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1.
Actual. nutr ; 24(1): 3-12, ener. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426110

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En el marco de la pandemia de COVID-19, y dada la coyuntura de la Argentina, hay un número elevado de personas que experimentan inseguridad alimentaria. Esto puede derivar en el desarrollo de enfermedades agudas y crónicas, y puede, inclusive, aumentar la mortalidad. Para hacer frente a esta situación, en el barrio La Granja en la Ciudad de la Plata, se desarrolló e implementó el proyecto "Construcción colectiva de hábitos saludables y sustentables" con el fin de fomentar el consumo y mejorar el acceso a alimentos de calidad, mediante el desarrollo de huertas familiares, acompañadas con educación alimentaria y nutricional. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto en el patrón alimentario de una intervención basada en el desarrollo de huertas familiares acompañadas de educación alimentaria-nutricional. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal descriptivo con familias vulnerables del barrio La Granja de la Ciudad de La Plata en contexto de pandemia de COVID-19. La intervención consistió en brindar insumos y apoyo para el desarrollo de huertas familiares junto con educación alimentaria nutricional impartida a distancia por docentes de la escuela N.º 22 y coordinadores del club Iris del barrio La Granja, en la Ciudad de La Plata. Se realizó un cuestionario autoadministrado sobre hábitos alimentarios al inicio de la intervención y a los 6 meses. Se realizó estadística básica, los test de Mann Whitney y de Mc Nemar y consideramos significativo el valor de p=0.05. Resultados: Completaron el programa 77 familias. Observamos un aumento del número de comidas realizadas por día (p=0.03) y aumento de la frecuencia de consumo de verduras (p=0,05) y frutas (p=0,06) (no incluye papa, batata, choclo ni mandioca). También aumentó el consumo de legumbres (p=0,09), siendo estos alimentos los más deficitarios en nuestra alimentación, según los datos ENNYS 2. Se observó reducción en el consumo de aceite (p=0,04), posiblemente relacionado con el costo de este producto. La compra de frutas y verduras durante estos 6 meses presentó una reducción significativa (p=0,043). Además, aumentó la obtención de estas a partir de las huertas hogareñas y de los comedores comunitarios (p < 0,0001). El aumento de familias que concurren a los comedores comunitarios, probablemente, se relacione con la situación de pandemia de COVID-19. Conclusiones: La implementación de huertas familiares, acompañadas de educación alimentaria-nutricional remota en el marco de la pandemia de COVID-19, es una estrategia válida para la mejora del patrón alimentario-nutricional de las familias en situación de vulnerabilidad


Introduction: Within the framework of the COVID-19 pandemic, and given the situation in Argentina, there is a high number of people who experience food insecurity. This can lead to the development of acute and chronic diseases and can even increase mortality. To address this situation in the La Granja neighborhood in Ciudad de la Plata, the project "Collective construction of healthy and sustainable habits" was developed and implemented in order to promote consumption and improve access to quality food, through the development of family gardens, accompanied by food and nutrition education. Objective: to evaluate the impact on the eating pattern of an intervention based on the development of family gardens accompanied by food-nutritional education. Methods: A longitudinal descriptive study was carried out with vulnerable families from the La Granja neighborhood of the City of La Plata in the context of social and preventive isolation due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. The inputs were provided for the development of a family garden and material on nutrition and nutrition education for remote management was provided to teachers of school N.º 22 and coordinators of the Iris club of the La Granja neighborhood, in the City of La Plata. A self-administered questionnaire on eating habits was carried out at the beginning and at 6 months. Basic statistics, the Mann Whitney and Mc Nemar tests were performed; we consider significant the value of p=0.05. Results: 77 families completed the program, we observed an increase in the number of meals eaten per day (p=0.03); the frequency of consumption of vegetables (p=0.05) and fruits (p=0.06) increased (does not include potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn). The consumption of legumes also increased (p=0.09). These foods are the most deficient in our diet according to ENNYS 2 data. A reduction in oil consumption was observed (p=0.04), possibly related to the cost of this product. The purchase of fruits and vegetables during these 6 months presented a significant reduction (p=0.043). In addition, obtaining them from home gardens and community kitchens increased (p < 0.0001). The increase in families attending community kitchens is probably related to the COVID-19 pandemic situation. Conclusions: The implementation of family gardens accompanied by remote food-nutritional education in the framework of the COVID-19 pandemic is a valid strategy for improving the food-nutritional pattern of families in vulnerable situations


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutrition for Vulnerable Groups , Food and Nutrition Education , Crop Production
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 90-104, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414728

ABSTRACT

A utilização de plantas medicinais como alternativa terapêutica vem atingindo um público cada vez maior. Assim, os fitoterápicos podem atuar como forma opcional de terapêutica levando em consideração o menor custo, e cujos benefícios se somam aos da terapia convencional. Com isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi enfatizar a importância do cultivo e do uso racional de medicamentos fitoterápicos e plantas medicinais. Para tanto, foram incluídos artigos em português e inglês inseridos no banco de dados: Scielo, Google acadêmico, além de revistas eletrônicas, livros com embasamento científico de referência e base de dados do Ministério da Saúde entre os anos de 2018 a 2022. As plantas medicinais e os medicamentos fitoterápicos podem provocar efeitos adversos, interferir no efeito de medicamentos utilizados concomitantemente, além da possibilidade de causar intoxicações pela presença de contaminantes em produtos de baixa qualidade. Para a produção de bioativos, em níveis quali e quantitativamente adequados, o cultivo das plantas medicinais deve ser cuidadosamente realizado, através de técnicas adequadas para preservação do solo e plantio são essenciais, como a utilização de adubos verdes e a cobertura vegetal, que além de protegerem o solo da radiação solar, prevenir a evaporação excessiva da água e melhorar as características físicas, químicas e biológicas do sol. Esses critérios influenciam a qualidade do fitoterápico, portanto a fim de garantir a eficácia terapêutica, as plantas devem ser corretamente cultivadas, coletadas, identificadas e conservadas. Sendo assim, conclui-se que a utilização de plantas medicinais para tratamentos tem sido cada vez mais indicada pelos profissionais da saúde, ressaltando a importância do uso seguro e racional, com alerta para as suas consequências.


The use of medicinal plants as a therapeutic alternative has been reaching a growing public. Thus, herbal medicines can act as an optional form of therapy taking into account the lowest cost, and whose benefits are added to those of conventional therapy. Thus, the objective of this work was to emphasize the importance of the cultivation and rational use of herbal medicines and medicinal plants. To this end, articles in Portuguese and English inserted in the database: Scielo, Google academic, in addition to electronic journals, books with scientific reference base and database of the Ministry of Health between the years 2018 to 2022 were included. herbal medicines can cause adverse effects, interfere with the effect of medicines used concomitantly, in addition to the possibility of causing poisoning due to the presence of contaminants in low-quality products. For the production of bioactives, at qualitatively and quantitatively appropriate levels, the cultivation of medicinal plants must be carefully carried out, through techniques cultivated for soil preservation and planting are essential, such as the use of green manures and vegetation cover, which in addition to protect the soil from solar radiation, prevent excessive water evaporation and improve the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the sun. These criteria influence the quality of the herbal medicine, therefore, in order to guarantee therapeutic efficacy, as the plants must be correctly cultivated, collected, identified and conserved. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of medicinal plants for treatments has been increasingly indicated by health professionals, emphasizing the importance of safe and rational use, with an alert to its consequences.


El uso de plantas medicinales como alternativa terapéutica ha ido alcanzando un público cada vez más amplio. Así, las plantas medicinales pueden actuar como una forma opcional de terapia teniendo en cuenta el menor coste, y cuyos beneficios se suman a los de la terapia convencional. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo fue destacar la importancia del cultivo y uso racional de las hierbas medicinales y plantas medicinales. Para ello, los artículos en portugués e Inglés insertados en la base de datos: Scielo, Google académico, además de revistas electrónicas, libros con base de referencia científica y base de datos del Ministerio de Salud entre los años 2018 a 2022 fueron incluidos. medicamentos a base de hierbas pueden causar efectos adversos, interferir con el efecto de los medicamentos utilizados concomitantemente, además de la posibilidad de causar intoxicación debido a la presencia de contaminantes en productos de baja calidad. Para la producción de bioactivos, en niveles cualitativa y cuantitativamente adecuados, el cultivo de plantas medicinales debe ser realizado cuidadosamente, siendo esenciales técnicas de preservación del suelo y de plantación, como el uso de abonos verdes y cobertura vegetal, que además de proteger el suelo de la radiación solar, evitan la evaporación excesiva del agua y mejoran las características físicas, químicas y biológicas del sol. Estos criterios influyen en la calidad de la fitoterapia, por lo que, para garantizar la eficacia terapéutica, las plantas deben cultivarse, recolectarse, identificarse y conservarse correctamente. Por lo tanto, se concluye que el uso de plantas medicinales para tratamientos ha sido cada vez más indicado por los profesionales de la salud, enfatizando la importancia del uso seguro y racional, con alerta a sus consecuencias.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Phytotherapy/instrumentation , Complementary Therapies , Crop Production , Review , Drug Utilization/ethics
3.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 48: e3, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436821

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a distribuição espacial e temporal dos indicadores de acidentes de trabalho (AT) e de outros agravos à saúde relacionados à produção agropecuária de Mato Grosso, no período de 2008 a 2017. Métodos: trata-se de estudo ecológico, com análise de tendência e correlação entre indicadores de produção agropecuária, florestal, mineral e AT. Resultados: as atividades econômicas do agronegócio com maior contribuição aos AT foram: abate e fabricação de produtos de carnes (16,9%) e agricultura (12,3%). Taxas de AT mais elevadas foram observadas nos municípios considerados os maiores produtores agropecuários (Paranatinga, Barra do Garças, Alta Floresta e Sorriso). Evidenciou-se que 58,4% dos AT no estado foram relacionados ao agronegócio. Foi encontrada correlação positiva e significativa entre o valor adicionado bruto e a taxa de incidência (r = 0,303; p < 0,001), mortalidade (r = 0,368; p < 0,001) e letalidade (r = 0,390; p < 0,001) por AT. Identificou-se tendência crescente na variação percentual anual de 7,3% (IC95%: 6,1;8,6) do esforço produtivo (hectare/habitante), de 6,2% (IC95%: 5,2;7,3) do esforço produtivo (exposição agrotóxico/habitante) e de 6,2% (IC95%: 4,1;8,3) das internações por neoplasias, bem como do crescimento da produção agrícola, dos insumos agrícolas e dos agravos à saúde. Conclusão: a maioria dos AT foram relacionados ao agronegócio, predominantemente nas atividades de frigoríficos e agricultura. Houve correlação positiva entre indicadores de produção agropecuária e de ocorrências e mortes por AT.


Objective: to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of occupational accident (OA) indicators and other agribusiness-related health issues in Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 2008 to 2017. Methods: ecological study using trend analysis and correlation calculation between agricultural, forestry, mineral production and OA indicators. Results: slaughtering and meat production (16.9%) and agriculture (12.3%) were the agribusiness activities with the highest contribution to OA. Municipalities considered the largest agricultural producers (Paratininga, Barra do Garças, Alta Floresta and Sorriso) showed the highest OA rates. Of the OA registered in the state, 58.4% were agribusiness-related. Gross value added presented a positive and significant correlation with the incidence rate (r = 0.303; p < 0.001), mortality (r = 0.368; p < 0.001) and lethality (r = 0.390; p < 0.001) by OA. Analysis showed an increasing trend in the annual percentage variation of 7.3% (95%CI: 6.1;8.6) in productive effort (hectare/ inhabitant), 6.2% (95%CI: 5.2;7.3) in productive effort (pesticide exposure/inhabitant), and 6.2% (95%CI: 4.1;8.3) in hospitalizations for neoplasms, as well as the growth of agricultural production, agricultural inputs, and health problems. Conclusion: most OAs were related to agribusiness, mainly in meatpacking plants and agriculture. There was a positive correlation between indicators of agricultural production and occupational-related accidents and deaths.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Occupational , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Agrochemicals , Agribusiness , Public Health Surveillance , Mortality , Agriculture , Crop Production , Neoplasms
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242708, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339382

ABSTRACT

Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.


Resumo MicroRNAs (miRNAs) são genes essenciais não codificadores de proteínas. Em uma variedade de organismos, foi relatado que miRNAs desempenham papel essencial na regulação da expressão gênica em nível pós-transcricional. Eles participam da maioria dos processos responsivos ao estresse nas plantas. A seca é um estresse abiótico final que afeta a produção agrícola. Portanto, compreender as respostas ao estresse da seca é essencial para melhorar a produção de safras agrícolas. Ao longo da evolução, as plantas desenvolveram seus próprios sistemas de defesa para lidar com as adversidades do estresse ambiental. Entre os mecanismos de defesa está a regulação da expressão gênica por miRNAs. O estresse hídrico regula a expressão de alguns dos miRNAs funcionalmente conservados em diferentes plantas. As propriedades dadas dos miRNAs fornecem uma visão das alterações genéticas e aumentam a resistência à seca nas safras de cereais. A revisão atual apresenta um resumo dos mecanismos regulatórios nas plantas, bem como a resposta dos miRNAs ao estresse hídrico nas plantações de cereais. Algumas abordagens e diretrizes possíveis para a exploração das respostas do miRNA ao estresse da seca para melhorar as safras de cereais também são descritas.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs/genetics , Droughts , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Crop Production
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e263959, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529204

ABSTRACT

A luta pela terra e seu uso incide na forma como as subjetividades têm sido produzidas no Brasil. No contexto capitalista, patriarcal e machista, vive-se um processo de exploração da mão de obra de mulheres e de recursos naturais da Terra. Este estudo objetivou conhecer histórias de vida de mulheres agricultoras rurais que participam de movimentos sociais agroecológicos no Rio Grande do Sul. Participaram do estudo três mulheres agricultoras, com idades entre 21 e 53 anos, residentes e trabalhadoras em zonas rurais das cidades de Viamão e Rolante, escolhidas por conveniência. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: questionário sociodemográfico, entrevista de história de vida e observação participante, os quais foram, posteriormente, submetidos à análise temática. Os resultados demonstram que as histórias de vida das mulheres relatadas são marcadas por lutas e formas de resistência. Para além das situações de conflitos e falta de recursos, avistam-se questões próprias de gênero, como a invisibilidade feminina e a desigualdade no acesso à terra por mulheres. A construção de base e o fortalecimento do papel político das mulheres nos movimentos sociais permite inferir que existem melhorias significativas nas desigualdades e injustiças no meio rural. Contudo, pontua-se a necessidade de se promover o diálogo entre os movimentos sociais, as mulheres e a sociedade política sobre os modelos atuais de políticas públicas existentes, possibilitando, assim, avançar nas discussões a respeito da promoção da equidade de gênero nos espaços rurais, bem como potencializar o avanço das práticas agroecológicas em direção à superação do capitalismo.(AU)


The struggle for land and its use affects the way subjectivities have been produced in Brazil. In the capitalist, patriarchal, and male-chauvinist context, women's labor and the Earth's natural resources are strongly exploited. This study aimed to know the life stories of female farmers who participate in agroecological social movements in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Three female farmers, aged from 21 to 53, residents and workers in rural areas of the municipalities of Viamão and Rolante, chosen by convenience, participated in the study. The instruments used were: sociodemographic questionnaire, a life story interview, and participant observation, which were later subjected to thematic analysis. The results show that the participants' life stories are marked by struggles and means of resistance. In addition to conflicts and lack of resources, there are specific gender issues, such as female invisibility and inequality in women's access to land. The grassroots construction and the strengthening of the political role of women in social movements allow us to infer that there are significant improvements in inequalities and injustices in rural areas. However, it is necessary to promote dialogue between social movements, women, and political society about the current models of existing public policies, thus making it possible to advance in discussions about gender equity in rural spaces, as well as to enhance the advancement of agroecological practices to overcoming capitalism.(AU)


La lucha por la tierra y su uso afecta a la forma en que se han producido las subjetividades en Brasil. En el contexto capitalista, patriarcal y machista, hay un proceso de explotación del trabajo de las mujeres y de los recursos naturales de la tierra. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las historias de vida de agricultoras rurales que participan en movimientos sociales agroecológicos en Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). Participaron en el estudio tres agricultoras, de entre 21 y 53 años, residentes y trabajadoras en áreas rurales de las ciudades de Viamão y Rolante, elegidas por conveniencia. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: cuestionario sociodemográfico, entrevista de historia de vida y observación participante, cuyos datos posteriormente se sometieron a análisis temático. Los resultados muestran que las historias de vida de las mujeres relatadas están marcadas por luchas y formas de resistencia. A las situaciones de conflicto y falta de recursos se suman cuestiones específicas de género, como la invisibilidad femenina y la desigualdad en el acceso de las mujeres a la tierra. La construcción popular y el fortalecimiento del papel político de las mujeres en los movimientos sociales permiten inferir que hay mejoras significativas en las desigualdades e injusticias en las zonas rurales. Sin embargo, es necesario promover el diálogo entre los movimientos sociales, las mujeres y la sociedad sobre los modelos actuales de las políticas públicas existentes, para posibilitar avances en las discusiones sobre la promoción de la equidad de género en los espacios rurales y potenciar el avance de las prácticas agroecológicas hacia la superación del capitalismo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology, Social , Women , Rural Areas , Sustainable Agriculture , Gender Studies , Ownership , Personal Satisfaction , Poverty , Psychology , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Conditions , Social Justice , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Soil , Women's Rights , Family , Economic Development , Crop Production , Land Use , Forests , Environmental Health , Civil Rights , Negotiating , Agrochemicals , Interview , Ecosystem , Crops, Agricultural , Natural Resources Exploitation , Conservation of Natural Resources , Whole Foods , Feminism , Culture , Personal Autonomy , Food, Genetically Modified , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Diet , Ecology , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Job Market , Sustainable Development Indicators , Agribusiness , Environmental Policy , Personal Narrative , Social Capital , Genetic Background , Survivorship , Androcentrism , Freedom , Sustainable Development , Right to Work , Food Supply , Environmental Justice , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Family Structure
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243813, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431124

ABSTRACT

Este estudo propõe analisar as relações e os processos de subjetivação de mulheres quebradeiras de coco babaçu decorrentes das intervenções de políticas desenvolvimentistas em seus territórios de vida e reverberações no Movimento Interestadual de Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Sob a perspectiva ético-estético-política da Cartografia, acompanhamos as narrativas das histórias de vida de 24 mulheres, suas atividades cotidianas e eventos do MIQCB, também analisamos os documentos das políticas. Entendemos que, ao passo que tais políticas de desenvolvimento rural contribuem para a melhoria das condições de vida, em termos materiais e simbólicos, elas também produzem ressonâncias relacionadas ao modo de subjetivação do tipo "empresário de si", que agenciam seus modos de viver, de produzir e de se relacionar consigo e com os outros na lógica capitalista neoliberal. A resistência às capturas neoliberais também estão presentes ao ampliarem as mobilizações coletivas do próprio movimento, articulando com outros na produção de um "comum".(AU)


This study proposes to analyze the relations and the processes of subjectivation of babassu coconut-breaker women arising from developmental policy interventions in their territories of life and reverberations in the Babassu Coconut-breaker Interstate Movement (MIQCB). From the ethical-aesthetic-political perspective of Cartography, we followed the narratives of the life stories of 24 women, their daily activities and promoted events by MIQCB, we also analyzed the policy documents. We understand that while these policies of rural development contribute to improve the living conditions, in material and symbolic terms, they also produce resonances related to the "self-entrepreneur" mode of subjectivation, which has been handling their ways of living, producing, and relating to themselves and others in the neoliberal capitalist logic. Resistance to neoliberal captures is also present as they expand the collective mobilizations of the movement itself, articulating with others, in the production of a "common."(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los procesos de subjetivación de las mujeres que rompen coco babaçu que surgen de las intervenciones de las políticas de desarrollo en sus territorios de vida y las reverberaciones en el Movimiento Interestadual de las Mujeres que Rompen Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Desde la perspectiva ético-estético-política de la Cartografía, seguimos las narraciones de las historias de vida de 24 mujeres, sus actividades diarias y eventos del MIQCB, y también analizamos los documentos de las políticas. Si bien estas políticas han contribuido a mejorar las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, en términos materiales y simbólicos, también han producido resonancias del modo de subjetivación "autoempresarial", que ha agenciado sus formas de vivir, producir y relacionarse consigo mismas y con los demás en la lógica capitalista neoliberal. La resistencia a las capturas neoliberales también está presente cuando amplían las movilizaciones colectivas del propio movimiento, articulándose con otros en la producción de un "común".(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Growth and Development , Economics , Government , Politics , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Retirement , Rural Population , Social Desirability , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Soil , Women's Rights , Wood , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Socioeconomic Planning , Social Control Policies , Legislation, Environmental , Brazil , Water , Exercise , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Crop Production , Poverty Areas , Land Use , Rural Areas , Forests , Organizations , Environmental Health , Conflict of Interest , Workload , Family Planning Policy , Entrepreneurship , Agrochemicals , Interview , Collective Bargaining , Commerce , Crops, Agricultural , Environmental Management , Natural Resources Exploitation , Natural Resources , Renewable Resources , Natural Reservations , Flora , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cultural Diversity , Nature , Feminism , Extraction and Processing Industry , Natural Resources Management , Rural Economy , Capitalism , State , Public Power , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Projects , Job Market , Health Surveillance of Products , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Foods Containing Coconut , Machinery , Sustainable Agriculture , Non-Renewable Resources , Agribusiness , Environmental Communication , Femininity , Environmental Policy , Small Business , Ethnic Violence , Sociological Factors , Food , Work-Life Balance , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Socioeconomic Rights , Occupied Territories , Sustainable Development , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Right to Work , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Responsability , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Wildlife Trade , Health Services Needs and Demand , Housing , Human Activities , Human Rights , Labor Unions , Life Change Events , Anthropology , Mining , Occupational Groups
7.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e220107, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This systematic scoping review aimed to map and characterize the scientific production of researchers from Portuguese-speaking African institutions that align with the Food and Nutrition Security Strategy of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. The literature search was conducted using six electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Virtual Health Library, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Scopus, and Web of Science), with no restrictions on the year of publication nor language. Through the search strategy, 10,061 records were identified, of which 502 documents and 654 researchers were selected by Food and Nutrition Security specialists along three axes: 1) Policy governance; 2) Access to food; 3) Availability of food. Institutional researchers from Mozambique (66.9%), Guinea-Bissau (15.9%), and Angola (11.4%) presented the most publications and international collaborations. Researchers from Cape Verde, Sao Tome and Principe, and Equatorial Guinea institutions added only 5.8% of the total production. A greater number of publications (61%) was related to axis two of the Food and Nutrition Security Strategy of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. The most studied themes were sustainable development, child malnutrition, and agricultural production for the first, second, and third axis, respectively. In general, scientific publications have shown limitations in their approaches due to the challenge imposed by the complexity of the food system. However, there has been a quantitative evolution in publications in the last decade, with a greater participation of researchers from Portuguese-speaking African institutions.


RESUMO Esta revisão sistemática de escopo teve como objetivo mapear e caracterizar a produção científica de pesquisadores de instituições africanas de língua portuguesa que se alinham com a Estratégia de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional da Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa. A busca das literaturas foi realizada em seis bases de dados eletrônicas (PubMed, EMBASE, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Scopus e Web of Science), sem restrição quanto ao ano de publicação e ao idioma. Por meio da estratégia de busca, foram identificados 10.061 registros, dos quais 502 documentos e 654 pesquisadores foram selecionados por especialistas em Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional em três eixos: 1) Governança de políticas; 2) Acesso à alimentação; 3) Disponibilidade de alimentos. Pesquisadores de intuições de Moçambique (66,9%), Guiné-Bissau (15,9%) e Angola (11,4%) foram os que apresentaram o maior número de publicações e colaborações internacionais. No entanto, os pesquisadores das instituições de Cabo Verde, São Tomé e Príncipe e Guiné Equatorial somaram apenas 5,8% da produção total. Foi observado maior número de publicações (61%) relacionadas com o eixo dois da Estratégia de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional da Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa. As temáticas mais estudadas foram desenvolvimento sustentável, desnutrição infantil e produção agrícola para o primeiro, segundo e terceiro eixo, respectivamente. De forma geral, as publicações científicas mostraram limitações em suas abordagens frente ao desafio imposto pela complexidade do sistema alimentar. Todavia, foi houve uma evolução quantitativa nas publicações na última década; além disso, maior participação de pesquisadores de instituições africanas de língua portuguesa pode ser vislumbrada.


Subject(s)
Research Personnel , Authorship in Scientific Publications , Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries , Child Nutrition Disorders , Crop Production , Sustainable Development , Food Supply
8.
Rev. tecnol. (St. Tecla, En línea) ; (15): 36-42, ene.-dic. 2022. ilus.^c28 cm., graf., tab.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1413127

ABSTRACT

La Escuela Especializada en Ingeniería ITCA FEPADE, MEGATEC La Unión, a través de la carrera Técnico en Manejo Integrado de Recursos Costero Marino con especialidad en Acuicultura y Pesquería, realizó esta investigación en asocio con Camaronera Eben Ezer. El proyecto tuvo como objetivo la caracterización de la calidad física, química y biológica del agua del Golfo de Fonseca y el Estero El Chapernal, previo al desarrollo de dos ciclos de cultivo de camarón marino Litopenaeus vannamei, durante el cultivo y antes de las descargas de agua a los efluentes receptores. La metodología se desarrolló en tres fases, de junio a diciembre de 2021. Fase de campo: toma de parámetros físicos, químicos y biológicos en 8 puntos de muestreos, Estero El Chapernal, Golfo de Fonseca y estanques de producción. Fase de laboratorio: se realizó sembrando muestras de agua en medios de cultivo para aislamiento, crecimiento e identificación de bacterias. Tercera fase: procesamiento de datos y análisis de resultados. Se identificaron tres tipos de bacterias: Psudomonas, Vibrios y Heterótrofas. En el primer ciclo de junio a agosto, éstas no reportaron crecimiento, esto pudo deberse a que la transición de la época seca a época lluviosa influyó en los factores físicos y químicos, como la temperatura y el pH. Durante el primer ciclo, la calidad del agua del Estero El Chapernal mantuvo estándares idóneos para el crecimiento del camarón. El segundo ciclo presentó un crecimiento exponencial de las bacterias Heterótrofas y Pseudomonas sobrepasando los límites de referencia establecidos en la normativa vigente. Como parte de la proyección social se efectuó transferencia de conocimientos y tecnología durante la producción, se establecieron mejoras para la operatividad y se les dotó de un protocolo de producción acuícola.


The Escuela Especializada en Ingeniería ITCA FEPADE, MEGATEC La Unión, through the major of Técnico en Manejo Integrado de Recursos Costero Marino con especialidad en Acuicultura y Pesquería, carried out this research in association with Camaronera Eben Ezer. The objective of the project was to characterize the physical, chemical and biological quality of water in Golfo de Fonseca and Estero El Chapernal, prior to the development of two culture cycles of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, during the culture and before discharges of water to receiving effluents. The methodology was developed in three phases, from June to December 2021. Field phase: collection of physical, chemical and biological parameters at 8 demonstration points, Estero El Chapernal, Golfo de Fonseca and production ponds. Laboratory phase: it was carried out by planting water samples in culture media for isolation, growth and identification of bacteria. Third phase: data processing and analysis of results. Three types of bacteria were identified: Psudomonas, Vibrios and Heterotrophs. In the first cycle from June to August, growth was not reported, due to the fact that the transition from the dry season to the rainy season influenced in physical and chemical factors, such as temperature and pH. During the first cycle, the water quality of Estero El Chapernal maintained optimal standards for shrimp growth. The second cycle presented an exponential growth of Heterotrophic and Pseudomonas bacteria, exceeding the reference limits established in current regulations. As part of the social projection, knowledge and technology were transferred during production, they were profoundly improved for operability and they were provided with an aquaculture production protocol.


Subject(s)
Water Quality , Aquaculture/methods , Astacoidea/growth & development , Crop Production , Ponds
9.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 1-12, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362657

ABSTRACT

Mesmo com a evolução do conhecimento científico, a utilização de plantas medicinais é uma das práticas mais antigas ainda realizadas pelo homem, especialmente pelos habitantes de comunidades e municípios do interior do Brasil, principalmente em regiões com baixos índices de desenvolvimento humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo etnobotânico sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas pelos moradores de um bairro localizado em um município ribeirinho do interior do estado do Amazonas. Participaram do estudo cem indivíduos, e os dados obtidos pela pesquisa foram compilados por meio de um formulário, contendo 14 questões (objetivas e discursivas). Os resultados demonstraram que 95% dos moradores faziam uso de plantas medicinais. Foram citadas 89 espécies, pertencentes a 48 famílias botânicas, com destaque para a Lamiaceae. As plantas mais citadas foram: Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) ­ 6,1%, Citrus sinensis (laranjeira) ­ 5,8% e Allium sativum (alho) ­ 4,7%. No entanto, quando analisado o índice de concordância (porcentagem de uso principal = CUP), a Citrus sinensis (laranjeira) apresentou um CUP de 80,9%, seguida por Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) e Disphania ambrosioides (mastruz), com 68,1% e 61,5%, respectivamente. Com relação ao modo de preparo, 61,1% citaram infusão, e as principais enfermidades tratadas foram as dores de estômago, com 13,1%. É importante enfatizar a necessidade de mais estudos acerca dos reais benefícios dessas ervas, a fim de que a divulgação de tais informações possa complementar o conhecimento empírico já difundido entre a população local. Dessa forma, será possível ampliar o conhecimento etnobotânico como um todo e, consequentemente, promover saúde e bem-estar.


Despite the evolution of scientific knowledge, the use of medicinal plants is one of the oldest practices still used by men and, especially by the inhabitants of communities and municipalities of the interior of Brazil, mainly in regions with low human development rates. The purpose of this work was to perform an ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by residents of a neighborhood located in a riverside city in the interior of the state of Amazonas. A total of 100 individuals participated in the study, with data being obtained through the use of a form containing 14 open and closed-ended questions. The results showed that 95% of the residents used medicinal plants. A total of 89 species, belonging to 48 botanical families were mentioned, with emphasis to Lamiaceae. The plants that were most frequently mentioned were Plectranthus barbatus (locally known as boldo) ­ 6.1%; Citrus sinensis (orange tree) ­ 5.8%; and Allium sativum (garlic) ­ 4.7%. However, when analyzing the agreement index (percentage of main use = CUP), Citrus sinensis (orange tree) presented a CUP of 80.9%, followed by Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) and Disphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea), with 68.1 and 61.5%, respectively. In relation to the method of preparation, 61.1% cited infusion, with the main disorder treated being stomachache, with 13.1%. It is important to emphasize the need for further studies on the actual benefits of these herbs so that the dissemination of the information can complement the already widespread empirical knowledge among the local population. Thus, it will be possible to expand the ethnobotanical knowledge as a whole and, consequently, promote health and well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Ethnobotany , Tea/adverse effects , Crop Production , Lamiaceae/adverse effects , Peumus/adverse effects , Citrus sinensis/adverse effects , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/therapy , Juices , Inflammation/prevention & control , Phytotherapy
10.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 89-93, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362686

ABSTRACT

Introdução: É notório que a alimentação e a nutrição adequada constituem requisitos indispensáveis para a promoção e a proteção da saúde. Objetivo: Contribuir para a melhoria do acesso a alimentos saudáveis de famílias em um Bairro da periferia urbana do Município de Sobral através de hortas comunitárias, orgânicas e sustentáveis como estratégia de promover Educação Alimentar e Nutricional. Métodos e Materiais: Estudo descritivo com características de intervenção comunitária sob a abordagem qualitativa. A amostra inclui 15 pessoas de famílias beneficiárias do Programa Bolsa Família, acompanhadas pelo Centro de Saúde da Família. Foram realizados quatro encontros educativos sobre alimentação saudável com enfoque na inclusão de frutas, legumes e verduras. Além, do manejo de hortas para o cultivo do próprio alimento. Resultados: Os encontros tiveram duração de 8 horas ao dia, totalizando 24 horas. O momento foi oportuno para treinamento ofertado por um técnico em olericultura orgânica pela entidade parceira, que transmitiu os conhecimentos de maneira prática, em que os participantes aprenderam a preparar a terra, a semear, plantar, regar, colher. No decorrer do treinamento a nutricionista pesquisadora, transmitiu informações nutricionais. Os encontros aconteceram em dias seguidos, nos turnos manhã e tarde. Conclusão: Diante do que foi vivenciado, a pesquisa se mostrou útil para melhoria do grau de conhecimento das participantes, promoveu reflexão crítica sobre a segurança alimentar e nutricional. Ressaltou a importância de se cultivar o próprio alimento para torná-lo acessível.


This study aims at contributing to the improvement of access to healthy food for families in a neighborhood of the urban outskirts of the Municipality of Sobral through community organic and sustainable vegetable gardens as a strategy to promote Food and Nutrition Education. It is a descriptive study with characteristics of community intervention using a qualitative approach. The sample includes 15 people from families benefited from the Family Grant Program (Bolsa Família), accompanied by the Family Health Center. Four educational meetings were held on healthy eating with a focus on the inclusion of fruits and vegetables. In addition, the participants were also taught how to manage vegetable gardens for the cultivation of the food itself. The meetings lasted 8 hours a day, totaling 24 hours. The moment was ideal to provide training offered by an organic olericulture technician provided by the partner entity, who shared the knowledge in a practical way, where the participants could learn how to prepare the earth, to sow, to plant, to water, and to harvest. During the training, the nutritionist researcher also shared nutritional information. The encounters took place on consecutive days, during the morning and afternoon shifts. In view of what was experienced, the research proved to be useful for improving the participants' knowledge on the topic, promoting a critical reflection on food and nutritional security. It also emphasized the importance of cultivating the food itself to make it accessible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sustainable Agriculture , Health Promotion , Vegetables/growth & development , Food and Nutrition Education , Crop Production , Health Education , Nutritional Sciences , Nutritionists/education , Diet, Healthy , Mentoring
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 242-255, mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395298

ABSTRACT

The species Lippia integrifolia is an aromatic, sub-woody shrub, distributed from Northwest and Central Argentina to Bolivia. It is among the most important native aromatic species. It presents medicinal properties, some of which have been scientifically proven. As an alternative to harvesting, the process of domestication of the species was initiated. The objective of this work was to assess the phenotypic variability based on botanical-taxonomic and morpho-agronomic descriptors and the use of indicators to evaluate its natural situation in the west-center of Argentina. We worked in five wild populations, registering morphological variables, phenology, natural regeneration, herbivory and presence of diseases. L. integrifoliapresents a wide morphological variability, which can be explained with three morphological descriptors. Natural regeneration ́s rate is very low to zero, in four of the sites. The results obtained are of importance to make decisions related to the sustainable use in situ, and to begin a program of domestication of the species.


La especie Lippia integrifolia es un arbusto aromático, sub-leñoso, distribuido desde el noroeste y centro de Argentina hasta Bolivia. Es una de las especies aromáticas nativas más importantes. Presenta propiedades medicinales, algunas de las cuales han sido científicamente probadas. Como alternativa a la cosecha, se inició el proceso de domesticación de la especie. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la variabilidad fenotípica basada en descriptores botánico-taxonómicos y morfo-agronómicos y el uso de indicadores para evaluar su situación natural en el centro-oeste de Argentina. Trabajamos en cinco poblaciones silvestres, registrando variables morfológicas, fenología, regeneración natural, herviboría y presencia de enfermedades. L. integrifolia presenta una amplia variabilidad morfológica, que puede explicarse con tres descriptores morfológicos. La tasa de regeneración natural es muy baja a cero, en cuatro de los sitios. Los resultados obtenidos son importantes para tomar decisiones relacionadas con el uso sostenible in situ y para comenzar un programa de domesticación de la especie.


Subject(s)
Lippia/anatomy & histology , Phenotype , Argentina , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Crop Production , Verbenaceae/anatomy & histology , Biological Variation, Population
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38041, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395978

ABSTRACT

Looking to reduce the cost and maximize tomato productivity, this study aimed to evaluate fertilizer doses and conduction systems. For this, a field experiment was carried out in randomized blocks, in a simple factorial scheme, which consists in four fertilizer doses, (50, 100, 150 and 200% dose), and four conduction systems (with one or two plants per pit, and one or two stems per plant). Plants were spaced 0.44m and 1.5m between lines. Each plot consisted of 10 plants. The evaluated characteristics were fruit mass, number of fruits, total production per plant and pit, longitudinal and transversal dimension of the fruit. Under the experiment conditions, interactions were observed between fertilization and conduction only for the transversal and longitudinal diameter. The C4 conduction system showed superior results for the estimated yield when compared to the treatments containing only one plant per pit (C1 and C2). For the fertilizer doses, the observed yield was 142.68 t ha -1, in the 150% dose, and 114.84 t ha -1 for the 50% dose. The highest production per pit was obtained in the 150% fertilizer dose and the C4 conduction, but this treatment showed a lower average fruit mass. The treatment with two plants per pit and two stems provided lower fruit average mass than the treatments containing a single plant. The fertilization influenced only in the longitudinal diameter, and the largest diameter was observed in the recommended fertilization dose. Aiming at cost/efficiency relation, the 100% dose and the C3 were considered the best treatments.


Subject(s)
Solanum lycopersicum , Fertilizers , Crop Production
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38004, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361405

ABSTRACT

The production of passion fruit is important in Brazil. In order to contribute to the development of the most promising cultivars of passion fruit, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of 32 genotypes of passion fruit in Federal District of Brazil, and to estimate genetic parameters for use in breeding programs. Thirty-two genotypes were used in a randomized block design, with eight plants per plot and four replications. The experiment was conducted in field. Twenty-eight harvests were performed, and the variables analyzed were: productivity estimated, total number of fruits per hectare, average fruit weight and these characteristics following classification of fruits in five categories. The genotypes that presented the highest total yield estimated were MAR20 # 23, AR 01 and PLANTA 7. For industrial purposes, genotypes MAR 20 # 21 and BRS Gigante Amarelo were superior. For fresh consumption, the genotypes with the best performance were PLANT 7, AR 01 and MSC. Total productivity estimated and total number of fruits per hectare in the first-class classification showed high values of heritability and CVg/CVe ratio. These results indicate a favorable condition for selection.


Subject(s)
Templates, Genetic , Passiflora , Crop Production , Plant Breeding
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38050, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396146

ABSTRACT

Harvesting is one of the most important stages of the agricultural production process. However, the lack of monitoring during this operation and the absence of efficient methodologies to quantify losses have contributed to the decline in the quality of the operation. The objective of this study was to monitor mechanized soybean harvest by quantifying losses through two methodologies using statistical process control. The study was conducted in March 2016 in an agricultural area in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto, SP, using a John Deere harvester model 1470 with a tangential-type track system and separation by a straw-blower. The experimental design followed the standards established by statistical process control, and every 8 min of harvest, the total losses by the circular framework and rectangular framework methodologies were simultaneously quantified, totaling 40 points. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical process control. The averages of the circular methodology framework were values above those found in the rectangular methodology framework, presenting greater representativeness of losses. The process was considered unable to maintain losses of soybeans at acceptable levels during mechanical harvest throughout the operation of the two frameworks. The circular framework for collecting samples at different locations resulted in higher reliability of data.


Subject(s)
Automation , Glycine max , Crop Production , Statistics
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38073, Jan.-Dec. 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397075

ABSTRACT

The fluctuations in yield and consequently in production occurred due to climatic adversities in the main producing states of Brazil. Farming has changed over time, and past scenarios have shown high exploitation of natural resources focusing on soil tillage and conventional seeding methods. This study aimed to determine the yield performance of soybean grown under 10 consolidated crop succession systems. The experiment was conducted during the 2018/2019 crop season, before the research project entitled "Sustainable production systems with better use of biological and natural resources, with treatments arranged in a randomized block design and four replications". The treatments consisted of the following predecessor crops: Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Triticum aestivum, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Raphanus sativus, Avena strigosa + Raphanus sativus + Vicia sativa, Fallow, Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum, and Triticum aestivum ­ Fodder. Soybean was subsequently sown across winter crops. The succession that showed superior yield was Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum. This attribute was established by associating taller plants with the maximization of the number of grains per pod, hundred-grain mass, grain mass, and plant dry mass; in contrast, there was a lower emphasis on plant residue. The determining attributes for soybean yield were plant stand, plant height, the number of pods per plant, and total grain mass, with contrasts among groups composed of the succession of Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Triticum aestivum, Secale cereale, and Brassica napus, distanced from Raphanus sativus, Avena strigosa + Raphanus sativus + Vicia sativa, Fallow, Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum, and Triticum aestivum - Fodder.


Subject(s)
Glycine max/growth & development , Crop Production
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38083, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397166

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sowing depths and light intensities on the emergence and development of the monocot weed species, Urochloa decumbens and Cenchrus echinatus, under field conditions. Each species constituted an experiment, and the experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments were arranged in a 6 x 4 factorial scheme, with six sowing depths (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0 cm) associated with four solar radiation intensities (100%, 70%, 50%, and 30%) obtained through the use of shading screens. Seedling emergence capacity was evaluated daily to obtain the emergence percentage and speed index. Plant height, floral induction time, and plant dry matter at flowering were measured. Even when subjected to different solar radiation intensities, U. decumbens and C. echinatus seedlings emerged at all the sowing depths. Sowing between 2.0- and 4.0-cm depths favored the emergence of seedlings of U. decumbens and C. echinatus. However, sowing at 12-cm depth reduced the emergence of both species regardless of the solar radiation intensity. Urichloa decumbens plants grown under conditions of greater shading showed the lowest values of height and dry matter accumulation during flowering. High levels of shading facilitated only the etiolation of C. echinatus plants. Increased shading flowering time in both species compared to full sunlight.


Subject(s)
Crop Production , Plant Weeds/growth & development
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 65: e22200702, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364476

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Boron is one of the most important micronutrients for plants. Plants may suffer from deficiency or with boron toxicity. Boron plays a role in significant physiological and biochemical events in plants such as synthesis of the cell wall, membrane integrity, antioxidation, transport of photosynthesis products to other organs of the plant. The enzyme activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in three different safflower cultivars (Balcı, Dinçer and Remzibey) subjected to different boric acid concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 mM) were measured spectrophotometrically, and the changes in the expression levels of the genes that encode these enzymes were obtained by quantitative RT-qPCR. When both the spectrophotometric measurements and the mRNA values were evaluated together, both the activity and mRNA values of APX and GR enzymes were found to be the highest in the Dinçer cultivar among the varieties treated with 15 mM boric acid, while the lowest values of these enzymes were determined in the Remzibey cultivar. According to the RT-qPCR results, the lowest SOD and CAT values were determined in Remzibey. The Dinçer cultivar was found to have the highest antioxidant capacity (APX, GR) to cope with oxidative stress caused by boric acid application at high concentrations. The sensitive Remzibey cultivar was found to have the lowest antioxidant capacity to cope with such oxidative stress. Balcı was found to be closer to Dinçer than to Remzibey in terms of boron tolerance. As a result, the boron-sensitive cultivar had low antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Boron/administration & dosage , Crop Production , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Trace Elements/toxicity , Boron/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Carthamus tinctorius/enzymology , Carthamus tinctorius/genetics
18.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 9(1): 19-40, 2022. il^c27
Article in English | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1390597

ABSTRACT

The hydrological network in the Lachuá Ecoregion (EL), Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, hosts high levels of biodiversity and supplies water to 44 Mayan communities. Despite this critical fact, this network has been threatened by scarcely monitored industrial activities including the rapidly expanding oil palm monoculture (Elaeis guineensisJacq). Regardless of Lachua's freshwaters importance, there is little information on how this monoculture impacts them. We compared water-quality properties from streams in oil palm plantations (P), paddock and milpa systems (M), and primary forests (F) in the EL. During 2015-2016, 13 rivers were sampled (5 times) for water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, hardness, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), and concentration of silica, nitrates, phosphates, and ammonia. Several parameters showed significant differences. P were 2.7 ºC and 1.8 ºC warmer than M and F and carried 1.4 mg/L more nitrates than F. F carried 10.8 mg/L and 11.8 mg/L more silica than M and P. M showed intermediate temperatures and silica concentrations, as well as 14.8 µS/cm and 8.9 µS/cm lower conductivities than P and F, respectively. Additionally, COD in M was 9.9 mg/L and 4.6 mg/L lower than P and F, respectively. We believe higher temperatures and lower silica in P are due to the loss of riparian forest and their role in buffering temperatures and recycling silicon. In addition, the existence of secondary forest (guamil) in M might explain the intermediate temperatures and silica concentrations. Our results highlight the contributions of forests to waterways and suggest potential water-quality depletion from the oil palm expansion in the EL.


La red hídrica en la Ecorregión Lachuá (EL), Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, alberga una alta biodiversidad y abastece de agua a 44 comunidades mayas. Sin embargo, recientemente se ha visto amenazada por actividades industriales escasamente monitoreadas, incluido el creciente monocultivo de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) del cual se desconocen sus impactos en la EL. Este estudio explora la calidad del agua de arroyos en plantaciones de palma africana (P), bosques primarios (B), y sistemas de potrero y milpa (M) en Lachuá. Durante 2015-2016, se tomaron muestras de 13 ríos (5 veces) para medir la temperatura del agua, pH, oxígeno disuelto (OD), conductividad, dureza, demanda química y bioquímica de oxígeno (DQO y DBO) y la concentración de sílice, nitratos, fosfatos, y amoníaco. Varios parámetros mostraron diferencias significativas. P fue 2.7 ºC y 1.8 ºC más calientes que M y F y portó 1.4 mg/L más nitrato que F. F portó 10.8 mg/L y 11.8 mg/L más sílice que M y P. M mostró temperaturas y concentraciones de sílice intermedias y conductividades 14.8 µS/cm y 8.9 µS/cm menores que P y F. La DQO en M fue 9.9 mg/L y 4.6 mg/L menor que P y F. El aumento de temperatura y la disminución de sílice en P podría deberse a la pérdida de bosques ribereños los cuales amortiguan la tempe-ratura y reciclan el silicio. La presencia de bosque secundarios (guamil) en M podría explicar las temperaturas y las concentraciones de sílice intermedias resaltando la importancia de los bosques en la red hídrica. Se predice un posible deterioro en el agua resultado de la expansión de palma africana en la EL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Quality , Crop Production , Forests , Elaeis guineensis , Rivers , Silicon/analysis , Dissolved Oxygen , Silicon Dioxide , Biodiversity , Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis , Nitrates/analysis
19.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201037, 2022. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1350573

ABSTRACT

Correlation between proximal sensing techniques and laboratory results of qualitative variables plus agronomic attributes was evaluated of a 3,0 ha vineyard in the county of Muitos Capões, Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in Vitis vinifera L. at 2017/2018 harvest, aiming to evaluate the replacement of conventional laboratory analysis in viticulture by Vegetation Indexes, at situations were laboratory access are unavailable. Based on bibliographic research, looking for vegetative indexes developed or used for canopy reflectance analysis on grapevines and whose working bands were within the spectral range provided by the equipment used, a total of 17 viable candidates were obtained. These chosen vegetation indices were correlated, through Pearson (5%), with agronomic soil attributes (apparent electrical conductivity, clay, pH in H2O, phosphorus, potassium, organic matter, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, effective CTC, CTC at pH 7.0, zinc, copper, sulfur and boron) for depths 0 -20 cm and 20-40 cm, and plant tissue (Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and boron) , in addition to some key oenological and phytotechnical parameters for the quantification of wine production and quality. One hundred and thirty ninesignificant correlations were obtained from this cross, with 36 moderate coefficients between 19 parameter variables versus 12 of the indexes. We concluded that in cases where access or availability of laboratory analyzes is difficult or impracticable, the use of vegetation indices is possible if the correlation coefficients reach, at least, the moderate magnitude, serving as a support to decision making until the lack analytical structure to be remedied.


Avaliou-se a correlação entre as técnicas de sensoriamento proximal e os resultados laboratoriais de variáveis qualitativas, mais os atributos agronômicos do solo de um vinhedo de 3,0 ha no município de Muitos Capões, região nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, na safra 2017/2018. Objetivou avaliar a substituição das análises laboratoriais convencionais em viticultura por Índices de Vegetação, em situações de indisponibilidade de acesso ao laboratório. Com base em pesquisa bibliográfica, buscaram-se índices vegetativos desenvolvidos ou utilizados para análise de refletância de dossel em videiras e cujas bandas de trabalho estavam dentro do intervalo espectral fornecido pelo equipamento utilizado, obtendo-se um total de 17 candidatos viáveis. Esses índices de vegetação escolhidos foram correlacionados, por meio de Pearson (5%), com atributos agronômicos do solo (condutividade elétrica aparente, argila, pH em H2O, fósforo, potássio, matéria orgânica, alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, CTC efetivo, CTC em pH 7,0, zinco, cobre, enxofre e boro) para profundidades de 0 - 20 cm e 20 - 40 cm, e tecido vegetal (nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, cobre, zinco, ferro, manganês e boro), além de alguns parâmetros enológicos e fitotécnicos essenciais para a quantificação da produção e qualidade do vinho. Deste cruzamento foram obtidas 139 correlações significativas, resultando 36 coeficientes moderados entre 19 variáveis de parâmetros versus 12 dos índices. Concluímos que nos casos em que o acesso ou disponibilidade de análises laboratoriais é difícil ou impraticável, a utilização de índices de vegetação é possível, desde que os coeficientes de correlação atinjam, pelo menos, a magnitude moderada, servindo como suporte para a tomada de decisão até a falta de estrutura analítica ser remediada.


Subject(s)
Vitis/growth & development , Crop Production/instrumentation , Crop Production/methods , Brazil , Soil Quality , Decision Making , Remote Sensing Technology/methods
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 649-659, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369974

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the production and composition of lavender essential oil, simultaneously at open field and greenhouse, in spring-summer season, under different types of fertilization. Each cultivation system was considered an experiment (field and greenhouse), and in both, the experimental design used was randomized blocks, with five treatments, being fertilization with nutrient source -100% mineral (100%M), 100% organic (100%O), 100% organomineral (100%OM), 50% organomineral (50%OM), and without fertilization (control), and three repetitions. Better performance and productivity of Lavandula dentatais related to respectively 100% OM and 50% OM fertilization in the field and greenhouse. The essential oil content does not differ between cultivation systems and kind of fertilizers, and the majorities compounds were 1.8-cineol, fenchone and camphor.


El objetivo fue evaluar la producción y composición del aceite esencial de lavanda a campo abierto e invernadero simultáneamente, en la temporada primavera-verano, bajo diferentes tipos de fertilización. Cada sistema de cultivo fue considerado un experimento (campo e invernadero), y en ambos, el diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques al azar, con cinco tratamientos, siendo la fertilización con fuente de nutrientes 100% mineral (100% M), 100% orgánico (100% O), 100% organomineral (100% MO), 50% organomineral (50% MO), y sin fertilización (control), y tres repeticiones. Un mejor rendimiento y productividad de Lavandula dentata está relacionado con una fertilización de 100%OM y 50% OM en el campo y en invernadero, respectivamente. El contenido de aceite esencial no difiere entre sistemas de cultivo y tipo de fertilizante, y los compuestos mayoritarios fueron 1.8-cineol, fenchone y alcanfor.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/metabolism , Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lavandula/chemistry , Crop Production , Nutrients , Monoterpenes/analysis , Greenhouses , Fertilization
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