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1.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 32: e4125, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1550984

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the evidence of validity of the internal structure and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Smoking Cessation Counseling instrument Method: psychometric study of confirmatory factor analysis and reliability carried out on 250 nurses in clinical practice. For the analysis of the convergent validity of the factor model, Average Variance Extracted values were calculated, and discriminant analysis was carried out using the Fornell-Larcker criterion. Reliability was examined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliability Results: it was necessary to exclude seven items from the Advanced Counseling domain and one item from the Basic Counseling domain in order to properly obtain the Average Variance Extracted values and the Fornell-Larcker criterion. The composite reliability ranged from 0.76 to 0.86 and the overall Cronbach`s alpha coefficient was 0.86, ranging from 0.53 to 0.84 depending on the domain assessed. The final version of the instrument was made up of 16 items divided into 4 domains Conclusion: the Brazilian version of Smoking Cessation Counseling obtained adequate psychometric evidence of validity and reliability. Further studies are needed to refine the instrument.


Objetivo: evaluar las evidencias de validez de la estructura interna y de la confiabilidad de la versión brasileña del instrumento Smoking Cessation Counseling. Método: estudio psicométrico de análisis factorial confirmatorio y de confiabilidad realizado en 250 enfermeras de la práctica clínica. Para el análisis de la validez convergente del modelo factorial se calcularon valores de Average Variance Extracted, el análisis discriminante se realizó mediante el criterio de Fornell-Larcker. La confiabilidad se examinó por el coeficiente de alfa de Cronbach y por la confiabilidad compuesta. Resultados: fue necesaria la exclusión de siete ítems del dominio de Asesoramiento avanzado y un ítem del dominio Asesoramiento básico para obtener adecuadamente los valores de Average Variance Extracted y del criterio de Fornell-Larcker. La confiabilidad compuesta varió de 0,76 a 0,86 y el coeficiente de alfa de Cronbach global alcanzado fue de 0,86, variando de 0,53 a 0,84 dependiendo del dominio evaluado. Se obtuvo la versión final del instrumento compuesto de 16 ítems distribuidos en 4 dominios. Conclusión: la versión brasileña de Smoking Cessation Counseling obtuvo adecuadas evidencias psicométricas de validez y confiabilidad. Estudios posteriores serán necesarios para el refinamiento del instrumento.


Objetivo: avaliar as evidências de validade da estrutura interna e da confibialidade da versão brasileira do instrumento Smoking Cessation Counseling Método: estudo psicométrico de análise fatorial confirmatória e de confiabilidade realizado em 250 enfermeiras da prática clínica. Para a análise da validade convergente do modelo fatorial foram calculados valores de Average Variance Extracted , a análise discriminante foi realizada pelo critério de Fornell-Larcker. A confiabilidade foi examinada pelo coeficiente de alfa de Cronbach e pela confiabilidade composta Resultados: foi necessária a exclusão de sete itens do domínio de Aconselhamento avançado e um item do domínio Aconselhamento básico para obtenção adequada dos valores de Average Variance Extracted e do critério de Fornell-Larcker. A confiabilidade composta variou de 0,76 a 0,86 e o coeficiente de alfa de Cronbach global alcançado foi de 0,86, variando de 0,53 a 0,84 a depender do domínio avaliado. Obteve-se a versão final do instrumento composto de 16 itens distribuídos em quatro domínios Conclusão: a versão brasileira da Smoking Cessation Counseling obteve adequadas evidências psicométricas de validade e de confiabilidade. Estudos posteriores serão necessários para o refinamento do instrumento.


Subject(s)
Public Health Nursing , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Tobacco Use Cessation , Counseling , Validation Study , Methods
2.
Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 6(2): 104-111, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1509395

ABSTRACT

Background HIV/AIDS remains a significant global public health challenge with youth bearing the brunt of the burden. One essential method for preventing and accessing AIDS care is through Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT). Regardless of this, youth population continues to have low utilization of VCT services. Objective To assess the uptake of HIV VCT services and associated factors among university students in Kigali. Methods A cross-sectional study among 374 students recruited using stratified sampling was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to gather information. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent factors associated with VCT uptake. Results The prevalence of VCT uptake was 59.9%. The logistic regression revealed that being Catholic (AOR = 11.99, 95%CI: 5.44-26.41) and Moslem (AOR = 37.34, 95%CI: 2.67-128.36) compared to Protestant, as well as availability of VCT services (AOR = 5.15, 95%CI: 3.11 - 8.541) favored the use VCT. On the other hand, being aged 20 to 24 years (AOR = 0.112, 95%CI: 0.04 - 0.29) had low likelihood of using VCT than those more than 24 years of age. Conclusion VCT uptake was significantly positively associated with religion and VCT services availability, and negatively associated with age 20-24 years in the campus. Therefore, targeted actions of disseminating information on benefits of VCT and enhancing accessibility of VCT services among students are necessary for the increased VCT uptake to be attained.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Seropositivity , Counseling , HIV Testing
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250301, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422415

ABSTRACT

Documentos normativos determinam que serviços de Proteção Social Especial (PSE) do Sistema Único de Assistência Social (SUAS) devem oferecer atendimento psicossocial às(aos) usuárias(os). No entanto, não especificam que atendimento é esse, que tipo de atividades ele inclui, porque ele caracteriza principalmente serviços da PSE ou o que o diferencia das outras atividades desenvolvidas pelas equipes desses serviços. Diante disso, neste artigo, buscamos responder às seguintes questões: como profissionais que atuam nas equipes técnicas ou na gestão de serviços de proteção social especial do município de São Paulo compreendem a noção de "atendimento psicossocial"? E como essa noção é convertida em práticas concretas de intervenção? Para respondê-las, realizamos uma pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, bem como fizemos 10 entrevistas semiestruturadas com profissionais da PSE. As entrevistas e documentos analisados indicam a polissemia da expressão atendimento psicossocial. Ora ela refere-se a determinadas práticas ou ações que fazem parte do cotidiano dos serviços do SUAS; ora a um aspecto ou uma visão que norteia o trabalho. Indicam, ainda, que tal forma de atendimento é caracterizada, entre outras coisas, por sua interdisciplinaridade, pela importância que dá ao contexto e ao território e por não ser equivalente à clínica psicoterápica tradicional.(AU)


Regulatory documents determine that Special Social Protection (PSE) services of the Unified Social Assistance System (SUAS) must offer psychosocial support to its users. However, they do not specify which support, what type of activities it includes, why it mainly characterizes PSE services or what differentiates it from other activities developed by teams in these services. Given this, in this article, we seek to answer the following questions: how do professionals working in the technical teams or in the management of special social protection services in the municipality of São Paulo understand the notion of "psychosocial support"? And how is this notion converted into concrete intervention practices? To answer them, we conducted a bibliographic and documentary research, as well as 10 semi-structured interviews with professionals from PSE services. The interviews and documents analyzed indicate the polysemy of the expression psychosocial support. At times, it refers to certain practices or actions that are part of the daily routine of SUAS services; at other times, it refers to an aspect or vision that guides the work. They also indicate that this form of support is characterized, among other things, by its interdisciplinary nature, by the importance given to context and territory and by not being equivalent to the traditional psychotherapeutic clinic.(AU)


Los documentos normativos determinan que los servicios de Protección Social Especial (PSE) del Sistema Único de Asistencia Social (SUAS) deben ofrecer atención psicosocial a los usuarios. Sin embargo, no especifican en qué consiste esta atención, qué tipo de actividades incluye, por qué caracteriza principalmente a los servicios de PSE o qué lo diferencia de otras actividades desarrolladas por los equipos de estos servicios. Teniendo esto en cuenta, en este artículo buscamos responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿Qué piensan sobre la noción de "atención psicosocial" los profesionales que trabajan en los equipos técnicos o en la gestión de los servicios de protección social especial en el municipio de São Paulo? ¿Y cómo convierten esta noción en prácticas concretas de intervención? Para responderlas, realizamos una investigación bibliográfica y documental, así como diez entrevistas semiestructuradas con profesionales de la PSE. Las entrevistas y los documentos analizados indican la polisemia de la expresión atención psicosocial. A veces, se refiere a ciertas prácticas o acciones que forman parte de la rutina diaria de los servicios del SUAS; otras veces, a un aspecto o visión que guía el trabajo. También esta forma de atención se caracteriza, entre otras cosas, por su interdisciplinariedad, por la importancia que se da al contexto y al territorio, y por no ser equivalente a la clínica psicoterapéutica tradicional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Public Policy , Security Measures , Social Support , Mental Health Services , Anxiety , Poverty , Psychoanalytic Interpretation , Psychotherapy , Reference Standards , Safety , Science , Sex Offenses , Social Change , Social Sciences , Social Welfare , Violence , Women's Rights , Wounds and Injuries , Child Labor , Child Advocacy , Risk , Risk Factors , Civil Disorders , Civil Rights , Police , Interview , Survivors , Privacy , Sexuality , Counseling , Crime , Culture , Disaster Victims , Personal Autonomy , Dangerous Behavior , Value of Life , State , Behavior Control , Human Rights Abuses , Depression , Education , Empathy , Disease Prevention , Stalking , Community Integration , Integrality in Health , Social Segregation , Interdisciplinary Placement , Social Oppression , Freedom , Respect , Social Vulnerability Index , Civil Society , Psychological Distress , Involuntary Commitment , Mediation Analysis , Citizenship , Psychological Well-Being , Health Occupations , Health Promotion , Home Care Services , House Calls , Housing , Object Attachment
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e245664, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422406

ABSTRACT

Com a pandemia da covid-19, o contexto universitário, que já vinha sendo palco de discussões em relação à saúde mental, tem vivenciado crises mais severas pelos estudantes. Diante deste cenário, foi desenvolvido o projeto Escuta Solidária, voltado à saúde mental dos discentes de graduação e de pós-graduação. Neste artigo, temos como objetivo discutir o atendimento psicológico online com estudantes do curso de psicologia durante o período de isolamento social rígido (maio a junho de 2020). Fizemos, com os psicólogos voluntários, um grupo focal direcionado para a experiência de atendimento psicológico online de curta duração no contexto pandêmico. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, realizado com os 11 psicólogos clínicos participantes do referido projeto. A partir de uma análise fenomenológica crítica, os resultados foram divididos em cinco categorias: a) limitações e contribuições do projeto; b) a importância da capacitação e supervisão clínica para a qualidade do projeto; c) atendimento psicológico online; d) ser psicólogo clínico durante a crise da covid-19; e e) demandas emergentes nos atendimentos psicológicos na quarentena. Por fim, discutimos a importância da desmistificação do atendimento psicológico em situações de crise, especialmente na modalidade online, fomentando questionamentos à formação e atuação dos profissionais, no sentido de estarmos atentos às demandas psicológicas que o contexto de crise acarreta na sociedade.(AU)


With the COVID-19 pandemic, the university context, which had already been the stage for discussions regarding mental health, has experienced more severe crises by students. In view of this scenario, the Solidarity Listening project was developed, aimed at the mental health of undergraduate and graduate students. In this article, we aim to discuss online psychological care with psychology students during the period of strict social isolation (May to June 2020). We carried out, with volunteer psychologists, a focus group aimed at the experience of short-termonline psychological care in the pandemic context. This is a qualitative study, carried out with 11 clinical psychologists participating in the aforementioned project. From a critical phenomenological analysis, the results were divided into five categories: a) limitations and contributions of the project; b) the importance of training and clinical supervision for the quality of the project; c) online psychological care; d) being a clinical psychologist during the COVID-19 crisis; and e) emerging demands in psychological care in quarantine. Finally, we discuss the importance of demystifying psychological care in crisis situations, especially in the online modality, promoting questions regarding the training and performance of professionals, to be aware of the psychological demands that the context of crisis entails in society.(AU)


La pandemia del covid-19 provocó que las universidades, que ya habían sido escenario de discusiones sobre la salud mental, experimentaran crisis más severas entre los estudiantes. Ante este escenario, se desarrolló el proyecto Escucha Solidaria, dirigido a la salud mental de estudiantes de grado y posgrado. Este artículo pretende discutir la atención psicológica en línea con estudiantes de Psicología durante el período de aislamiento social más estricto (mayo/junio de 2020). Se conformó un grupo focal con los psicólogos voluntarios orientado a la práctica de la atención psicológica en línea, a corto plazo, en el contexto de una pandemia. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, realizado con 11 psicólogos clínicos que participaron en el mencionado proyecto. A partir del análisis fenomenológico crítico, los resultados se dividieron en cinco categorías: a) limitaciones y aportes del proyecto; b) importancia de la capacitación y la supervisión clínica para la calidad del proyecto; c) atención psicológica en línea; d) ser psicólogo clínico durante la crisis del covid-19; y e) demandas emergentes en atención psicológica en la cuarentena. Se concluye que es importante desmitificar la atención psicológica en situaciones de crisis, especialmente en la modalidad en línea, al promover principalmente preguntas sobre la formación y el desempeño de los profesionales con el fin de ser conscientes de las demandas psicológicas que el contexto de crisis conlleva la sociedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology, Clinical , Student Health Services , Mental Health Assistance , Pandemics , Internet-Based Intervention , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Politics , Professional Practice Location , Psychology , Psychotherapy , Self Care , Sleep Wake Disorders , Social Change , Social Control, Formal , Social Support , Teaching , Violence , Wounds and Injuries , Shyness , Mentors , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Health Education , Panic Disorder , Pliability , Conflict, Psychological , Cultural Diversity , Life , Counseling , Crisis Intervention , Democracy , After-Hours Care , Depression , Videoconferencing , Economics , Emergencies , Emotions , Empathy , Process Optimization , Information Technology , Fear , Social Skills , Psychosocial Support Systems , Mentoring , Telepsychology , Psychological Distress , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Human Development , Learning , Learning Disabilities , Life Change Events , Medicine, Traditional
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252476, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448942

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a vivência de trabalho precoce de adolescentes e jovens em cumprimento de medida socioeducativa, no estado da Paraíba. Os instrumentos utilizados foram um Questionário Mosquito Diagnóstico e uma Entrevista Semiestruturada. A análise foi realizada com o software Iramuteq, (Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires), através da Análise Hierárquica Descendente, que gerou seis classes: significado do trabalho; infância e escola; condições objetivas de vida; trabalho, drogas e ato infracional; consequências do trabalho infantil; e trabalho infantojuvenil. A perspectiva teórica utilizada foi a psicologia histórico-cultural e os dados discutidos a partir do conceito de vivência. Conclui-se que as vivências e situações sociais de desenvolvimento foram caracterizadas pelo trabalho precoce que oportunizou o envolvimento com atos infracionais e as instituições responsáveis pela garantia de direitos em vez de garantir a proteção social, criminalizaram por meio de medidas socioeducativas.(AU)


This article aims to analyze the experience of child labor of adolescents and youngsters that are complying a social-educational measure, in the State of Paraíba. The instruments utilized were a Questionnaire Mosquito Diagnóstico and a Semi-Structured Interview. The analysis was performed by using the Iramuteq software (Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires), by using Descending Hierarchical Analysis, which generated six classes: meaning of labor; childhood and school; objective conditions of life; labor, drugs, and act of infraction; consequences of child labor; and child labor. The theoretical perspective used was historical-cultural psychology and the data were discussed from the concept of experience. It was concluded that the experiences and social situations of development were characterized by child labor, which enabled the involvement with acts of infraction; and the institutions responsible for guaranteeing rights, instead of guaranteeing social protection, criminalized by using social-educational measures.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la vivencia precoz de adolescentes y jóvenes que cumplen medidas socioeducativas en el estado de Paraíba (Brasil). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron un Cuestionario Mosquito Diagnóstico y una entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis se realizó con el software Iramuteq (Interface de R pour les Multidimensionnelles Analyzes de Textes et de Questionnaires), mediante análisis jerárquico descendente, que generó seis clases: Significado del trabajo; Infancia y escuela; Condiciones objetivas de vida; Trabajo, drogas y acto de infracción; Consecuencias del trabajo infantil; y Trabajo infantojuvenil. La perspectiva teórica que se utilizó fue la psicología histórico-cultural, y los datos se discutieron desde el concepto de vivencia. Se concluye que las vivencias y situaciones sociales de desarrollo se caracterizaron por trabajo infantil que permitió la participación en infracciones y que las instituciones responsables de garantizar los derechos en lugar de la protección social los criminalizaron mediante medidas socioeducativas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Child Labor , Adolescent , Education , Personality , Play and Playthings , Poverty , Prejudice , Sex Work , Psychology , Public Policy , Punishment , Schools , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Class , Social Conditions , Social Support , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Student Dropouts , Suicide, Attempted , Theft , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Work Hours , Child Abuse, Sexual , Mainstreaming, Education , Occupational Risks , Accidents, Occupational , Family , Illicit Drugs , Child, Abandoned , Child Advocacy , Child, Institutionalized , Child Welfare , Self-Injurious Behavior , Civil Rights , Family Planning Policy , Sexual Harassment , Communication , Adult , Legislation , Counseling , Crime , Dangerous Behavior , Adolescent Health , Death , Deinstitutionalization , Friends , Minors , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , Educational Status , Employment , Health Vulnerability , Job Market , Bullying , Remuneration , Social Discrimination , Drug Trafficking , Enslaved Persons , Social Capital , Emotional Adjustment , Underage Drinking , Literacy , Help-Seeking Behavior , Self-Control , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Psychosocial Support Systems , Work-Life Balance , Frailty , Survivorship , Recidivism , Academic Failure , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Cyberbullying , Data Analysis , Involuntary Commitment , Return to School , Sustenance , Emotional Abuse , Financial Stress , Life Course Perspective , Housing Instability , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Homicide , Household Work , Human Rights , Institutionalization , Juvenile Delinquency , Language , Mental Health Services
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244202, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431126

ABSTRACT

O objeto de estudo deste trabalho é a atuação de psicólogas(os) no campo da educação básica. Tivemos como objetivo investigar as práticas de atuação e os desafios enfrentados pelas(os) psicólogas(os) que trabalham na educação em Boa Vista (RR), com intuito de conhecer a inserção desses profissionais no sistema educacional. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, orientada pelo referencial teórico-metodológico da Psicologia Escolar Crítica. Realizamos o processo de levantamento dos dados entre os meses de março e abril de 2018, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, audiogravadas e transcritas. Encontramos 21 psicólogas e um psicólogo trabalhando em instituições educacionais e de ensino na cidade; a maioria atuava na educação básica; metade dos entrevistados ingressou por concurso público e a outra metade era contratada e comissionada; poucos(as) foram contratados(as) como psicólogos(as) escolares. Para a análise, selecionamos dez psicólogas(os) com mais tempo no cargo. Quanto às práticas de atuação, identificamos que 60% atuavam na modalidade clínica e 40% na modalidade clínica e institucional. Como desafios, encontramos melhoria das condições de trabalho; estabelecimento de relações hierárquicas e a dificuldade de fazer compreender as especificidades desse campo de trabalho; necessidade na melhoria das condições para formação continuada; atuação da(o) psicóloga(o) escolar enquanto ação institucional. Diante do exposto, compreendemos ser necessária uma mudança de paradigma na atuação das(os) psicólogas(os) que trabalham na educação na região, e a apropriação das discussões da área, principalmente, aquelas apresentadas pela Psicologia Escolar Crítica, vez que esta contribui para uma atuação que leve em conta os determinantes sociais, políticos, culturais e pedagógicos que constituem o processo de escolarização.(AU)


This work has as object of study the role of psychologists in the field of Basic Education. We aimed to investigate practices and challenges faced by psychologists who work in education in Boa Vista/RR, to know the insertion of these professionals in the educational system. This is a qualitative research, guided by the theoretical-methodological framework of Critical School Psychology. The data collection process was carried out between March and April 2018, with semi-structured, audio-recorded, and transcribed interviews. We found 21 female psychologists and one male psychologist working in educational institutions in the municipality; most worked in Basic Education; half of the interviewees had applied to work as government employee and the other half were hired and commissioned; few were hired as school psychologists. To carry out the analysis, we selected ten psychologists with more time in the position. Regarding the practices, we have identified that 60% worked in the clinical modality and 40% in the clinical and institutional modality. As challenges, we find the improvement in working conditions; the establishment of hierarchical relationships and the difficulty of making the specificities of this field of work understood; the need to improve conditions for continuing education; the practice of the school psychologist as institutional action. In view of the above, we understand that a paradigm shift in the performance of psychologists working in education in that region is necessary, and the appropriation of discussions in the area, especially those presented by Critical School Psychology, contributes to an action that considers social, political, cultural, and pedagogical determinants that constitute the schooling process.(AU)


Este trabajo tiene como objeto de estudio la actuación profesional de las(os) psicólogas(os) en la educación básica. Su objetivo es investigar las prácticas y retos que enfrentan las(os) psicólogas(os) que trabajan en la educación en Boa Vista, en Roraima (Brasil), con la intención de conocer la inserción de estos profesionales en el sistema educativo. Esta es una investigación cualitativa que se guía por el marco teórico-metodológico de la Psicología Escolar Crítica. Se recopilaron los datos entre los meses de marzo y abril de 2018, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, grabadas en audio y después transcritas. Las 21 psicólogas y un psicólogo trabajan en instituciones educativas de la ciudad; la mayoría trabajaba en la educación básica; la mitad de los entrevistados ingresaron mediante concurso público y la otra mitad era contratada y de puesto comisionado; pocos fueron contratados como psicólogos escolares. Para el análisis, se seleccionaron diez psicólogas(os) con más tiempo en el cargo. Con respecto a las prácticas, el 60% trabajaba en la modalidad clínica; y el 40%, en la modalidad clínica e institucional. Los retos son mejora de las condiciones laborales; establecimiento de relaciones jerárquicas y dificultad para comprender las especificidades de este campo de trabajo; necesidad de mejorar las condiciones para la educación continua; y actuación dela (del) psicóloga(o) escolar como acción institucional. En vista de lo anterior, es necesario el cambio de paradigma en la práctica profesional de las(os) psicólogas(os) que trabajan en la educación de la región y la apropiación de las discusiones del área, especialmente las presentadas por la Psicología Escolar Crítica, que contribuye a una acción que tiene en cuenta los determinantes sociales, políticos, culturales y pedagógicos que constituyen el proceso de escolarización.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology, Educational , Schools , Education, Primary and Secondary , Pathology , Aptitude , Play and Playthings , Play Therapy , Prejudice , Psychology , Psychology, Applied , Psychology, Clinical , Psychomotor Performance , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Remedial Teaching , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , School Health Services , Autistic Disorder , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Social Environment , Social Isolation , Social Values , Socialization , Student Dropouts , Students , Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms , Task Performance and Analysis , Thinking , Underachievement , Behavior , Mainstreaming, Education , Mentors , Adaptation, Psychological , Family , Child Advocacy , Developmental Disabilities , Child Guidance , Child Rearing , Mental Health , Child Health , Mental Competency , Public Sector , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Disabled Persons , Interview , Cognition , Communication , Communication Disorders , Problem-Based Learning , Community Participation , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Counseling , Creativity , Growth and Development , Dyslexia , Education of Intellectually Disabled , Education, Special , Educational Measurement , Educational Status , Projects , Ethics, Institutional , Information Technology , Faculty , Resilience, Psychological , Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena , Bullying , Medicalization , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Academic Failure , School Mental Health Services , Psychosocial Functioning , Social Vulnerability , Health Services Needs and Demand , Holistic Health , Human Development , Human Rights , Individuality , Intelligence , Interpersonal Relations , Learning , Learning Disabilities , Medical History Taking , Memory , Mental Disorders , Motivation
7.
Arq. odontol ; 59: 39-53, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1434152

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar o efeito do uso de instruções convencionais (verbais ou escritas) e instruções digitais (apps e mensagens de telefone) na cooperação e melhora da higiene oral dos pacientes ortodônticos.Métodos: Foram conduzidas buscas em seis bases de dados. Seleção dos estudos, extração de dados e análise do risco de viés dos artigos com a ferramenta Cochrane foram realizadas. Resultados de meta-análises foram apresentados em diferença média (DM) e intervalo de confiança (IC). Resultados: Seis estudos foram incluídos. No geral, os estudos mostraram que indivíduos que recebem instruções convencionais e digitais de higiene bucal apresentam uma melhora do índice de placa e índice gengival ao longo do tratamento ortodôntico (p < 0,05). Os indivíduos que só recebem instruções convencionais não apresentam melhora dos índices (p > 0,05). Os resultados são confirmados por duas meta-análises, sendo o índice de placa (DM = -1,30, IC = -2,52 - -0,08) e o índice gengival (DM = -0,27, IC = -0,42 - -0,12) melhor entre indivíduos que receberam instruções convencionais e digitais em comparação a indivíduos que receberam somente instruções convencionais. Meta-análises mostraram que não há diferença para índice de placa (DM = 0,57, IC = -0,61 ­ 1,74) e índice gengival (DM = -0,46, IC = -1,52 - 0,59) durante o tratamento entre indivíduos que somente receberam instruções de higiene convencionais e aqueles que só receberam instruções digitais. Indivíduos que só receberam instruções convencionais apresentam um aumento de lesões de mancha branca ao longo do tratamento (p < 0,05). O risco de viés variou de baixo a alto. Conclusão: Instruções digitais junto às convencionais são eficientes na melhora da higiene bucal dos pacientes em tratamento ortodôntico.


Aim: To compare the effects of the use of conventional instructions (verbal or written) and digital instructions (apps and phone messages) for the cooperation and improvement of oral hygiene in orthodontic patients. Methods: Searches were conducted in six databases. Selection of studies, data extraction, and risk of bias analysis of articles were performed using the Cochrane tool. For meta-analysis results, mean difference (MD) and confidence interval (CI) were provided. Results: Six studies were included. Overall, studies demonstrated that individuals who received conventional and digital oral hygiene instructions show an improvement in both the plaque and gingival indices over the course of orthodontic treatment (p < 0.05). By contrast, individuals who only received conventional instructions showed no improvement in the indices (p > 0.05). The results were confirmed in two meta-analyses, with the plaque index (MD = -1.30, CI = -2.52 - -0.08) and the gingival index (MD = -0.27, CI = -0.42 - -0.12) presenting better outcomes among individuals who received conventional and digital instructions, as compared to individuals who received only conventional instructions. Meta-analyses showed that there is no difference between the plaque index (MD = 0.57, CI = -0.61 ­ 1.74) and the gingival index (MD = -0.46, CI = -1.52 ­ 0.59) concerning the course of treatment between individuals who only received conventional hygiene instructions and those who only received digital instructions. Individuals who only received conventional instructions showed an increase in white spot lesions throughout the treatment (p < 0.05). The risk of bias ranged from low to high. Conclusion: Both digital instructions and the conventional instructions are efficient in improving the oral hygiene of patients during orthodontic treatment.


Subject(s)
Oral Hygiene , Orthodontics , Counseling , Health Literacy , Health Communication
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244243, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431131

ABSTRACT

A Avaliação Terapêutica (AT) é um processo avaliativo e interventivo proposto para ser semiestruturado e colaborativo com o objetivo de promover mudanças positivas no cliente, que é convidado a ter uma participação ativa durante o processo. Na AT, os resultados dos testes psicológicos padronizados ganham destaque como facilitadores do processo de autoconhecimento do cliente. Desse modo, usualmente, integram-se os achados de testes psicológicos de autorrelato com os métodos projetivos para gerar informações que possam ampliar a visão que o cliente tem de si. Neste artigo, buscou-se compreender o potencial de uso dos testes psicológicos e da relação colaborativa a partir de um caso atendido na perspectiva da AT. A participante, Violeta (nome fictício), foi atendida em 10 sessões com duração entre 60 e 115 minutos. Foram utilizados os testes psicológicos Escala de Bem-Estar Psicológico (Ebep), Escala de Vulnerabilidade e Estresse no Trabalho (Event), Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade (BFP), Método de Rorschach e Inventários de Habilidades Sociais 2 (IHS-2). Observou-se que, durante o processo, Violeta ampliou sua autopercepção, o que possibilitou mudanças no modo de agir em seus relacionamentos amorosos e na reflexão sobre como sua postura era vista por si e por seus colegas de trabalho. Acredita-se que a AT cumpriu com o objetivo de estabelecer uma experiência terapêutica que possibilitasse mudanças positivas para a cliente. Este estudo de caso contribuiu para ampliar a compreensão sobre a importância e o uso dos testes psicológicos neste modelo de avaliação psicológica.(AU)


The Therapeutic Assessment (TA) is an evaluative and interventional process proposed to be semi-structured and collaborative with the objective of promoting positive changes in the client, who is invited to have an active participation during the process. At the TA, the results of standardized psychological tests are highlighted as facilitators of the client's self-knowledge process. In this way, the findings of psychological self-report tests are usually integrated with projective methods to generate information that can broaden the client's view of themselves. In this article, understanding the potential use of psychological tests and of the collaborative relationship from a case treated from the TA perspective was sought. The participant, Violet (fictitious name), was assisted in 10 sessions lasting between 60 and 115 minutes. The psychological tests Psychological Well-Being Scale (EBEP), Vulnerability and Stress at Work Scale (EVENT), Personality Factorial Battery (BFP), Rorschach Method and Social Skills Inventories 2 (IHS-2) were used. It was observed that, during the process, Violet increased her self-perception, which allowed changes in her way of acting in her love life and in her reflection on how her posture was seen by herself and herco-workers. It is believed that TA fulfilled the objective of establishing a therapeutic experience that would enable positive changes for the client. This case study contributed to broaden the understanding about the importance and use of psychological testing in this psychological assessment model.(AU)


La Evaluación Terapéutica (ET) es un proceso de evaluación e intervención que se propone ser semiestructurado y colaborativo, con el objetivo de lograr cambios positivos en el cliente, quien es invitado a tener participación activa durante el proceso. En la ET se destacan los resultados de las pruebas psicológicas estandarizadas como facilitadoras del proceso de autoconocimiento del cliente. Los hallazgos de las pruebas psicológicas de autoinforme suelen integrarse con métodos proyectivos para generar información que pueda ampliar la visión que el cliente tiene de sí mismo. En este artículo se buscó comprender el uso potencial de las pruebas psicológicas y de la relación colaborativa a partir de un estudio de caso tratado desde la perspectiva de la ET. Atendieron a la participante Violeta (nombre ficticio), en 10 sesiones que duraron entre 60 y 115 minutos. Se utilizaron las pruebas psicológicas Escala de Bienestar Psicológico (EBEP), Escala de Vulnerabilidad y Estrés en el Trabajo (EVENT), Batería de Factorial de la Personalidad (BFP), Método de Rorschach e Inventario de Habilidades Sociales 2 (IHS-dos). Se observó que, durante el proceso, Violeta amplió su autopercepción, lo que permitió cambios en la forma de actuar en sus relaciones amorosas y en el reflejo de como ella y sus compañeros de trabajo veían su postura. Así, se cree que ET ha cumplido el objetivo de establecer una experiencia terapéutica que permitió cambios positivos a la cliente. Este estudio contribuyó a ampliar la comprensión sobre la importancia y el uso de las pruebas psicológicas en este modelo de evaluación psicológica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Therapeutics , Psychological Techniques , Psychological Distress , Anxiety Disorders , Projection , Psychoanalysis , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Psychotherapy , Rabies , Rorschach Test , Shame , Social Adjustment , Social Behavior , Social Environment , Social Identification , Social Isolation , Social Support , Socialization , Avoidance Learning , Sublimation, Psychological , Temperance , Thinking , Unconscious, Psychology , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Behaviorism , Shyness , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude , Mental Health , Efficacy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Negotiating , Mental Competency , Codependency, Psychological , Communication , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Counseling , Affect , Disaster Vulnerability , Personal Autonomy , Defense Mechanisms , Behavior Control , Harm Reduction , Researcher-Subject Relations , Trust , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , Aggression , Dependency, Psychological , Depression , Diagnosis , Emotions , Escape Reaction , Exercise Therapy , Extraversion, Psychological , Fantasy , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Video-Audio Media , Self-Control , Psychological Trauma , Psychosocial Support Systems , Occupational Stress , Neuroticism , Free Association , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Leadership and Governance Capacity , Betrayal , Patient Care , Psychosocial Functioning , Psychosocial Intervention , Social Interaction , Information Avoidance , Listening Effort , Gestalt Therapy , Psychological Well-Being , Helping Behavior , Human Development , Identification, Psychological , Identity Crisis , Individuation , Interpersonal Relations , Interview, Psychological , Introversion, Psychological , Leadership , Loneliness , Mental Disorders , Mental Processes , Motivation , Negativism , Neurotic Disorders
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248738, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431135

ABSTRACT

A recuperação de vítimas de queimaduras é longa e dolorosa e afeta diversas esferas da vida do paciente. A resiliência, que se refere à capacidade humana de enfrentar e se adaptar a eventos adversos, exerce grande importância no processo de recuperação da queimadura. Logo, este trabalho objetiva avaliar a capacidade de resiliência de pacientes queimados, no momento da admissão e da alta hospitalar, em um hospital de emergência e urgência de Goiânia. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, quantitativo e transversal que utiliza a Escala de Resiliência de Connor-Davidson (CD-RISC) como instrumento de mensuração. Na admissão hospitalar, a média da resiliência foi de 71,35, tendo sido observada uma relação significativa entre o fator Amparo da escala CD-RISC e a presença do(a) companheiro(a). O escore de resiliência encontrado nesta pesquisa é consistente com outros achados da literatura científica internacional e nacional referente à expressão da resiliência em vítimas de queimaduras e outros adoecimentos. A relação entre o fator Amparo e a presença de um(a) companheiro(a) enfatiza a importância da rede de apoio familiar na reabilitação do paciente queimado.(AU)


The recovery of burned patients is long and painful and impacts on different areas of people's lives. Resilience, which refers to the human capacity to face and adapt to adverse events, plays a major role in the process of recovery from burns. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the resilience of burned patients, on admission and hospital discharge, in an emergency and urgency hospital in Goiânia. This is a descriptive, quantitative and cross-sectional study that uses the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD RISC) as a measuring instrument. At hospital admission, the mean resilience was 71.35, with a significant association between the Support factor on the CD RISC scale and the presence of a partner. The resilience score found in the present study is consistent with other findings in the international and national scientific literature regarding the expression of resilience in victims of burns and other illnesses. The relationship between the Support factor and the presence of a partner emphasizes the importance of the family support network in the rehabilitation of the burned patient.(AU)


La recuperación de los pacientes quemados es larga y dolorosa e impacta en diferentes esferas de la vida de las personas. La resiliencia, que se refiere a la capacidad humana para enfrentar y adaptarse a eventos adversos, juega un papel importante en el proceso de recuperación de las quemaduras. Por tanto, el presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la resiliencia de los pacientes quemados, en el momento del ingreso y el alta, en un hospital de emergencia y urgencia en Goiânia. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo y transversal que utiliza la Escala de Resiliencia Connor-Davidson (CD RISC) como instrumento de medida. Al ingreso hospitalario, la resiliencia media fue de 71,35, con associación significativa entre el factor Amparo de la escala CD RISC y la presencia de pareja. El puntaje de resiliencia encontrado en el presente estudio es consistente con otros hallazgos en la literatura científica nacional e internacional sobre la expresión de resiliencia en víctimas de quemaduras y otras enfermedades. La relación entre el factor Amparo y la presencia de pareja enfatiza la importancia de la red de apoyo familiar en la rehabilitación del paciente quemado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Social Support , Burns , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders , Pain , Preceptorship , Prejudice , Psychological Phenomena , Psychology , Recovery Room , Rehabilitation Centers , Safety , Self Concept , Skin , Social Perception , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , General Surgery , Surgery, Plastic , Tissues , Baths , Wounds and Injuries , Behavior , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Technical Cooperation , Unified Health System , Body Image , Traumatology , Burn Units , Burns, Chemical , Burns, Electric , Accidents, Home , Accidents, Occupational , Accidents, Traffic , Explosive Wastes , Inflammable Wastes , Mental Health , Morbidity , Cicatrix , Nursing , Panic Disorder , Employment, Supported , Statistics, Nonparametric , Human Body , Intuition , Wit and Humor , Hydrogels , Counseling , Critical Care , Disaster Vulnerability , Personal Autonomy , Death , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute , Depression , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Empathy , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics , Breakthrough Pain , Activation, Metabolic , Physical Appearance, Body , Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders , Psychological Trauma , Accidental Injuries , Psychological Distress , Social Comparison , Functional Status , Self-Compassion , Accident Prevention , Health Services Accessibility , Helping Behavior , Homicide , Amputation, Traumatic , Hospitalization , Individuality , Intensive Care Units , Interpersonal Relations , Life Change Events , Mental Disorders , Negativism , Nursing Assistants , Nursing Care
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255912, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529214

ABSTRACT

Pouco se sabe sobre a atuação do psicólogo no Brasil junto a pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os psicólogos brasileiros que trabalham com essa população e suas ações. Foram convidados a responder a um questionário online psicólogos que atuam ou atuaram junto a pessoas com diabetes. Participaram 79 psicólogos, principalmente da região Sudeste (59,5%). Todos declararam que haviam cursado pósgraduação. Na amostra, predominou o gênero feminino (89,9%), com idade entre 26 e 40 anos (46,8%). A maioria dos que atuam com diabetes declarou-se autônoma ou voluntária, e quase metade trabalhava menos do que 10 horas semanais. Entre aqueles que deixaram de trabalhar com diabetes, apenas uma minoria tinha vínculo empregatício. Além do trabalho com pessoas com diabetes, a maior parte declarou exercer outras atividades profissionais, como atendimentos clínicos em consultórios particulares, sugerindo que esta não é a atividade principal. Majoritariamente, os respondentes declararam não ter conhecimentos suficientes para o atendimento específico às pessoas com diabetes. Discute-se a qualidade da formação profissional dos psicólogos no Brasil, a necessidade de aprimoramento em relação à atuação com pessoas com diabetes e as condições de trabalho.(AU)


Little is known about the practice of psychologists in Brazil caring for people with Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this research was to identify the Brazilian psychologists who work with this population and describe their actions. Psychologists who work or have worked with people diagnosed with diabetes were invited to answer an online questionnaire. The 79 participants lived mainly in the Southeast Region (59.5%). All of them declared to have a graduate degree, most were female (89.9%), aged 26 to 40 years (46.8%). Most of those working with diabetes declared to be autonomous or voluntary, and almost half had a workload of less than 10 hours a week. Among those who stopped working with diabetes, only a minority had a formal employment contract. In addition, most of them stated that they had other professional activities related to clinical care in private offices, suggesting that working with diabetes is not their main activity. Mostly, respondents stated that they did not have enough knowledge to care for people with diabetes. The quality of professional education of psychologists in Brazil, the need for specific improvement in labor relations and conditions were discussed.(AU)


Son escasas las informaciones del trabajo de los psicólogos en Brasil con las personas con Diabetes Mellitus. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los psicólogos brasileños que trabajan con esta población y describir sus acciones. Se invitó a psicólogos que trabajan o hayan trabajado con personas con diabetes a responder un cuestionario en línea. Participaron 79 psicólogos, principalmente de la región Sureste de Brasil (59,5%). Todos declararon tener posgrado. En la muestra hubo una mayor prevalencia del género femenino (89,9%), de edades de entre 26 y 40 años (46,8%). La mayoría de los que trabajan con personas con diabetes se declararon autónomos o voluntarios, y casi la mitad trabajaba menos de 10 horas a la semana. Entre los que dejaron de trabajar con las personas con diabetes, solo una minoría tenía una relación laboral. Además de trabajar con personas con diabetes, la mayoría afirmó tener otras actividades profesionales, como la atención clínica en consultorios privados, lo que sugiere que esta no es su actividad principal. La mayoría de los encuestados afirmaron que no tenían los conocimientos suficientes para atender específicamente a las personas con diabetes. Se discuten la calidad de la formación profesional de los psicólogos en Brasil, la necesidad de mejora en relación con el trabajo con personas con diabetes y las condiciones laborales.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychology , Acting Out , Diabetes Mellitus , Professional Training , Anxiety , Pain , Patient Care Team , Primary Health Care , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Research Personnel , Self Care , Self-Care Units , Self Concept , Social Sciences , Autoimmune Diseases , Specialization , Stress, Psychological , Therapeutics , Transplantation , Volunteers , Wound Healing , Behavior , Body Composition , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Exercise , Weight Loss , Family , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Blindness , Cholesterol , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Episode of Care , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Cost of Illness , Continuity of Patient Care , Counseling , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Crisis Intervention , Health Law , Death , Diabetes Complications , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Diagnosis , Dialysis , Emergencies , Disease Prevention , Bariatric Surgery , Fear , Binge-Eating Disorder , Epidemics , Chronic Pain , Insulins , Cognitive Dysfunction , Problem Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Global Burden of Disease , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Burnout, Psychological , Self-Neglect , Sadness , Diabulimia , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Psychosocial Intervention , Glycemic Control , Sociodemographic Factors , Psychological Well-Being , Food, Processed , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Amputation, Surgical , Hospitalization , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Life Style , Mental Disorders , Metabolism , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Obesity
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e262262, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529218

ABSTRACT

As restrições impostas pela pandemia de covid-19 levaram os serviços de saúde a reorganizarem seu funcionamento, ajustando-se à modalidade remota. A transição repentina e sem o devido preparo técnico impôs desafios adicionais para usuários e profissionais. Para aprimorar as estratégias assistenciais, torna-se imprescindível dar voz aos usuários dos serviços, para que narrem suas experiências e possam manifestar suas facilidades e dificuldades com essa passagem. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar como os principais cuidadores familiares de pessoas com transtornos alimentares vivenciaram a transição do grupo de apoio para o formato remoto e identificar vantagens e desvantagens percebidas nesse modelo. Estudo clínico-qualitativo, exploratório, realizado em um serviço de atendimento especializado de um hospital terciário. O cenário investigado foi o grupo de apoio psicológico aberto a familiares que, desde o início da pandemia de covid-19, passou a ser oferecido na modalidade online. Participaram do estudo cinco mães e três pais presentes em 13 sessões grupais consecutivas. Entrevistas individuais foram aplicadas com a Técnica do Incidente Crítico logo após o término de cada encontro grupal, totalizando 26 entrevistas audiogravadas, transcritas e submetidas à análise temática. A transição para o online foi vivenciada pelos participantes como um recurso válido para permitir que o grupo funcionasse em tempos de grave crise sanitária. Como vantagens, foram mencionadas: a continuidade do cuidado, maior acessibilidade e facilidade em relação à logística da participação. Como limitações do formato online, foram destacadas: nem todos os familiares contam com conexão de internet de qualidade e possível dificuldade para manusear a tecnologia digital. Apesar dos desafios impostos pela súbita mudança para a modalidade online, na perspectiva dos usuários do serviço os esforços de adaptação foram bem-sucedidos, possibilitando a continuidade do cuidado à saúde mental.(AU)


The constraints imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic led health services to reorganize their operation, adjusting to the online modality. The sudden and unprepared technical transition has imposed additional challenges for both users and professionals. To improve care strategies, it is essential to give voice to services users, so that they can narrate their experiences and express their facilities and difficulties with this transition. This study aims to investigate how main family caregivers of people with eating disorders experienced the transition of the support group to the remote modality and to identify perceived advantages and disadvantages in this model. This is a clinical-qualitative, exploratory study carried out in a specialized care service of a tertiary hospital. The investigated setting was the psychological support group open to family members, which since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic has been offered online. Five mothers and three fathers who attended 13 consecutive group sessions participated in the study. Individual interviews were carried out with the Critical Incident Technique shortly after the end of each group meeting with all members, totaling 26 audio-recorded interviews. Data were subjected to thematic analysis. Transition was experienced as a valid resource to maintain the group active in times of a severe health crisis. As advantages of the remote modality were mentioned: continuity of care, greater accessibility, and ease in relation to the logistics of participation. As limitations of the online format were highlighted: not everyone has a good-quality connection to the internet, and difficulty in handling the digital technology. Despite the challenges imposed by the sudden shift to the online modality, from the service users' perspective the adaptation efforts were successful, enabling continuity of mental health care.(AU)


Las limitaciones que impuso la pandemia de la COVID-19 llevaron a los servicios sanitarios a reorganizar su funcionamiento adaptándose a la modalidad remota. El súbito cambio y sin la preparación técnica adecuada implicó retos adicionales a los usuarios y profesionales. Para mejorar las estrategias de atención es fundamental dar voz a los usuarios de los servicios, para que puedan narrar sus experiencias y expresar sus facilidades y dificultades con esta transición. Este estudio pretende investigar cómo han vivido los cuidadores de personas con trastornos alimentarios la transición del grupo de apoyo presencial al formato remoto e identificar las ventajas y desventajas percibidas en este modelo. Se trata de un estudio clínicocualitativo, exploratorio. El escenario investigado fue el grupo de apoyo psicológico abierto a los familiares en la modalidad en línea. Cinco madres y tres padres participaron en 13 sesiones de grupo consecutivas. Se realizaron entrevistas individuales con la técnica de incidentes críticos inmediatamente después de cada reunión del grupo, con un total de 26 entrevistas grabadas en audio, transcritas y sometidas a análisis temático. La transición a la red fue experimentada como un recurso válido para permitir que el grupo funcione en tiempos de crisis sanitaria grave. Las ventajas de la modalidad remota fueron conexión segura en tiempos de confinamiento físico, continuidad, mayor accesibilidad y facilidad en relación con la logística de la participación. Las limitaciones del formato en línea fueron la falta de una conexión de calidad a Internet y la posible dificultad de manejo de la tecnología digital. A pesar de las dificultades impuestas por el cambio repentino a la modalidad en línea, desde la perspectiva de los usuarios del servicio los esfuerzos de adaptación fueron un éxito, lo que permitió seguir con la atención de salud mental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Parents , Self-Help Groups , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Caregivers , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Patient Care Team , Patients , Psychology , Psychopathology , Quality of Life , Rejection, Psychology , Respiratory Tract Infections , Self-Assessment , Self Concept , Social Isolation , Social Support , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Therapeutics , Thinness , Vomiting , Women , Behavior Therapy , Body Image , Body Weight , Food and Nutrition Education , Adaptation, Psychological , Career Mobility , Biological Factors , Anorexia , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Bulimia , Anorexia Nervosa , Crowding , Efficacy , Adolescent , Employment, Supported , Suicide, Assisted , Interview , Compulsive Behavior , Privacy , Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood , Counseling , Cultural Characteristics , Death , Depression , Diagnosis , Diet , Diuretics , Educational Status , Environment and Public Health , Renal Insufficiency , Bulimia Nervosa , Laxatives , Family Conflict , Fear , Feeding Behavior , Ideal Body Weight , Binge-Eating Disorder , Pandemics , Social Networking , Patient Care Bundles , Nutritionists , Clinical Study , Perfectionism , Psychosocial Support Systems , Food Addiction , Systematic Review , Sadness , Information Technology Management , Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Psychological Distress , Weight Prejudice , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , Psychotherapists , Orthorexia Nervosa , Social Structure , Sociodemographic Factors , Family Support , Guilt , Health Facility Moving , Learning , Mass Media , Mental Disorders , Neurotic Disorders , Obesity
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e251811, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448952

ABSTRACT

Apesar da importância do envolvimento paterno, sua avaliação persiste desafiadora. No Brasil, o Inventário de Envolvimento Paterno (IFI-BR) vem se mostrando adequado para uso com pais de crianças de 5 a 10 anos. Entretanto, do ponto de vista do desenvolvimento infantil e de intervenções preventivas, seria importante avaliar o envolvimento paterno quando as crianças são mais novas. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivos: identificar limitações do IFI-BR, quando usado com pais de crianças entre 2 e 10 anos, e avaliar itens para o IFI-BR-revisado. No Estudo 1, 434 pais com filhos no Ensino Infantil ou Fundamental 1 responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico e ao IFI-BR. Com base em análises de dados omissos, estrutura interna e precisão, modificações foram sugeridas, visando à manutenção da estrutura interna original do instrumento. No Estudo 2, 572 pais com filhos na mesma faixa etária responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico e à versão modificada do IFI-BR. Foram comparadas as frequências de dados omissos e estimativas de precisão para os itens originais e modificados, selecionando aqueles que melhor representavam essa amostra de pais para compor a versão revisada do IFI-BR. Esses resultados indicaram evidências adequadas de validade, com base no conteúdo da versão revisada do IFI-BR, quando utilizada para avaliar a qualidade do envolvimento paterno de pais brasileiros com filhos do Ensino Infantil ao Fundamental 1. Após verificadas evidências de validade adicionais, essa versão revisada do IFI-BR poderá ser utilizada, por exemplo, em estudos longitudinais e na avaliação de intervenções precoces com pais.(AU)


Despite the importance assigned to father involvement, evaluating this construct remains a challenge. In Brazil, the Inventário de Envolvimento Paterno (IFI-BR) has showed satisfactory evidence of validity for fathers of children between 5 and 10 years old. From the perspective of child development and preventive interventions, however, evaluating father involvement with younger children is essential. Hence, this study sought to: identify limitations of the IFI-BR for fathers of children between 2 and 10 years old, and evaluate items for a revised IFI-BR. In Study 1, 434 fathers of children in early childhood and primary school settings answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the IFI-BR. Based on analyses of missing data, internal structure, and reliability, modifications were suggested to maintain the original internal structure. In Study 2, 572 fathers of children in the same age range answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the modified IFI-BR. After comparison between values for missing data and reliability of the original and modified items, the items that best represented the broader sample of fathers were selected to compose the revised IFI-BR. Results indicated adequate evidence of content validity for the revised IFI-BR when used to assess the involvement of Brazilian fathers with children in early childhood education and primary school settings. After additional evidence has been verified, this revised IFI-BR can be used, for example, in longitudinal studies and to evaluate early interventions with fathers.(AU)


La participación paterna es importante, pero su evaluación sigue siendo desafiadora. En Brasil, el Inventário de Envolvimento Paterno (IFI-BR) demuestra ser adecuado para aplicar a padres de niños de 5 a 10 años de edad. No obstante, desde la perspectiva del desarrollo infantil y de las intervenciones preventivas, sería importante evaluar la participación de los padres de niños más jóvenes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivos: identificar limitaciones del IFI-BR cuando se aplica a padres de niños entre los 2 y 10 años y evaluar ítems para el IFI-BR-revisado. En Estudio 1, 434 padres con hijos en el jardín de infantes o escuela primaria respondieron un cuestionario sociodemográfico y el IFI-BR. Con base en el análisis de datos faltantes, estructura interna y exactitud, se sugirieron modificaciones para mantener la estructura interna original del instrumento. En Estudio 2, 572 padres respondieron un cuestionario sociodemográfico y la versión modificada del IFI-BR. Se compararon las frecuencias de datos faltantes y estimaciones de exactitud para los ítems originales y modificados, seleccionando aquellos que representaban mejor a esta muestra de padres para la versión revisada del IFI-BR. Estos resultados indicaron evidencia adecuada de validez, basada en el contenido de la versión revisada del IFI-BR, cuando se utilizó para evaluar la calidad de la participación de padres brasileños con niños en el jardín de infantes y en la escuela primaria. Después de verificada la evidencia adicional de validez, la versión revisada del IFI-BR se puede utilizar, por ejemplo, en estudios longitudinales y en la evaluación de intervenciones precoz con los padres.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Paternity , Psychometrics , Family , Child Welfare , Anxiety , Paternal Behavior , Personal Satisfaction , Personality , Personality Development , Aptitude , Play and Playthings , Problem Solving , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Reading , Assertiveness , School Health Services , Social Behavior , Social Justice , Social Support , Social Values , Sports , Stress, Psychological , Taboo , Teaching , Temperance , Time , Track and Field , Underachievement , Women , Women, Working , Women's Rights , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Child Custody , Single Parent , Marriage , Child, Abandoned , Child Advocacy , Child Care , Child Rearing , Mental Health , Family Health , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Parenting , Mental Competency , Family Planning Policy , Marital Status , Communication , Feminism , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Drawing , Counseling , Internet , Affect , Culture , Education, Primary and Secondary , Trust , Educational Status , Emotions , Empathy , Employee Discipline , Family Development Planning , Family Conflict , Child, Orphaned , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Father-Child Relations , Altruism , Masculinity , Social Skills , Work Performance , Work-Life Balance , School Teachers , Academic Performance , Androcentrism , Freedom , Egocentrism , Respect , Right to Work , Social Interaction , Gender Role , Sociodemographic Factors , Family Support , Family Structure , Psychological Well-Being , Working Conditions , Habits , Hostility , Human Development , Identification, Psychological , Income , Learning Disabilities , Leisure Activities , Love , Mothers , Music , Object Attachment
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1596-1604, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) practice reduces the adverse effects of COVID-19. PA counseling promotes healthy lifestyles and prevents cardiometabolic diseases. AIM: To assess the trend in cases of PA counseling and the cardiometabolic disease between 2012 and 2019 (before COVID-19) in a southern Chilean region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Records of Maule Region Health Service for 731.163 men, and 829.097 women aged < 10 to ≥ 65 years were analyzed. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) during the study period and the annual percentage change (APC) during intermediate periods, were calculated. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in PA counseling in women in the study period (AAPC: −13.6%). In the 2012-2017 period a significant decrease in counseling for total, men and women were observed (APC: −18.1, −16.5 and −19.1%, respectively). Obesity increased significantly in total, men and women in the 2012-2019 period (AAPC: 10.1, 8.5 and 10.7%, respectively). The same trend was observed for hypertension (AAPC: 8.1, 8.5 and 7.6% respectively) and elevated blood glucose (AAPC: 10, 11.5 and 9.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In the study period PA counseling decreased along with an increase in obesity, hypertension and high blood glucose. Increasing PA counseling is a mainstay in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases and probably to prevent contagion and complement the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Exercise , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Counseling/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Hypertension , Obesity/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
14.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 27: 1-8, fev. 2022. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357985

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study is to describe the development, validation and reliability of a ques-tionnaire to measure the associated factors of physical activity counseling by health workers. The development of the questionnaire was carried out in four steps: construction of the analytical matrix; face validation; pilot study; and reliability assessment. The analytical matrix consisted of ten modules with a total of 47 questions. In the second step, 21 Brazilian experts of different knowledge back-grounds gave their opinion on the presentation, clarity and adequacy of each item. In the third step, a pilot study was carried out with 20 professionals (doctors, nurses and community health agents) from the Joao Pessoa, Paraíba Family Health Strategy. In the last step, reliability index was assessed among a sample of 53 health workers from five health units. The final version of the questionnaire was composed of 53 questions distributed in ten modules. Results showed a total validity index of 0.90 ranging from 0.83 to 0.95 in the modules. The clarity and adequacy of the scale showed mean values of 0.93 (ranging from 0.87 to 0.96) and 0.95 (ranging from 0.91 to 0.98), respectively. Eight out of ten modules showed all items with reliability greater than 0.60 (kappa). The questionnaire showed a satisfactory validity and reliability and it is recommended for studies to measure physical activity counseling and other practices in health promotion by health workers in the primary health care


O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o desenvolvimento, validação e reprodutibilidade de um questionário para mensurar fatores associados à prática do aconselhamento para atividade física por trabalhadores de saúde. O desenvolvimento do questionário foi realizado em quatro etapas: construção da matriz analítica; validação de face; estudo piloto; estudo de reprodutibilidade. A primeira etapa resultou numa matriz analítica com dez módulos com um total de 47 questões. Na segunda etapa, 21 brasileiros especialistas em diferentes áreas opinaram sobre a apresentação, clareza e adequação de cada item. Na terceira etapa, foi realizado o estudo piloto com 20 profissionais (médicos, enfermeiros e agentes comunitários de saúde) da Estratégia de Saúde da Família de João Pessoa-PB. Por fim, uma amostra de 53 trabalhadores participou do estudo de reprodutibili-dade. A versão final do questionário foi composta de 53 questões distribuídas em dez módulos. Foi encontrado um índice de validade geral de 0,90, variando de 0,81 a 0,95 nos módulos. A clareza e adequação da escala demonstraram valores médios de 0,93 (variando entre 0,87 e 0,96) e 0,95 (variando entre 0,91 e 0,98), respectivamente. Oito dos dez módulos apresentaram todos os itens com valores de reprodutibilidade acima de 0,60 (kappa). O questionário apresentou validade satisfatória e reprodutibilidade adequada, recomendando a sua utilização em estudos que visam avaliar a prática de aconselhamento de atividade física e outras prá-ticas de promoção da saúde por trabalhadores de saúde da atenção primaria à saúde


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Exercise , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Personnel , Counseling , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 21: e20226559, 01 jan 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1378211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of group counseling on quality of life and symptom severity among university students with Premenstrual Syndrome. METHOD: After filling in PSST and participating in SCID-CV, 120 students answered the demographic and WHOQOL questionnaires. Using classified random sampling, they were divided into control and intervention groups. The Intervention Group participants attended six group counseling ses-sions. They post-tested at two moments (immediate post-test and after one month). RESULTS: The results of the immediate post-test indicated improvements in overall quality and in some domains (p<0.005) in the Intervention Group, and the second post-test showed an improvement in two of the domains (p<0.005). One month later, some symptoms were clearly improved in the Intervention Group (p<0.005). CONCLUSION: Group counseling improved the students' quality of life and severity of the Premenstrual Syndrome symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Quality of Life , Students, Health Occupations , Universities , Premenstrual Syndrome , Counseling
16.
Afr. health sci. (Online) ; 22(2): 37-45, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400309

ABSTRACT

Background: Kenya's Key and Affected Populations (KAP) ­ men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers, peoplewho inject drugs (PWID), and young women aged 18-24 ­ often experience stigma and discrimination in Kenyan health care settings due to their identity and/or behaviors, which can deter facility-based testing for HIV. Kenya has promoted self-testing as a means to reach these communities. Objectives: To identify KAP perspectives on self-testing and place our findings within Kenya's human rights and legal context. Methods: We conducted 4 focus group discussions (FGD) and 16 in-depth interviews (IDI). One FGD was conducted with each of the following communities: MSM, female sex workers, PWID, and young women aged 18-24. 1-4 IDI were conducted with each KAP community, and 1-3 IDI were conducted with health professionals working on HIV care in each study site. The semi-structured question guideline included one question soliciting opinions on self-testing. Results: KAP support self-testing in concept, however prevailing concerns among participants included access to pre- and posttest counseling services, as well as risk for harms (self-inflicted and otherwise) that might result from a positive result. Conclusion: Kenya should ensure that human rights are promoted and respected through implementing rights-based policies and practices for HIV self-testing, including pre- and post-test counseling.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Counseling , Delivery of Health Care , Sex Workers , Self-Testing , Diagnosis
17.
Health SA Gesondheid (Print) ; 27(NA): 1-8, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380088

ABSTRACT

Background: People living with HIV (PLHIV) co-infected with Tuberculosis (TB) account for one in three HIV-related deaths. Retention in care and adherence to medication remain key behaviours that PLHIV co-infected with TB must adopt to achieve better health outcomes. Nevertheless, TB with HIV adherence-counselling services provided by nurses designed to enhance these behaviours remain inadequate. Additionally, limited information is found in the literature on the perceptions of nurses regarding their TB with HIV adherence counselling skills pertaining to PLHIV co-infected with TB. Aim: To explore and describe the perceptions of nurses regarding their TB with HIV adherence counselling skills of PLHIV co-infected with TB. Setting: The study was conducted in a health sub-district of Cape Town. Method: An exploratory, descriptive qualitative design was followed. A total of 14 purposively sampled nurses were interviewed individually. Nurses caring for PLHIV co-infected with TB were included and nurses not offering care to PLHIV co-infected with TB were excluded. All interviews were audio recorded with the participants' permission followed by verbatim transcriptions. Thematic analysis was done using ATLASti.8 electronic software. Results: It was established that the varied roles of these nurses increased their workload. Nonetheless, despite the gap in their counselling skills, the majority still maintained work expertise, professionalism and empathy towards the patients. Additionally, there were perceived barriers impacting patients' attendance of their follow up appointments. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, there is a need to equip nurses caring for PLHIV co-infected with TB with adherence counselling skills to improve practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections , Counseling , Coinfection , Nurses , Perception
18.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 21-21, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Men who have sex with men (MSM), as a marginal population, has been largely ignored by health service projects. We assessed the utilization of HIV testing and counselling services and its influencing factors based on Andersen's Behavioral Model, so as to provide a theoretical basis for future infectious disease prevention and control strategies and health services policy formulation for these population.@*METHOD@#This was a cross-sectional study. A sample survey was conducted in Western China, and an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among MSM. Based on Andersen's Behavioral Model, the questionnaire divided the influencing factors into predisposing factor, enabling factor and need factor. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors influencing the utilization of HIV testing and counselling.@*RESULTS@#There were 3184 valid questionnaires. In the survey of HIV health services, 82.85% MSM had HIV testing and 64.98% MSM had HIV counselling, respectively. Among the predisposing factor, age 25 years old and over was a facilitator of HIV testing and counselling, and ethnicity was a factor associated with HIV testing. Among the enabling factor, MSM living in urban were more likely to have access to testing and counselling services, and income was also linked to HIV testing. Among the need factor, a high level of HIV knowledge could promote testing and counselling, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) was a facilitator of testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HIV testing is widespread in Western China and higher than counselling service. MSM with high-risk characteristics should be identified as a priority in the future public health services.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Counseling , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Homosexuality, Male , Sexual and Gender Minorities
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 405-408, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928429

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect potential mutation of the ASPM gene in a Chinese pedigree affected with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly 5 (MCPH5).@*METHODS@#Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the proband and her parents. Amniotic fluid sample was also collected upon her mother' s subsequent pregnancy. Following extraction of genomic DNA, PCR and Sanger sequencing were carried out to identify potential variants of the ASPM gene.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants of the ASPM gene, namely c.8214dupT (p.Q2739fs) in exon 18 and c.9541C>T (p.R3181X) in exon 23, which were respectively inherited from her father and mother. The fetus has found to have inherited the c.9541C>T (p.R3181X) variant only.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.8214dupT (p.Q2739fs) and c.9541C>T (p.R3181X) compound heterozygous variants of the ASPM gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of MCPH5 in this patient. Above finding has enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for her family.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , China , Counseling , Microcephaly , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pedigree
20.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 23: e71427, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355152

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender as percepções de enfermeiros da Estratégia Saúde da Família sobre aconselhamento e testa-gem rápida para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. Mé-todos: estudo qualitativo, com triangulação de dados. Cole-ta de dados realizada mediante entrevista semiestruturada com sete enfermeiros da Estratégia Saúde da Família. Para sistematização e tratamento dos dados, adotou-se a análi-se de conteúdo na modalidade temática. Resultados: após análise, emergiram quatro categorias: Capacitação em teste rápido; Condução do aconselhamento; Facilidades na oferta do teste rápido; e Desafios na oferta de teste rápido. Conclu-são: as percepções de enfermeiros estiveram relacionadas às dificuldades diante do aconselhamento pré e pós-teste, necessitando de aperfeiçoamento, educação permanente e capacitação para preparo profissional, e à logística dos insu-mos e materiais, além de mudanças na estrutura física das unidades. (AU)


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Syphilis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , HIV , Counseling
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