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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51034, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1118073

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar se a redução da taxa de hemoglobina no pós-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio interfere na função renal dos pacientes. Método: estudo observacional e prospectivo, desenvolvido entre fevereiro e junho de 2016, com 51 pacientes que realizaram cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio em um hospital especializado em cardiologia do Distrito Federal. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um instrumento estruturado. O teste exato de Fisher, Qui-quadrado e Kruskal Wallis foram empregados para análise estatística. Considerou-se significativo resultados com p≤0,05. Projeto de pesquisa aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética, protocolo 44999215.9.0000.0026. Resultados: entre os pacientes, 45 (78,9%) evoluíram com lesão renal aguda após revascularização do miocárdio. Idade mais elevada (64±9 anos, p=0,05), tempo de circulação extracorpórea (p=0,05), índice de massa corporal (p=0,02), uso de antibióticos (p=0,03) e redução da taxa de hemoglobina (p=0,04), contribuíram para lesão renal aguda. Conclusão: a redução da taxa de hemoglobina foi associada estatisticamente à lesão renal aguda após revascularização do miocárdio.


Objective: to determine whether decreased hemoglobin rate after myocardial revascularization surgery interferes with patients' renal function. Method: this prospective, observational study was conducted between February and June 2016 with 51 patients who underwent myocardial revascularization surgery at a specialist cardiology hospital specializing in the Federal District. Data were collected using a structured instrument. The Fisher's exact, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis. Results were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. The research project was approved by the research ethics committee (Protocol 44999215.9.0000.0026). Results: it was observed that 45 patients (78.9%) developed acute kidney injury after myocardial revascularization. Oldest age (64 ± 9 years, p = 0.05), cardiopulmonary bypass time (p = 0.05), body mass index (p = 0.02), use of antibiotics (p = 0.03), and decreased hemoglobin rate (p = 0.04) contributed to acute kidney injury. Conclusion: decreased hemoglobin rate was statistically associated with acute kidney injury following myocardial revascularization.


Objetivo: verificar si la reduciendo la tasa de hemoglobina en el postoperatorio de revascularización miocárdica interfiere con la función renal de los pacientes. Método: estudio observacional prospectivo realizado entre febrero y junio de 2016 con 51 pacientes que se sometieron a una cirugía de revascularización miocárdica en un hospital especializado en cardiología en el Distrito Federal. Los datos fueron recolectados utilizando un instrumento estructurado. La prueba exacta de Fisher, Chicuadrado y Kruskal-Wallis se utilizaron para el análisis estadístico. Los resultados se consideraron significativos con p≤0.05. Proyecto de investigación aprobado por el Comité de Ética, protocolo 44999215.9.0000.0026. Resultados: se observó que 45 (78,9%) pacientes desarrollaron lesión renal aguda después de la revascularización miocárdica. Edad avanzada (64 ± 9 años, p = 0.05), tiempo de circulación corporal extra (p = 0.05), índice de masa corporal (p = 0.02), uso de antibióticos (p = 0.03) y tasa de hemoglobina reducida (p = 0.04), contribuyó a lesión renal aguda. Conclusión: reduciendo la tasa de hemoglobina contribuyó a lesión renal aguda después de la revascularización miocárdica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Hemoglobins , Acute Kidney Injury , Myocardial Revascularization , Postoperative Care , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Creatinine/blood , Observational Study , Nursing Care
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 585-591, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098291

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, or APAP) induced nephrotoxicity is reported after accidental or intentional ingestion of an overdose of the drug. Renal tubular ultrastructural alterations induced by APAP overdose associated with the induction of biomarkers of kidney injury have not been investigated before. Also, we investigated whether the combined polyphenolic anti-inflammatory and antioxidants agents, resveratrol (RES) and quercetin (QUR) can protect against APAP-induced acute kidney injury. The model group of rats received a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of RES (30 mg/kg) and QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP. All rats were then sacrificed one day post APAP ingestion. Harvested kidney tissues were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) staining and blood samples were assayed for urea, creatinine, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. TEM images and blood chemistry analysis showed that APAP overdose induced kidney damage as demonstrated by substantial alterations to the proximal convoluted tubule ultrastructure, and a significant (p<0.05) increase in urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and malondialdehyde (MDA) blood levels, which were protected by RES+QUR. These findings indicate that APAP induces alterations to the renal tubular ultrastructure, which is inhibited by resveratrol plus quercetin, which also decreases blood levels of kidney injury biomarkers.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la nefrotoxicidad inducida por acetaminofeno (también llamado paracetamol o APAP) después de la ingestión accidental o intencional de una sobredosis de la droga. Las alteraciones ultraestructurales tubulares renales inducidas por sobredosis de APAP asociadas con la inducción de biomarcadores de daño renal no se han investigado. Además, estudiamos si los agentes combinados antiinflamatorios y antioxidantes polifenólicos, el resveratrol (RES) y la quercetina (QUR) pueden proteger contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por APAP. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de APAP (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas se trató previamente durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de RES (30 mg / kg) y QUR (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de APAP. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron un día después de la ingestión de APAP. Los tejidos renales fueron preparados para el análisis a través de la microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). En las muestras de sangre se determinaron la urea, creatinina y los biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo. Las imágenes MET y el análisis químico de la sangre mostraron que la sobredosis de APAP inducía daño renal, como lo demuestran las alteraciones sustanciales en la ultraestructura del túbulo contorneado proximal, y además, de un aumento significativo (p <0,05) de la urea, creatinina, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y niveles sanguíneos de malondialdehído, protegidos por RES + QUR. Estos hallazgos indican que APAP induce alteraciones en la ultraestructura tubular renal, inhibida por el resveratrol más quercetina, que también disminuye los niveles sanguíneos de biomarcadores de daño renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Quercetin/pharmacology , Urea/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatinine/blood , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Overdose , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 25-29, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: To analyze the effectiveness and the safety of Sofosbuvir-based regimens to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A retrospective, observational study in patients with chronic HCV infection and CKD treated with Sofosbuvir-based regimens was performed. Liver fibrosis, comorbidities, HCV genotype and sustained virological resposnse (SVR) at 12th week post-treatment were evaluated. Kidney function was accessed by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The assumed level of significance was 5 %. Results: Thirty-five patients were treated. The mean age was 52.1 ± 10.9 years, 19 (54.3 %) were women, 32 (91.4 %) were already kidney transplanted and 3 (8.6 %) were on hemodialysis. The SVR by intention to treat was 88.6 %. The mean GFR was 65.8 ± 28.6 and 63.7 ± 28.3 ml/min pre- and post-treatment respectively (p > 0.05). Treatment was interrupted in 1 (2.85 %) patient due to anemia and in 2 (5.7 %) due to loss of kidney function. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir-based regimens are effective to treat HCV in patients with CKD. In patients with mild CKD this type of therapy seems to be safe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Kidney Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(Suppl 2): 112-117, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136381

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE We aimed to present a review of renal changes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify original articles regarding clinical, laboratory, and anatomopathological kidney changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 published until May 7, 2020. The search was carried out across PubMed, Scopus, and Embase using the keywords "COVID-19", "coronavirus", "SARS-CoV-2", "kidney injury" and "kidney disease". Fifteen studies presented clinical and laboratory renal changes in patients with COVID-19, and three addressed anatomopathological changes. DISCUSSION Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a relevant finding in patients with COVID-19. There were also significant changes in laboratory tests that indicated kidney injury, such as increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), proteinuria, and hematuria. The presence of laboratory abnormalities and AKI were significant in severely ill patients. There was a considerable prevalence of AKI among groups of patients who died of COVID-19. Histopathological analysis of the kidney tissue of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the virus may directly affect the kidneys. CONCLUSION Although COVID-19 affects mainly the lungs, it can also impact the kidneys. Increased serum creatinine and BUN, hematuria, proteinuria, and AKI were frequent findings in patients with severe COVID-19 and were related to an increased mortality rate. Further studies focusing on renal changes and their implications for the clinical condition of patients infected with the novel coronavirus are needed.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Apresentar uma revisão sobre as alterações renais nos pacientes com COVID-19. MÉTODOS Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de literatura para buscar estudos referentes a pacientes com alterações renais clínicas, laboratoriais e anatomopatológicas durante a infecção por SARS-CoV-2. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados eletrônicos PubMed, Scopus e Embase, com as palavras-chaves: "COVID-19", "coronavirus", "Sars-CoV-2", "kidney injury" e "kidney disease", para identificar artigos originais publicados na literatura até 07 de maio de 2020. Quinze estudos trouxeram alterações renais clínicas e laboratoriais dos pacientes com COVID-19, e três abordaram análises anatomopatológicas. DISCUSSÃO A Lesão renal aguda (LRA) foi um achado relevante nos pacientes com COVID-19. Houve também alterações significativas nos exames laboratoriais que indicam lesão renal, como o nível de creatinina e ureia séricas, proteinúria e hematúria. As alterações laboratoriais e a LRA foram importantes nos pacientes que desenvolveram o quadro grave da doença. Há considerável prevalência de LRA nos grupos de pacientes que vieram a óbito. Na análise histopatológica de pacientes com SARS-CoV-2 foram encontrados achados renais sugestivos que o vírus poderia ter efeitos diretos sobre o rim. CONCLUSÃO A COVID-19 é uma doença que, apesar de acometer principalmente os pulmões, também acomete os rins. Aumento das escórias nitrogenadas, hematúria, proteinúria e LRA foram achados frequentes em pacientes com quadros graves da COVID-19. Esses achados foram relacionados a maior mortalidade. É necessária a realização de mais estudos com enfoque nas alterações renais e suas implicações no quadro clínico causadas pelo novo coronavírus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/urine , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proteinuria/etiology , Urine/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/urine , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Creatinine/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Hematuria/etiology
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 534-538, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056606

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The number of incident and prevalent patients on dialysis has increased, as well as the number of candidates for renal transplantation in Brazil, without a proportional increase in the number of organ donors. The use of expanded kidneys, as to renal function, may be an alternative to increase the supply of organs. Objective: to discuss the feasibility of using expanded kidneys for renal function, which are in severe acute renal injury. Methods: All cases of renal transplantation of deceased donors performed at the Hospital das Clínicas de Botucatu of UNESP, from January 2010 to June 2018, totaling 732 cases were evaluated. Cases with final donor creatinine greater than 6 mg/dL were selected. Results: four patients were selected, of whom all donors were in severe acute kidney injury (AKI). These donors presented rhabdomyolysis as a probable cause of severe AKI, were young, with no comorbidities and had decreased urinary volume in the last 24 hours. The clinical evolution of all the recipients was satisfactory, with a glomerular filtration rate after transplantation ranging from 48 to 98 mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusion: this series of cases shows the possibility of using renal donors in severe AKI, provided the following are respected: donor age, rhabdomyolysis as the cause of AKI, and implantation-favorable biopsy findings. Additional studies with better designs, larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up times are needed.


RESUMO Introdução: O número de pacientes incidentes e prevalentes em diálise tem aumentado, assim como o número de candidatos ao transplante renal no Brasil, sem um aumento proporcional do número de doadores de órgãos. O uso de rins expandidos, quanto à função renal, pode ser uma alternativa para aumentar a oferta de órgãos. Objetivo: discutir a viabilidade do uso de rins expandidos quanto à função renal, que estejam em lesão renal aguda severa. Métodos: foram avaliados todos os casos de transplante renal de doador falecido realizados no Hospital das Clínicas de Botucatu da UNESP, de janeiro de 2010 a junho de 2018, totalizando 732 casos. Selecionou-se os casos com creatinina final do doador maior do que 6 mg/dL. Resultados: quatro pacientes foram selecionados, dos quais todos os doadores estavam em lesão renal aguda (LRA) severa. Esses doadores apresentavam rabdomiólise como provável causa de LRA severa, eram jovens, sem comorbidades e apresentavam diminuição de volume urinário nas últimas 24 horas. A evolução clínica de todos os receptores foi satisfatória, com taxa de filtração glomerular após o transplante variando entre 48 a 98 mL/min/1,73m2. Conclusão: essa série de casos mostra a possibilidade de utilização de doadores renais em LRA severa, desde que respeitadas as condições seguintes: idade do doador, rabdomiólise como causa de LRA e achados de biópsia favoráveis à implantação. Estudos adicionais com melhores desenhos, maior número de pacientes e maiores tempos de seguimento são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Delayed Graft Function/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/surgery , Research Design , Brazil/epidemiology , Cadaver , Feasibility Studies , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Creatinine/blood , Delayed Graft Function/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Graft Survival/physiology , Kidney/physiopathology
6.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 509-517, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056618

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Although microalbuminuria remains the gold standard for early detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN), it is not a sufficiently accurate predictor of DN risk. Thus, new biomarkers that would help to predict DN risk earlier and possibly prevent the occurrence of end-stage kidney disease are being investigated. Objective: To investigate the role of zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein (ZAG) as an early marker of DN in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. Methods: 88 persons were included and classified into 4 groups: Control group (group I), composed of normal healthy volunteers, and three patient groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus divided into: normo-albuminuria group (group II), subdivided into normal eGFR subgroup and increased eGFR subgroup > 120 mL/min/1.73m2), microalbuminuria group (group III), and macroalbuminuria group (group IV). All subjects were submitted to urine analysis, blood glucose levels, HbA1c, liver function tests, serum creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and calculation of eGFR, urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR), and measurement of urinary and serum ZAG. Results: The levels of serum and urine ZAG were higher in patients with T2DM compared to control subjects and a statistically significant difference among studied groups regarding serum and urinary ZAG was found. Urine ZAG levels were positively correlated with UACR. Both ZAG levels were negatively correlated with eGFR. Urine ZAG levels in the eGFR ˃ 120 mL/min/1.73m2 subgroup were higher than that in the normal eGFR subgroup. Conclusion: These findings suggest that urine and serum ZAG might be useful as early biomarkers for detection of DN in T2DM patients, detectable earlier than microalbuminuria.


Resumo Introdução: Embora a microalbuminúria continue sendo o padrão ouro para a detecção precoce da nefropatia diabética (ND), ela não é um preditor suficientemente preciso do risco de ND. Assim, novos biomarcadores para prever mais precocemente o risco de ND e possivelmente evitar a ocorrência de doença renal terminal estão sendo investigados. Objetivo: Investigar a zinco-alfa2-glicoproteína (ZAG) como marcador precoce de ND em pacientes com debates mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). Métodos: Os 88 indivíduos incluídos foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo controle (Grupo I), composto por voluntários saudáveis normais; e três grupos de pacientes com DM2 assim divididos: grupo normoalbuminúria (Grupo II), subdivididos em TFG normal e TFG > 120 mL/min/1,73 m2), grupo microalbuminúria (Grupo III) e grupo macroalbuminúria (Grupo IV). Todos foram submetidos a urinálise e exames para determinar glicemia, HbA1c, função hepática, creatinina sérica, ácido úrico, perfil lipídico, cálculo da TFG, relação albumina/creatinina (RAC) e dosagem urinária e sérica de ZAG. Resultados: Os níveis séricos e urinários de ZAG foram mais elevados nos pacientes com DM2 em comparação aos controles. Foi identificada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos estudados em relação aos níveis séricos e urinários de ZAG. Os níveis urinários de ZAG foram positivamente correlacionados com a RAC. Ambos os níveis de ZAG foram negativamente correlacionados com TFG. Os níveis urinários de ZAG no subgrupo com TFG ˃ 120 mL/min/1,73m2 foram maiores do que no subgrupo com TFG normal. Conclusão: Constatamos que a ZAG sérica e urinária pode ser um útil biomarcador precoce para detecção de ND em pacientes com DM2, sendo detectável mais precocemente que microalbuminúria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , Seminal Plasma Proteins/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Risk Assessment , Creatinine/blood , Early Diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/urine , Diabetic Nephropathies/urine , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Albuminuria/urine , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/prevention & control
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(12): 1510-1517, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094184

ABSTRACT

Background Lupus nephritis (LN) is a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus that requires renal biopsy (RB). Proliferative classes III, IV-S, IV-G have especial clinical and pathological characteristics. Aim To determine the association between pathological features in RB with serum creatinine and urine protein levels. Material and Methods We analyzed 186 RB performed in adults aged 18 to 73 years, from a renal pathology reference center. Histopathological variables such as class and subclass of proliferative LN, endocapillary and extracapillary proliferation, activity and chronicity indexes, and vascular sclerosis were correlated with serum creatinine and urine protein levels, at the time of diagnosis. Results As compared with LN III, all the morphological and laboratory values were significantly more deteriorated in LN IV, with special focus on vascular sclerosis. Serum creatinine was the only variable that significantly differentiated LN IV-S from LN IV-G. Proteinuria was non-significantly higher in LN IV-G compared to LN IV-S. However, the difference became significant when proteinuria was compared between LN IV-G and LN III. Conclusions The significant difference in serum creatinine between LN IV-S and LN IV-G supports the concept that they are different subclasses. Proteinuria is a variable that differentiates classes III from IV-G, being significantly higher in the second. Severe arteriosclerosis is a constant and significant finding that differentiates LN III from LN IV. Thus, we propose its usefulness for distinguishing LN classes, and eventually, to be considered in the chronicity index.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Lupus Nephritis/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Proteinuria/pathology , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Creatinine/blood
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(5): 367-372, oct. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056733

ABSTRACT

Se efectuó un estudio prospectivo observacional, obteniendo datos clínicos y analíticos de pacientes ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Reina Sofía, que precisaron de ventilación mecánica no invasiva. El estudio se llevó a cabo desde el 1 de enero 2013 al 31 de diciembre de 2015. El objetivo principal fue determinar la mortalidad a los 90 días en pacientes ingresados con estas características en dicho periodo. Se definió como fracaso renal agudo al incremento de creatinina sérica > 0.3 mg/dl a las 48 horas con respecto al basal. Los pacientes fueron seguidos durante 90 días. Se analizaron 221 pacientes, 65 (29.4%) presentaron fracaso renal agudo y 156 (70.6%) función renal normal. La mortalidad global a los 90 días fue de 44 (19.9%); en el grupo del fracaso renal agudo fue de 33 (51.6%), y de 11 (7.1%) en los pacientes sin fracaso renal agudo (RR 7.340; IC 95%: 3.974-13.559. p < 0.001). La estancia hospitalaria fue de 24.2 ± 24.1 días en aquellos con fracaso renal agudo vs. 21.5 ± 20.7 días en el segundo grupo; p = 0.429), la estancia en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: 10.9 ± 14.4 con fracaso renal agudo vs. 7.3 ± 9.6; p = 0.357, sin dicha condición, y los días de ventilación mecánica no invasiva: 3.4 ± 3.0 con fracaso renal agudo vs. 2.7 ± 1.9; p = 0.569, en los que no se vieron afectados por la presencia del fracaso renal agudo. Como conclusión, la presencia de fracaso renal agudo es un factor independiente de mortalidad en los pacientes que presentan insuficiencia respiratoria aguda con necesidad de ventilación mecánica no invasiva.


We developed a prospective observational study, obtaining clinical and analytical data of patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the Hospital Reina Sofía, who required noninvasive ventilation, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015. The main objective was to determine the 90-day mortality in these patients and conditions, who required noninvasive ventilation as treatment for acute respiratory failure and who developed acute kidney injury. Acute renal failure was defined as an increase in serum creatinine > 0.3 mg/dl at 48 hours with respect to the baseline. The patients were followed for 90 days. We analyzed 221 patients, 65 (29.4%) presented acute kidney injury and 156 (70.6%) normal renal function. Overall mortality at 90 days was 44 (19.9%). In the group of acute kidneys injury, it was 33 (51.6%), being 11 (7.1%) in patients without acute kidney injury (RR 7.340, 95% CI: 3.974-13.559, p < 0.001). Hospital stay in days was 24.2 ± 24.1 with acute kidney injury vs. 21.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.429; stay in the intensive care unit in days was 10.9 ± 14.4 with acute kidney injury vs. 7.3 ± 9.6, p = 0.357, and days of non-invasive ventilation 3.4 ± 3.0 with acute kidney injury vs. 2.7 ± 1.9, p = 0.569, in those patients not affected by the presence of acute kidney injury. In conclusion, the presence of acute kidney injury is an independent factor of mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring noninvasive ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Spain , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 565-571, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042031

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most important complications after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedure. Serum albumin, which is an acute phase reactant, is suggested to be associated with AKI development subsequent to various surgical procedures. In this study, we research the relation between preoperative serum albumin levels and postoperative AKI development in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing isolated CABG. Methods: We included a total of 634 diabetic patients undergoing CABG (60.5±9.1 years, 65.1% male) into this study, which was performed between September 2009 and January 2014 in a single center. The relation between preoperative serum albumin levels and postoperative AKI development was observed. AKI was evaluated and diagnosed using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification. Results: AKI was diagnosed in 230 (36.3%) patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent predictors of AKI development. Proteinuria (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.066 [1.002-1.135]; P=0.043) and low preoperative serum albumin levels (OR and 95% CI, 0.453 [0.216-0.947]; P=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of AKI. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, albumin level <3mg/dL (area under the curve: 0.621 [0.572-0.669], P<0.001) had 83% sensitivity and 10% specificity on predicting the development of AKI. Conclusion: We observed that a preoperative low serum albumin level was associated with postoperative AKI development in patients with DM who underwent isolated CABG procedure. We emphasize that this adjustable albumin level should be considered before the operation since it is an easy and clinically implementable management for the prevention of AKI development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Hypoalbuminemia/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Postoperative Complications/blood , Proteinuria , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Preoperative Period , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1323-1328, oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058600

ABSTRACT

Renal functional reserve (RFR) is the capacity of the kidney to increase its glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to physiological or pathological stimuli. The most commonly used stimuli to assess this reserve are an oral load of proteins of animal origin, amino acid infusions, dopamine, glucagon or combinations of them. RFR is calculated as the difference between stimulated and baseline GFR. Vegetarians have lower baseline GFR than the general population and an increased RFR. Subjects with only one kidney and those suffering from chronic nephropathies usually have a reduced or absent RFR despite having normal basal GFR. Quantification of RFR may be useful to detect subclinical renal damage, physiological conditions that reduce baseline GFR, evaluation of potential donors for kidney transplantation, suspected hyperfiltration, detection of renal lability against acute injuries or pregnancy and the evaluation after an acute renal injury when renal function seems to be recovered and residual subclinical damage is suspected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Proteins/metabolism , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 315-322, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040245

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: It is hypothesized that increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression may contribute to diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal effects of MIF inhibition in a diabetic experimental model. Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (230 ± 20 g) were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) diabetic (STZ, 50 mg/kg, dissolved in saline, ip), 3) diabetic + MIF antagonist (p425, 1 mg/kg per day, ip, on the 21th day, for 21 consecutive days). The treatment started since we founwd a significant increase in urine albumin excretion (UAE) rate in the diabetic rats in comparison with the control rats. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages (8 AM-2 PM) and urine samples were collected in the 21 and 42th day. At the end, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical (BS, UPE, urine GAG, BUN, Cr, Na, and K) and histological analyses. Results: The results of this study showed that MIF antagonist (p425) significantly decreased urine protein and GAG excretion, urine protein/creatinine ratio, and serum BUN and Cr in the streptozotocin-induced DN in the rats. Pathological changes were significantly alleviated in the MIF antagonist (p425)-administered DN rats. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggested that MIF antagonist (p425) was able to protect against functional and histopathological injury in the DN.


Resumo Introdução: Supõe-se que elevações da expressão do fator de inibição da migração de macrófagos (MIF) possam contribuir para a patogênese da nefropatia diabética (ND). O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos renais da inibição do MIF em um modelo experimental diabético. Métodos: Dezoito ratos Wistar machos (230 ± 20g) foram divididos em três grupos: 1) controle, 2) diabético (STZ 50 mg/kg dissolvida em soro fisiológico, IP), 3) diabético + antagonista do MIF (p425 1 mg/kg por dia IP no 21o dia por 21 dias consecutivos). O tratamento começou após a identificação de aumento significativo na albuminúria nos ratos diabéticos em relação aos controles. Os ratos foram mantidos individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas (8h-14h) e amostras de urina foram colhidas no 21o e no 42o dia. Ao final do estudo, amostras de sangue e tecido foram colhidas para análises bioquímicas (BS, excreção urinária de proteína, excreção urinária de GAGs, BUN, Cr, Na e K) e histológicas. Resultados: O presente estudo demonstrou que o antagonista do MIF (p425) diminuiu significativamente proteinúria, excreção urinária de GAGs , relação proteína/creatinina na urina, BUN e Cr no grupo com ND induzida por estreptozotocina. As alterações patológicas foram significativamente abrandadas nos ratos com ND que receberam antagonista do MIF (p425). Conclusão: Coletivamente, os dados sugerem que o antagonista do MIF (p425) teve efeito protetor contra lesões funcionais e histopatológicas da ND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/therapy , Blood Glucose , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Creatinine/urine , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/urine , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Albuminuria/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Glycosaminoglycans/urine , Kidney/pathology , Macrophage Activation
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 323-329, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1040257

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after ischemic stroke has been associated to a worse prognosis. There is a lack of Brazilian studies evaluating this issue. This study aimed to describe the impact of AKI after a first-ever ischemic stroke in relation to fatality rate in 30 days. Methods: This was a retrospective hospital-based cohort. We included patients who had their first ischemic stroke between January to December 2015. AKI was defined by an increase of serum creatinine in relation to baseline value at admission ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or a rise in serum creatinine level by 1.5 times the baseline value at any point in the first week after admission. We performed a univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate the presence of AKI with fatality in 30 days. Results: The final study population (n=214) had mean age of 66.46 ± 13.73 years, 48.1% were men, the mean NIHSS was 6.33 ± 6.27 and 20 (9.3%) presented AKI. Patients with AKI were older, had a higher score on the NIHSS, and had higher creatinine values on hospital discharge. The 30-day mortality was higher in the AKI subgroup compared to non-AKI (35% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001). AKI was an independent predictor of fatality after an ischemic stroke but limited by severity of stroke (NIHSS). Conclusion: The presence of AKI is an important complication after ischemic stroke. Despite its impact on 30-day fatality, the predictive strength of AKI was limited by the severity of stroke.


Resumo Introdução: A ocorrência de insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) após acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) está associada a pior prognóstico. Há uma deficiência de estudos brasileiros a respeito dessa questão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever o impacto da IRA após o primeiro episódio de AVCI em relação à taxa de letalidade em 30 dias. Métodos: A presente coorte retrospectiva de base hospitalar incluiu pacientes que sofreram seu primeiro AVCI entre janeiro e dezembro de 2015. IRA foi definida por elevações da creatinina sérica em relação ao valor basal na internação ≥ 0.3 mg/dL ou aumento da creatinina sérica equivalente a 1,5 vez o valor basal em qualquer instante durante a primeira semana após a internação. Foi realizada análise univariada e multivariada para avaliar a presença de IRA com letalidade em 30 dias. Resultados: A população final do estudo (n = 214) apresentou média de idade de 66,46 ± 13,73 anos; 48,1% eram homens; a média de pontuação no NIHSS foi 6,33 ± 6,27; e 20 (9,3%) apresentaram IRA. Pacientes com IRA tinham idade mais avançada, pontuação maior na NIHSS e valores mais elevados de creatinina no momento da alta hospitalar. A mortalidade em 30 dias foi maior no subgrupo com IRA em comparação ao grupo sem IRA (35% vs. 6,2%, p < 0,001). IRA foi preditor independente de mortalidade após AVCI, porém limitado pela gravidade do acidente vascular cerebral (NIHSS). Conclusão: A presença de IRA é uma complicação importante após AVCI. Apesar de seu impacto na letalidade de 30 dias, a força preditiva da IRA foi limitada pela gravidade do AVC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Stroke/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Hospitalization
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 925-931, Sept.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040066

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and outcomes of endovascular treatment of TRAS with PTA. Materials and Methods We searched our prospectively collected database looking at cases of TRAS between January 2005-December 2011. CCT was the gold-standart for diagnosis of TRAS. Parameters analysed comprised technical aspects, arterial blood pressure variation, and renal function. A minimum follow-up of 24 months was considered. Results Of the 2221 renal transplants performed in the selected period, 22 (0.9%) patients were identified with TRAS. Fourteen (63.6%) were male and mean age was 377±14.8years (12-69). Kidney graft was from deceased donnors in 20 (80%) cases. On doppler evaluation, mean blood flow speed after transplantation, at TRAS diagnosis and after TAP was 210.6±99.5, 417±122.7 and 182.5±81.6mL/sec, respectively (p<0.001). For SBP and DBP, there was a significant difference between between pre-intervention and all post-treatment time points (p<0.001). After 1 month of the procedure, there was stabilization of the Cr level with a significant difference between mean Cr levels along time (p<0.001). After a mean follow-up of 16±4.2 (3-24) months, overall success rate was 100%. Conclusions Endovascular treatment with PTA/stenting is a safe and effective option for managing TRAS, ensuring the functionality of the graft and normalization of blood pressure and renal function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Renal Artery Obstruction/surgery , Renal Artery Obstruction/etiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Angioplasty/methods , Renal Artery Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Angiography/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Creatinine/blood , Middle Aged
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 765-774, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019890

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To primarily evaluate the functional outcomes of PCNL for bilateral renal calculi/calculi in solitary functioning kidney with Chronic Kidney Disease(CKD). To identify factors affecting the renal replacement therapy following PCNL. Materials and Methods Patients with bilateral renal calculi/calculi in solitary kidney and CKD (eGFR<60/s.creatinine>2) and Good Performance Status [Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG): 0-2] were included in the study. Results A total of 60 patients with CKD who had bilateral renal calculi/calculi in solitary functioning kidney underwent PCNL. At 6 months, eGFR improved or stabilized in 45 (75%) patients, while in 15 (25%) patients eGFR deteriorated. A total of 5 (14.28%) and 2 (25%) patients of CKD stage 4 and 5 respectively had improvement in eGFR as well as CKD stage. Fourteen (82.35%), 21 (60%), 3 (37.5%) patients of CKD stage 3, 4, 5 had improvement in eGFR but not significant enough to cause stage migration. Again 3 (17.65%) , 9 ( 40%) and 3 (37.5%) patients of CKD stage 3, 4, 5 had reduction in eGFR but not significant enough to cause stage migration. None of the patients had worsening of CKD stage. Preoperative CKD stage and eGFR were compared with measurements made at the final follow up visit (6 months). Conclusion Our results indicate that most patients of renal calculi with CKD show improvement or stabilization of renal function with aggressive stone removal. Improvement is more in patients who have mild to moderate CKD. Aggressive management of comorbidities, peri-operative UTI and complications may delay or avoid progression of CKD status in such patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/surgery , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/methods , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Kidney Calculi/physiopathology , Feasibility Studies , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Urinalysis , Treatment Outcome , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , ErbB Receptors/blood , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Middle Aged
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 293-295, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012528

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (GN) is more common in elderly people compared to children and the etiology is not completely understood yet. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity occurs in 80% of the patients. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with malaise and mildly elevated creatinine diagnosed as ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis with crescents in 20 of 25 glomeruli (80%). Of these 20 crescents, 12 were cellular, 4 fibrocellular, and 4 globally sclerotic. She did not have purpura, arthritis, or systemic symptoms and she responded well to initial immunosuppressive treatment despite relatively severe histopathology. The patient was given three pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg on alternate days) initially and continued with cyclophosphamide (CYC; 2 mg/kg per day) orally for 3 months with prednisone (1 mg/kg per day). In one month, remission was achieved with normal serum creatinine and prednisone was gradually tapered. The case of this child with a relatively rare pediatric disease emphasizes the importance of early and aggressive immunosuppressive treatment in patients with renal-limited ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic GN even if with a mild clinical presentation. As in our patient, clinical and laboratory findings might not always exactly reflect the severity of renal histopathology and thus kidney biopsy is mandatory in such children to guide the clinical management and predict prognosis.


RESUMO A glomerulonefrite (GN) pauci-imune é mais comum em idosos em comparação com crianças, e a etiologia ainda não é completamente compreendida. A positividade do anticorpo citoplasmático antineutrófilo (ANCA) ocorre em 80% dos pacientes. Relatamos o caso de uma menina de 7 anos de idade que apresentou mal-estar e creatinina discretamente elevada, diagnosticada como glomerulonefrite rapidamente progressiva pauci-imune associada a ANCA com crescentes em 20 dos 25 glomérulos (80%). Destes 20 crescentes, 12 eram celulares, 4 fibrocelulares e 4 globalmente escleróticos. Ela não apresentava púrpura, artrite ou sintomas sistêmicos e respondeu bem ao tratamento imunossupressor inicial, apesar da histopatologia relativamente grave. A paciente recebeu três pulsos de metilprednisolona intravenosa (30 mg/kg em dias alternados) inicialmente e continuou com ciclofosfamida (2 mg/kg por dia) por via oral durante 3 meses com prednisona (1 mg/kg por dia). Em um mês, a remissão foi alcançada com creatinina sérica normal e a prednisona foi gradualmente reduzida. O caso desta criança com uma doença pediátrica relativamente rara enfatiza a importância do tratamento imunossupressor precoce e agressivo em pacientes com GN rapidamente progressiva renal associada à ANCA, mesmo com uma apresentação clínica leve. Como em nossa paciente, os achados clínicos e laboratoriais podem nem sempre refletir exatamente a gravidade da histopatologia renal e, assim, a biópsia renal é obrigatória nessas crianças para orientar a conduta clínica e auxiliar no prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/blood , Kidney/pathology , Biopsy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Creatinine/blood , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Glomerulonephritis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 231-241, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012530

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Delayed graft function (DGF) is a frequent complication after deceased donor kidney transplantation with an impact on the prognosis of the transplant. Despite this, long-term impact of DGF on graft function after deceased donor kidney transplantation has not been properly evaluated. Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for DGF and the impact of its occurrence and length on graft survival and function. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed in 517 kidney transplant recipients who received a deceased donor organ between January 2008 and December 2013. Results: The incidence of DGF was 69.3% and it was independently associated with donor's final serum creatinine and age, cold ischemia time, use of antibody induction therapy and recipient's diabetes mellitus. The occurrence of DGF was also associated with a higher incidence of Banff ≥ 1A grade acute rejection (P = 0.017), lower graft function up to six years after transplantation and lower death-censored graft survival at 1 and 5 years (P < 0.05). DGF period longer than 14 days was associated with higher incidence of death-censored graft loss (P = 0.038) and poorer graft function (P < 0.001). No differences were found in patient survival. Conclusions: The occurrence of DGF has a long-lasting detrimental impact on graft function and survival and this impact is even more pronounced when DGF lasts longer than two weeks.


Resumo Introdução: A função tardia do enxerto (FTE) é uma complicação frequente após transplantes renais com doadores falecidos com repercussões sobre o prognóstico do transplante. Contudo, o impacto a longo prazo da FTE sobre a função do enxerto após transplante renal com doador falecido não foi avaliado adequadamente. Objetivo: O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os fatores de risco para FTE e o impacto de sua ocorrência e duração na sobrevida e função do enxerto. Métodos: O presente estudo observacional retrospectivo incluiu 517 receptores de transplante renal que receberam órgãos de doadores falecidos entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2013. Resultados: A incidência de FTE foi de 69,3%. Foi identificada associação independente entre FTE e creatinina sérica final e idade do doador, tempo de isquemia fria, uso de terapia de indução com anticorpos e diabetes mellitus do receptor. A ocorrência de FTE também foi associada a incidência mais elevada de rejeição aguda com classificação de Banff ≥ 1 A (P = 0,017), função reduzida do enxerto até seis anos após o transplante e menor sobrevida do enxerto censurada para óbito em 1 e 5 anos (P <0,05). Períodos de FTE superiores a 14 dias foram associados a maior incidência de perda do enxerto censurada para óbito (P = 0,038) e pior função do enxerto (P <0,001). Não foram identificadas diferenças de sobrevida nos pacientes. Conclusões: A ocorrência de FTE traz prejuízos de longa duração à função e sobrevida do enxerto. Tal impacto é ainda mais pronunciado quando a FTE persiste por mais de duas semanas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Tissue Donors , Cadaver , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Delayed Graft Function/epidemiology , Graft Survival , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Creatinine/blood , Delayed Graft Function/economics , Cold Ischemia/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 176-184, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012539

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The aim of the study was to report the implementation of a functional network for the early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with risk factors and the coordinated work between primary and specialized care in social security in Perú. Material and methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the data of patients evaluated in a health network in the city of Lima (2013 to 2016), older than 18 years, with risk factors for CKD, evaluated with serum creatinine and creatine albumin ratio in random urine (ACR). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors associated with the finding of CKD. Results: The implementation included training in renal health, installation of a digital database, organization of laboratories, and empowerment of primary care. We evaluated 42,746 patients of which 41.8% were men, with median age 69.2 years. The most frequent cause of detection was hypertension (HBP): 23,921 (55.9%). The prevalence of CKD was 12,132 (28.4%), the most frequent stage of CKD was 3a: 4735 (39.0%). Of the total, 6214 (14.5%) patients had microalbuminuria and 1335 (3.1%), macroalbuminuria. The risk of CKD increased 2.5 times (95% CI: 2.3-2.7) in patients with diabetes (DM) and HBP, in men (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and as age increased (> 77 years: OR 2.7, 95% CI: 2.5-2.8). The identification of the disease in the primary care setting is 60% less likely than in specialized care. Conclusions: One of every four patients are diagnosed with CKD, and the simultaneous diagnosis of DM and HBP and old age are the most important factors.


Resumo Introdução: O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a implementação de uma rede funcional para o diagnóstico precoce de doença renal crônica (DRC) em pacientes com fatores de risco e o coordenar os trabalhos entre atenção primária e especializada no sistema de seguridade social peruano. Material e métodos: Análise transversal dos dados de pacientes maiores de 18 anos com fatores de risco para DRC avaliados em uma rede de saúde na cidade de Lima (2013 a 2016) por meio de creatinina sérica e relação albumina/creatinina (RAC) em amostra aleatória de urina. Análise de regressão logística multivariada foi executada para avaliar os fatores associados à presença de DRC. Resultados: A implementação incluiu treinamento em saúde renal, instalação de um banco de dados digital, organização de laboratórios e empoderamento da atenção primária. Foram avaliados 42.746 pacientes, dos quais 41,8% eram homens, com idade mediana de 69,2 anos. A causa mais comum de detecção foi hipertensão, observada em 23.921 indivíduos (55,9%). A prevalência de DRC foi de 12.132 (28,4%), com estágio 3A sendo o mais frequente com 4735 casos (39,0%). Do total, 6214 (14,5%) pacientes apresentavam microalbuminúria e 1335 (3,1%) macroalbuminúria. O risco de DRC foi 2,5 vezes maior (IC 95%: 2,3-2,7) nos pacientes com diabetes e hipertensão, em homens (OR 1,2, IC 95%: 1,2-1,3) e idosos (> 77 anos: OR 2,7, IC 95%: 2,5-2,8). A identificação da doença no cenário da atenção primária é 60% menos provável do que na atenção especializada. Conclusões: Um em cada quatro pacientes é diagnosticado com DRC. Idade avançada e diagnóstico simultâneo de DM e hipertensão são os fatores mais relevantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Primary Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Peru/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Early Diagnosis , Diabetes Complications , Albuminuria , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Hypertension/complications
18.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 193-199, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the frequency of albuminuria in overweight and obese children and adolescents and to relate it to the severity of obesity, pubertal staging, associated morbidities and the glomerular filtration rate. Method: Cross-sectional study including 64 overweight and obese children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years of age. Data collected: weight, height, waist circumference and systemic arterial pressure. Laboratory tests: lipid profile; glycemia and insulin, used to calculate the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR); C-reactive protein; glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and albuminuria in an isolated urine sample (cutoff <30 mg/g). Creatinine was used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2). Results: The mean age was 11.6 ± 3.4 years, 32 (50%) and 29 (45.3%) were male and prepubertal. Forty-six (71.9%) had severe obesity. The frequency and median (min/max) of the observed values for albuminuria (> 30 mg/g) were 14 (21.9%) and 9.4 mg/g (0.70, -300.7 mg/g). The mean eGFR was 122.9 ± 24.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. There was no significant correlation between body mass index, pubertal staging, insulin and HOMA-IR with albuminuria values and neither with eGFR. Children with albuminuria tended to have higher values of diastolic blood pressure (75.0 ± 12.2 vs. 68.1 ± 12.4, p = 0.071). Conclusion: Albuminuria, although frequent in children and adolescents with obesity, was not associated with other morbidities and the glomerular filtration rate in these patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever a frequência de albuminúria em crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e relacioná-la com a gravidade da obesidade, estadiamento puberal, morbidades associadas e com a taxa de filtração glomerular. Método: Estudo transversal incluindo 64 crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade entre 5 e 19 anos de idade. Dados coletados: peso, estatura, circunferência abdominal e pressão arterial sistêmica. Exames laboratoriais: perfil lipídico; glicemia e insulina, utilizados para cálculo do Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR); proteína C reativa; transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica e albuminúria em amostra isolada de urina (ponto de corte < 30 mg/g). A creatinina foi utilizada para o cálculo da taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (eTFG, mL/min/1,73m2). Resultados: A média de idade foi 11,6±3,4 anos, 32 (50%) e 29 (45,3%) eram do gênero masculino e pré-púberes. Quarenta e seis (71,9%) apresentavam obesidade grave. A frequência e a mediana (min/max) dos valores observados para albuminúria (> 30 mg/g) foram 14 (21,9%) e 9,4 mg/g (0,70; -300,7 mg/g). A média da eTFG foi 122,9±24,7 mL/min/1,73 m2. Não houve correlação significante entre o índice de massa corporal, estadiamento puberal, insulina e HOMA-IR com os valores de albuminúria e nem com a eTFG. Crianças com albuminúria tiveram tendência a valores mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica (75,0±12,2 vs 68,1±12,4, p = 0,071). Conclusão: A albuminúria, apesar de frequente em crianças e adolescentes com obesidade, não se associou com outras morbidades e nem com a taxa de filtração glomerular nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Morbidity , Puberty , Creatinine/blood , Insulin/blood
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 200-207, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012544

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing, with a potential impact in the risk of acceleration of dementia. The potential association between glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cognitive performance was scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance levels across different degrees of kidney function. Methods: We analyzed 240 outpatients in a nephrology service, classified according to eGFR: Advanced (≤ 30ml/min/1.73m2), Moderate (30,1ml/min/1.73m2 to ≤ 60ml/min/1.73m2), and Mild CKD (> 60ml/min/1.73m2). Word list memory, Semantic fluency, Mental State Mini Exam and Trail Making Test (TMT) were applied to evaluate cognitive performance. In the TMT, lower scores are associated with better cognition. In linear regression, cognitive function was considered as dependent variables while groups based on eGFR were considered explanatory variables. The group with eGFR > 60ml/min was the reference and models were adjusted for confounding factors. Results: In our population (n = 240) 64 patients (26.7%) were classified as having advanced, 98(40,8%) moderate, and 78(32,5%) mild. There was no statistical difference among them in MMSE or in the verbal fluency test. However, comparing to mild, patients with advanced CKD presented significantly worse cognitive performance measured by TMTA [50,8s ± 31.1s versus 66,6s ± 35,7s (p = 0.016)] and TMTB [92,7s ± 46,2s versus 162,4s ± 35,7s (p < 0.001)]. Significantly lower TMTB scores (CI95%) 33,0s (4,5-61,6s) were observed in patients with mild compared to advanced CKD in the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, sex, diabetes, and alcohol use. Conclusion: Advanced CKD is independently associated with poorer cognitive performance measured by an executive performance test compared to mild CKD.


RESUMO Introdução: A elevação da prevalência de doença renal crônica (DRC) traz consigo um impacto potencial sobre o risco de aceleração da demência. A possível associação entre taxa de filtração glomerular (TFGe) e desempenho cognitivo foi pouco estudada. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os níveis de desempenho cognitivo em indivíduos com diferentes graus de função renal. Métodos: Foram analisados 240 pacientes ambulatoriais atendidos em um serviço de nefrologia classificados segundo a TFGe em grupos com DRC avançada (≤ 30ml/min/1,73m2), moderada (30,1ml/min/1,73m2 a ≤ 60ml/min/1,73m2) ou leve (> 60ml/min/1,73m2). Testes de memória por listas de palavras, fluência semântica, o mini exame do estado mental e o teste das trilhas (TT) foram aplicados para avaliar o desempenho cognitivo. No TT, escores mais baixos representam melhor cognição. Na regressão linear, função cognitiva foi considerada como variável dependente, enquanto os grupos baseados na TFGe foram considerados como variáveis explicativas. O grupo com TFGe > 60ml/min foi utilizado como referência e os modelos foram ajustados para fatores de confusão. Resultados: Em nossa população (n = 240), 64 pacientes (26,7%) foram diagnosticados com DRC avançada, 98 (40,8%) com DRC moderada e 78 (32,5%) com DRC leve. Não houve diferença estatística entre eles no MEEM ou no teste de fluência verbal. Contudo, em relação aos indivíduos com DRC leve, os pacientes com DRC avançada apresentaram desempenho cognitivo significativamente pior medido pelo TT A [50,8s ± 31,1s x 66,6s ± 35,7s (p = 0,016)] e TT B [92,7s ± 46,2s x 162,4s ± 35,7s (p < 0,001)]. Escores significativamente mais baixos no TT B (IC95%) 33,0s (4,5-61,6s) foram observados nos pacientes com DRC leve em comparação com o grupo com DRC avançada na análise multivariada ajustada para idade, escolaridade, sexo, diabetes e uso de álcool. Conclusão: DRC avançada esteve independentemente associada a pior desempenho cognitivo medido por um teste de desempenho executivo em comparação à DRC leve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Executive Function , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Glomerular Filtration Rate
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 588-604, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze pre-transplantation and early postoperative factors affecting post-transplantation urine output and develop a predictive nomogram. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of non-preemptive first transplanted adult patients between 2001-2016. The outcomes were hourly diuresis in mL/Kg in the 1st (UO1) and 8th (UO8) postoperative days (POD). Predictors for both UO1 and UO8 were cold ischemia time (CIT), patient and donor age and sex, HLA I and II compatibility, pre-transplantation duration of renal replacement therapy (RRT), cause of ESRD (ESRD) and immunosuppressive regimen. UO8 predictors also included UO1, 1st/0th POD plasma creatinine concentration ratio (Cr1/0), and occurrence of acute cellular rejection (AR). Multivariable linear regression was employed to produce nomograms for UO1 and UO8. Results: Four hundred and seventy-three patients were included, mostly deceased donor kidneys' recipients (361, 70.4%). CIT inversely correlated with UO1 and UO8 (Spearman's p=-0.43 and −0.37). CR1/0 inversely correlated with UO8 (p=-0.47). On multivariable analysis UO1 was mainly influenced by CIT, with additional influences of donor age and sex, HLA II matching and ESRD. UO1 was the strongest predictor of UO8, with significant influences of AR and ESRD. Conclusions: The predominant influence of CIT on UO1 rapidly wanes and is replaced by indicators of functional recovery (mainly UO1) and allograft's immunologic acceptance (AR absence). Mean absolute errors for nomograms were 0.08 mL/Kg h (UO1) and 0.05 mL/Kg h (UO8).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Nomograms , Diuresis/physiology , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Time Factors , Linear Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Kidney Transplantation/rehabilitation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Delayed Graft Function/physiopathology , Cold Ischemia , Middle Aged
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