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1.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e4025, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1515338

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: medir el volumen urinario por medio de la ecografía vesical, realizado por una enfermera en pacientes críticos, después de la retirada de la sonda urinaria permanente y verificar los factores relacionados en la retención urinaria. Método: estudio cuantitativo, observacional y transversal, realizado con 37 pacientes críticos de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, con retiro de catéter vesical permanente en las últimas 48 horas. Se utilizó un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y el examen ecográfico. Se utilizó un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y el examen ecográfico. Los datos fueron presentados a través de distribución de frecuencias, medidas de centralidad y variabilidad, asociación mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher y, para el análisis, regresión logística binomial múltiple. Resultados: de los 37 pacientes, en su mayoría fue de sexo masculino, con una edad média de 54,9 años. La medición del volumen urinario por ecografía osciló entre 332,3 y 950 ml, y el 40,54% de los pacientes presentó retención urinaria. La retención urinaria se asoció significativamente a la aparición de infección urinaria, estreñimiento intestinal y diuresis por rebosamiento espontáneo. Los pacientes con infección del tracto urinario tenían 7,4 veces más probabilidades de tener retención urinaria. Conclusión: la ecografía vesical fue eficaz para medir el volumen urinario después de retirar el catéter urinario permanente y puede contribuir a la detección de retención urinaria.


Objective: to measure urinary volume through bladder ultrasound, performed by a nurse in critically ill patients, after removal of the indwelling urinary catheter and to verify the related factors on urinary retention. Method: quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study, carried out with 37 critically ill patients of both sexes, over 18 years of age, with removal of indwelling urinary catheter in the last 48 hours. A questionnaire containing sociodemographic and clinical variables and an ultrasound examination were used. Data were presented through frequency distribution, centrality and variability measures, association using Fisher`s exact test and, for analysis multiple binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: the 37 patients were mostly male, with a mean age of 54.9 years. The measurement of urinary volume by ultrasound ranged from 332.3 to 950 ml, and 40.54% of patients had urinary retention. Urinary retention was significantly associated with the occurrence of urinary tract infection, intestinal constipation and spontaneous overflow diuresis. Patients with urinary tract infection were 7.4 times more likely to have urinary retention. Conclusion: bladder ultrasonography was effective in measuring urinary volume after removal of the indwelling urinary catheter and and may contribute to the detection of urinary retention.


Objetivo: mensurar o volume urinário por meio da ultrassonografia de bexiga, realizada por enfermeiro em pacientes críticos, após a remoção do cateter vesical de demora, e verificar os fatores relacionados na retenção urinária. Método: estudo quantitativo, observacional e transversal, realizado com 37 pacientes críticos de ambos os sexos, idade superior a 18 anos, com retirada de cateter vesical de demora nas últimas 48 horas. Foram utilizados um questionário contendo as variáveis sociodemográficas e clinicas e o exame de ultrassonografia. Os dados foram apresentados por meio da distribuição de frequência, medidas de centralidade e de variabilidade, associação pelo teste exato de Fisher e, para análise a regressão logística binomial múltipla. Resultados: dos 37 pacientes, a maioria era do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 54,9 anos. A mensuração do volume urinário pela ultrassonografia variou de 332,3 a 950 ml, sendo que 40,54% dos pacientes apresentaram retenção urinária. A retenção urinaria apresentou associação significativa para a ocorrência de infecção do trato urinário, constipação intestinal e diurese espontânea por transbordamento. Pacientes com infecção urinária tiveram 7,4 vezes mais chance de apresentar retenção urinária. Conclusão: ultrassonografia de bexiga foi eficaz para mensurar o volume urinário após a remoção do cateter vesical de demora e poderá contribuir na detecção da retenção urinária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Catheterization , Catheters, Indwelling , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urinary Retention/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Critical Illness
2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e4031, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1522039

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analizar la respuesta emocional de pacientes conscientes en estado crítico durante la higiene diaria en una unidad de cuidados intensivos cardiológicos y compararla en función de experiencias previas o no. Método: estudio prospectivo y descriptivo. Encuesta ad hoc de 30 ítems realizada a 148 pacientes y basada en la higiene del primer día. Se formulan preguntas sobre los sentimientos durante la higiene y aspectos positivos y negativos de la experiencia. Se compara a los pacientes en función de si se los había higienizado con anterioridad. Resultados: el 67,6% fueron hombres y la media de edad fue de 67±15 años. El 45,9% presentó conformismo, el 27% sintió vergüenza y el 86,3% agradeció que le hablaran durante la higiene. Al 33,1% de los pacientes nunca les habían realizado higiene en la cama, eran significativamente más jóvenes y solteros, y tenían menor sensación de limpieza. El 32% expresó que le gustaría que un familiar colaborase en la higiene. Conclusión: los pacientes no sienten que se invade su intimidad cuando se los higieniza y aprecian la comunicación con el personal sanitario durante estos cuidados. Los pacientes a quienes no les habían realizado higiene en la cama previamente son más jóvenes, sienten mayor vergüenza y les molestan más las interrupciones, siendo más conscientes de ellas.


Objective: to analyze the emotional response of critically-ill conscious patients during daily hygiene procedures in a Cardiology Intensive Care Unit and to compare it based on the existence of previous experiences or not. Method: a prospective and descriptive study. A 30-item ad hoc survey based on the first-day hygiene procedures was applied to 148 patients. Questions are asked about the feelings during the hygiene procedures and about positive and negative aspects of the experience. The patients are compared based on whether they had been already subjected to hygiene procedures or not. Results: 67.6% were men and their mean age was 67±15 years old; 45.9% proved to be satisfied, 27% felt embarrassment and 86.3% were grateful to the professionals for talking to them during the hygiene procedures. 33.1% of the patients had never been subjected to hygiene procedures in bed, were significantly younger and single, and presented a lower cleanliness sensation. 32% stated that they would like for a family member to collaborate in the hygiene procedures. Conclusion: the patients do not feel that their intimacy is invaded when they are subjected to hygiene procedures and appreciate communication with the health personnel while this care is provided. Those who had never been subjected to hygiene procedures in bed are younger, feel more embarrassed and are more disturbed by interruptions, in addition to being more aware of them.


Objetivo: analisar a resposta emocional de pacientes críticos conscientes durante a higiene diária em uma unidade de terapia intensiva cardíaca e compará-la considerando ou não as experiências prévias. Método: estudo prospectivo e descritivo. Foi aplicado questionário ad hoc de 30 itens a 148 pacientes, com base na higiene do primeiro dia. Foram feitas perguntas sobre sentimentos durante a higiene e aspectos positivos e negativos da experiência. Os pacientes foram comparados considerando o fato de terem sido higienizados anteriormente. Resultados: 67,6% eram homens e a idade média foi de 67±15 anos. 45,9% apresentavam conformismo, 27% se sentiram envergonhados e 86,3% estavam gratos por terem conversado com eles durante a higiene; 33,1% dos pacientes acamados nunca haviam recebido cuidados de higiene no leito, eram significativamente mais jovens e solteiros, e tinham um senso de limpeza mais baixo; 32% expressaram que gostariam que um membro da família ajudasse na higiene. Conclusão: os pacientes não se sentiram invadidos em sua intimidade quando receberam os cuidados de higiene e apreciaram a comunicação com o pessoal de saúde durante o procedimento. Os pacientes que não tinham recebido cuidados de higiene no leito anteriormente são mais jovens, sentem-se mais constrangidos e mais incomodados pelas interrupções, sendo mais conscientes delas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Critical Care , Emotions , Intensive Care Units
3.
Medisan ; 27(2)abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1440580

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hoy día existen disparidades en cuanto al sexo en pacientes con enfermedades graves, lo cual no ha podido ser explicado en los estudios clínico-epidemiológicos realizados hasta el momento. Objetivo: Identificar las diferencias según sexo en pacientes ingresados en cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo de 187 pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Provincial Carlos Manuel de Céspedes de la provincia de Granma, que incluyó los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 2018-2020. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, origen, diagnóstico al ingreso, estado al egreso, estadía hospitalaria, síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, estadio de la sepsis, factores de riesgo, infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad y tratamiento requerido. Resultados: En la investigación la mayoría de los pacientes correspondieron al sexo femenino (60,9 %) y la edad media fue de 31,6 y 49,6 años en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente (p=0,000). Asimismo, existieron diferencias significativas en cuanto al origen (p=0,012) y los diagnósticos iniciales (p=0,018); mientras que el promedio del APACHE II resultó ser de 7,2 en mujeres y de 11,6 en hombres (p=0,000) y la escala para la evaluación de fallo orgánico secuencial tuvo una media de 0,7 y 2,0, en ese mismo orden (p=0,000). Conclusiones: Los pacientes del sexo masculino presentaron edad promedio, diagnóstico, origen, gravedad y disfunción de órganos significativamente diferentes a los del femenino. Si bien no se apreciaron disparidades en cuanto a factores de riesgo e infecciones asociadas a la comunidad, la frecuencia de hombres que requieren tratamiento fue significativamente más alta.


Introduction: Nowadays disparities as for sex in patients with serious diseases can be found, which has not been explained in the clinical-epidemiological studies carried out until the moment. Objective: To identify the differences according to sex in patients admitted to intensive care units. Methods: An observational and prospective study of 187 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Provincial General Hospital was carried out in Granma that included the months of November and December, 2018-2020. Among the analyzed variables we can mention: age, sex, origin, diagnosis at admission, state when discharged from the unit, hospital stay, syndrome of systemic inflammatory response, stage of the sepsis, risk factors, community acquired infections and required treatment. Results: In the investigation most of the patients corresponded to female sex (60.9 %) and the mean age was 31.6 and 49.6 years in women and men, respectively (p=0.000). Also, significant differences existed as for the origin (p=0.012) and the initial diagnoses (p=0.018); while the average of the APACHE II was 7.2 in women and 11.6 in men (p=0.000) and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score had a mean of 0.7 and 2.0, in that same order (p=0.000). Conclusions: The patients of male sex presented average age, diagnosis, origin, seriousness and dysfunction of organs significantly different to those of female sex. Although disparities were not appreciated as for risk factors and infections associated with the community, the frequency of men that require treatment was significantly higher.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Sex , Secondary Care , Risk Factors
4.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(1): 44-73, mar2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435423

ABSTRACT

La cánula nasal de alto flujo se ha convertido en una de las principales estrategias de soporte ventilatorio no invasivo en la insuficiencia respiratoria aguda hipoxémica, principalmente después de la pandemia de COVID-19. Sin embargo, su uso se extiende más allá de este escenario y abarca diferentes condiciones clínicas como el período postextubación, período postquirúrgico, insuficiencia respiratoria hipercápnica y soporte vital en pacientes inmunodeprimidos, trasplantados u oncológicos. Los manuscritos que avalan su aplicación han sido ampliamente difundidos y el grado de evidencia es lo suficientemente alto como para recomendar su uso. Por tanto, es necesario destacar sus efectos fisiológicos como el confort, una fracción inspirada de oxígeno precisa, el lavado de CO2 o la optimización del volumen pulmonar de fin de espiración para comprender su mecanismo de acción y mejorar los resultados de los pacientes. El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es ofrecer un resumen breve y conciso de los efectos y beneficios de aplicar esta terapia en diferentes escenarios clínicos sin la estructura rígida de una revisión sistemática. Con base en estas líneas, el lector curioso puede ampliar la evidencia científica que avala el empleo de la cánula nasal de alto flujo en cada escenario particular. (AU);


High-flow nasal cannula has become one of the main strategies for non-invasive ventilatory support in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure, mainly after the COVID-19 pandemic. However, its use extends beyond this scenario and covers different clinical conditions such as the post-extubation period, post-surgical period, hypercapnic respiratory failure and life support in immunosuppressed, trasplant or cancer patients. Manuscripts that support its application have been widely disseminated and the degree of evidence is high enough to recommend its use. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight its physiological effects such as comfort, precise fraction of inspiratory oxygen, CO2 lavage or optimize end-expiratory lung volume to understand its mechanism of action and improve patients' outcomes. The objective of this narrative review is to offer a brief and concise summary of the benefits of applying this therapy in different clinical scenarios without the rigid structure of a systematic review. Based on these lines, the curious reader can expand the scientific evidence that supports the use of the high-flow nasal cannula in each particular scenario. (AU);


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Cannula , Risk , Review , Critical Illness
5.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440519

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ecografía es una técnica de imagen no invasiva que permite explorar diferentes órganos de manera inmediata, constituye un instrumento de alto valor diagnóstico al alcance del profesional de la salud, y es utilizada en todas las especialidades médicas. En los últimos años, la evolución tecnológica ha permitido que los aparatos de ecografía sean más pequeños, portátiles, y con una alta resolución, tal es el caso de la ecografía clínica o ecografía a pie de cama. La ecografía del paciente crítico ha cambiado la práctica médica; específicamente la ecografía pulmonar se debe realizar en todos los pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar aguda. Objetivo: Aportar el conocimiento teórico necesario para promover el uso de la ecografía pulmonar en la evaluación del paciente crítico, y contribuir, mediante su aplicación, a la disminución del riesgo de exposición a las radiografías. Métodos: Se efectuó una revisión de la literatura médica actualizada sobre el papel de la ecografía pulmonar en la evaluación del paciente crítico, en el período de julio a diciembre de 2021. Se utilizaron los siguientes motores de búsqueda: SciELO, Medigraphic y Google Académico. Conclusiones: En el contexto actual, la ecografía pulmonar ha adquirido un papel protagónico, pues su uso facilita una evaluación frecuente y no invasiva del paciente crítico con afección pleuropulmonar. Su aplicación garantiza la disminución del riesgo de exposición a las radiografías.


Introduction: ultrasound is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows us to explore different organs immediately; it constitutes an instrument of high diagnostic value within the reach of health professionals and used in all medical specialties. In recent years, technological evolution has allowed ultrasound devices to be smaller, portable and with high resolution, such is the case of clinical ultrasound or bedside ultrasound. Bedside ultrasound in critically ill patients has changed medical practice; specifically, lung ultrasound should be performed in all patients with acute lung disease. Objective: to provide the necessary theoretical knowledge in order to promote the use of lung ultrasound in the evaluation of critically ill patients, as well as to contribute, through its application, to reduce the risk of exposure to radiographs. Methods: a review of the updated medical literature on the role of lung ultrasound in the evaluation of the critically ill patients was performed from July to December 2021. SciELO, Medigraphic and Google Scholar were the search engines used. Conclusions: lung ultrasound has acquired a leading role in the current context, since its use facilitates a non-invasive and common evaluation of the criticall ill patients with pleuropulmonary disease. Its application guarantees the reduction of the risk of exposure to X-rays.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Alveoli , Ultrasonography , Critical Illness , Lung Diseases, Interstitial
6.
Curitiba; s.n; 20230215. 145 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1434498

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Trata-se de um estudo metodológico, com o objetivo de traduzir e adaptar transculturalmente a Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale Form B (FATCOD-B scale) para o português brasileiro e avaliar sua validade de conteúdo e a consistência interna. Essa escala favorece a eficácia da assistência prestada pela equipe de saúde na temática da morte. Foi projetada pela enfermeira Katherine Helen Murray Frommelt em 1989, com o objetivo de avaliar as atitudes dos enfermeiros em relação ao cuidado de pessoas em estado terminal e suas famílias. Posteriormente, sua aplicação foi estendida para outros profissionais, como médicos. Este estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa em Seres Humanos do Setor de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal do Paraná com a CAEE 55547522.1.0000.0102. Foi desenvolvido entre julho de 2021 a janeiro de 2023, no formato online e envolveu as etapas: tradução; síntese; retrotradução; revisão por um comitê de especialistas; pré-teste e versão final da escala. Foram recrutados como participantes: tradutores juramentados; tradutor da área da saúde; retrotradutores norte-americanos; especialistas, dentre os quais médicos, enfermeiros, profissional formado em letras português-inglês e profissionais médicos e enfermeiros associados à Sociedade Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia que participaram do pré-teste. Todos foram selecionados mediante critérios de inclusão e exclusão. A versão da FATCOD-B scale finalizada pelos especialistas, foi aplicada no pré-teste a 75 médicos e 12 enfermeiros, que também responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico que continha perguntas referentes a sexo, idade, religião, profissão, educação prévia sobre o morrer e a morte, experiência prévia com a perda, experiência presente com a perda e experiência prévia no cuidado de pessoas com doenças terminais. Para avaliar as associações entre as respostas da FATCOD-B scale foi utilizado o teste qui-quadrado ou o teste exato de Fisher. Todos os testes foram realizados considerando o nível de 5% de significância e utilizou-se a linguagem de programação R.4.1.2. Dos 87 participantes, 57,4% tinham até 45 anos; 66,7% eram mulheres; 55,2% eram católicos; 73,6% apontaram a crença religiosa como geradora de atitudes sobre o morrer e a morte; 96,6% tinham experiência prévia no cuidado de pessoas com doenças terminais, 72,43% experienciaram a perda de familiares próximos ou outra pessoa significante, 65,5% não fizaram curso específico sobre o morrer e a morte, mas tiveram o assunto abordado em outros cursos. Observou-se que as variáveis idade, sexo, religião, experiência prévia com a perda e a educação prévia sobre o morrer e a morte são fatores associados às atitudes diante do morrer e da morte (p<0,05). Os participantes apresentaram atitudes positivas diante do morrer e da morte, pontuando 121 ± 0,68 na escala FATCOD-B. O Alfa de Cronbach atingiu 0,81 e o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo 88,27 os quais foram empregados para avaliar a consistência interna da versão final da FATCOD-B scale, obtendo-se valor adequado. A versão brasileira da FATCOD-B scale (FATCOD-B-B), traduzida e adaptada transculturalmente para o português brasileiro através de processos científicos rigorosos, apresentou validade de conteúdo e alta consistência interna, logo poderá ser aplicada em todo território nacional.


Abstract: This is a methodological study, with the objective of performing the translation and crosscultural adaptation of the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale Form B (FATCOD-B scale) into Brazilian Portuguese and the evaluation of its content validity and internal consistency. This scale is a measurement instrument, which favors the effectiveness of the assistance provided by the health team on the theme of death. It was designed by the nurse Katherine Helen Murray Frommelt in 1989, with the objective of evaluating the attitudes of nurses in relation to the care of terminally ill people and their families. Later, its application was extended to other healthcare professionals, such as physicians. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee on Human Research of the Health Sciences Sector of the Federal University of Paraná with CAEE 55547522.1.0000.0102. It was developed between July 2021 and January 2023, in the online format and involved the following stages: translation; synthesis; back translation; review by a committee of experts; pre-test and final version of the scale. The study participants were recruited as: translators sworn; a translator in the health area; North American back-translators; specialists, among which there are physicians, nurses and a professional graduated in Portuguese-English letters and physicians and nurses associated with the Brazilian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology who participated in the pre-test. All participants were selected through pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. The version of the FATCOD-B scale finalized by the specialists was applied in the pre-test to 75 physicians and 12 nurses, who also answered a sociodemographic questionnaire that contained questions regarding sex, age, religion, profession, previous education about dying and death, previous experience with the loss, present experience with the loss and previous experience in caring for people with terminal illnesses. To evaluate the associations between the answers of the FATCOD-B scale, it was used the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. All tests were performed considering a 5% significance level and using the R.4.1.2 programming language. From the 87 participants, 57.4% were up to 45 years old; 66.7% were women; 55.2% were catholic; 73.6% pointed to religious belief as a generator of attitudes about dying and death; 96.6% had previous experience in caring for people with terminal illnesses, 72.43% had experienced the loss of close family members or another significant person, 65.5% had not taken a specific course on dying and death, but had the subject approached in other courses. It was observed that the variables age, gender, religion, previous experience with loss and previous education about dying and death are influential in the attitudes towards dying and death (p<0.05). Participants showed positive attitudes towards dying and death, scoring 121 ± 0.68 on the FATCOD-B scale. Cronbach's alpha reached 0.81 and the Content Validity Index 88.27, wich were used to assess the reliability and internal consistency of the final version of the FATCOD-B scale, obtaining adequate values. The Brazilian version of the FATCOD-B scale, translated and cross-culturally adapted through rigorous scientific processes, showed content validity and high internal consistency, and could soon be applied throughout the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patient Care Team , Patients , Critical Illness , Health Personnel , Death
7.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 3-9, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420653

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Postoperative delirium is common in critically ill patients and is known to have several predisposing and precipitating factors. Seasonality affects cognitive function which has a more dysfunctional pattern during winter. We, therefore, aimed to test whether seasonal variation is associated with the occurrence of delirium and hospital Length Of Stay (LOS) in critically ill non-cardiac surgical populations. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients recovering from non-cardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic between March 2013 and March 2018 who stayed in Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) for at least 48 hours and had daily Confusion Assessment Method Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) assessments for delirium. The incidence of delirium and LOS were summarized by season and compared using chi-square test and non-parametric tests, respectively. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between delirium and LOS with seasons, adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results Among 2300 patients admitted to SICU after non-cardiac surgeries, 1267 (55%) had postoperative delirium. The incidence of delirium was 55% in spring, 54% in summer, 55% in fall and 57% in winter, which was not significantly different over the four seasons (p= 0.69). The median LOS was 12 days (IQR = [8, 19]) overall. There was a significant difference in LOS across the four seasons (p= 0.018). LOS during summer was 12% longer (95% CI: 1.04, 1.21; p= 0.002) than in winter. Conclusions In adult non-cardiac critically ill surgical patients, the incidence of postoperative delirium is not associated with season. Noticeably, LOS was longer in summer than in winter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Emergence Delirium , Seasons , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units
8.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies ; : 90-99, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984395

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Among critically ill patients, there is usually impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis, leading to a condition known as critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). The aims of this investigation are to determine the incidence of and characterize CIRCI among patients with COVID-19 as well as to analyze the outcomes of these critically ill patients.@*Methodology@#This is a single-center, retrospective, cohort study that investigated the occurrence of CIRCI among critically ill patients infected with COVID-19.@*Results@#In this cohort, there were 145 COVID-19 positive patients with refractory shock included, which reflects that 22.94% of the COVID-19 admissions have probable CIRCI. Patients who were given corticosteroids were found to have statistically significant longer median days on ventilator (p= 0.001). However, those on the corticosteroid arm were at higher risk of morbidity and mortality and a greater proportion of patients with organ dysfunction. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that SOFA score was a significant predictor of mortality in CIRCI (p=0.013).@*Conclusion@#CIRCI has a unique presentation among COVID-19 patients because of the presence of a high level of inflammation in this life-threatening infection. It possibly is a harbinger of markedly increased risk of mortality in these patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Shock
9.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 480-493, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985953

ABSTRACT

We wished to establish an expert consensus on late stage of critical care (CC) management. The panel comprised 13 experts in CC medicine. Each statement was assessed based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) principle. Then, the Delphi method was adopted by 17 experts to reassess the following 28 statements. (1) ESCAPE has evolved from a strategy of delirium management to a strategy of late stage of CC management. (2) The new version of ESCAPE is a strategy for optimizing treatment and comprehensive care of critically ill patients (CIPs) after the rescue period, including early mobilization, early rehabilitation, nutritional support, sleep management, mental assessment, cognitive-function training, emotional support, and optimizing sedation and analgesia. (3) Disease assessment to determine the starting point of early mobilization, early rehabilitation, and early enteral nutrition. (4) Early mobilization has synergistic effects upon the recovery of organ function. (5) Early functional exercise and rehabilitation are important means to promote CIP recovery, and gives them a sense of future prospects. (6) Timely start of enteral nutrition is conducive to early mobilization and early rehabilitation. (7) The spontaneous breathing test should be started as soon as possible, and a weaning plan should be selected step-by-step. (8) The waking process of CIPs should be realized in a planned and purposeful way. (9) Establishment of a sleep-wake rhythm is the key to sleep management in post-CC management. (10) The spontaneous awakening trial, spontaneous breathing trial, and sleep management should be carried out together. (11) The depth of sedation should be adjusted dynamically in the late stage of CC period. (12) Standardized sedation assessment is the premise of rational sedation. (13) Appropriate sedative drugs should be selected according to the objectives of sedation and drug characteristics. (14) A goal-directed minimization strategy for sedation should be implemented. (15) The principle of analgesia must be mastered first. (16) Subjective assessment is preferred for analgesia assessment. (17) Opioid-based analgesic strategies should be selected step-by-step according to the characteristics of different drugs. (18) There must be rational use of non-opioid analgesics and non-drug-based analgesic measures. (19) Pay attention to evaluation of the psychological status of CIPs. (20) Cognitive function in CIPs cannot be ignored. (21) Delirium management should be based on non-drug-based measures and rational use of drugs. (22) Reset treatment can be considered for severe delirium. (23) Psychological assessment should be conducted as early as possible to screen-out high-risk groups with post-traumatic stress disorder. (24) Emotional support, flexible visiting, and environment management are important components of humanistic management in the intensive care unit (ICU). (25) Emotional support from medical teams and families should be promoted through"ICU diaries"and other forms. (26) Environmental management should be carried out by enriching environmental content, limiting environmental interference, and optimizing the environmental atmosphere. (27) Reasonable promotion of flexible visitation should be done on the basis of prevention of nosocomial infection. (28) ESCAPE is an excellent project for late stage of CC management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Delirium/therapy , Critical Illness
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 284-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the application value of transport ventilator in the inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.@*METHODS@#The critically ill children in Hunan Children's Hospital who were transported with or without a transport ventilator were included as the observation group (from January 2019 to January 2020; n=122) and the control group (from January 2018 to January 2019; n=120), respectively. The two groups were compared in terms of general data, the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood oxygen saturation during transport, the incidence rates of adverse events, and outcomes.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences between the two groups in sex, age, oxygenation index, pediatric critical illness score, course of disease, primary disease, heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation before transport (P>0.05). During transport, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (P>0.05). The incidence rates of tracheal catheter detachment, indwelling needle detachment, and sudden cardiac arrest in the observation group were lower than those in the control group during transport, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit and significantly higher transport success rate and cure/improvement rate (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The application of transport ventilator in the inter-hospital transport can improve the success rate of inter-hospital transport and the prognosis in critically ill children, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application in the inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Critical Illness , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Ventilators, Mechanical , Prognosis
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 135-139, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in the rapid clinical diagnosis of critically ill neonates.@*METHODS@#The critically ill neonates who admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Children's Hospital of Fudan University and underwent WGS from August to September, 2019 were enrolled in this prospective study. The genetic testing results and clinical outcome were analyzed with reference to the sequencing data and clinical features of the neonates.@*RESULTS@#A total of 15 neonates were tested, among whom there were 9 boys and 6 girls. The main reason for hospitalization included abnormal breathing in 7 neonates, poor response in 2 neonates, feeding difficulty in 2 neonates, fever in 1 neonate, hypothermia in 1 neonate, preterm birth in 1 neonate, and convulsion in 1 neonate. The mean turn-around time was 4.5 days for WGS. Finally a genetic diagnosis was obtained for 3 neonates, with a positive diagnostic rate of 20% (3/15). Among the 3 neonates, 2 neonates were withdrawn from the treatment due to severe conditions and 1 neonate died on the day when the sample was sent for genetic testing, whose etiology could be explained by the results of genetic testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#WGS technique can provide a timely and effective diagnosis for critically ill neonates suspected of genetic diseases and provide genetic evidence for clinical treatment of critically ill cases.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Male , Child , Female , Humans , Critical Illness , Prospective Studies , Premature Birth , Dyspnea , Fever
12.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 216-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970270

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the risk factors in mortality of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Second analysis of the data collected in the "efficacy of pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of children with moderate to severe PARDS" program. Retrospective case summary of the risk factors of mortality of children with moderate to severe PARDS who admitted in 14 participating tertiary PICU between December 2016 to December 2021. Differences in general condition, underlying diseases, oxygenation index, and mechanical ventilation were compared after the group was divided by survival at PICU discharge. When comparing between groups, the Mann-Whitney U test was used for measurement data, and the chi-square test was used for counting data. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the accuracy of oxygen index (OI) in predicting mortality. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for mortality. Results: Among 101 children with moderate to severe PARDS, 63 (62.4%) were males, 38 (37.6%) were females, aged (12±8) months. There were 23 cases in the non-survival group and 78 cases in the survival group. The combined rates of underlying diseases (52.2% (12/23) vs. 29.5% (23/78), χ2=4.04, P=0.045) and immune deficiency (30.4% (7/23) vs. 11.5% (9/78), χ2=4.76, P=0.029) in non-survival patients were significantly higher than those in survival patients, while the use of pulmonary surfactant (PS) was significantly lower (8.7% (2/23) vs. 41.0% (32/78), χ2=8.31, P=0.004). No significant differences existed in age, sex, pediatric critical illness score, etiology of PARDS, mechanical ventilation mode and fluid balance within 72 h (all P>0.05). OI on the first day (11.9(8.3, 17.1) vs.15.5(11.7, 23.0)), the second day (10.1(7.6, 16.6) vs.14.8(9.3, 26.2)) and the third day (9.2(6.6, 16.6) vs. 16.7(11.2, 31.4)) after PARDS identified were all higher in non-survival group compared to survival group (Z=-2.70, -2.52, -3.79 respectively, all P<0.05), and the improvement of OI in non-survival group was worse (0.03(-0.32, 0.31) vs. 0.32(-0.02, 0.56), Z=-2.49, P=0.013). ROC curve analysis showed that the OI on the thind day was more appropriate in predicting in-hospital mortality (area under the curve= 0.76, standard error 0.05,95%CI 0.65-0.87,P<0.001). When OI was set at 11.1, the sensitivity was 78.3% (95%CI 58.1%-90.3%), and the specificity was 60.3% (95%CI 49.2%-70.4%). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age, sex, pediatric critical illness score and fluid load within 72 h, no use of PS (OR=11.26, 95%CI 2.19-57.95, P=0.004), OI value on the third day (OR=7.93, 95%CI 1.51-41.69, P=0.014), and companied with immunodeficiency (OR=4.72, 95%CI 1.17-19.02, P=0.029) were independent risk factors for mortality in children with PARDS. Conclusions: The mortality of patients with moderate to severe PARDS is high, and immunodeficiency, no use of PS and OI on the third day after PARDS identified are the independent risk factors related to mortality. The OI on the third day after PARDS identified could be used to predict mortality.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Infant , Child , Critical Illness , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
13.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 561-572, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982634

ABSTRACT

Patients with critical illness are at the high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and the older the patient, the higher the incidence of VTE. Despite its poor prognosis, VTE is preventable. At present, although there are many consensus or guidelines on the prevention of VTE at home and abroad, there is still a lack of consensus or guidelines for the prevention of VTE in elderly patients with critical illness. In order to standardize the prevention of VTE in elderly patients with critical illness in China, Expert consensus on the prevention of venous thromboembolism for elderly patients with critical illness in China (2023) was developed by Critical Care Medicine Division of Chinese Geriatric Society and Zhejiang Provincial Clinical Research Center for Critical Care Medicine. Members of the working group consulted relevant domestic and foreign guidelines, integrated evidence-based medical evidence and clinical experience, formed the draft consensus, submitted it to the expert group for discussion for many times, revised it for many times, and finally sent it to the expert group in the form of electronic questionnaire, and the expert gave a comprehensive score according to the theoretical basis, scientific nature and feasibility of the consensus items. The recommendation strength of each item was determined, and 21 recommendations were finally formed to provide reference for the prevention of VTE in elderly patients with critical illness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Critical Illness , Consensus , China , Anticoagulants
14.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 533-537, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a new emergency dynamic score (EDS) method based on modified early warning score (MEWS) combined with clinical symptoms, rapidly available examination results and bedside examination data in the emergency department, and to observe its applicability and feasibility in the clinical application of emergency department.@*METHODS@#A total of 500 patients admitted to the department of emergency of Xing'an County People's Hospital from July 2021 to April 2022 were selected as research objects. After admission, EDS and MEWS scores were performed first, and then acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) was performed retrospectively, and the prognosis of patients was followed up. The difference of short-term mortality in patients with different score segments of EDS, MEWS and APACHE II were compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was drawn to evaluate the prognostic value of various scoring methods in critically ill patients.@*RESULTS@#The mortality of patients in different score groups of each scoring method increased with the increase of the score value [The mortality of 0-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-7 and ≥ 8 of MEWS were 1.9% (3/159), 2.9% (6/208), 12.4% (11/89), 29.0% (9/31) and 61.5% (8/13), respectively. The mortality of EDS stage 1 weighted MEWS score 0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12 and ≥ 13 were 0 (0/49), 3.2% (8/247), 6.6% (10/152), 31.9% (15/47) and 80.0% (4/5), respectively. The mortality of EDS stage 2 clinical symptom score 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, ≥ 20 were 0 (0/13), 0.4% (1/235), 3.6% (6/165), 26.2% (17/65), 59.1% (13/22), respectively. The mortality of EDS stage 3 rapid test data score 0-6, 7-12, 13-18, 19-24 and ≥ 25 were 0 (0/16), 0.6% (1/159), 4.6% (6/131), 13.7% (7/51) and 65.0% (13/20), respectively. The mortality of patients with APACHE II score 0-6, 7-12, 13-18, 19-24 and ≥ 25 were 1.9% (1/53), 0.4% (1/277), 4.6% (5/108), 34.2% (13/38) and 70.8% (17/24), respectively, all P < 0.01]. When the MEWS score was more than 4, the specificity was 87.0%, the sensitivity was 67.6%, and the maximum Youden index was 0.546, which was the best cut-off point. When the weighted MEWS score of EDS in the first stage was greater than 7, the specificity of predicting the prognosis of patients was 76.2%, the sensitivity was 70.3%, and the maximum Youden index was 0.465, which was the best cut-off point. When clinical symptom score of EDS in the second stage was more than 14, the specificity and sensitivity of predicting the prognosis of patients were 87.7% and 81.1%, respectively, and the maximum Youden index was 0.688, which was the best cut-off point. When the third stage rapid test of EDS reached 15 points, the specificity of predicting the prognosis of patients was 70.9%, and the sensitivity was 96.3%, and the maximum Youden index was 0.672, which was the best cut-off point. When APACHE II score was higher than 16, the specificity was 87.9%, the sensitivity was 86.5%, and the maximum Youden index was 0.743, which was the best cut-off point. ROC curve analysis showed that: EDS score in the stage 1, 2 and 3, MEWS score and APACHE II score can predict the short-term mortality risk of critically ill patients. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 0.815 (0.726-0.905), 0.913 (0.867-0.959), 0.911 (0.860-0.962), 0.844 (0.755-0.933) and 0.910 (0.833-0.987), all P < 0.01. In terms of the differential ability to predict the risk of death in the short-term, the AUC in the second and third stages of EDS were highly close to APACHE II score (0.913, 0.911 vs. 0.910), and significantly higher than MEWS score (0.913, 0.911 vs. 0.844, both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EDS method can dynamically evaluate emergency patients in stages, and has the characteristics of fast, simple, easy to obtain test and inspection data, which can facilitate emergency doctors to evaluate emergency patients objectively and quickly. It has strong ability to predict the prognosis of emergency patients, and is worth popularizing in emergency departments of primary hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Research Design , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Emergency Service, Hospital
15.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 415-420, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To develop a mortality prediction model for critically ill patients based on multidimensional and dynamic clinical data collected by the hospital information system (HIS) using random forest algorithm, and to compare the prediction efficiency of the model with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) model.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 10 925 critically ill patients aged over 14 years old admitted to the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2014 to June 2020 were extracted from the HIS system, and APACHE II scores of the critically ill patients were extracted. Expected mortality of patients was calculated according to the death risk calculation formula of APACHE II scoring system. A total of 689 samples with APACHE II score records were used as the test set, and the other 10 236 samples were used to establish the random forest model, of which 10% (n = 1 024) were randomly selected as the validation set and 90% (n = 9 212) were selected as the training set. According to the time series of 3 days before the end of critical illness, the clinical characteristics of patients such as general information, vital signs data, biochemical test results and intravenous drug doses were selected to develope a random forest model for predicting the mortality of critically ill patients. Using the APACHE II model as a reference, receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was drawn, and the discrimination performance of the model was evaluated through the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). According to the precision and recall, Precision-Recall curve (PR curve) was drawn, and the calibration performance of the model was evaluated through the area under the PR curve (AUPRC). Calibration curve was drawn, and the consistency between the predicted event occurrence probability of the model and the actual occurrence probability was evaluated through the calibration index Brier score.@*RESULTS@#Among the 10 925 patients, there were 7 797 males (71.4%) and 3 128 females (28.6%). The average age was (58.9±16.3) years old. The median length of hospital stay was 12 (7, 20) days. Most patients (n = 8 538, 78.2%) were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), and the median length of ICU stay was 66 (13, 151) hours. The hospitalized mortality was 19.0% (2 077/10 925). Compared with the survival group (n = 8 848), the patients in the death group (n = 2 077) were older (years old: 60.1±16.5 vs. 58.5±16.4, P < 0.01), the ratio of ICU admission was higher [82.8% (1 719/2 077) vs. 77.1% (6 819/8 848), P < 0.01], and the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes and stroke history was also higher [44.7% (928/2 077) vs. 36.3% (3 212/8 848), 20.0% (415/2 077) vs. 16.9% (1 495/8 848), 15.5% (322/2 077) vs. 10.0% (885/8 848), all P < 0.01]. In the test set data, the prediction value of random forest model for the risk of death during hospitalization of critically ill patients was greater than that of APACHE II model, which showed by that the AUROC and AUPRC of random forest model were higher than those of APACHE II model [AUROC: 0.856 (95% confidence interval was 0.812-0.896) vs. 0.783 (95% confidence interval was 0.737-0.826), AUPRC: 0.650 (95% confidence interval was 0.604-0.762) vs. 0.524 (95% confidence interval was 0.439-0.609)], and Brier score was lower than that of APACHE II model [0.104 (95% confidence interval was 0.085-0.113) vs. 0.124 (95% confidence interval was 0.107-0.141)].@*CONCLUSIONS@#The random forest model based on multidimensional dynamic characteristics has great application value in predicting hospital mortality risk for critically ill patients, and it is superior to the traditional APACHE II scoring system.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Length of Stay , APACHE , Hospital Information Systems
17.
In. Machado Rodríguez, Fernando; Liñares Divenuto, Norberto Jorge; Gorrasi Delgado, José Antonio; Terra Collares, Eduardo Daniel; Borba, Norberto. Traslado interhospitalario: pacientes graves y potencialmente graves. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.283-291.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1524009
18.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 38(1): e403, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1450410

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la monitorización hemodinámica constituye un conjunto de técnicas y parámetros que permiten valo rar si la función cardiovascular es la adecuada para mantener la perfusión y la oxigenación tisular que permita sa tisfacer las demandas metabólicas del organismo, valorar el estado y el comportamiento del sistema cardiovascular, orientando sobre la mejor estrategia terapéutica. La presente revisión busca proporcionar una descripción general e integrada de las diferentes técnicas de monitorización, así como aspectos fisiológicos relevantes para su entendi miento y empleo terapéutico. La monitorización hemodinámica acompañada de un adecuado conocimiento de la fisiología cardiovascular permite determinar el estado del sistema cardiovascular, la condición hemodinámica del paciente y la estrategia terapéutica requerida. Su interpretación debe partir de la integración y la correlación de diversos parámetros hemodinámicos.


Introduction: hemodynamic monitoring is a set of techniques and parameters that allow evaluating whether cardio vascular function is adequate to maintain tissue perfusion and oxygenation to satisfy metabolic demands of the or ganism, assess the condition and behavior of the cardiovascular system, providing guidance on the best therapeutic strategy. This review seeks to provide a general and integrated description of the different monitoring techniques, as well as physiological aspects relevant to their understanding and therapeutic use. Hemodynamic monitoring accompanied by an adequate knowledge of cardiovascular physiology allows to determine the state of the cardiovascular system, hemodynamic condition of the patient and therapeutic strategy required, its interpretation must start from the integration and correlation of different hemodynamic parameters.


Introdução: a monitorização hemodinâmica constitui um conjunto de técnicas e parâmetros que permitem avaliar se a função cardiovascular é adequada para manter a perfusão e oxigenação tecidual que permite satisfazer as exi gências metabólicas do organismo, avaliar o estado e comportamento do sistema cardiovascular, orientando sobre a melhor estratégia terapêutica. Esta revisão procura fornecer uma descrição geral e integrada das diferentes técnicas de monitorização, bem como aspectos fisiológicos relevantes para a sua compreensão e utilização terapêutica. A monitorização hemodinâmica acompanhada de um conhecimento adequado da fisiologia cardiovascular permite determinar o estado do sistema cardiovascular, a condição hemodinâmica do doente e a estratégia terapêutica neces sária, a sua interpretação deve partir da integração e correlação de vários parâmetros hemodinâmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Critical Illness/therapy , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Critical Care/methods
19.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 18: 77540, 2023. ^eilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532679

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever os resultados da influência de imunonutrientes na taxa de mortalidade, tempo de internação, tempo de permanência na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) e incidência de infecções em pacientes críticos adultos e idosos. Método: Revisão integrativa da literatura realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Medline e Google Scholar, usando os descritores: ("immunomodulation" OR "immunonutrients") AND ("fattyAcids, Omega-3" OR "eicosapentaenoic Acid") AND ("glutamine") AND ("criticalillness" OR "criticalillnesses" OR "criticallyill"), sem restrição de idioma, com pesquisas realizadas no período de 2012 a 2022. Resultados: Nas buscas realizadas, foram encontradas 15 publicações, das quais 11 atenderam a todos os critérios estabelecidos ao início do estudo. Apesar de alguns estudos com indivíduos suplementados com fórmulas imunomoduladoras demonstrarem melhora no tempo de internação de UTI, redução de ocorrência de sepse e choque séptico, e redução de taxa de infecções, em sua maioria os estudos avaliados não mostraram diferença entre os grupos suplementados e os grupos controle, ou não apresentaram resultados estatisticamente significativos. Conclusão: O manejo do cuidado em pacientes críticos deve ser cuidadoso e individualizado, sendo imprescindível que a conduta clínica tenha como base evidências científicas. No presente estudo, a análise dos estudos clínicos que compuseram esta pesquisa verificou que os efeitos da imunomodulação na mortalidade, tempo de internação na UTI e hospitalização total e incidência de infecções, demonstrou ausência de resultados significativos para a prática de uso de imunonutrientes em pacientes críticos, sendo necessário realizar outros estudos para comprovar os reais benefícios da adoção dessa conduta.


Objective: To describe the outcomes regarding the impact of immunonutrients on mortality rates, length of hospitalization, duration of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stays, and the incidence of infections in adult and elderly critical patients. Method: An integrative literature review was conducted using the PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Medline, and Google Scholar databases, using the descriptors: ("immunomodulation" OR "immunonutrients") AND ("fatty acids, Omega-3" OR "eicosapentaenoic Acid") AND ("glutamine") AND ("critical illness" OR "critical illnesses" OR "critically ill"), without language restrictions. The search encompassed studies that were published between 2012 and 2022. Results: Fifteen publications were identified in the conducted searches, of which eleven met all the established criteria at the outset of the study. Although some studies involving individuals supplemented with immunomodulatory formulas demonstrated improvements in ICU leng­th of stay, a reduced incidence of sepsis and septic shock, and a lower infection rate, most of the evaluated studies did not reveal significant differences between the supplemented groups and the control groups or did not yield statistically significant outcomes. Conclusion: The management of care for critical patients necessitates a cautious and individualized approach, underpinned by scientific evidence. The analysis of clinical studies forming part of this research revealed an absence of statistically significant  results pertaining to the practice of immunomodulation  utilization in critical patients with respect to effects on mortality, ICU length of stay, total hospitalization, and the incidence of infections. Further studies are required to validate the genuine benefits of adopting this approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Critical Illness , Immunomodulation , Clinical Studies as Topic , Immunonutrition Diet , Intensive Care Units
20.
Junguiana ; 40(2)jul.-dez.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1434712

ABSTRACT

O autor discute a importância de se resgatar a morte como algo natural, tirando-a do interdito em que se encontra. Tenta mostrar o quanto este aspecto cria distorções para a vida, determinando uma série de distúrbios na conduta médica, em especial na abordagem do paciente terminal. Defende a ideia de que é uma doença da nossa cultura ocidental e a situação que leva a esta repressão é negação da morte. Dentro das referências teóricas da Psicologia Analítica de Jung, o autor propõe condutas para se tentar resgatar a vivência simbólica da morte restituindo-se a polaridade dialética Vida-Morte. Defende a proposição de que a vida só pode ter um sentido pleno se não negarmos a morte. Propõe que, como no parto, o progresso da Medicina se harmonize com respeito aos limites da Vida e da personalidade do paciente, frequentemente desrespeitados. Discute a morte como símbolo fundamental dentro do processo de individuação.


The author discusses the importance of readdressing death as something natural, retrieving it from the interdict in which it finds itself. He attempts to show the extent to which this aspect creates distortions to life, determining a series of disorders in medical conduct, especially in the approach to terminally ill patients. He defends the idea that it is a disease of our Western culture and that the situation that leads to this repression is the negation of death. In line with the theoretical references of Jung's Analytical Psychology, the author proposes conducts to try to rescue the symbolic experience of death and restore the life-death dialectical polarity. He supports the proposition that life can only have a full meaning if we do not negate death. He proposes that, as in childbirth, the progress of medicine should harmonize with respect to the limits of life and the patient's personality, which are often disrespected. He discusses death as a fundamental symbol within the individuation process.


El autor discute la importancia de rescatar la muerte como algo natural, sacándola del entredicho en que se encuentra. Intenta mostrar cuánto este aspecto crea distorsiones para la vida, determinando una serie de perturbaciones en la conducta médica, especialmente en el abordaje del paciente terminal. Defiende la idea de que es una enfermedad de nuestra cultura occidental y la situación que lleva a esta represión es la negación de la muerte. Dentro de los referentes teóricos de la Psicología Analítica de Jung, el autor propone conductas para tratar de rescatar la experiencia simbólica de la muerte, restituyendo la polaridad dialéctica Vida-Muerte. Defiende la proposición de que la vida sólo puede tener pleno sentido si no negamos la muerte. Propone que, como en el parto, el progreso de la Medicina debe armonizar respecto a los límites de la Vida y de la personalidad del paciente, que muchas veces son irrespetados. Se habla de la muerte como símbolo fundamental dentro del proceso de individuación.


Subject(s)
Terminally Ill , Pathology , Critical Illness , Death , Individuation
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