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1.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1090, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347385

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los cirujanos pueden desempeñar un papel valioso en la realización de traqueostomía para apoyar a los equipos de cuidados críticos durante la pandemia global de la COVID-19. Objetivo: Diseñar un protocolo para realizar la traqueostomía en pacientes con la COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo durante el periodo de marzo a diciembre del año 2020 en el Hospital "Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero", de Santa Clara, Villa Clara. Se emplearon como métodos teóricos: el análisis-síntesis e inductivo-deductivo; y como empíricos: análisis documental, grupo nominal y el criterio de especialistas para la valoración del producto diseñado. Resultados: El protocolo fue estructurado en: título, propósito, normas organizativas institucionales, indicaciones, procedimiento de actuación y evaluación. Según el criterio de los especialistas consultados el protocolo diseñado, es pertinente, factible y válido. Conclusiones: Para el diseño del protocolo fue fundamental aplicar y adaptar cuidadosamente la mejor evidencia existente sobre la realización de la traqueostomía. Su estructura permite brindar la mejor atención al paciente con la COVID-19 al tiempo que protege al equipo quirúrgico(AU)


Introduction: Surgeons can play a valuable role in performing tracheostomy, as a support for critical care teams during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To design a protocol for performing the tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out, during the period from March to December 2020, at Comandante Manuel Fajardo Rivero Hospital, in Santa Clara City, Villa Clara Province. The following theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and inductive-deductive; as well as empirical ones: documentary analysis, nominal group and criteria of specialists for the evaluation of the designed product. Results: The protocol was structured into title, purpose, institutional organizational norms, indications, procedure of action and evaluation. According to the criteria of the specialists consulted, the designed protocol is pertinent, feasible and valid. Conclusions: For the design of the protocol, it was essential to apply and adapt, carefully, the best existing evidence on tracheostomy performance. Its structure allows to provide the best care to the patient with COVID-19 while protecting the surgical team(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheostomy/methods , Clinical Protocols , Critical Care/methods , Patient Care/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive
2.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 196-205, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289074

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar apresentações mais graves de COVID-19. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivamente admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva foram submetidos à análise de clusters por meio de método de explorações sequenciais Resultados: Analisamos os dados de 147 pacientes, com média de idade de 56 ± 16 anos e Simplified Acute Physiological Score 3 de 72 ± 18, dos quais 103 (70%) demandaram ventilação mecânica e 46 (31%) morreram na unidade de terapia intensiva. A partir do algoritmo de análise de clusters, identificaram-se dois grupos bem definidos, com base na frequência cardíaca máxima [Grupo A: 104 (IC95% 99 - 109) batimentos por minuto versus Grupo B: 159 (IC95% 155 - 163) batimentos por minuto], frequência respiratória máxima [Grupo A: 33 (IC95% 31 - 35) respirações por minuto versus Grupo B: 50 (IC95% 47 - 53) respirações por minuto] e na temperatura corpórea máxima [Grupo A: 37,4 (IC95% 37,1 - 37,7)ºC versus Grupo B: 39,3 (IC95% 39,1 - 39,5)ºC] durante o tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva, assim como a proporção entre a pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue e a fração inspirada de oxigênio quando da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva [Grupo A: 116 (IC95% 99 - 133) mmHg versus Grupo B: 78 (IC95% 63 - 93) mmHg]. Os subfenótipos foram distintos em termos de perfis inflamatórios, disfunções orgânicas, terapias de suporte, tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva (com proporção de 4,2 entre os grupos). Conclusão: Nossos achados, baseados em dados clínicos universalmente disponíveis, revelaram dois subfenótipos distintos, com diferentes evoluções de doença. Estes resultados podem ajudar os profissionais de saúde na alocação de recursos e seleção de pacientes para teste de novas terapias.


Abstract Objective: To identify more severe COVID-19 presentations. Methods: Consecutive intensive care unit-admitted patients were subjected to a stepwise clustering method. Results: Data from 147 patients who were on average 56 ± 16 years old with a Simplified Acute Physiological Score 3 of 72 ± 18, of which 103 (70%) needed mechanical ventilation and 46 (31%) died in the intensive care unit, were analyzed. From the clustering algorithm, two well-defined groups were found based on maximal heart rate [Cluster A: 104 (95%CI 99 - 109) beats per minute versus Cluster B: 159 (95%CI 155 - 163) beats per minute], maximal respiratory rate [Cluster A: 33 (95%CI 31 - 35) breaths per minute versus Cluster B: 50 (95%CI 47 - 53) breaths per minute], and maximal body temperature [Cluster A: 37.4 (95%CI 37.1 - 37.7)°C versus Cluster B: 39.3 (95%CI 39.1 - 39.5)°C] during the intensive care unit stay, as well as the oxygen partial pressure in the blood over the oxygen inspiratory fraction at intensive care unit admission [Cluster A: 116 (95%CI 99 - 133) mmHg versus Cluster B: 78 (95%CI 63 - 93) mmHg]. Subphenotypes were distinct in inflammation profiles, organ dysfunction, organ support, intensive care unit length of stay, and intensive care unit mortality (with a ratio of 4.2 between the groups). Conclusion: Our findings, based on common clinical data, revealed two distinct subphenotypes with different disease courses. These results could help health professionals allocate resources and select patients for testing novel therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/therapy , Critical Care/methods , COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index , Algorithms , Cluster Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Patient Selection , Respiratory Rate/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay
5.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e190263, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250803

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to evaluate if the protein intake recommendations for obese critically ill requiring mechanical ventilation are sufficient to promote a positive or neutral nitrogen balance. Methods Cross-sectional study that included 25 obese, ≥18 years old, undergoing mechanical ventilation and who were target to receive high-protein enteral nutrition therapy (2.0-2.5g/kg ideal body weight). Clinical, nutritional and biochemical variables were analyzed. Nitrogen balance was performed when patient was receiving full enteral nutrition therapy and was classified: positive when intake was greater than excretion; negative when excretion was greater than intake; neutral when both were equal. Results The characteristics of patients evaluated were 64.1±9.4 years old, clinical treatment 88%, body mass index 36.5±5.1kg/m2, nitrogen balance 0.3g/day (-5.3 to 4.8g/day), protein intake 2.1g/day (2.0-2.3g/kg) ideal body weight. Of individuals analyzed, 52% showed positive or neutral nitrogen balance with median of 4.23g/day 2.41 to 6.40g/day) in comparison to negative group with median of -5.27g/day (-10.38 to -3.86g/day). Adults had higher ratio of negative nitrogen balance (57.1%) than elderly (44.4%), with protein intake of 2.0 versus 2.1g/day, respectively. No correlation was found between nitrogen balance and variables assessed. Conclusion High-protein enteral nutrition therapy contributed to positive or neutral nitrogen balance for approximately half of obese ventilated individuals. With similar protein intake, elderly showed a higher proportion of positive or neutral nitrogen balance. Nitrogen balance can be influenced by various factors, so further studies are required to identify different protein needs in obese critically.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar se as recomendações de ingestão proteica para obesos em ventilação mecânica invasiva são suficientes para promover balanço nitrogenado positivo ou em equilíbrio. Métodos Estudo transversal que analisou 25 obesos adultos, em ventilação mecânica invasiva e submetidos à terapia nutricional enteral hiperproteica (2,0-2,5g/kg de peso ideal). Variáveis clínicas, nutricionais e bioquímicas foram analisadas. O balanço nitrogenado foi realizado após a oferta plena da nutrição enteral e classificado como: positivo quando ingestão maior que excreção; negativo quando excreção maior que ingestão; neutro quando ambas foram iguais. Resultados As características dos pacientes avaliados foram idade 64,1±9,4 anos, índice de massa corporal 36,5±5,1kg/m2, tratamento clínico 88%, balanço nitrogenado 0,3g/dia (-5,3 a 4,8g/dia), ingestão proteica 2,1g/dia (2,0-2,3g/kg) de peso ideal. Dos indivíduos analisados, 52% apresentaram balanço nitrogenado positivo ou neutro com mediana de 4,23g/dia (2,41 a 6,40g/dia), comparado ao grupo com balanço negativo -5,27g/dia (-10,38 a -3,86g/dia). Adultos apresentaram maior proporção de balanço nitrogenado negativo (57,1%) do que idosos (44,4%), respectivamente, com ingestão proteica semelhante de 2,0 versus 2,1g/dia. Não foi observada correlação entre balanço nitrogenado e variáveis analisadas. Conclusão A terapia nutricional enteral hiperproteica promoveu um balanço nitrogenado positivo ou neutro em cerca de metade dos obesos em ventilação mecânica invasiva. Com ingestão proteica semelhante, idosos apresentaram maior proporção de balanço positivo ou neutro do que adultos. O balanço nitrogenado pode ser influenciado por diversos fatores e por esse motivo mais estudos são necessários para identificar diferentes necessidades proteicas em pacientes obesos críticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Enteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , Critical Care/methods , Nutrition Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/therapy
6.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292168

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A avaliação do volume intravascular e da fluido-responsividade é uma condição desafiadora no manejo de pacientes críticos. Os métodos diagnósticos precisam garantir segurança, reprodutibilidade e praticidade no monitoramento hemodinâmico. Objetivo: Descrever a aplicabilidade dos índices ultrassonográficos da veia cava inferior na avaliação do volume intravascular e na predição da fluido-responsividade em pacientes críticos. Método: Trata-se de revisão sistemática realizada por meio das bases de dados PubMed®, Lilacs e SciELO nos 5 anos anteriores. Os descritores utilizados foram "inferior vena cava", "ultrasonography", "fluid-responsiveness" e "volume status". Resultados: Foram selecionados 13 artigos compatíveis com os objetivos deste estudo. O índice de colapsibilidade da veia cava inferior variou de 25% a 50% como ponto de corte para definição de hipovolemia. Além disso, apresentou aplicabilidade na predição da fluido-responsividade em pacientes sob respiração espontânea, com pontos de corte variando de 25% a 57%. Em cenários de ventilação mecânica, o índice de distensibilidade da veia cava inferior mostrou-se mais eficaz, quando comparado às demais medidas, para predição de fluido-responsividade, mas foi encontrada variação de 10,2% a 20,5%. O índice diâmetro da veia cava inferior/diâmetro da artéria aorta foi especialmente útil na população pediátrica para definição do volume intravascular, mas em adultos existiram muitas divergências quanto à sua aplicabilidade. Conclusão: A avaliação do volume intravascular e da fluido-responsividade por meio dos índices ultrassonográficos da veia cava inferior apresenta aplicabilidade e segurança no diagnóstico e no monitoramento da instabilidade hemodinâmica. Entretanto, são necessários estudos de padronização de valores em razão das divergências quanto aos pontos de corte utilizados em cada índice.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Blood Volume/physiology , Critical Care/methods , Fluid Therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods
7.
Med. infant ; 27(2): 138-144, Diciembre 2020. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1150453

ABSTRACT

Los Programas telemédicos entre unidades de cuidados intensivos han demostrado ser eficaces en el mundo. En Argentina realizamos el primer programa piloto entre una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos de Buenos Aires (UCIP- BA) y Santiago del Estero (UCIP-S). En el presente trabajo describimos el desarrollo y la evaluación de una nueva modalidad de asistencia para el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento a distancia de los pacientes en UCIP. Se implementó un programa de atención sincrónica para pacientes internados y seleccionados por la UCIP-S. Se utilizó un sistema de videoconferencia y se realizó un seguimiento en conjunto de los pacientes. La evaluación se realizó con una encuesta de satisfacción de los usuarios. Ingresaron al estudio 29 pacientes, 72 % del sexo masculino. La edad promedio fue de 35 meses (2-168). El diagnóstico más frecuente fue shock séptico y el acompañamiento en el diagnóstico la conducta más frecuente. Solo cinco pacientes obitaron y se registraron 3 derivaciones al Hospital Garrahan. Se realizaron 155 teleconferencias y 396 consultas, con un tiempo promedio diario de 48 minutos, La media de seguimientos por pacientes fue de 20,6 días (2-107). Tele-UCI mejoró la capacidad de comprensión de la situación clínica (96%) y modificó la relación con la familia (65%). El modelo asistencial demostró un 88.5% de satisfacción. A través de estos resultados concluimos que según los profesionales participantes, Tele-UCI respaldó al equipo que se encarga del seguimiento diario de los pacientes, generando una disminución de traslados de pacientes (AU)


Telemedicine programs between intensive care units have proven effective worldwide. In Argentina we conducted the first pilot program between a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Buenos Aires (PICU- BA) and another in Santiago del Estero (PICU-S). In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of a new care modality for the diagnosis, treatment, and remote monitoring of patients in the PICU. A synchronous care program for inpatients selected by PICU-S was implemented. A videoconferencing system was used and patients were monitored together. The program was evaluated with a user satisfaction survey. Twenty-nine patients, 72% of the male sex, were included in the study. Mean age was 35 months (2-168). The most common diagnosis was septic shock and in the majority of cases the diagnosis was confirmed. Only five patients died and three were referred to Garrahan Hospital. Overall, 155 teleconferences and 396 consultations were conducted, with a mean daily time of 48 minutes. Mean monitoring time per patient was 20.6 days (2-107). Tele-ICU improved the ability to understand the clinical situation (96%) and changed the relationship with the family (65%). The care model showed an 88.5% satisfaction rate. Based on these results, we conclude that according to the participating professionals, TeleICU supported the team that is in charge of the daily monitoring of patients, leading to a decrease in patient transfers (AU)


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/trends , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2530-2539, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150035

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: aquellos países con alto grado de envejecimiento poblacional muestran asociaciones importantes con diferentes enfermedades, por ejemplo, la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad y la depresión en los ancianos. Objetivos: relacionar la depresión con la mortalidad y evaluar efectos de los antidepresivos, en los pacientes con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay". Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico, longitudinal prospectivo, con todos los pacientes con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Emergentes, del Hospital Militar "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay". Periodo correspondiente a enero del 2018 hasta abril del 2019 que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. El universo lo constituyó 160 pacientes. Resultados: existieron 55 pacientes con síntomas de depresión previos al ingreso, (34 %). El 78 % de fallecidos presentaron depresión al ingreso. La edad media de los no deprimidos fue de 74, la más alta de los deprimidos fue de 80,80. No presentaron signos de depresión 93 pacientes vivos y 43 que la presentaron y fallecieron con una gran significación estadística p 0,000. RR 6,8. Se observó una marcada relación entre la mortalidad y el no recibir tratamiento para la depresión, (37) p 0,000. Conclusiones: la neumonía y la depresión son enfermedades que tienen una relación íntima. Esta asociación cuenta con una elevada mortalidad, así como el impacto del tratamiento antidepresivo en la evolución del paciente es definitorio en el ámbito de los cuidados intensivos (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: those countries with a high level of population ageing show important associations to different diseases, for example, community acquired pneumonia and depression in elder people. Objectives: to establish the relationship of depression with mortality and to evaluate the effect of antidepressants in patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of the Central Military Hospital "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay". Materials and methods: a prospective, longitudinal, analytic study was carried out with all patients with community-acquired pneumonia, admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of the Central Military Hospital "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" in the period from January 2018 until April 2019, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The universe were 160 patients. Results: there were 55 patients with depression symptoms before the admission. 78 % of the deceased showed depression at the admittance. The medium age of the non-depressed ones was 74 years; the highest age of the depressed ones was 80.80 years. 93 living patients did not present depression signs, and 43 presented them and died with a great statistical significance p: 0.000 RR: 6.8. A remarked relation was observed between mortality and not receiving treatment for depression (37) p 0,000. Conclusions: pneumonia and depression are diseases having a tight relationship. This association yields a high mortality, and the impact of the anti-depression treatment on the patient's evolution is defining in the intensive care settings (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Frail Elderly , Depression/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/psychology , Critical Care/methods , Health Services for the Aged/trends , Immunity/physiology
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50366, jan.-dez. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1139121

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo discutir as evidências disponíveis sobre uso de ultrassonografia na implantação/manutenção de cateter venoso central de inserção periférica no neonato crítico. Método scoping review, baseada nas recomendações de especialistas do Joanna Briggs Institute. Para identificar a questão de investigação foi seguida a versão PCC - Population, Concept and Context. As buscas foram realizadas entre janeiro e março de 2020, em três bases dados e no Google Scholar. Resultados das 354 publicações encontradas resultou uma amostra de 15 artigos, publicados em diversos países, entre 2016 e 2020, em inglês e português. A maioria evidenciava uso da ultrasound point of care (POCUS) para escolha do sítio venoso ou localização da ponta do cateter. Conclusão são necessários mais estudos, investigando a efetividade da POCUS na inserção/manutenção de cateter epicutâneo em neonatos críticos, para basear sua adoção como padrão ouro nesta clientela. O manejo por enfermeiros ainda é incipiente.


RESUMEN Objetivo discutir la evidencia disponible sobre el uso de el ultrasonido en la inserción y mantenimiento de catéteres venosos centrales de inserción periférica en neonatos críticos. Método esta revisión de alcance se basó en recomendaciones de expertos del Instituto Joanna Briggs. Se utilizó el enfoque de población, concepto y contexto (PCC) para identificar la pregunta de investigación. El estudio se realizó entre enero y marzo de 2020 en tres bases de datos y Google Scholar. Resultados en las 354 publicaciones encontradas se obtuvo una muestra de 15 artículos publicados en varios países entre 2016 y 2020, en inglés y portugués. La mayoría mostró que se usaba el punto de atención de ultrasonido (POCUS) para elegir el sitio venoso o ubicar la punta del catéter. Conclusión se necesitan más estudios para investigar la efectividad de POCUS en la inserción y mantenimiento de catéteres epicutáneos en neonatos críticos, para respaldar su adopción como el estándar de oro en esta clientela. El manejo por parte de enfermeras es aún incipiente.


ABSTRACT Objective to discuss the available evidence on the use of ultrasound in insertion and maintenance of peripherally inserted central venous catheters in critical neonates. Method this scoping review was based on recommendations by experts from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The population, concept and context (PCC) approach was used to identify the research question. The study was carried out between January and March 2020 in three databases and Google Scholar. Results a sample of 15 articles published in several countries between 2016 and 2020, in English and Portuguese, was obtained in the 354 publications found. Most showed ultrasound point of care (POCUS) being used to choose the venous site or locate the catheter tip. Conclusion further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of POCUS in insertion and maintenance of epicutaneous catheters in critical neonates, to support its adoption as the gold standard in this clientele. Handling by nurses is still incipient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Catheterization, Central Venous/instrumentation , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Ultrasonography, Interventional/standards , Critical Care/methods , Point-of-Care Testing
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2560-2574, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150037

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad es la enfermedad infecciosa que conlleva una mayor mortalidad en los países desarrollados. El diagnóstico pasa por varios momentos, el cuadro clínico, la analítica y las imágenes. Objetivos: realizar la validación externa de un modelo matemático predictivo de mortalidad en pacientes ingresados por neumonía grave adquirida en la comunidad. Material y métodos: estudio longitudinal prospectivo (cohorte) con un grupo, con todos los pacientes que ingresaron en la Unidad de Cuidados intensivos emergentes con el diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en el Hospital Militar Dr. Carlos J. Finlay, de febrero de 2018 hasta marzo del 2019. El universo estuvo constituido por 160 pacientes y no se tomó muestra alguna. Resultados: índice de Kappa K=1. Test Hosmer Lemenshow 0,650 con elevado ajuste. Resultados del modelo con sensibilidad= 79%. Especificidad: 91% con (VPP): 80 y (VPN)= 91. RR: 9,1. Área bajo la Curva = 0997. Porcentaje de aciertos en la regresión logística de 88,4 %. Conclusiones: el modelo propuesto constituyo una herramienta útil en la detección temprana de pacientes con riesgo de muerte a corto plazo. Permitió unificar en una sola variable el resultado de otras que aparentemente no tienen relación entre ellas; con lo que se hace más fácil la interpretación de los resultados, toda vez que este refleja, el conjunto y no la individualidad (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: community-acquired pneumonia is the infectious disease leading to higher mortality in developed countries. The diagnosis goes through several moments, clinical symptoms, analytics, and images. Objective: to perform the external validation of a predictive mathematical model of mortality in patients admitted by serious community-acquired pneumonia. Methods: longitudinal prospective (cohort) study with a group formed with all patients who were admitted to the Emergent Intensive Care Unit in the Military Hospital ¨Dr. Carlos Juan Finlay¨ with the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, from February 2018 to March 2019. The universe was formed by 160 patients and no sample was chosen. Results: Kappa index K= 1. Hosmer Lemenshow test= 0.650 with a high adjustment. Result of the model with sensibility= 79 %. Specificity= 91 % with (APV) = 80 and (NPV) = 91. RR= 9.1. Area under the curve= 0997. Percentage of correctness in logistic regression of 88.4 %. Conclusions: The proposed model was a useful tool in the early detection of patients at near-term death risk. It allowed to unite in an only variant the result of others that apparently are not related one to another, making it easier the interpretation of the results, since it reflects the whole and not the individuality (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Aged/physiology , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Critical Care/methods , Forecasting/methods , Patient Care/methods
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(5): 2181-2192, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144726

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el síndrome compartimental abdominal es una entidad clínica sistémica desencadenada por incremento en la presión intraabdominal, caracterizada clínicamente por distensión abdominal y alteraciones de las funciones respiratoria, cardiovascular, neurológica y renal. Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento del síndrome compartimental abdominal en los pacientes críticos que ingresaron en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Provincial "José Ramón López Tabrane". Materiales y método: se realizó un estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, y longitudinal que tuvo como universo los pacientes adultos con factores de riesgo conocidos para síndrome compartimental abdominal, tratados entre enero de 2014 a diciembre de 2015. Se le realizó medición sistemática de la presión intraabdominal transvesical y fueron sometidos a descompresión quirúrgica en caso de hipertensión intraabdominal grados III y IV. Resultados: los valores de presión intraabdominal sostenidamente elevados, son directamente proporcionales al desarrollo del síndrome compartimental abdominal y trae aparejado disfunciones en los diferentes sistemas de órganos; en estos casos apareció complicaciones, las cuales se presentaron combinadas para todos los pacientes, y fueron mayoritarias para el grupo con presión intraabdominal grado IV. La mortalidad se comportó en un número bastante elevado lo cual estuvo relacionado con los niveles de presión intraabdominal, así como la posibilidad de que fueran reintervenidos quirúrgicamente estos pacientes. Conclusiones: se debe protocolizar en todo paciente con sospecha de desarrollar un síndrome compartimental abdominal la medición periódica de la presión intraabdominal (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: the abdominal compartment syndrome is a systemic clinical entity triggered by an increase of the intra abdominal pressure, clinically characterized by abdominal distension and the alteration of the renal, neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Objective: to characterize the behavior of the abdominal compartment syndrome in critical patients from the intensive care unit of the provincial hospital "Jose Ramon Lopez Tabrane". Materials and methods: a longitudinal, descriptive and prospective study was carried out in a universe of adult patients with risk factors known as abdominal compartment syndrome, treated in the period of time from January 2014 to December 2015. Their transvesical intraabdominal pressure was systematically measured and they underwent surgical decompression in cases of intraabdominal hypertension grades iii and iv. Results: the values of intraabdominal pressure steadily increased are directly proportional to the development of the abdominal compartment syndrome and entails dysfunctions in the different systems of organs; in these cases complications were found, that were combined for all patients and mainly in the group with intraabdominal pressure grade iv. Mortality was present in a certainly increased group, and was related to the levels of intraabdominal pressure, and also to the possibility these patients undergoing surgical treatments again. Conclusions: it should be standardized the periodical measure of the intraabdominal pressure in any patient suspected of developing an abdominal compartment syndrome (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients/classification , Intra-Abdominal Hypertension/epidemiology , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Critical Care/methods , Intra-Abdominal Hypertension/classification , Intra-Abdominal Hypertension/diagnosis , Patient Acuity , Intensive Care Units/standards
12.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 433-438, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138510

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o uso do bloqueio neuromuscular e de outras práticas entre os médicos brasileiros atuantes em unidades de terapia intensiva para pacientes adultos. Métodos: Um levantamento nacional on-line foi aplicado a intensivistas brasileiros. As questões foram selecionadas utilizando o método Delphi e avaliavam os dados demográficos dos médicos, as características da unidade de terapia intensiva, as práticas relativas ao manuseio das vias aéreas e o uso de bloqueio neuromuscular e sedação durante a intubação endotraqueal na unidade de terapia intensiva. Como desfecho secundário, aplicamos uma análise multivariada para avaliar fatores associados com o uso do bloqueio neuromuscular. Resultados: Responderam ao questionário 565 intensivistas de todas as regiões do país. A maioria dos que responderam era homens (65%), com média de idade de 38 ± 8,4 anos, e 58,5% dos participantes tinham título de especialista em terapia intensiva. Apenas 40,7% dos intensivistas relataram o uso de bloqueio neuromuscular durante todas ou em mais de 75% das intubações endotraqueais. Na análise multivariada, o número de intubações realizadas por mês e a especialização do médico em anestesiologia se associaram diretamente com o uso frequente de bloqueio neuromuscular. Etomidato e cetamina foram utilizados mais comumente na situação clínica de hipotensão e choque, enquanto propofol e midazolam foram mais comumente prescritos em situações de estabilidade hemodinâmica. Conclusão: O relato de uso de bloqueio neuromuscular foi baixo entre intensivistas, e os fármacos sedativos foram escolhidos segundo a estabilidade hemodinâmica do paciente. Estes resultados podem ajudar no delineamento de futuros estudos relativos ao manuseio das vias aéreas no Brasil.


Abstract Objective: To describe the use of neuromuscular blockade as well as other practices among Brazilian physicians in adult intensive care units. Methods: An online national survey was designed and administered to Brazilian intensivists. Questions were selected using the Delphi method and assessed physicians' demographic data, intensive care unit characteristics, practices regarding airway management, use of neuromuscular blockade and sedation during endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit. As a secondary outcome, we applied a multivariate analysis to evaluate factors associated with the use of neuromuscular blockade. Results: Five hundred sixty-five intensivists from all Brazilian regions responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were male (65%), with a mean age of 38 ( 8.4 years, and 58.5% had a board certification in critical care. Only 40.7% of the intensivists reported the use of neuromuscular blockade during all or in more than 75% of endotracheal intubations. In the multivariate analysis, the number of intubations performed monthly and physician specialization in anesthesiology were directly associated with frequent use of neuromuscular blockade. Etomidate and ketamine were more commonly used in the clinical situation of hypotension and shock, while propofol and midazolam were more commonly prescribed in the situation of clinical stability. Conclusion: The reported use of neuromuscular blockade was low among intensivists, and sedative drugs were chosen in accordance with patient hemodynamic stability. These results may help the design of future studies regarding airway management in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Airway Management/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units
13.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 11(3): e1319, ago.2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1178530

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La inducción de secuencia rápida modificada es la sugerida para la intubación orotraqueal a pacientes COVID-19 que presentan distrés respiratorio en urgencias. El objetivo de esta revisión es plantear el proceso de atención de enfermería durante las fases de planificación, preparación, pretratamiento y sedación con parálisis neuromuscular. Materiales y Métodos: artículo de reflexión acerca de elementos conceptuales en la valoración, diagnóstico, planeación, ejecución y evaluación del cuidado de enfermería, a partir de la revisión de literatura de consensos y protocolos nacionales e internacionales y publicaciones de cuidado de enfermería a pacientes COVID-19. Resultados: los medicamentos recomendados por la literatura en la inducción de secuencia rápida a pacientes COVID-19 son: en la fase de pretratamiento, las benzodiacepinas necesarias para disminuir la ansiedad del paciente, la lidocaína que controla el reflejo de la tos y el fentanilo que contribuye con la analgesia; en la fase de sedación inductores como etomidato y ketamina están indicados en pacientes con inestabilidad hemodinámica y propofol en pacientes estables; en la fase de parálisis neuromuscular el rocuronio es el recomendado como primera opción antes que la succinilcolina y los vasopresores tipo norepinefrina, epinefrina, vasopresina y/o dopamina, son necesarios en todas las fases para el manejo de la inestabilidad hemodinámica. Conclusiones: aplicar el proceso de atención de enfermería durante las fases de inducción de secuencia rápida contribuye con la organización de los medicamentos requeridos para la intubación orotraqueal, lo cual, disminuye la ansiedad del paciente y el riesgo de contaminación del personal de salud.


Introduction: Modified rapid sequence induction is suggested for orotracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress in the emergency department. The objective of this review is to discuss nursing care during the phases of planning, preparation, pretreatment and sedation with neuromuscular paralysis. Materials and Methods: A reflection article was written on conceptual elements in nursing care assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation based on the literature review of national and international standards and protocols, and publications on nursing care in COVID-19 patients. Results: Drugs recommended by rapid sequence intubation in COVID-19 patients are benzodiazepine for reducing patient's anxiety, lidocaine for cough control and fentanyl for analgesia in the pretreatment phase; inducers such as etomidate and ketamine are suggested in hemodynamic unstable patients and propofol in stable patients in the sedation phase; rocuronium is recommended as the first-choice neuromuscular blocking agent before vasopressors such as succinylcholine and norepinephrine, epinephrine, vasopressin and/or dopamine which are needed in all phases for managing hemodynamic instability. Conclusions: Applying a nursing care plan during rapid sequence induction phases contributes to a more organized medication regimen required for orotracheal intubation, which reduces patient's anxiety and the risk of contamination for healthcare personnel.


Introdução: A indução de sequência rápida modificada é sugerida para intubação orotraqueal em pacientes com COVID-19 com problemas respiratórios no departamento de emergência. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir os cuidados de enfermagem durante as fases de planejamento, preparação, pré-tratamento e sedação com paralisia neuromuscular. Materiais e métodos: Um artigo de reflexão foi elaborado sobre elementos conceituais na avaliação, diagnóstico, planejamento, implementação e avaliação da cuidados de enfermagem com base na revisão da literatura de normas e protocolos nacionais e internacionais, e publicações sobre cuidados de enfermagem em pacientes com COVID-19. Resultados: As drogas recomendadas pela intubação de sequência rápida em pacientes com COVID-19 são benzodiazepinas para reduzir a ansiedade do paciente, lidocaína para controle da tosse e fentanil para analgesia na fase de pré-tratamento; indutores como etomidato e cetamina são sugeridos em pacientes com instabilidade hemodinâmica e propofol em pacientes estáveis na fase de sedação; o rocurônio é recomendado como o bloqueador neuromuscular de primeira opção frente a vasopressores como succinilcolina e norepinefrina, epinefrina, vasopressina e/ou dopamina, que são necessários em todas as fases para o manejo da instabilidade hemodinâmica. Conclusões: A aplicação de um plano de cuidados de enfermagem durante as fases de indução de sequência rápida contribui para a organização dos medicamentos necessários para a intubação orotraqueal, o que reduz a ansiedade do paciente e o risco de contaminação para o pessoal de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Critical Care/methods , Emergencies , Rapid Sequence Induction and Intubation/nursing , COVID-19/nursing , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/administration & dosage , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/classification
14.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 302-306, Jul.-Aug. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249915

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19, the causative agent of which is a new type of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, has caused the most severe pandemic in the last 100 years. The condition is mainly respiratory, and up to 5 % of patients develop critical illness, a situation that has put enormous pressure on the health systems of affected countries. A high demand for care has mainly been observed in intensive care units and critical care resources, which is why the need to redistribute resources in critical medicine emerged, with an emphasis on distributive justice, which establishes the provision of care to the largest number of people and saving the largest number of lives. One principle lies in allocating resources to patients with higher life expectancy. Mechanical ventilator has been assumed to be an indivisible asset; however, simultaneous mechanical ventilation to more than one patient with COVID-19 is technically possible. Ventilator sharing is not without risks, but the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice prevail. According to distributive justice, being a divisible resource, mechanical ventilator can be shared; however, we should ask ourselves if this action is ethically correct.


Resumen COVID-19, cuyo agente causal es un nuevo tipo de coronavirus denominado SARS-CoV-2, ha provocado la pandemia más grave en los últimos 100 años. La afección es principalmente respiratoria y hasta 5 % de los pacientes desarrolla enfermedad crítica, lo cual ha producido una enorme presión sobre los sistemas de salud de los países afectados. Principalmente se ha observado alta demanda de atención en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y de recursos de atención vital. De ahí la necesidad de redistribuir los recursos en medicina crítica, con énfasis en la justicia distributiva, la cual establece atender al mayor número de personas y salvar el mayor número de vidas. Un principio estriba en asignar los recursos a pacientes con mayores expectativas de vida. Se ha dado por hecho que el ventilador mecánico es un bien indivisible; sin embargo, técnicamente es posible la ventilación mecánica simultánea a más de un paciente con COVID-19. La acción de compartir el ventilador no está exenta de riesgos, pero prevalecen los principios de beneficencia, no maleficencia y justicia. Conforme la justicia distributiva, al ser un bien divisible, el ventilador mecánico puede ser compartido, sin embargo, cabe preguntarse si esta acción es éticamente correcta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 597-604, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138677

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Cada vez es más frecuente la atención médica en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) de niños o adolescentes inmigrantes como también de aquellos nacidos en nuestro país con padres en tal condición. Esto ha ocasionado, en la actualidad, que el equipo de salud se deba enfrentar con problemas diagnósticos derivados del escaso conocimiento de condiciones genéticas propias de esta población y/o el desarrollo de diversas patologías infrecuentes en nuestro país, algunas resultantes de su condi ción sanitaria. En esta revisión se abordan diversos aspectos de la patología hematológica, infecciosa, parasitaria, respiratoria y cardiovascular, todos tópicos relevantes de conocer durante su estadía en la UCI. Es un deber del equipo de salud actualizarse sobre patologías de baja prevalencia en nuestro país, algunas de ellas muy poco conocidas hasta hace una década, pero que, actualmente, están cada vez más presentes en las UCI del sistema de salud público chileno.


Abstract: It is increasingly common to provide medical care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for immigrant children and adolescents as well as those born in Chile with parents in such condition. Currently, this has caused that the health team has to face diverse infrequent pathologies in our country and/ or diagnostic problems derive from the poor knowledge of genetic conditions of this population, some resulting from their health conditions. This review addresses several aspects of hematological, infectious, parasitic, respiratory, and cardiovascular pathologies, all relevant topics to know during their stay in the ICU. It is a duty of the health team to be updated on pathologies of low prevalence in our country, some of them very little known until a decade ago, but which are currently increasingly present in the ICUs of the Chilean public health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/ethnology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Emigrants and Immigrants , Hematologic Diseases/diagnosis , Hematologic Diseases/ethnology , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Infections/diagnosis , Infections/ethnology , Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence
16.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 247-249, may.-jun. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249901

ABSTRACT

Resumen Con excepción de las mujeres embarazadas, el manejo de los pacientes adultos graves con COVID-19 durante la pandemia incluye los procedimientos estándar que se llevan a cabo en cualquier paciente que requiere atención en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, así como la administración limitada de las soluciones cristaloides, la intubación orotraqueal, la ventilación mecánica invasiva ante deterioro clínico del paciente y la relajación muscular en infusión continua solo cuando sea necesaria. No se recomienda la ventilación mecánica no invasiva, la oxigenoterapia de alto flujo debido a la generación de aerosol (asociado con riesgo de propagación del virus entre el personal de salud), la oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea ni el empleo de esteroides. Hasta el momento no hay tratamiento antiviral específico para pacientes con COVID-19 ni resultados de estudios controlados que avalen su uso.


Abstract Except for pregnant women, the management of critically ill patients with COVID-19 during the pandemic includes the standard procedures that are used for any patient that requires to be attended to at the intensive care unit, as well as limited administration of crystalloid solutions, orotracheal intubation, invasive mechanical ventilation in the event of patient clinical deterioration, and muscle relaxants continuous infusion only if necessary. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy are not recommended due to the generation of aerosol (associated with risk of viral spread among health personnel), and neither is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or the use of steroids. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment for patients with COVID-19, and neither are there results of controlled trials supporting the use of any.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Critical Illness , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , COVID-19
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 268-276, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138484

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar um inquérito nacional com profissionais de terapia intensiva para determinar as práticas de promoção do sono em unidades de terapia intensiva para adultos no Brasil, e descrever suas percepções sobre a importância do sono para os pacientes. Métodos: Um questionário eletrônico foi distribuído pela rede de cooperação em pesquisa clínica da Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira aos médicos e enfermeiros registrados na associação e pela Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network. O questionário avaliou o perfil dos respondedores, de suas unidades de terapia intensiva, se estavam presentes protocolos de promoção do sono, quais as medidas farmacológicas e não farmacológicas usualmente empregadas na unidade e a percepção dos profissionais em relação ao sono nos pacientes críticos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 118 questionários. A Região Sudeste foi a mais representada (50 questionários; 42,4%). A maioria apresentava perfil clínico-cirúrgico (93 questionários; 78,8%) e 26 possuíam política de visita contínua (22,0%). Apenas 18 unidades de terapia intensiva (15,3%) referiram apresentar protocolos de promoção do sono. A medida mais citada para promoção de sono foi a redução da luminosidade no período noturno (95 questionários; 80,5%), sendo mais executada em unidades de terapia intensiva privadas. Quase a totalidade dos respondedores (99%) acreditou que o sono com qualidade ruim tinha impacto negativo na recuperação do paciente. Conclusão: Nas respostas deste inquérito brasileiro, poucas unidades apresentaram um programa de promoção de sono na unidade de terapia intensiva, embora a quase totalidade dos participantes reconhecesse a importância do sono na recuperação do paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a national survey of intensive care professionals to identify the practices for promoting sleep in adult intensive care units in Brazil and describe the professionals' perceptions of the importance of sleep for patients. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was distributed by the clinical research cooperation network of the Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira and by the Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network to physicians and nurses registered with the association. The questionnaire evaluated the profile of the respondents, the profile of their intensive care units, whether protocols for promoting sleep were present, the pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures typically employed in the unit, and the professionals' perceptions regarding sleep in critically ill patients. Results: A total of 118 questionnaires were evaluated. The Southeast region of the country was the most represented (50 questionnaires, 42.4%). The majority of units had a clinical-surgical profile (93 questionnaires; 78.8%), and 26 had a continuous visitation policy (22.0%). Only 18 intensive care units (15.3%) reported having protocols for promoting sleep. The most cited measure for sleep promotion was reducing light during the night (95 questionnaires; 80.5%), which was more often performed in private intensive care units. Almost all of the responders (99%) believed that poor-quality sleep has a negative impact on patient recovery. Conclusion: The responses to this Brazilian survey revealed that few intensive care units had a program for promoting sleep, although almost all participants recognized the importance of sleep in patient recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sleep/physiology , Critical Illness , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Health Care Surveys , Nurses/statistics & numerical data
19.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 216-225, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098894

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: describir las terapias utilizadas en lactantes con bronquiolitis aguda admitidos en 20 Uni dades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) pediátricos miembros de LARed en 5 países latinoamerica nos. Pacientes y Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo, multicéntrico, de datos del Registro Latinoamericano de Falla Respiratoria Aguda Pediátrica. Se incluyeron niños menores de 2 años ingresados a UCI pediátrica por bronquiolitis aguda comunitaria entre mayo-septiembre 2017. Se recolectaron datos demográficos, clínicos, soporte respiratorio, terapias utilizadas y resultados clí nicos. Se realizó análisis de subgrupos según ubicación geográfica, tipo financiación y presencia de academia. Resultados: Ingresaron al registro 1155 pacientes con falla respiratoria aguda. Seis casos fueron excluidos por no tener formulario completo. De los 1147 pacientes, 908 eran menores de 2 años. De ellos, 467 tuvieron diagnóstico de bronquiolitis aguda, correspondiendo a la principal causa de ingreso a UCI pediátrica por falla respiratoria aguda (51,4%). Las características demográficas y de gravedad entre los centros fueron similares. El soporte máximo respiratorio más frecuente fue cánula nasal de alto flujo (47%), seguido por ventilación mecánica no invasiva (26%) y ventilación mecánica invasiva (17%), con un coeficiente de variación (CV) amplio entre los centros. Hubo una gran dispersión en uso de terapias, siendo frecuente el uso de broncodilatadores, antibióticos y corticoides, con CV hasta 400%. El análisis de subgrupos mostró diferencias significativas en soporte respiratorio y tratamientos utilizados. Un paciente falleció en esta cohorte. Conclusión: Detectamos gran variabilidad en el soporte respiratorio y tratamientos entre UCI pediátricas latinoamericanas. Esta variabilidad no es explicada por disparidades demográficas ni clínicas. Esta heterogeneidad de tratamientos debería promover iniciativas colaborativas para disminuir la brecha entre la evidencia científica y la práctica asistencial.


Abstract: The objective of this study was to describe the management of infants with acute bronchiolitis admit ted to 20 pediatric intensive care units (PICU) members of LARed in 5 Latin American countries. Pa tients and Method: Retrospective, multicenter, observational study of data from the Latin American Registry of Acute Pediatric Respiratory Failure. We included children under 2 years of age admitted to the PICU due to community-based acute bronchiolitis between May and September 2017. Demo graphic and clinical data, respiratory support, therapies used, and clinical results were collected. A subgroup analysis was carried out according to geographical location (Atlantic v/s Pacific), type of insurance (Public v/s Private), and Academic v/s non-Academic centers. Results: 1,155 patients were included in the registry which present acute respiratory failure and 6 were excluded due to the lack of information in their record form. Out of the 1,147 patients, 908 were under 2 years of age, and out of those, 467 (51.4%) were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, which was the main cause of admission to the PICU due to acute respiratory failure. The demographic and severity characteristics among the centers were similar. The most frequent maximum ventilatory support was the high-flow nasal can nula (47%), followed by non-invasive ventilation (26%) and invasive mechanical ventilation (17%), with a wide coefficient of variation (CV) between centers. There was a great dispersion in the use of treatments, where the use of bronchodilators, antibiotics, and corticosteroids, representing a CV up to 400%. There were significant differences in subgroup analysis regarding respiratory support and treatments used. One patient of this cohort passed away. Conclusion: we detected wide variability in respiratory support and treatments among Latin American PICUs. This variability was not explained by demographic or clinical differences. The heterogeneity of treatments should encourage collabora tive initiatives to reduce the gap between scientific evidence and practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Bronchiolitis/diagnosis , Registries , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Critical Care/methods , Latin America
20.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(1): e333, ene.-mar. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126692

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La gangrena de Fournier es una enfermedad infecciosa caracterizada por una fascitis necrotizante de evolución fulminante que afecta a la región perineal, genital o perianal, con una rápida progresión y alta letalidad. Objetivo: Describir la sintomatología del paciente y buena evolución, a pesar de varios factores de mal pronóstico. Caso clínico: Se trata de un paciente masculino de 77 años de edad, diabético e hipertenso, remitido a cuidados intensivos, desde el servicio de Urología, con el diagnóstico de gangrena de Fournier, descontrol metabólico y agudización de su enfermedad renal crónica. Conclusiones: Con el tratamiento médico quirúrgico intensivo y la utilización de oxigenación hiperbárica, tuvo una evolución favorable, hasta su egreso(AU)


Introduction: Fournier gangrene is an infectious disease characterized by a necrotizing fascitis of fulminant evolution that affects the perineal, genital or perianal region, with rapid progression and high lethality. Objective: To describe the patient symptomatology and good evolution, despite several factors of poor prognosis. Clinical case: 77-year-old male patient, diabetic and hypertensive, referred to intensive care, from the urology department, with the diagnosis of Fournier gangrene, metabolic decontrol and exacerbation of chronic kidney disease. Conclusions: With intensive surgical and medical treatment and the use of hyperbaric oxygenation, he had a favorable evolution, until his discharge(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Communicable Diseases , Fournier Gangrene , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/diagnosis , Critical Care/methods , Genitalia
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