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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): 14-20, feb 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353406

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El acoso escolar (bullying) comprende conductas de intimidación, hostigamiento y acoso físico o psicológicoejercidas intencionalmente por un escolar(acosador) contra otro (víctima) en formareiterada. Incluye el maltrato físico y verbal, la exclusión social y el ciberacoso (ciberbullying). Las víctimas incrementan el ausentismo escolar y tienen más riesgo de desarrollar síntomassomáticos, ansiedad, depresión y suicidio. Si bien el cuestionario Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) para la pesquisa de acoso escolar (19 ítems) fue validado en España en 2016, no se contaba con una herramienta validadaen Argentina. Objetivo. Obtener una versión abreviadaadaptada al español hablado en Argentina del cuestionario APRI. Población y método. Se realizó una adaptación transcultural al español hablado en Argentina del cuestionario APRI para la pesquisa deacoso escolar en adolescentes y, posteriormente, la reducción de ítems mediante un procesomatemático (análisis factorial exploratorio) y conceptual (comité de expertos). Participaron adolescentes de 13 a 17 años que cursabanestudios secundarios en dos escuelas estatales de la localidad Boulogne Sur Mer en San Isidro, provincia de Buenos Aires. Resultados. Se obtuvo una versión abreviada delcuestionario, conformada por 14 ítems divididosen dos dominios: maltrato físico y victimización verbal y social. Conclusiones. El cuestionario abreviado obtenidotiene equivalencia semántica con la versiónoriginal y cuenta, además, con una adecuada validez aparente y de contenido.


Introduction. Bullying encompasses intentional intimidation, abuse, and physical or psychological harassment behaviors by a student (bully) against another student (victim) repeatedly. It includes physical and verbal abuse, social exclusion, and cyberbullying. Victims miss school more often and have a higher risk for somatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, and suicide. Although the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) is a bullying screening questionnaire (19 items) validated in Spain in 2016, there was no validated instrument available in Argentina. Objective. To obtain a short version adapted to Argentine Spanish of the APRI. Population and method. The APRI, a questionnaire to screen for bullying among adolescents, was cross-culturally adapted to Argentine Spanish language and then questionnaire items were reduced by a mathematical process (exploratory factor analysis) and a conceptual process (expert committee). Participants were adolescents aged 13-17 years who were attending secondary public schools in the city of Boulogne Sur Mer, San Isidro, province of Buenos Aires. Results. A short questionnaire version made up of 14 items divided into 2 dimensions (physical abuse and social and verbal victimization) was obtained. Conclusions. The resulting short questionnaire is semantically equivalent to the original version and also has adequate apparent and content validity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Crime Victims/psychology , Bullying/psychology , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Language
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1390747

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de la investigación fue comprender los efectos de la escritura autobiográfica en la elaboración de los duelos, la transformación subjetiva y la construcción de la memoria de mujeres víctimas del conflicto armado. Este artículo se concentra en lo relativo a los procesos de duelo. Método: la investigación tuvo un enfoque cualitativo y el método utilizado fue el interaccionismo simbólico; se hizo un estudio de caso con un grupo de mujeres participantes en procesos de escritura autobiográfica; la información se recolectó con entrevistas semiestructuradas, talleres de escritura y selección de textos. Resultados: la escritura auto-biográfica cumple una función positiva en el duelo de las mujeres al contribuir a procesos como: ordenar narrativamente el caos provocado por la violencia, nombrar y trabajar las pérdidas, dotar de sentidos íntimos y sociales al dolor y reconstruir las relaciones con lo perdido, con el mundo y consigo mismas. Conclusión: la escritura es un recurso valioso para avanzar en el duelo, a la manera de un ritual de despedida, ayuda a situar lo perdido en el ámbito de la memoria y a reconstruir la vida contando con la ausencia


The objective of the research was to understand the effects of autobiographical writing on the elaboration of grief, the subjective transformation and the construction of the memory of women victims of the armed conflict. This article focuses on the grief processes. Method: the approach was qualitative, the method was symbolic interactionism; a case study was made with a group of women participating in autobiographical writing processes; information was collected through semi-structured interviews, writing workshops and text selection. Results: Autobiographical writing plays a positive role in women's grief by contributing to processes such as: narrative order of chaos caused by violence, naming and working through losses, giving intimate and social meaning to pain, and reconstruction relationships with what was lost, with the world and with themselves. It is concluded that this kind of writing is a valuable resource to advance in mourning elaboration; in the manner of a farewell ritual it helps to situate the lost in the sphere of memory and to reconstruct life counting on absence


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Autobiographies as Topic , Grief , Crime Victims/psychology , Violence Against Women
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1390749

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo pretende comprender la experiencia subjetiva de mujeres víctimas y excombatientes de las FARC en torno al perdón y la reconciliación. Para ello, se realizó una investigación de corte cualitativo con enfoque fenomenológico-hermenéutico, basada en postulados de la psicología social crítica latinoamericana. Las técnicas para recolectar información fueron la observación participante, la entrevista en profundidad y los grupos de conversación, en donde participaron 8 víctimas y 4 excombatientes. Se realizó un análisis hermenéutico de contenido, identificando concepciones que las participantes tienen sobre perdón y reconciliación, identificando experiencias vividas. Uno de los principales hallazgos es que en el proceso para perdonar y reconciliarse, las participantes transforman su subjetividad, asumiendo reivindicar sus derechos ante el Estado y redescubriendo su humanidad después de la guerra; finalmente, las excombatientes cam-bian las armas por palabras


This work aims to understand the subjective experience of women victims and women ex-combatants of the FARC, around forgiveness and reconciliation. For this purpose, a qualitative research was conducted with a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, based on postulates of Latin American critical social psychology. The techniques to collect information were participant observation, in-depth interview and conversation groups, in which 8 victims and 4 ex-combatants participated. a hermeneutical analysis of content was carried out, identifying conceptions that the participants have about forgiveness and reconciliation, identifying lived experiences. One of the main findings is that, in the process of forgiving and reconciling, the participants transform their subjectivity, assuming to restore their rights before the State and rediscovering their humanity after the war. Finally, ex-combatants change weapons for words


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Negotiating/psychology , Forgiveness , Socialization , Women/psychology , Crime Victims/psychology , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Criminals/psychology , Gun Violence/psychology
4.
Psico USF ; 26(4): 673-684, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1365252

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the impact of victimization caused by bullying on the mental health of adolescents. It is a qualitative investigation conducted with 55 students from 11 public schools in a city of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and reviewed according to content analysis using Atlas TI software. A total of 19 students participating in the study reported having already suffered bullying at school. It was verified in the narratives that the victimization by bullying represents a threat to the health and mental well-being of the students, characterizing itself as a painful, daily and lasting experience in the school trajectory. Four thematic categories were identified: 1) Mental illness attributed to the aggressions suffered; 2) Negative emotions associated with school and peer relationships; 3) Impotence and passivity; and 4) distrust of weak institutional responses. The results can support interventions to promote mental health at school with victimized students. (AU)


Este estudo objetivou compreender o impacto da vitimização por bullying na saúde mental de adolescentes. Trata-se de uma investigação qualitativa, desenvolvida junto a 55 estudantes de 11 escolas públicas de uma cidade do interior de Minas Gerais. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas e analisados segundo a análise de conteúdo no software Atlas.TI. No grupo de participantes, 19 estudantes revelaram já ter sofrido bullying na escola. Verificou-se nas narrativas que a vitimização por bullying representa uma ameaça à saúde e bem-estar mental, caracterizando-se como uma experiência negativa, cotidiana e duradoura na trajetória escolar. Quatro categorias temáticas foram identificadas: 1) Sofrimentos mentais atribuídos às agressões sofridas; 2) Emoções negativas associadas à escola e aos relacionamentos com pares; 3) Impotência e passividade; e 4) Desconfiança diante das fracas respostas institucionais. Os resultados podem subsidiar intervenções com foco na promoção da saúde mental na escola junto aos estudantes vitimizados. (AU)


Este estudio tuvo por objetivo comprender el impacto de la victimización por acoso escolar en la salud mental de los adolescentes. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, desarrollada junto a 55 estudiantes de 11 escuelas públicas brasileñas. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas y analizadas según el análisis de contenido en el software Atlas.TI. 19 estudiantes revelaron ya haber sufrido acoso en la escuela. Se verificó que la victimización representa una amenaza para la salud mental y el bienestar, caracterizándose como una experiencia negativa, cotidiana y duradera en la trayectoria escolar. Se identificaron cuatro categorías temáticas: 1) las enfermedades mentales atribuidas a las agresiones sufridas; 2) Emociones negativas asociadas a la escuela y a las relaciones con pares; 3) Impotencia y pasividad; y 4) Desconfianza ante las débiles respuestas institucionales. Los resultados pueden subsidiar intervenciones con foco en la promoción de la salud mental en la escuela. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Mental Health , Crime Victims/psychology , Bullying/psychology , Students/psychology , Qualitative Research , Interview, Psychological
5.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(2): 157-161, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore distinctive links between specific depressive symptoms (e.g., anhedonia, ineffectiveness, interpersonal problems, negative mood, and negative self-esteem) and cyberbullying victimization (CBV). METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data from 268 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 15 years-old (50.7% female) who responded to the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and to the Revised Cyberbullying Inventory (RCBI). RESULTS: CBV was positively associated with all CDI's domains (anhedonia, ineffectiveness, interpersonal problems, negative mood, and negative self-esteem). Demographics ­ such as age and gender ­ were not significant in explaining CBV. However, ineffectiveness (B = .46, p = .04) and negative mood (B = .37, p < .05) significantly predicted CBV. CONCLUSION: This study reports the first Brazilian examination of the links existing between CBV and specific types of depressive symptoms. Data reinforce the negative impact of cyberbullying experiences on youth's mental health, highlighting stronger associations between negative mood and CBV, which could inform more tailored interventions.


OBJETIVO: Explorar as associações diferenciais entre sintomas depressivos específicos (anedonia, ineficácia, problemas interpessoais, humor deprimido e autoestima negativa) e vitimização por cyberbullying. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo e transversal que coletou dados de 268 adolescentes, com idades entre 13 e 15 anos (50,7% do sexo feminino), que responderam ao Inventário de Depressão Infantil (CDI) e ao Inventário de Cyberbullying revisado. RESULTADOS: A vitimização por cyberbullying esteve associada positivamente com todos os domínios avaliados pelo CDI (anedonia, ineficácia, problemas interpessoais, humor deprimido e autoestima negativa). Dados demográficos ­ como idade e sexo ­ não se mostraram significativos na predição da vitimização por cyberbullying. Todavia, ineficácia (B = 0,46, p = 0,04) e humor negativo (B = 0,37, p < 0,05) foram preditores significativos da vitimização por cyberbullying. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo apresenta os primeiros resultados empíricos brasileiros associando a vitimização por cyberbullying com sintomas específicos de depressão. Os dados reforçam o impacto negativo das experiências de cyberbullying na saúde mental dos jovens, revelando associações mais robustas entre humor deprimido e vitimização por cyberbullying, o que pode subsidiar ações de tratamento e prevenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent Psychiatry , Crime Victims/psychology , Depression/psychology , Cyberbullying , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Emotions
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1222332

ABSTRACT

El enfoque de Habilidades para la Vida (Hpv) es una iniciativa de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (who, 1993) surgido de la integración de varias teorías que explican el desarrollo humano y social. Este estudio transversal tuvo como objetivo describir el desempeño autoreportado de las habilidades para la vida en jóvenes víctimas del conflicto armado interno en Colombia. Participaron 35 jóvenes de 18 a 25 años (m = 21.91, dt = 0.48) de los cuales el 67.5 % eran mujeres. Los participantes han sido víctimas del conflicto armado interno en Colombia, residían en varios municipios del país y estaban vinculados a un programa de fortalecimiento emocional. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y se evalúo el desempeño autoreportado con base en la media de respuesta por factor de la escala de habilidades para la vida. Los resultados evidenciaron un nivel más alto de desarrollo autoreportado en las habilidades de comunicación asertiva, y manejo de tensiones y estrés. En contraste, se observaron niveles bajos de competencia en las habilidades de solución de problemas y conflictos, empatía, y manejo de sentimientos y emociones. Se discute la necesidad de desarrollar investigaciones y programas de intervención en habilidades para la vida en personas que han sufrido las consecuencias negativas del conflicto armado.


The Life Skills (LS) approach is an initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO), which arises from the integration of various theories that explain human and social development. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the self-reported performance of life skills in young victims of the internal armed conflict in Colombia. 35 young people between 18 and 25 years old participated (M = 21.91, SD = 0.48) of which 67.5% were women. The participants have been victims of the internal armed conflict in Colombia, they live in several municipalities of the country and were linked to an emotional strengthening program. Descriptive analyses were carried out and self-reported performance was evaluated based on the mean response by each factor of the life skills scale. The results showed a higher level of self-reported development in assertive communication skills, and stress and tension management. In contrast, low levels of competence were observed in problem and conflict solving skills, empathy, and handling of feelings and emotions. The need to develop research and intervention programs in life skills in people who have suffered the negative consequences of the armed conflict is discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Crime Victims/psychology , Psychology, Adolescent , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Social Skills
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341981

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar las habilidades sociales de los universitarios víctimas del conflicto armado colombiano en Boyacá, Colombia. Los participantes fueron la totalidad de estudiantes de un programa de pregrado que reportaron exposición al conflicto armado, matriculados para el 2018 en una institución universitaria de carácter privado del municipio de Tunja, departamento Boyacá. Se empleó el método estudio de caso, mediante el cual se analizaron entrevistas a profundidad y diarios de campo en el contexto educativo. Los resultados muestran afectaciones significativas en las habilidades sociales en los cuatro grupos que la conforman según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS): comunicación, empatía, asertividad y trabajo en equipo. Este estudio permitió demostrar la relevancia que tienen las habilidades sociales en diversos escenarios y cómo pueden verse afectadas por fenómenos de orden social como el conflicto armado colombiano. El diagnóstico puso en evidencia la importancia que tiene la psicología social en el contexto educativo hacia la prevención, tratamiento y evaluación de factores psicosociales que afectan la calidad de vida del individuo y grupo en el que se encuentra inmerso.


The objective of this research was to characterize the social skills of university students' victims of the Colombian armed conflict in Boyacá, Colombia. The participants were the totality of students who reported exposure to the armed conflict of an undergraduate program, enrolled for 2018 in a private university institution in the municipality of Tunja, Boyacá department. The case study method was used, through which in-depth interviews and field diaries in the educational context were analyzed. The results show significant affectations in social skills in the four groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO): communication, empathy, assertiveness and teamwork. This study demonstrated the relevance of social skills in different scenarios and how they can be affected by social phenomena such as the Colombian armed conflict. The diagnosis highlighted the importance of social psychology in the educational context for the prevention, treatment and evaluation of psychosocial factors that affect the quality of life of the individual and the group in which he/she is immersed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Armed Conflicts/psychology , Psychology, Social , Students/psychology , Crime Victims/psychology , Social Skills
8.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 33: e228632, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1279594

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo analisa as narrativas de mulheres e homens; mães e pais; cuidadoras e cuidadores de crianças e adolescentes envolvidos em denúncias de abuso sexual, na condição de vítimas, e que foram, por essa razão, inseridas/os no sistema de garantia de direitos, objetivando demonstrar o que pensam, que enunciados utilizam para falar sobre o abuso sexual e os sentidos atribuídos à sua inserção na rede de atendimentos. Para auxiliar a operar teoricamente utilizou-se a noção de biopolítica, enquanto uma forma de governo e uma tecnologia do poder de Foucault, associada às ideias de um governo pela psicologia de Castel e à retórica do trauma de Fassin. A partir da análise, é possível descrever como o abuso se torna a forma de legitimação maior para que se possa acessar a proteção do Estado e como as formas de governar capturam a todos/as e balizam as narrativas em sutis esferas.


Resumen Este artículo analiza las narrativas de mujeres y hombres, madres y padres, cuidadores de niñas, niños y adolescentes involucrados en denuncias de abuso sexual, como víctimas, y que fueron, por eso, insertados en el sistema de garantía de derechos, con el objetivo de demostrar lo que piensan, qué declaraciones utilizan para hablar sobre el abuso sexual y los significados atribuidos a su inserción en la red de asistencia. Para ayudar a operar teóricamente, se utilizó la noción de biopolítica, como una forma de gobierno y una tecnología de poder de Foucault, asociada a las ideas de un gobierno de la psicología de Castel y la retórica del trauma de Fassin. A partir del análisis es posible describir cómo el abuso se convierte en la forma de mayor legitimación para que se pueda acceder a la protección del Estado y cómo las formas de gobernar capturan a todas y todos y marcan las narrativas en esferas sutiles.


Abstract This article analyzes the narratives of men and women; mothers and fathers and caretakers of children and adolescents involved in sexual abuse allegations, as victims, and that, for that reason, they have been inserted in the Rights Guarantee System, aiming to demonstrate what they think, what statements they use to talk about sexual abuse and the meanings attributed to their insertion in the care network. To facilitate the theoretical comprehension, the notion of Biopolitics was used as a type of government and one of Foucault's technologies of power, also linked to the ideas of a government for Castel's psychology and to Fassin's rhetoric of trauma. From the analysis it is possible to describe how the abuse becomes the major way of legitimizing in order to access the government protection, and how the forms of government capture all people and support the narratives in subtle ways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child Abuse, Sexual/legislation & jurisprudence , Child Advocacy , Protective Factors , Parents , Caregivers , Crime Victims/psychology , Whistleblowing , Personal Narrative
9.
Aval. psicol ; 20(4): 486-494, out.-diez. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1350180

ABSTRACT

The paper presents an exploratory and descriptive quantitative study, involving 560 Portuguese parents with school children, aged between 6 and 17 years. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire that was made available online and focused on the use of social networks, the Internet and the risk of online grooming. The results showed that about half of the participants did not know the term 'online grooming'. After defining the phenomenon, 97% of the participants considered it very seriously. To prevent risk, 52% of the participants reported talking with their children about online risks and taking precautions to reduce the children's vulnerability. Approximately 89% of the respondents said they knew where to report cybercrime. The study aimed to contribute to a greater awareness of the risks associated with the Internet, involving parents and caregivers in the prevention of situations of victimization of children and adolescents. (AU)


O artigo apresenta um estudo quantitativo exploratório e descritivo, envolvendo 560 pais portugueses que tinham filhos em idade escolar entre 6 e 17 anos. A recolha de dados foi feita por meio de um inquérito por questionário, disponibilizado online, focado no uso das redes, da internet e no risco do online grooming. Os resultados mostraram que cerca de metade dos participantes não conhecia o termo "online grooming". Depois de definir o fenómeno, cerca de 97% dos participantes consideram-no muito grave. Para prevenir, 52% dos participantes disseram conversar com seus filhos sobre os riscos online e tomar precauções para reduzir a vulnerabilidade das crianças. Cerca de 89% dos entrevistados disseram saber onde denunciar crimes cibernéticos. O estudo visa contribuir para uma maior conscientização dos riscos associados à internet, envolvendo pais e cuidadores na prevenção de situações de vitimação de crianças e adolescentes. (AU)


El artículo presenta un estudio cuantitativo exploratorio y descriptivo, en el que participaron 560 padres portugueses que tenían hijos en edad escolar entre 6 y 17 años. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo a través de una encuesta, disponible en línea, enfocada en el uso de redes, Internet y el riesgo del online grooming. Los resultados mostraron que aproximadamente la mitad de los participantes no conocían el término "online grooming". Tras definir el fenómeno, alrededor del 97% de los participantes lo consideró muy grave. Para prevenirlo, el 52% de los encuestados afirmaron hablar con sus hijos sobre los riesgos digitales y tomar precauciones para reducir la vulnerabilidad de los niños. Alrededor del 89% de los encuestados dijeron que sabían dónde denunciar los delitos cibernéticos. El estudio tiene como objetivo contribuir a una mayor conciencia de los riesgos asociados a Internet, involucrando a los padres y cuidadores en la prevención de situaciones de victimización infantil y adolescente. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Parents/psychology , Child Abuse, Sexual/psychology , Crime Victims/psychology , Internet Access , Portugal , Safety , Surveys and Questionnaires , Factor Analysis, Statistical
10.
Psico USF ; 25(3): 403-414, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135738

ABSTRACT

Este estudo buscou avaliar os efeitos de moderação do apoio social e da resiliência na relação entre o Estresse de Minorias (EM) e desfechos de saúde mental. Participaram desse estudo 337 mulheres, sendo 42,43% lésbicas (n = 143) e 57,57% bissexuais (n = 194), maiores de 18 anos (M = 26 anos; DP = 17,3). As participantes responderam escalas de homofobia internalizada, vitimização, revelação da orientação sexual, felicidade subjetiva, satisfação com a vida, depressão, ansiedade e estresse, apoio social e resiliência. Foi realizada uma modelagem por equações estruturais para verificar o impacto dos estressores de minorias nas variáveis de bem-estar (BES) e psicopatologia (PSP), além de testar se apoio social e resiliência moderavam essas relações. Os resultados demonstraram que a resiliência moderou a relação entre vitimização e psicopatologia. Implicações clínicas são apontadas ao longo do artigo. (AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the moderating effects of social support and resilience in the relationship between Minority Stress (MS) and mental health outcomes. A total of 337 women over 18 years of age (M = 26 years, SD = 17.3) participated in this study, including 42.43% lesbian, (n = 143) and 57.57% bisexual women (n = 194). The participants responded to scales that assessed internalized homophobia, victimization, disclosure of sexual orientation, subjective happiness, life satisfaction, depression, anxiety and stress, social support, and resilience. Structural equation modeling was performed to verify the impact of minority stressors on the well-being and psychopathology variables and to test whether social support and resilience moderated these associations. Results showed that resilience moderated the relationship between victimization and psychopathology. Clinical implications are discussed throughout the article. (AU)


Este estudio buscó evaluar los efectos de moderación de apoyo social y resiliencia en la relación entre el Estrés de Mínorías e indicadores de salud mental. En este estudio participaron 337 mujeres, siendo 42,43% lesbianas (n = 143) y 57,57% bisexuales (n = 194), mayores de 18 años de edad (M = 26 años, DP = 17,3). Los participantes respondieron escalas de homofobia internalizada, victimización, revelación de orientación sexual, felicidad subjetiva, satisfacción con la vida, depresión, ansiedad y estrés, apoyo social y resiliencia. Se realizó el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para verificar el impacto de los estresores de minorías en las variables de bienestar (BES) y psicopatología (PSP), además de testar si el apoyo social y la resiliencia moderaban estas relaciones. Los resultados demostraron que la resiliencia modera la relacción entre victimización y psicopatología. Implicaciones clínicas son señaladas a lo largo del artículo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Social Support , Stress, Psychological , Bisexuality , Mental Health , Homosexuality, Female , Crime Victims/psychology , Depression/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Homophobia/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Happiness
11.
Aval. psicol ; 19(2): 123-131, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1100899

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a vitimização em autores de violência sexual (AVS) contra crianças e adolescentes, assim como sua relação com traços de psicopatia. Participaram 30 reeducandos cumprindo pena em regime fechado por crimes sexuais contra crianças e adolescentes, que foram divididos em dois grupos: G1, AVS considerados psicopatas (PCL-R ≥ 30); G2, AVS não psicopatas (PCL-R < 30). Os instrumentos utilizados no estudo foram: Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) e Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Para análise dos dados, foi utilizada estatística descritiva e comparativa por meio do Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Os resultados apontaram que participantes do G1 sofreram mais vitimizações durante a vida do que os participantes do G2. AU


The aim of the present study was to investigate psychopathy traits in offenders that committed sexual offences against children and adolescents, as well as their relationship with life experiences of victimization. The study consisted of 30 inmates serving prison sentences for sexual crimes against children and adolescents, who were divided into two groups: G1, composed of inmates considered psychopathic (PCL-R ≥30); and G2, composed of inmates considered non-psychopathic (PCL-R <30). The results showed significant differences between the groups in relation to recidivism, escape and rebellion, showing that the psychopathic inmates were more undisciplined and more likely to reoffend than the non-psychopaths. In addition, there were indications that the G1 participants had suffered more victimization during their lives than those of the other group.AU


El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar la victimización en agresores sexuales (AS) contra niños y adolescentes, así como su relación con rasgos de psicopatía. En el estudio participaron 30 reclusos cumpliendo condena en régimen cerrado por delitos sexuales contra niños y adolescentes, los reclusos fueron divididos en dos grupos: G1, AS considerados psicópatas (PCL-R ≥ 30); G2, AS no psicópatas (PCL-R <30). Los instrumentos utilizados en el estudio fueron: Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), y Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva y comparativa mediante el Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Los resultados señalaron que los participantes del G1 sufrieron más victimizaciones durante su vida que los participantes del G2. AU


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Child Abuse, Sexual/psychology , Crime Victims/psychology , Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report
12.
Aval. psicol ; 19(2): 170-178, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1100904

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo teve como objetivo avaliar impactos da vitimização, no último ano e ao longo da vida, no desempenho acadêmico no ensino superior a partir da análise das funções executivas. Participaram do estudo 90 estudantes com idade de 19 a 24 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Five Digit Test (FDT) e o questionário Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Foram avaliados a violência ocorrida no último ano e ao longo da vida, as funções executivas (FE) e o rendimento acadêmico (CR). Os resultados apontaram que indivíduos que sofreram violência por maus-tratos e sexual no último ano apresentaram CR mais baixo em relação ao grupo que não sofreu violência. Violência por maus-tratos e violência sexual também correlacionaram positivamente com funções executivas, tanto nos processos automáticos quanto nos controlados. Os dados apontam que sofrer violências têm repercussão nas funções executivas e desempenho acadêmico na vida adulta.


This study aimed to evaluate the impact of victimization in the previous year and throughout life on academic performance in higher education from the analysis of executive functions. The study included 90 students aged 19 to 24 years. The instruments used were the Five Digit Test (FDT) and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Violence suffered in the previous year and throughout the lifetime, executive functions (EFs) and academic achievement (AC) were assessed. The results showed that individuals that had suffered abuse and sexual violence in the previous year had lower AC compared to the group that had not suffered violence. Violence through ill-treatment and sexual violence also positively correlated with executive functions in both automatic and controlled processes. The data indicate that suffering violence has repercussions on the executive functions and academic performance in adulthood.


Este artículo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el impacto de la victimización en el rendimiento académico en la educación superior, en el último año y a lo largo de la vida, a partir del análisis de las funciones ejecutivas. El estudio se realizó con 90 estudiantes con edades entre 19 y 24 años. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Five Digit Test (FDT) y el cuestionario Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Se evaluó la violencia vivida en el último año y a lo largo de la vida, las funciones ejecutivas (FE) y el rendimiento académico (CR). Los resultados mostraron que las personas que sufrieron abuso y violencia sexual en el último año tuvieron un CR más bajo en comparación con el grupo que no sufrió violencia. La violencia por maltrato y violencia sexual también se correlacionaron positivamente con las funciones ejecutivas tanto en procesos automáticos como en los controlados. Los datos indican que sufrir violencia genera repercusiones en las funciones ejecutivas y el rendimiento académico en la edad adulta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sex Offenses/psychology , Students/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Crime Victims/psychology , Universities , Executive Function , Academic Performance/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(1): 10-23, ene.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179904

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo intenta una aproximación crítico ­hermenéutica a la noción de bienestar colectivo prevalente en el Chile del 2019, utilizando como analizador los criterios diagnósticos generalmente aceptados para el Síndrome de Estocolmo, entendido éste como condición necesaria para la implantación de Políticas Públicas neoliberales y, el sostenimiento pacífico de la desigualdad, en una relación y vínculo positivo de aceptación e identificación víctima-victimario, que pareció caracterizar el estado de equilibrio y tranquilidad social de Chile hasta octubre de 2019, en el marco del modelo de sociedad de mercado establecido en la Constitución de 1980, un cuasi estudio de caso. Tomamos como referencia el discurso de instancias de gobierno y organismos nacionales e internacionales expresada en medios de comunicación, acerca de los acontecimientos que se inician en octubre 2019, y que se encuentran en pleno desarrollo. La contrastación logra evidenciar lo que puede interpretarse como fallas sorpresivas en el comportamiento clínico colectivo respecto a la noción de bienestar, entendido como éxito-consumo-conformidad, propio del modelo neoliberal, fundado en el individualismo y la competencia de mercado; y que mostrarían en el discurso colectivo de octubre 2019, algunas condiciones de posibilidad para la emergencia o re-emergencia de modelos alternos de sociedad y relacionamiento caracterizados por el bien común y los Derechos Sociales, con un bienestar identificándose progresivamente en el imaginario colectivo como, justicia social, equidad e igualdad.


This work attempts a critical-hermeneutic approach to the notion of collective well-being prevalent in Chile in 2019, using as an analyzer the generally accepted diagnostic criteria for Stockholm Syndrome, understood as a necessary condition for the implementation of neoliberal public policies and, the peaceful support of inequality, in a positive relationship and link of acceptance and victim-victim identification, which seemed to characterize the state of equilibrium and tranquility Chile until October 2019, within the framework of the market society model established in the 1980 Constitution, a quasi-case study. We refer to the discourse of national and international government bodies expressed in the media, on the events that begin in October 2019, and which are in full development. The contrast succeeds in demonstrating what can be interpreted as surprise failures in collective clinical behavior regarding the notion of well-being, understood as success-consumption-conformity, typical of the neoliberal model, based on individualism and market competition; and which would show in the collective discourse of October 2019,some conditions of possibility for the emergence or re-emergence of alternative models of society and relationship; characterized by the common good and social rights, with a well-being gradually identifying in the collective imagination as, social justice, equity and equality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Capitalism , Policy , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/psychology , Social Class , Social Welfare/psychology , Syndrome , Chile , Crime Victims/psychology
14.
Rev. psicol. (Fortaleza, Online) ; 11(1): 146-157, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1254687

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho pretende refletir sobre o dispositivo mediação vítima-ofensor, forjado de acordo com os princípios da Justiça Restaurativa, a partir das teorias psicanalíticas de grupo. Busca-se refletir sobre os processos que se dão nos encontros restaurativos sob o ponto de vista da dinâmica mudança-adaptação e das alianças inconscientes - sobretudo dos pactos denegativos. Para isto, partimos de apontamentos sobre a Justiça Restaurativa e do dispositivo mediação vítima-ofensor para, então, analisar o desenlace de uma sessão de mediação no âmbito do judiciário à luz de perspectivas psicanalíticas de grupo. Este percurso resulta na confirmação da potência do diálogo justiça restaurativa-psicanálise e aponta temas relevantes para futuras investigações.


This paper aims to reflect on victim-offender mediation, forged in accordance with the principles of Restorative Justice, based on group psychoanalytic theories. We seek to reflect on the processes that occur in restorative meetings from the standpoint of change-adaptation dynamics, unconscious alliances - especially denegative pacts. For this, we start from conceptualizing restorative justice and the victim-offender mediation to analyze the dynamics of a mediation session within the judiciary in the light of group psychoanalytic perspectives. In conclusion we get confirmation of the power of the restorative justice-psychoanalysis dialogue and point out relevant themes for future investigations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychoanalytic Theory , Negotiating , Crime Victims/psychology , Criminals/psychology
15.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(6): 518-529, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055339

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze factors associated with the prevalence of maltreatment and bullying and to identify types of involvement (verbal, physical, social, sexual, cyberbullying) among high school students aged 15 to 19 years. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based epidemiological survey was performed. The sample included 2,293 adolescents from public and private schools in the Greater Vitoria area (state of Espírito Santo, Brazil). A modified version of the Brazilian Portuguese Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used. Results: Among maltreatment behaviors, 43.3% of adolescents reported having been victims vs. 40.4% reporting to be aggressors. Among bullying behaviors, 41% reported victimization and 29.1% aggression. The most frequent types of bullying were verbal (victim = 33.8%, bully = 23.1%), social (victim = 21.8%, bully = 16.9%), and physical bullying (victim = 15.1%, bully = 8.7%). Of those reporting to be victims, 37.5% stated that they did not react as frequently as they were attacked. Almost half of the students (50.9%) identified themselves as victims, without practicing any type of aggression against another schoolmate. School network (public or private) and gender were significantly associated with victimization and aggression behaviors. Conclusion: The adolescents identified as victims did not generally attack other students, i.e., did not identify themselves as perpetrators. The high prevalence of maltreatment and bullying detected in this study, especially the verbal, social, and physical types, underscores the need for interventions addressing bullying in schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Bullying/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Students/psychology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Crime Victims/psychology , Bullying/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data
16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 509-518, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To carry out a systematic review on the relationship of bullying with type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Methods: Systematic review, according to the PRISMA methodology, in which the databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Thomson Reuters, Eighteenth Century Collections Online, Begell House Digital Library, LILACS, and SciELO were searched using the terms "bullied", "aggression", "peer victimization", "victimization", "school violence", "diabetes mellitus", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", "autoimmune diabetes", "children" and "adolescents." The authors included original studies, involving bullying associated with type 1 diabetes, with children and adolescents, without language restriction and publication period, with texts available in full. Results: Of the 32 articles found, four studies met the selection criteria. Of these studies 85.7% identified occurrence of victimization in diabetics or found a higher frequency in diabetic children and adolescents when compared with young people with other chronic conditions or with healthy peers. Association between bullying and worse glycemic control was observed in two studies, and all the studies mention the fact that type 1 diabetes is a limiting factor for socialization related to diabetes, with less social support and difficulties for the management of the disease in public environments, such as school. The type of bullying suffered varied, including physical, verbal, social, psychological, and sexual. Conclusion: Most of the studies showed an association between bullying and type 1 diabetes when compared to individuals with no such condition. Knowledge of this association has become essential for the follow-up of these patients and the implementation of preventive programs.


Resumo: Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre a relação do bullying com o diabetes tipo 1 em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: Revisão sistemática, conforme a metodologia PRISMA, onde foram pesquisadas as bases de dados Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Thomson Reuters, Eighteenth Century Collections Online, Begell House Digital Library, Lilacs e SciELO, usando os termos"bullying", "bullied", "aggression", "peer victimization", "victimization", "school violence", "diabetes mellitus", "type 1 diabetes", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", "autoimmune diabetes", "children" and "adolescents". Foram incluídos estudos originais, envolvendo bullying associado ao diabetes tipo 1, com população de crianças e adolescentes, sem restrição de idioma e período de publicação, com textos disponíveis na íntegra. Resultados: Dos 32 artigos encontrados, quatro atenderam aos critérios de seleção. Desses estudos, 85,7% identificaram ocorrência de vitimização em diabéticos ou constataram maior frequência em crianças e adolescentes diabéticos quando comparados com jovens com outras condições crônicas ou sadios. Associação entre bullying e pior controle glicêmico foi observada em dois estudos e todos os estudos mencionam o fato de ser portador do diabetes tipo 1, um fator limitante para socialização relacionado ao diabetes, com menor apoio social e dificuldades para o manejo da doença em ambientes públicos, como a escola. O tipo de bullying sofrido variou entre físico, verbal, social, psicológico e sexual. Conclusão: A maioria dos estudos evidenciou associação entre vitimização por bullying e diabetes tipo 1, quando comparada com indivíduos com ausência dessa condição. O conhecimento dessa associação torna-se fundamental para acompanhamento desses pacientes e implantação de programas preventivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Crime Victims/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Bullying , Schools , Risk Factors , Peer Influence
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(7): 2691-2700, jul. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011839

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do artigo foi avaliar a associação entre Violência por Parceiros Íntimos (VPI) e depressão em adultos brasileiros. Este estudo transversal utilizou dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) de 2013, com amostra representativa de 49.025 adultos brasileiros, com informações de VPI, depressão e condições sociodemográficas. Para a descrição de características associadas com a depressão, incluindo a exposição principal (VPI), foram realizadas análises de regressão logística simples e múltipla. As análises foram realizadas no programa Stata, versão 13.0. A prevalência de VPI foi de 1,0% na população em geral, de 0,38% entre homens e 1,58% entre mulheres. A prevalência de depressão foi 3,94% (IC95% = 3,68-4,22) na população em geral, e de 1,67% (IC95% = 1,40-1,94) entre os homens e 6,03% (IC95% = 5,57- 6,48) entre as mulheres. Vítimas de VPI tiveram mais chances de relatar depressão em relação às não vítimas (aOR = 2,90; IC95% = 1,38-6,09). Concluiu-se que depressão está associada à VPI, o que tem implicações importantes no ponto de vista da saúde pública.


Abstract The scope of this article was to assess the association between Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and depression among Brazilian adults. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2013 National Health Survey with a representative sample of 49,025 Brazilian adults, with information on IPV, depression and socio-demographic conditions. For a description of characteristics associated with depression, including the core IPV data, analyses of simple and multiple logistic regression were performed. The analyses were performed using Stata 13.0 software. The prevalence of IPV was 1% in the general population, and 0.38% among men and 1.58% among women. The prevalence of depression was 3.94% (CI 95% = 3.68-4.22) in the general population, 1.67% (CI 95% = 1.40-1.94) among men and 6.03% (CI 95% = 5.57- 6.48) among women. Victims of IPV were more likely to report depression than non-victims (aOR = 2.90; CI 95% = 1.38-6.09). The conclusion drawn is that depression is associated with intimate partner victimization, which has important implications from a public health standpoint.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Crime Victims/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(7): 2659-2666, jul. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011825

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetiva-se analisar as representações sociais do comportamento agressivo do homem sob a ótica da mulher agredida. Trata-se de um estudo de natureza qualitativa e representacional realizado com vinte mulheres que estavam sob proteção do Centro de Referência de Natal/RN, tendo como instrumento de coleta de dados a narrativa livre. Para a análise dos dados textuais, optou-se pelo uso do software ALCESTE 2010. Elaboraram-se três categorias de temáticas: i) O aprisionamento da mulher; ii) A violência e suas significações; iii) A ruptura do ciclo violento. As representações sociais do comportamento agressivo do homem sob a ótica da mulher agredida estão ancoradas nos papéis sociais do homem na família e na sociedade. Assim, configura-se um modelo de masculinidade dominante que reforça, construções familiares e repetições de papéis.


Abstract The scope of this study is to analyze the social representations of the male aggressor from the perspective of the female victim of aggression. It is a qualitative and representational study conducted, using free narrative as the data-gathering tool, with twenty women who were under the protection of the Reference Center in Natal in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. ALCESTE 2010 software was used to analyze the textual data. Three thematic categories were developed for the purpose: i) The imprisonment of women; ii) Violence and its significance; iii) Breaking the cycle of violence. From the perspective of the female victim of aggression, the social representations of the behavior of the male aggressor are entrenched in the social role of males in the family and in society. In this way, it represents a model of dominant masculinity that in turn reinforces family structures and the repetition of roles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Social Perception , Crime Victims/psychology , Aggression/psychology , Gender-Based Violence/psychology , Data Collection , Masculinity
19.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 234-237, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011496

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our study aimed to verify whether cyberbullying victimization among adolescents occurs concomitantly with other forms of violence exposure (at home, at school and in the community). Methods: A collaborative longitudinal study by Norwegian and Brazilian researchers was conducted in Itaboraí, a low-income city in southeast Brazil. At baseline, trained interviewers applied a semi-structured questionnaire to a population-based sample of 669 in-school adolescents (11-15 years old). The investigated types of violence exposure included cyberbullying, traditional bullying, severe physical punishment by parents and community violence (victimization and eye-witnessed violent events outside the home and school). Results: In the previous six months, 1.9% of the adolescents had been victims of cyberbullying, and 21.9% had been victims of physical aggression, verbal harassment and/or social manipulation by peers. However, only 5.5% of the adolescents considered themselves bullying victims. In the previous 12 months, 12.4% of adolescents had suffered severe physical punishment, 14.0% had been victims of community violence, and 20.9% eye-witnessed community violence. Multivariable regression analysis showed that victimization by multiple types of traditional bullying and self-perceived bullying victimization were correlates of cyberbullying victimization, while suffering violence at home and in the community were not. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of an association between cyberbullying, traditional bullying and self-perceived bullying among low-income Brazilian adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Exposure to Violence/statistics & numerical data , Cyberbullying/psychology , Schools , Self Concept , Socioeconomic Factors , Violence/psychology , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Crime Victims/psychology , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Exposure to Violence/classification , Exposure to Violence/psychology , Interpersonal Relations
20.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(1): 82-89, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985351

ABSTRACT

Objective: Much research has been published on the role of sexual revictimization in the emergence of mental disorders in adulthood, but findings have sometimes been contradictory. The present systematic review sought to assess the state of the evidence on revictimization as a potential factor for the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in five databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Campbell Library, PsycINFO, and LILACS), using the terms PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder, child abuse, and rape. Results: We identified nine articles that established a connection among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), sexual revictimization in adulthood, and development of PTSD. Eight of the nine papers included were classified as having strong methodological quality (grade VI). One was classified as IV, with an average quality-of-evidence rating. The mean methodological quality score of the articles was 5.5, and the quality of evidence was deemed strong. Conclusion: In the included studies, PTSD symptoms were most prevalent in the CSA + adult sexual assault groups, providing further evidence for the revictimization hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adult , Rape/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Child Abuse, Sexual/psychology , Crime Victims/psychology
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