p < 0.01), skilled manual and non-manual work (OR = 2.86 and 2.10, respectively; p < 0.01 for both) and female gender (OR = 1.33; p = 0.17). Productive cough was associated with skilled manual and non-manual work (OR = 3.82 and 3.03, respectively; p < 0.01 for both), smoking (OR = 3.10; p < 0.01), asthma (OR = 3.27; p < 0.01) and nasal allergy (OR = 5.81; p < 0.01). Dry cough was associated with asthma (OR =5.18; p < 0.01) obesity (OR =1.88; p = 0.19), smoking (OR = 1.77; p = 1.44), nasal allergy (OR = 1.45; p = 0.26) and female gender (OR =1.36; p = 0.33). Age, gender, type of residence and obesity were not significantly associated with any type of cough (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early prevention and treatment of conditions associated with cough, as well as the modification of social factors commonly associated with cough, are needed in order to reduce respiratory morbidity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cough/classification , Cough/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Nigeria/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 26(2): 72-80, jun. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577322

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to report the association between indoor pollution (IP), chronic respiratory symptoms (CRS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data provided from PLATINO study considering a sample of 1.208 subjects 40 and over years old population in Santiago, Chile. Analyses regarding indoor air pollution variables, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lifetime exposure to occupational dust and CRS and COPD as main outcomes was performed. Crude and adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Variables explaining higher COPD risk were age > 60 years (POR 3.94, CI95 percent 2.87-5.41, p < 0.01) and males (POR 2.08, CI95 percent 1.53-2.83, p < 0.01). Exposure to coal IP was associated with CRS (POR 1.41, CI95 percent 1.05-1.89; p = 0.024), as well as exposure to firewood IP (POR 1.42, CI95 percent 1.04-1.93; p = 0.029) and ETS (POR 2.15, CI95 percent 1.24-3.73, p = 0.006). Exposure to coal, firewood and ETS are independent risk factors for CRS. Association between exposure to IP and COPD was not observed.


El objetivo de la comunicación fue evaluar la asociación entre contaminación intradomiciliaria (CID) y la presencia de síntomas respiratorios crónicos (SRC) y Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC). Se analizó información del estudio de prevalencia Platino en base a una muestra de población general de 1.208 sujetos de 40 y más años de Santiago, Chile. Se analizó la CID derivada del uso de combustibles sólidos, exposición a humo ambiental (EHAT) y el reporte de exposición previa a polvo de origen ocupacional calculando Odds Ratio de Prevalencia (ORP) crudos y ajustados por potenciales variables confundentes. Las variables que determinan mayor riesgo de EPOC fueron edad mayor 60 años (ORP 3,9; IC95 por ciento 2,9-5,4; p < 0,01) y sexo masculino (OR 2,08; IC95 por ciento 1,5-2,8; p < 0,01). La CID derivada de carbón se asoció con síntomas respiratorios crónicos (ORP 1,4; IC95 por ciento 1,05-1,89; p = 0,024), al igual que el antecedente de exposición a humo de leña (ORP 1,4, IC95 por ciento 1,04-1,9; p = 0,029) y EHAT (ORP 2,1, IC95 por ciento 1,2-3,7; p = 0,006). La exposición a carbón, leña y EHAT constituyen factores de riesgo independientes para presentar SRC. No se encontró asociación entre CID y EPOC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Age Factors , Biomass , Coal/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Gases/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Paraffin/adverse effects , Spirometry , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Urban Area
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 35(1): 63-68, jan. 2009. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-506068

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Estimar as prevalências de TB latente e TB ativa entre custodiados de um hospital penal na Bahia. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados através de estudo de corte transversal com coleta prospectiva de dados 237 internos no Hospital Penal da Bahia entre julho de 2003 e abril de 2004. Um questionário padronizado foi preenchido por estudantes de medicina. Os indivíduos foram sistematicamente submetidos aos seguintes exames: teste tuberculínico, radiografia de tórax em incidência póstero-anterior, baciloscopia e cultura para micobactérias. Os eventos de interesse foram TB ativa e TB latente. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 36,6 anos, sendo 89,9 por cento homens. Tabagismo e alcoolismo foram relatados por 70.0 por cento e 43.9 por cento dos internos, respectivamente. História de tratamento para TB foi relatada por 11,3 por cento dos indivíduos. Dos internos avaliados, 36,3 por cento relataram tosse e 31,4 por cento, expectoração. Outros sintomas menos frequentemente referidos foram astenia (26,2 por cento), perda de peso (23,1 por cento), inapetência (17,7 por cento), febre (11,3 por cento) e hemoptise (6,7 por cento). Nenhum dos 86 internos testados apresentou sorologia anti-HIV positiva. Entre os 156 submetidos ao teste tuberculínico, a prevalência de TB latente foi de 61,5 por cento (146 casos). Do total, 6 casos de TB ativa foram detectados (prevalência de 2,5 por cento). A presença de tosse foi um determinante de TB ativa (razão de prevalência = 8,8; IC95 por cento: 1,04-73,9; p = 0,025). CONCLUSÕES: A população de internos do Hospital Penal da Bahia tem altas prevalências de TB latente e ativa. Estes achados justificam a necessidade de implantação de políticas públicas especificamente direcionadas para o controle da TB nesta população


OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of latent and active TB among detainees in a prison hospital in Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with prospective data collection was carried out comprising 237 inmates in the Bahia State Prison Hospital between July 2003 and April 2004. A standardized questionnaire was applied and completed by medical students. The detainees were systematically submitted to the following tests: tuberculin skin test, chest X-ray (anteroposterior), sputum smear microscopy and culture for mycobacteria. The events of interest were active TB and latent TB. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 36.6 years, and 89.9 percent were male. Smoking and alcohol consumption were reported by 70.0 percent and 43.9 percent of the inmates, respectively. A history of treatment for TB was reported by 11.3 percent of the inmates. Of the inmates evaluated, 36.3 percent reported cough and 31.4 percent reported expectoration. Other less common symptoms were asthenia (in 26.2 percent), weight loss (in 23.1 percent), loss of appetite (in 17.7 percent), fever (in 11.3 percent) and hemoptysis (in 6.7 percent). Of the 86 inmates tested, none presented positive HIV serology. The prevalence of latent TB was 61.5 percent (96 of the 156 inmates submitted to tuberculin skin tests), whereas that of active TB was 2.5 percent (6 of the 237 inmates evaluated). The presence of cough was a determinant of active TB (prevalence ratio = 8.8; 95 percent CI: 1.04-73.9; p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Active and latent TB are highly prevalent among inmates hospitalized in the Bahia State Prison Hospital. Our findings justify the need to implement public policies specifically directed towards the control of TB in this population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Hospitals , Prisons , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) is an important epidemiological index to measure the load of the disease in a community. A series of disease surveys were undertaken in rural community in Tiruvallur district in Tamilnadu, south India OBJECTIVE: To investigate the yield of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases by different symptoms status and suggest predominant symptoms for detection of cases in the community based surveys. METHODS: Three disease surveys were conducted during 1999-2006, in a random sample of 82,000 adults aged > or = 15 years to estimate the prevalence and incidence of pulmonary TB. All subjects were screened for chest symptoms and chest radiography. Sputum examination was done among those who were either symptomatic or abnormal on X-ray or both. Cases observed through symptom inquiry were included for analysis. RESULTS: In survey-I, 65.6% had cough of > or = 14 days and yielded 79.1% of the total cases. In surveys II and III, symptomatic subjects with cough contributed 69.5% and 69.2% of the cases respectively. In survey I, 26.8% had symptoms without cough but with at least chest pain > or = 1 month contributed 8.4% of total cases. The corresponding proportions in subsequent surveys were 29.3, 11.5%; and 23.4, 11.2% respectively. The number of symptomatics without cough and chest pain but with fever > or = 1 month was negligible. CONCLUSION: The relative importance of cough as a predominant symptom was reiterated. The yield of pulmonary TB cases from symptomatics having fever of > or = 1 month was negligible. Fever may be excluded from the definition of symptomatics for screening the population in community surveys.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Chest Pain/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Data Collection , Fever/epidemiology , Hemoptysis/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Radiography, Thoracic , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Young Adult
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: RNTCP recommends examining three sputum smears for AFB from Chest Symptomatics (CSs) with cough of > or =3 weeks for diagnosis of Pulmonary TB (PTB). A previous multi-centric study from Tuberculosis Research centre (TRC) has shown that the yield of sputum positive cases can be increased if duration of cough for screening was reduced to > or =2 weeks. Other studies have shown that two smear examinations are adequate for diagnosis of smear positive PTB . To validate the above findings, a cross sectional multi-centric study was repeated in different settings in five geographical areas in India. METHODS: Three primary and secondary level health facilities with high out-patient attendance were selected from two Tuberculosis Units (TU) in each of the 15 selected districts to screen about 10,000 new adult outpatients from each state. For patients who did not volunteer history of cough, symptoms were elicited using a structured simple questionnaire. All the CSs were referred for sputum examination. RESULTS: A total of 96,787 out-patients were registered. Among them 69,209 (72%) were new adult out-patients. Using > or =2 weeks of cough instead of 3 weeks as the criterion for screening, there was an overall increase of 58% in CS and 23% increase in the detection of smear-positive cases. Among 211 patients, 210 were positive at least by one smear from the initial two specimens. Increase in the work-load if 2 smears were done for patients with cough of > or =2 weeks cough were 2 specimens (i.e. 13 to 15) per day for an adult OPD of 150. CONCLUSION: The yield of sputum positive PTB cases can be improved by screening patients with > or =2 weeks cough and two specimens are adequate for diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cough/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Outpatients , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sputum/microbiology , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 21(5): 274-281, mayo 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-457877

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and mother's place of birth (Mexico vs. United States of America) on the prevalence of asthma and dry nighttime cough among children 2-12 years old residing in the southwestern United States. METHODS: Data were collected from November 2003 through March 2004 as part of a health survey of Hispanic mothers with young children who sought emergency, nutrition, or other clinical services. Information about respiratory health was obtained for one randomly selected child per United States-born (no. = 144) or Mexico-born (no. = 125) mother. Information on maternal and household sociodemographic variables, smoking, parental asthma, and child's exposure to room or automobile ETS during the previous seven days was also collected. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated with modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Most sociodemographic and ETS exposure variables differed significantly by mother's country of birth. Modeled asthma prevalence was 1.95 [95 percent confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-3.68] times greater in children of United States-born mothers than children of Mexico-born mothers. This difference persisted after known asthma risk factors were controlled for, including parental asthma, socioeconomic and demographic variables, and child ETS exposure. Childrens' recent automobile ETS exposure was associated with dry nighttime cough [adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.94, 95 percent CI = 1.19-3.15] and asthma (PR = 2.09; 95 percent CI = 0.99-4.39). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to ETS in automobiles is an important risk factor for asthma and dry nighttime cough among Hispanic children in the southwest United States, regardless of mother's country of birth. Further research is needed to identify causes of the higher prevalence of asthma in Hispanic children of United States-born mothers.


OBJETIVOS: Se investigó el impacto de la exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco (HAT) y del país de nacimiento de la madre (México frente a los Estados Unidos de América) en la prevalencia de asma y tos seca nocturna en niños de 2-12 años de edad que viven en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos de América. MÉTODOS: Los datos se colectaron de noviembre de 2003 a marzo de 2004 como parte de una encuesta de salud de madres hispanas con hijos pequeños, que solicitaron servicios de emergencia, nutrición o clínicos. Se obtuvo la información sobre el estado de salud respiratoria de un hijo seleccionado aleatoriamente por cada madre nacida en los Estados Unidos de América (n = 144) o en México (n = 125). Se colectó información sobre las variables sociodemográficas de la madre y del hogar, el hábito de fumar, los antecedentes de asma de los padres y la exposición del niño al HAT en habitaciones o automóviles en los siete días previos. Las razones de prevalencia ajustadas se estimaron mediante modelos de regresión de Poisson modificados. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las variables sociodemográficas y de exposición al HAT presentaron diferencias significativas según el país de nacimiento de la madre. La prevalencia de asma según el modelo fue de 1,95 (intervalo de confianza de 95 por ciento [IC95 por ciento] = 1,03 a 3,68) veces mayor en niños de madres nacidas en Estados Unidos de América que en los de madres nacidas en México. Esta diferencia se mantuvo después de controlar por los factores de riesgo de asma conocidos, entre ellos los antecedentes de asma de los padres, las variables socioeconómicas y demográficas y la exposición del niño al HAT. La exposición reciente del niño al HAT en automóviles se asoció con la tos seca nocturna (razón de prevalencia ajustada [RP] = 1,94; IC95 por ciento = 1,19 a 3,15) y asma (RP = 2,09; IC95 por ciento = 0,99 a 4,39). CONCLUSIONES: La exposición al HAT en automóviles es un importante factor de riesgo de asma...


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Asthma/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Hispanic Americans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
19.
JMJ-Jamahiriya Medical Journal. 2007; 7 (3): 180-183
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-83285

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out in Sirt, which is a small city in Libya, with a population of about 90,000. It is situated an the south of the Mediaterranean sea and the Nirthern great desert. Sirt is characterized by absence of industrial pollutant; high humidity and dusty weather in the summer season; and a historate of high consanguineous [cousin] marriage. To estimate the prevalence of asthma among Liyban schoolchildren in Sirt city. A cross-sectional study was carried out using the ISAAC [International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood] written questionnaire with additional questions on father's smoke history, cousin marriage, and family history of ashma and school performance. Parents of 12384 Schoolchildren from 11 to 16 years completed a questionnaire on the respiratory health of their children. The prevalence of wheezing is 3.6%, and breathlessness is 6.5% with no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Sleep disturbance is 8.7%, and nocturnal dry cough is 11.4%. Asthmatic symptoms were found to be high in children with positive family history of allergic diathesis and significant difference between girls and boys. But no association was found with age. The prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren living in Sirt city is low compared with other African and Middle Eastern countries


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Schools , Students , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Consanguinity , Medical History Taking , Smoking/adverse effects , Cough/epidemiology , Child
20.
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci ; 2006 Jan-Mar; 48(1): 31-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-29610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a risk factor for childhood asthma. Its association with asthma in adults is less clear. METHODS: In a multicentric population study on asthma prevalence in adults, specific enquiries were made into childhood and adulthood exposure to household ETS, and its relationship with asthma diagnosis were analysed. RESULTS: From a total of 73605 respondents, 62109 were studied after excluding current or past smokers. Overall observed prevalence of asthma was 2.0% (men 1.5%,women 2.5%, p < 0.001). Of all asthma patients, history of ETS exposure was available in 48.6 percent. Prevalence of asthma in the ETS exposed subjects was higher compared to non-exposed individuals (2.2% vs 1.9%, p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a higher risk of having asthma in persons who were exposed to ETS compared to those not exposed (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.38) after adjusting for age, gender, usual residence, exposure to biomass fuels and atopy. Stratification of ETS exposure revealed that exposure during childhood and both during childhood and adulthood were significantly associated with asthma prevalence. Exposure only in adulthood was not a significant risk factor (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.33). Persons reporting combined environmental tobacco smoke exposure from parents during childhood and spouse during adulthood had highest risk of having asthma (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.38-2.07). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was also significantly associated with prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, cough and breathlessness. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood is an important risk factor for asthma and respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Smoking , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects
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