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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(4): 221-226, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418612

ABSTRACT

El estesioneuroblastoma es una neoplasia maligna que se origina del epitelio olfatorio. El tratamiento se establece de acuerdo con su extensión y el grado histológico de atipia y puede incluir cirugía, cirugía más radioterapia o más radioquimioterapia. Se han utilizado diferentes abordajes quirúrgicos que incluyeron incisiones faciales y craneotomía pero, con la mayor experiencia adquirida en cirugía endoscópica de senos paranasales y el trabajo en equipo con el neurocirujano, se han desarrollado técnicas endonasales que posibilitan realizar resecciones oncológicas en pacientes seleccionados, con menos morbilidad, internación breve y sin comprometer el control local de la enfermedad. Describimos el caso clínico de una paciente con un estesioneuroblastoma con invasión intracraneal, que fue tratada con éxito mediante una hemicraniectomía endonasal preservando el bulbo olfatorio contralateral. (AU)


Esthesioneuroblastoma is a malignant neoplasm that originates from the olfactory epithelium. Treatment is established according to its extension and the histological degree of atypia and may include surgery, surgery more radiotherapy or more chemoradiation therapy. Different surgical approaches have been used, including facial incisions and craniotomy, but with the greater experience acquired with endoscopic sinus surgery and teamwork with the neurosurgeon, endonasal techniques have been developed that make it possible to perform oncological resections in selected patients, with less morbidity, brief hospitalization and without compromising local control of the disease. We describe the clinical case of a patient with an esthesioneuroblastoma with intracranial invasion who was successfully treated by endonasal hemicraniectomy preserving the contralateral olfactory bulb. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory/surgery , Craniotomy/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Patient Care Team , Nose Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Invasiveness
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 126-132, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401567

ABSTRACT

Las craneotomías en pacientes conscientes (CPC) plantea desafíos para los anestesiólogos, como la necesidad de mantener al paciente sedado, consciente, tranquilo, cómodo, neurológicamente íntegro y colaborador, sin compromiso respiratorio o hemodinámico y provisto de una excelente analgesia, al tiempo de permitir su cooperación durante las pruebas neurológicas. Se presenta la serie de 6 primeros casos en nuestro medio, a través de los cuales se tiene por objetivo describir el manejo anestésico de craneotomías en pacientes conscientes. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transverso, marco temporal retrospectivo en pacientes sometidos a CPC en el Hospital de Clínicas. El manejo anestésico discriminado por fases fue de la siguiente manera. Fase 1 (dormido: 6 pacientes): Inducción con Propofol, Lidocaína, Atracurio y Remifentanilo. Colocación de máscaras laríngeas. Bloqueo regional de escalpe. Mantenimiento con Remifentanilo. Fase 2 con sedación consciente (despierto: 6 pacientes): retiro de máscara laríngea y perfusión de dosis baja de propofol y remifentanilo para mantener un Ramsay 2. Fase 3 (despierto: 4 pacientes): se aumentó la dosis de propofol y remifentanilo para obtener un Ramsay 3. Fase 3 (dormido: 2 pacientes): se realizó inducción anestésica con mismas dosis de la fase 1 e intubación orotraqueal. Mantenimiento con propofol y remifentanilo. En conclusión, la anestesia permitió un despertar intraoperatorio rápido y adecuado para la fase consciente, la administración de dosis bajas de remifentanilo y propofol durante esta segunda fase proporcionaron a los pacientes un buen estado de confort para su colaboración con los test cognitivos y motores


Craniotomies in conscious patients (CCP) pose challenges for anesthesiologists, such as the need to keep the patient sedated, conscious, calm, comfortable, neurologically sound and cooperative, without respiratory or hemodynamic compromise and provided with excellent analgesia, while allowing their cooperation during neurological tests. The series of 6 first cases in our environment is presented, through which the objective is to describe the anesthetic management of craniotomies in conscious patients. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out, retrospective time frame in patients undergoing CCP at the Hospital de Clínicas. The anesthetic management discriminated by phases was as follows. Phase 1 (asleep: 6 patients): Induction with Propofol, Lidocaine, Atracurium and Remifentanil. Placement of laryngeal masks. Scalp regional lock. Remifentanil maintenance. Phase 2 with conscious sedation (awake: 6 patients): removal of the laryngeal mask and infusion of low-dose propofol and remifentanil to maintain Ramsay 2. Phase 3 (awake: 4 patients): the dose of propofol and remifentanil was increased to obtain a Ramsay 3. Phase 3 (asleep: 2 patients): anesthetic induction was performed with the same doses as phase 1 and orotracheal intubation. Maintenance with propofol and remifentanil. In conclusion, anesthesia allowed rapid and adequate intraoperative awakening for the conscious phase, the administration of low doses of remifentanil and propofol during this second phase provided the patient with a good state of comfort for collaboration with cognitive and motor tests


Subject(s)
Craniotomy , Anesthesia
3.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(2): 206-212, jun. 2022. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388425

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los empiemas subdurales, tanto los de aparición espontánea o como complicación en la evolución de un hematoma subdural (HSD), son infrecuentes y de los cuales existen pocas publicaciones en la literatura(1). En este trabajo se revisa una serie de 15 casos operados en el Hospital de Urgencia Asistencia Pública (HUAP) en un período de 15 años. Se observó que en general tienen buena evolución con el tratamiento instaurado en forma oportuna y que son larvados en su presentación, pudiendo llegar a ser diagnosticados incluso en el intraoperatorio. No se observó diferencia en su evolución cuando se operaron a través de una craniectomía o de una craneotomía (plaqueta)(2). No se encontró tampoco diferencia cuando se trataron con o sin drenaje. Como consenso general, deben ser tratados con antibioticoterapia prolongada de al menos 3-4 semanas para controlar el foco infeccioso(2). Ninguno de los casos revisados requirió de reintervención.


ABSTRACT Subdural empyemas, both spontaneous or as a complication in the evolution of subdural hematomas, are an uncommon fact of which there are few publications in literature. In this review we analyze a retrospective serie of 15 cases operated in HUAP in a period of 15 years. In general we don't observed differences in the outcome using different surgical techniques, both in those treated by craniectomy as those treated by craniotomy. Also we don't observed differences in those treated with or without drainage. In the same way is clear that the optimal period of antibiotic treatment must be 3-4 weeks to fully cover them. None of the cases treated, needed reintervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Empyema, Subdural/complications , Empyema, Subdural/epidemiology , Hematoma, Subdural/etiology , Empyema, Subdural/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Craniotomy , Age and Sex Distribution , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 28-36, ene. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362112

ABSTRACT

La craneotomía con paciente despierto (CPD) demanda un manejo multidisciplinario particular debido al componente de conciencia transoperatoria que aporta beneficios en la resección tumoral y preservación neurológica, pero también implica el manejo de los riesgos asociados a la necesidad de cooperación del paciente durante el procedimiento. En este trabajo se describen los beneficios y las complicaciones en pacientes operados bajo la modalidad de CPD. Además, se abordan los retos documentados tanto para el equipo profesional a cargo, como para los pacientes, los cuales tienen un rol activo durante la cirugía. En ese sentido, se exponen los criterios para la selección, preparación psicológica y neuropsicológica tanto previo como durante la cirugía. A su vez, se proponen las consideraciones para lograr un procedimiento exitoso y evitar las posibles secuelas psicológicas a largo plazo, como insumos para la protocolización de este tipo de procedimientos con base en nuestra experiencia.


Awake craniotomy (AC) requires a multidisciplinary management due to trans operative awareness, which benefits the tumor resection and neurologic preservation, but it also implies risks for the patient cooperation during the procedure. This article describes the benefits and complications in patients operated under AC. Besides, it approaches the documented challenges for both the professional team and patients, who have an active role during surgery. In this regard, the criteria for selection and psychological and neuropsychological preparation before and during surgery are set out. It suggests considerations to achieve a successful procedure and to avoid possible long- term psychological sequelae, as a resource for the protocol of this type of procedures based on our experience.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wakefulness , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Craniotomy/methods , Postoperative Period , Patient Compliance , Conscience
5.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 27: e2627, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393978

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste relato foi descrever o caso de um paciente submetido à craniotomia, acordado, para a ressecção neurocirúrgica de um glioma e a avaliação linguística pré-operatória, intraoperatória e pós-operatória. Paciente do gênero masculino, 27 anos, escolaridade nível superior incompleto, apresentando vômitos, confusão mental e crise convulsiva tônico-clônica. Após a avaliação do paciente pela equipe e devidas orientações pré-operatórias, a proposta de excisão da lesão em estado de vigília foi esclarecida e aceita. Ao iniciar o procedimento, os campos foram ajustados para manter as vias aéreas e os olhos acessíveis para mapeamento com estimulação elétrica e avaliação da linguagem no período intraoperatório. Devido à localização do tumor próximo à área motora da fala, foram propostas tarefas para a avaliação da linguagem em quatro momentos: pré-operatório, intraoperatório, pós-operatório imediato e pós-operatório mediato. As habilidades linguísticas testadas nas quatro avaliações foram: compreensão e expressão da linguagem oral, transposição linguística, linguagem associativa, nomeação, discriminação visual, fluência e organização da sintaxe. Com o objetivo de controlar e eliminar o efeito de aprendizagem da testagem, foram solicitadas as mesmas tarefas, porém, com diferentes conteúdos para a testagem das habilidades nas quatro fases. A cirurgia com o paciente acordado permitiu a ressecção completa e segura do tumor, sem prejuízo motor ou linguístico. O engajamento da equipe, a interação interdisciplinar e o planejamento cirúrgico detalhado constituem um pilar para o bom resultado de um procedimento tão complexo e delicado.


ABSTRACT The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a patient who underwent awake craniotomy for neurosurgical resection of a glioma and pre, intra and postoperative linguistic assessment. Male patient, 27 years old, incomplete higher education presenting vomiting, mental confusion and tonic-clonic seizures. After the evaluation of the patient by the team and due preoperative guidance, the proposal of excision of the lesion while awake was clarified and accepted. At the start of the procedure, the fields were adjusted to keep the airway and eyes accessible for mapping with electrical stimulation and intraoperative language assessment. Due to the location of the tumor close to the speech motor area, tasks were proposed for the assessment of language in four moments: preoperative, intraoperative, immediate postoperative and mediate postoperative. The language skills tested in the four assessments were: comprehension and expression of oral language, linguistic transposition, associative language, naming, visual discrimination, fluency and syntax organization. In order to control and eliminate the learning effect of testing, the same tasks were requested, but with different contents for testing skills in the four phases. Surgery with the patient awake allowed the complete and safe resection of the tumor, without motor or linguistic damage to the patient. Team engagement, interdisciplinary interaction and detailed surgical planning constitute the pillar for the good result of such a complex and delicate procedure


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Skull/surgery , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/surgery , Craniotomy/methods , Glioma/surgery , Language Tests , Electric Stimulation
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1095-1099, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the impact of postoperative serious cardiovascular adverse events (CAE) on outcomes of patients undergoing craniotomy for intracranial aneurysm clipping.@*METHODS@#This retrospective cohort study was conducted among the patients undergoing craniotomy for intracranial aneurysm clipping during the period from December, 2016 to December, 2017, who were divided into CAE group and non-CAE group according to the occurrence of Clavien-Dindo grade ≥II CAEs after the surgery. The perioperative clinical characteristics of the patients, complications and neurological functions during hospitalization, and mortality and neurological functions at 1 year postoperatively were evaluated. The primary outcome was mortality within 1 year after the surgery. The secondary outcomes were Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score at 1 year, lengths of postoperative hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score at discharge.@*RESULTS@#A total of 361 patients were enrolled in the final analysis, including 20 (5.5%) patients in CAE group and 341 in the non-CAE group. No significant differences were found in the patients' demographic characteristics, clinical history, or other postoperative adverse events between the two groups. The 1-year mortality was significantly higher in CAE group than in the non-CAE group (20.0% vs 5.6%, P=0.01). Logistics regression analysis showed that when adjusted for age, gender, emergency hospitalization, subarachnoid hemorrhage, volume of bleeding, duration of operation, aneurysm location, and preoperative history of cardiovascular disease, postoperative CAEs of Clavien-Dindo grade≥II was independently correlated with 1-year mortality rate of the patients with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.670 (95% CI: 1.037-12.992, P=0.04). The patients with CEA also had a lower GOS score at 1 year after surgery than those without CEA (P=0.002). No significant differences were found in the occurrence of other adverse events, postoperative hospital stay, ICU stay, or GCS scores at discharge between the two groups (P > 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Postoperative CAEs may be a risk factor for increased 1-year mortality and disability in patients undergoing craniotomy for intracranial aneurysms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Craniotomy/adverse effects , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Treatment Outcome
7.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(4): 387-393, 26/11/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362117

ABSTRACT

Introduction Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a slow-growing, low-grade, locallyinfiltrative tumor arising from the endolymphatic sac/duct, which is located in the posterior part of the petrous temporal bone. It may be sporadic in origin, or may be associated with Von-Hippel Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Case description A 40-year-old female patient with an ELST without VHL syndrome who was treated successfully by microsurgical extirpation of the tumor. Discussion We discuss the radiological features and the histopathology of this rare tumor and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The case herein reported adds to the previously-reported cases of this rare tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Paraganglioma/surgery , Petrous Bone/surgery , Skull Neoplasms/surgery , Endolymphatic Sac/surgery , Paraganglioma/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications , Skull Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Endolymphatic Sac/pathology , Endolymphatic Sac/diagnostic imaging , Craniotomy/methods , von Hippel-Lindau Disease/pathology
8.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 280-283, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362161

ABSTRACT

Nocardia brain abscess is a rare clinical entity, accounting for 2% of all brain abscesses, associated with high morbidity and amortality rate 3 times higher than brain abscesses caused by other bacteria. Proper investigation and treatment, characterized by a longterm antibiotic therapy, play an important role on the outcome of the patient. The authors describe a case of a patient without neurological comorbidities who developed clinical signs of right occipital lobe impairment and seizures, whose investigation demonstrated brain abscess caused by Nocardia spp. The patient was treated surgically followed by antibiotic therapy with a great outcome after 1 year of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Brain Abscess/surgery , Brain Abscess/mortality , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Nocardia/pathogenicity , Brain Abscess/etiology , Brain Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Continuity of Patient Care , Craniotomy/methods , Occipital Lobe/surgery , Occipital Lobe/injuries
9.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(3): 248-254, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388394

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El Tumor inflamatorio de Pott es una complicación rara de una patología frecuente, como son los cuadros infecciosos sinusales, cada vez más inusual por el uso extendido de antibióticos de amplio espectro, es más frecuente en la población adolescente por la neumatización similar al adulto. Se presenta como un aumento de volumen blando a nivel frontal con una osteomielitis del hueso frontal y un absceso subperióstico. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: En este trabajo, se presenta una revisión bibliográfica del tema y un caso de un paciente de 9 años, quien cursó con un cuadro infeccioso sinusal, que posterior desarrollo un aumento de volumen frontal, mostrando las imágenes perioperatorias e intraoperatorias. DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIÓN: El absceso subperióstico secundario a la sinusitis, es una complicación rara. Sin embargo, se debe pensar en el diagnostico en pacientes de evolución tórpida y/o que presentan sintomatología neurológica, como convulsiones, se debe completar el estudio con neuroimagen contrastada.


INTRODUCTION: Pott's inflammatory tumor is a rare complication of a frequent pathology, such as sinus infections, increasingly unusual due to the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, it is more frequent in the adolescent population due to pneumatization similar to that of adults. It presents as an increase in volume at a frontal level with osteomyelitis of the frontal bone and a subperiosteal abscess. ;MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this work, we present a bibliographic review and a case of a 9-year-old patient, who presented with an infectious sinus, which later developed an increase in frontal volume, the perioperative and intraoperative images are shown. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Subperiosteal abscess secondary to sinusitis is a rare complication. However, the diagnosis should be considered in patients with torpid evolution and / or who present neurological symptoms, such as seizures, the study must be completed with a contrast brain image.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pott Puffy Tumor/surgery , Pott Puffy Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Seizures , Sinusitis/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Craniotomy , Epidural Abscess , Pott Puffy Tumor/microbiology
11.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(3): 569-582, ago.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A craniotomia torna mais fácil a compreensão e abordagem do cérebro, mas acompanha as doenças. As unidades de terapia intensiva são equipadas com fisioterapeutas profissionais treinados para lidar com esses efeitos deletérios após este programa cirúrgico, mas falta um protocolo progressivo, definido e apoiado por evidências para esses pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade do protocolo de neuro-reabilitação elaborado para pacientes pós-craniotomia durante sua internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) para melhorar seus resultados funcionais e reduzir seu tempo de internação (LOS). MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Será um ensaio de quase viabilidade pós-teste de pré-teste de grupo único. Quinze pacientes submetidos à craniotomia serão recrutados para o estudo e serão processados com protocolo de Neuro-reabilitação por 60 minutos do primeiro dia da cirurgia até o 15º dia da cirurgia. O resultado primário será a Escala de Habilidades Funcionais Precoces (EFA) para medição de resultados funcionais como nível de consciência, habilidades sensório-motoras, habilidades cognitivo-perceptuais e habilidades oromotoras de pacientes que serão avaliadas no primeiro dia após a craniotomia. Os resultados secundários incluirão Escala de Coma de Glasgow (GCS), Escala de Recuperação de Coma - Revisada (CRS-R), Técnica de Reabilitação de Avaliação de Modalidade Sensorial (SMART), Escala de Ashworth modificada modificada (mMAS), Pontuação de Avaliação Cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA) e Conselho de Pesquisa Médica Escala (MRC). As avaliações serão feitas no primeiro e no décimo quinto dia pós-operatório. PERSPECTIVAS: Espera-se que este protocolo melhore os resultados funcionais e reduza a incidência de ocorrência de comorbidades em pacientes após craniotomia em UTI.


INTRODUCTION: Craniotomy makes insight and approach towards the brain easier but accompanies ailments. Intensive care units are equipped with trained professional physical therapists working over these deleterious after-effects of this surgical program, but a progressive, defined, and evidence-supported protocol for such patients is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a Neurorehabilitation protocol devised for post-craniotomy patients within their stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to improve their functional outcomes and reduce their length of stay (LOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: It will be a single group pre-test post-test quasi feasibility trial. Fifteen patients undergoing craniotomy will be recruited for the trial and will be rendered with Neuro-rehabilitation protocol for 60 minutes from the first day of surgery up to 15 days of surgery. The primary outcome will be the Early Functional Abilities (EFA) Scale to measure functional outcomes like conscious level, sensorimotor abilities, cognitive-perceptual abilities, and oro-motor abilities of patients, which will be assessed first-day post craniotomy. Secondary outcomes will include Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R), Sensory Modality Assessment Rehabilitation Technique (SMART), Modified Ashworth Scale (mMAS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Score (MoCA), and Medical Research Council Scale (MRC). Assessments will be taken on the first and fifteenth days post-surgery. PERSPECTIVES: It is expected that this protocol might improve functional outcomes and may reduce the occurrence of comorbidities in patients after Craniotomy in ICUs.


Subject(s)
Craniotomy , Coma , Intensive Care Units
12.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 113-119, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362174

ABSTRACT

Objective The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the usefulness of intraoperative ultrasound guidance as a technique for the assessment, in real time, of tumor resection and as a navigation aid during intra-axial brain lesion removal on patients admitted in the Neurosurgical Department at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela, in 2018. Methods A total of 10 patients were enrolled, each with intra-axial brain lesions with no previous neurosurgical procedures and a mean age of 49 years old, ranging from 29 to 59 years old. Results A male predominance was observed with 7 cases (70%) over 3 female cases (30%). Six patients had lesions in the dominant hemisphere. The frontal lobe was the most commonly affected,with 5 cases, followed by the parietal lobe,with 4 cases. After craniotomy, ultrasound evaluation was performed previously to dural opening, during tumor resection and after tumor removal. The mean tumor size in axial, coronal and sagittal views was 3.72 cm, 3.08 cm and 3.00 cm, respectively, previously to dural opening with intraoperative ultrasound. The average tumor depth was 1.73 cm from the cerebral cortex. The location and removal duration from the beginning of the approach (ultrasound usage time) was 83.60 minutes, and the average surgery duration was 201 minutes. Navigation with intraoperative ultrasound served to resect intra-axial tumors more precisely and safely. There was no postoperative complication associated with the surgery in this series of cases. Conclusions Intraoperative ultrasound guidance for intra-axial subcortical tumor resection is a technique that serves as a surgical and anatomical orientation tool.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Ultrasonography , Neuronavigation/methods , Glioma/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Craniotomy/methods , Glioma/physiopathology , Glioma/diagnostic imaging
13.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 130-136, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362199

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide. About 10% to 15% of strokes related to the territory of the carotid artery are associated with its complete occlusion. There is an important subgroup of patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases who might benefit from an external-carotid-to-internal-carotid bypass. In the present study, we report a case of a 53-year-old male patient with stenosis of the M2 branch of themiddle cerebral artery (MCA), with a history of 20 episodes of transient ischemic accidents (TIA)s, in whom an anastomosis of the M4 branch of the superficial temporal artery-MCA was performed. The patient was discharged in three days, and in the two years of follow-up, they were no more TIAs.We also conducted a review of the literature on cerebrovascular occlusive disease and extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery. New methods to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics made it possible to classify a new subgroup of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease and documented cerebrovascular compromise in whom the drug therapy fails, who can benefit from the extracranial-intracranial bypass. Our case report illustrates the advantages of revascularization in these selected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Temporal Arteries/surgery , Cerebral Revascularization/rehabilitation , Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Cerebral Angiography/methods , Craniotomy/methods , Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging
14.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 162-166, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362226

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cerebral abscess is a suppurative infection of the cerebral parenchyma, which may occur due to contiguity, hematogenous dissemination of distant foci, secondary to open traumatic brain injuries, or be idiopathic. Clinical Case A 63-year-old male patient sought assistance due to a severe headache in the frontal region associated with chills and lack of appetite that started four days before. Clinical examination of the patient showed no significant changes. Imaging and laboratory tests on admission showed only nonspecific changes, such as leukocytes 18,540, platelets 517,000, and c-reactive protein 2,0. In such case,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the skull was performed with contrast, showing the presence of expansive lesions compatible with multiple brain abscesses in the right parietooccipital region. Discussion After excluding the main focus of hematogenous dissemination and in view of the identification of the agent Streptococcus intermedius by means of secretion culture collected through a surgical method, the hypothesis of abscess due to contiguous dental pyogenic foci was pointed out. Conclusion Dental evaluation showed multiple foci of infection with periodontitis and dental abscess, which were treated along with the use of antibiotics directed to the etiologic agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Abscess/etiology , Brain Abscess/therapy , Focal Infection, Dental/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Periodontitis/complications , Stomatitis/complications , Brain Abscess/diagnosis , Craniotomy/methods , Streptococcus intermedius , Gingivitis/complications
15.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(1): 78-81, 29/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362232

ABSTRACT

Introduction The precise identification of anatomical structures and lesions in the brain is the main objective of neuronavigation systems. Brain shift, displacement of the brain after opening the cisterns and draining cerebrospinal fluid, is one of the limitations of such systems. Objective To describe a simple method to avoid brain shift in craniotomies for subcortical lesions. Method We used the surgical technique hereby described in five patients with subcortical neoplasms. We performed the neuronavigation-guided craniotomies with the conventional technique. After opening the dura and exposing the cortical surface, we placed two or three arachnoid anchoring sutures to the dura mater, close to the edges of the exposed cortical surface. We placed these anchoring sutures under microscopy, using a 6­0 mononylon wire. With this technique, the cortex surface was kept close to the dura mater, minimizing its displacement during the approach to the subcortical lesion. In these five cases we operated, the cortical surface remained close to the dura, anchored by the arachnoid sutures. All the lesions were located with a good correlation between the handpiece tip inserted in the desired brain area and the display on the navigation system. Conclusion Arachnoid anchoring sutures to the duramater on the edges of the cortex area exposed by craniotomy constitute a simple method to minimize brain displacement (brain-shift) in craniotomies for subcortical injuries, optimizing the use of the neuronavigation system.


Subject(s)
Subarachnoid Space/surgery , Suture Techniques , Craniotomy/methods , Neuronavigation/methods , Cerebrum/surgery
16.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 186-189, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362256

ABSTRACT

The most common mixed glioma encountered in routine surgical practice is oligoastrocytoma (OA); however, its is currently considered a vanishing entity. The 2016 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) discourages the diagnosis of tumors as mixed glioma. The recommendations are that diffuse gliomas, including those withmixed or ambiguous histological features, should be subjected tomolecular testing. Dual-genotype OAs are not yet a distinct entity or variant in the classification. We report a case ofmixed glioma: a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA)mixed with an oligodendroglioma. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) pattern of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) negativity with retained nuclear expression of the alpha-thalassemia x-linked intellectual disability syndrome (ATRX) protein, and 1p19q co-deletion negativity in both the components enabled its identification as a mixed glioma rather than a collision tumor. To the best of our knowledge, the case herein presented is the fourth case of PXA with oligodendroglioma. Out of the other three reported cases, only one was of a collision tumor with a dual genotype, and the other two showed similar molecular signatures in both components. The present article discusses the histological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of the aforementioned case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/surgery , Astrocytoma/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Astrocytoma/pathology , Temporal Lobe/surgery , Aconitate Hydratase/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 , Chromosome Deletion , Telomerase/genetics , Craniotomy/methods
17.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(2): 179-181, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398727

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los subependimomas intracraneales son raros, representan el 0.2-0.7% de todos los tumores del sistema nervioso central1,2 y se originan en los ventrículos laterales en el 30-40% de los casos.3 Los síntomas usualmente se asocian a hipertensión endocraneana secundaria a hidrocefalia obstructiva.4 La resección completa del tumor es curativa en esta patología.5 El abordaje trans-surcal es seguro para lesiones ventriculares profundas y el uso de los retractores tubulares minimizan la retracción del parénquima cerebral evitando la compresión directa con valvas. Esto permite disminuir la presión del tejido cerebral que puede ocluir los vasos y producir isquemia local generando una lesión neurológica permanente. Descripción del caso: Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 66 años, diestra, con cefalea crónica que aumenta en frecuencia en el último mes. La resonancia cerebral contrastada muestra un tumor extenso en el ventrículo lateral izquierdo con signos de hidrocefalia obstructiva. Intervención: Se coloca la paciente en posición supina. Se hace una incisión bicoronal y se hace un abordaje trans-surcal F1/F2 izquierdo. Se coloca un retractor tubular guiado con el puntero de neuronavegación, introduciéndolo directamente en el parénquima cerebral y fijándolo al soporte de Leyla. Se colocó un catéter de ventriculostomía contralateral y se retira a las 48 horas sin complicaciones asociadas. La resonancia contrastada postoperatoria demuestra una resección completa del tumor. El análisis de patología reveló un subependimoma grado I de la clasificación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. La paciente presentó transitoriamente apatía y pérdida del control del esfínter urinario que resolvieron completamente a las 3 semanas después de la cirugía. Se firmó un consentimiento firmado para la publicación de la información utilizada en este trabajo. Conclusión: La resección completa microscópica de un subependimoma extenso del ventrículo lateral izquierdo es factible a través de un abordaje tubular transulcal.


Introduction: Intracranial subependymomas are rare, representing only 0.2-0.7% of all central nervous system tumors1,2 and arise in the lateral ventricles in 30-40% of the cases.3 Symptoms depend on tumor location and usually arise when the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is blocked, generating a consequent intracranial hypertension.4 Microsurgical gross-total resection is possible and curative for these tumors.5 The transcortical/trans-sulcal approach is a safe approach for the access of deep-seated intraventricular lesions. The use of tubular retractor systems minimizes retraction injury when passing through the cortex and deep white matter tracts. This allows a decrease in the pressure on brain tissue that can occlude the brain vessels and produce local ischemia and a consequent permanent neurological injury. Case description: This is a case of a 66-year-old woman who presented chronic headaches that increased in frequency in the last month. Enhanced-brain MRI demonstrated a large left ventricular lesion with signs of obstructive hydrocephalus. Procedure: Patient was positioned supine. A bicoronal incision was used to perform a left frontal craniotomy. An F1/F2 transcortical/trans-sulcal approach was used. A guided tubular retractor is placed with the neuronavigation pointer, inserting it directly into the brain parenchyma and fixing it to the Leyla support. Postoperative postcontrast MRI demonstrated a complete resection of the tumor. Histopathological analysis revealed a subependymoma (World Health Organization Grade I). The patient presented transient apathy and loss of urinary sphincter control that completely resolved 3 weeks after surgery. Written informed consent was obtained for publication of information used for this work. Conclusions: A complete microsurgical resection of a large left ventricular subependymoma is feasible through a trans-sulcal tubular approach.


Subject(s)
Ventriculostomy , Brain , Intracranial Hypertension , Lateral Ventricles , Craniotomy , Neuronavigation , Neoplasms
18.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(1): e644, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156369

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La craneotomía con el paciente despierto es útil para lograr resecciones cerebrales amplias de lesiones de áreas elocuentes. Objetivo: Presentar un caso al que se le realizó la técnica dormido- despierto. Método: Se realizó la inducción de la anestesia con propofol/fentanilo/rocuronio y se colocó una mascarilla laríngea. Después del bloqueo de escalpe se mantuvo la infusión de propofol/fentanilo y lidocaína hasta que se realizó la craneotomía. Se disminuyó la velocidad de infusión y se mantuvo de esta manera hasta finalizada la intervención. Resultados: Se logró el despertar del paciente a los 13 minutos de reducida la infusión. Se mantuvo buena estabilidad hemodinámica, sin depresión respiratoria ni otras complicaciones. El paciente se mantuvo colaborador, respondió preguntas y movilizó sus extremidades. No presentó complicaciones posoperatorias. Discusión: Dentro de las técnicas anestésicas utilizadas en el mundo la dormido- despierto-dormido es la más popular; sin embargo, constituye una alternativa no dormir nuevamente al paciente ni reinstrumentar la vía respiratoria. Los medicamentos más empleados son el propofol/remifentanilo, aunque la comparación con otros opioides no arrojan diferencias significativas; aunque sí supone un beneficio adicional la dexmedetomidina. Conclusiones: La craneotomía con el paciente despierto es posible de realizar en el entorno hospitalario siempre que exista un equipo multidisciplinario que consensue las mejores acciones médicas para el paciente(AU)


Introduction: Awake craniotomy is useful to achieve wide brain resections of lesions in eloquent areas. Objective: To present the case of a patient who was operated on with the asleep-awake-asleep technique. Method: Anesthesia was induced with propofol-fentanyl-rocuronium and a laryngeal mask was placed. After scalp block, the propofol-fentanyl and lidocaine infusion was maintained until craniotomy was performed. The infusion rate was decreased and remained this way until the end of the intervention. Results: The patient was awakened thirteen minutes after the infusion was reduced. Good hemodynamic stability was maintained, without respiratory depression or other complications. The patient remained collaborative, answered questions, and mobilized his limbs. He had no postoperative complications. Discussion: Among the anesthetic techniques used in the world, asleep-awake-asleep is the most popular. However, it is an alternative not to put the patient back to sleep or re-instrument the airway. The most commonly used drugs are propofol-remifentanil, although the comparison with other opioids does not show significant differences, except for dexmedetomidine, which does represent an additional benefit. Conclusions: Awake craniotomy is possible to be performed in the hospital setting as long as there is a multidisciplinary team that agrees on the best medical actions for the patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Craniotomy/methods , Intraoperative Awareness/prevention & control , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods , Occupational Groups , Laryngeal Masks/standards
19.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 28-32, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397351

ABSTRACT

El reflejo de Bezold Jarisch es un reflejo cardioinhibitorio que juega un papel en la homeostasis cardiovascular. Consiste en la triada dada por hipotensión, bradicardia y vasodilatación periférica que puede ser desencadenada tanto por estímulos mecánicos, como químicos. Se considera que el mecanismo eferente contrarresta e inhibe los efectos del influjo simpático y, por el contrario, activa los efectos producidos por el sistema parasimpático. Durante la cirugía neurológica, la disminución de la presión intracraneal posterior a la extracción de colgajo óseo en la craneotomía, el uso de medicamentos osmóticos para disminuir el edema cerebral e incluso la posición del paciente durante el procedimiento suponen situaciones más propensas a la aparición del reflejo.


The Bezold Jarisch reflex is a cardioinhibitory reflex that plays a role in cardiovascular homeostasis. It consists of a triad given by hypotension, bradycardia, and peripheral vasodilation that can be triggered by both mechanical and chemical stimuli. The efferent counteracting mechanism is considered to inhibit the effects of sympathetic influx and, conversely, activates the effects produced by the parasympathetic system. During neurological surgery, the decrease in intracranial pressure after bone flap extraction in the craniotomy, the use of osmotic medications to decrease cerebral edema and even the position of the patient during the procedure supposes situations more prone to reflex appearance


Subject(s)
Reflex , Brain Edema , Intracranial Pressure , Craniotomy , Neurosurgery
20.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 36-41, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397505

ABSTRACT

El trauma penetrante craneoencefálico representa alrededor del 0.4% de los casos, pocos son los descritos en la literatura, por lo cual, no existe un manejo protocolizado del mismo.Describimos un caso de un paciente masculino de 24 años que sufre un trauma penetrante a nivel de región parietal izquierda con arma blanca "cuchillo", dejando incrustada la hoja del mismo. La Tomografía computarizada simple de cráneo con reconstrucción en 3 dimensiones más angiografía, confirma el diagnóstico y descarta el compromiso vascular. Se realiza la extirpación completa del cuerpo extraño, sin complicaciones. Evolución favorable con mejoría de la sintomatología neurológica al alta.Este tipo de trauma es una emergencia que puede poner en riesgo la vida del paciente dependiendo del área afectada. La extirpación del cuerpo extraño debe realizarse en un medio hospitalario por la afectación de grandes vasos. Se debe tener una alta sospecha diagnóstica asociada al antecedente.


Craneoencephalic penetrating trauma represents about 0.4% of cases, few are described in the literature, therefore, there is no protocolized management of them.We describe a case of a 24-year-old male patient who suffers penetrating trauma at left parietal region with a "knife", leaving the blade embedded. Simple Computed Tomography of the Skull with Reconstruction in 3 dimensions plus angiography, confirms the diagnosis without vascular compromise. The complete removal of the foreign body was performed, without complications. Evolution is favorable and was discharged with improvement neurological symptoms.This type of trauma is an emergency that can put the life at risk depending on the affected area. The removal of the foreign body must be performed in a hospital environment due to the involvement of large vessels. There must be a high diagnostic suspicion associated with the antecedent.


Subject(s)
Male , Craniocerebral Trauma , Skull , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Penetrating , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Craniotomy , Gun Violence
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