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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(2): 256-260, Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004341

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Adenovirus (ADV) is a recognized cause of severe disease among immunocompromised patients. We report a previously healthy 39-year-old female, admitted with influenza pneumonia and evolving with lung hemorrhage and acute renal failure requiring mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis. She received high corticosteroid doses due to an initial suspicion of alveolar hemorrhage. Lymphopenia already present before steroid use (567/μL), was maintained during the whole hospital stay (mean 782/μL). From the second week of admission she presented a high-volume diarrhea (mean 2.5 L/day) associated to intermittent bloody stools. An ulcerative enterocolitis was confirmed by CT images and colonoscopy. ADV was detected in a colonic tissue sample by real time PCR but not by a commercial filmarray test. Cidofovir-probenecid and racecadotril therapy were indicated without changing the clinical course of diarrhea and the patient finally died.


Adenovirus (ADV) es una causa reconocida de enfermedades graves en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Informamos el caso de una mujer de 39 años, previamente sana, que ingresó por neumonía grave por influenza, evolucionando con hemorragia pulmonar y falla renal aguda, requiriendo ventilación mecánica y hemodiálisis. Recibió altas dosis de corticoides por la sospecha inicial de una hemorragia alveolar. Tuvo linfopenia durante toda su estadía (promedio 782/μL), la que ya estaba presente antes del uso de los corticoides (567/μL). Desde la segunda semana de hospitalización, presentó una diarrea de alto volumen (promedio 2,5 L/día) asociada a la presencia de sangre en deposiciones en forma intermitente. Se confirmó una enterocolitis ulcerativa por tomografía computada y colonoscopía. Se detectó ADV en muestras de biopsia colónica por PCR en tiempo real pero no por un test de PCR múltiples automatizado comercial. Fue tratada con cidofovir-probenecid y racecadrotrilo sin impacto clínico y la paciente finalmente falleció.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cross Infection/etiology , Immunocompromised Host , Adenoviridae Infections/complications , Enterocolitis/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/immunology , Fatal Outcome , Adenoviridae Infections/microbiology , Diarrhea/complications , Enterocolitis/diagnosis , Enterocolitis/immunology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/immunology
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(4): 258-264, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954992

ABSTRACT

Representantes de la Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI) y la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva (SATI) acordaron la elaboración de recomendaciones de diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de la infección del tracto urinario asociada a sonda vesical (ITU-SV). La metodología utilizada fue el análisis de la bibliografía publicada en 2006-2016, complementada con la opinión de expertos y datos epidemiológicos locales. En este documento se pretende ofrecer herramientas básicas de optimización de diagnóstico en base a criterios clínicos y microbiológicos, orientación en los esquemas antibióticos empíricos y dirigidos, y promover las medidas efectivas para reducir el riesgo de ITU-SV. Se destaca la preocupación por el control y tratamiento inadecuados de la ITU-SV, en particular el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos y la importancia de garantizar la mejora en las prácticas diarias. Se establecen pautas locales para mejorar la prevención, optimizar el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la ITU-SV, y así disminuir la morbimortalidad, los días de internación, los costos y la resistencia a antibióticos debidos al mal uso de los antimicrobianos.


Representatives of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and the Argentine Society of Intensive Therapy (SATI) issued the present recommendations on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). Articles published during 2006-2016 were analyzed in the light of experts' opinion and local data. This document aims to offer basic strategies to optimize the diagnosis based on clinical and microbiological criteria, provide guidance in empirical and targeted antibiotic schemes, and promote effective measures to reduce the risk of CA-UTI. The joint work of both societies highlights the experts' concern about the mismanagement of CA-UTI, which is associated to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, and the importance of improving daily practices of CA-UTI management. Through these recommendations, local guidelines are established to optimize the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of CAUTI in order to reduce morbimortality, days of hospitalization, costs and antibiotic resistance due to the misuse of antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Cross Infection/etiology , Societies, Medical , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Catheters, Indwelling/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 246-252, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959438

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones urinarias asociadas a la atención de la salud (ITU-AAS) representan un importante problema sanitario, siendo poco conocidas sus características cuando no están asociadas a cateterización urinaria u ocurren fuera de unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Objetivos: Determinar las características de los pacientes con ITU-AAS, etiología y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de las mismas, tanto asociadas a catéter (ITU-C) como no asociadas a catéter (ITU-noC), en UCI y en sala general. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo de corte transversal entre 2009 y 2013 en un hospital universitario de tercer nivel. Se identificaron todos los episodios de ITU-AAS, diferenciándolas en ITU-C e ITU-noC. Resultados: Se incluyeron 253 episodios de ITU-AAS, siendo más frecuentes las ITU-C (60,9%) respecto a ITU-noC. Un 37,4% de ITU-noC y 59,7% de ITU-C ocurrieron en UCI. Los microorganismos aislados más frecuentemente fueron Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Enterococcus sp. El 19% de los bacilos gramnegativos fueron productores de β-lactamasa de espectro extendido, siendo su frecuencia similar en ambos grupos. Conclusión: Las co-morbilidades de los pacientes con ITU-AAS, los agentes etiológicos responsables y sus correspondientes espectros de sensibilidad, fueron similares en los grupos de ITU-C e ITU-noC, tanto en sala general como en UCI.


Introduction: Nosocomially acquired urinary tract infections (NAUTI) represent an important public health issue, but its characteristics when they are not catheter associated (CA-UTI) or when they take place outside intensive care units (ICU) are poorly understood. Objectives: To determine the patients' characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of NAUTI, both CA-UTI and no CA-UTI, in general ward and ICU. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analytic cross-sectional study, between 2009 and 2013, in a third level universitary hospital. All NAUTI episodes were identified, classifying them as CA-UTI and no CA-UTI. Results: We included 253 episodes of NAUTI, being CA-UTI (60,9%) more frequent than no CA-UTI. A 37,4% of no CA-UTI and 59,7% of CA-UTI were identified in ICU. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus sp. A 19% of extended spectrum betalactamase producing gram negative bacilli were found, without differences between groups. Conclusion: Patients's comorbidities, microorganisms associated to NAUTI and its antimicrobial susceptibility were similar in CA-UTI and no CA-UTI, as in general ward and ICU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Cross Infection/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Hospitals, University , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(9): 753-763, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896396

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Recent animal studies demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of opioid withdrawal resulting in a higher risk of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of remifentanil discontinuation on Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU)-acquired infection after a schedule of sedoanalgesia of at least 6 days. Method: All patients over 18 years of age with a unit admission of more than 4 days were consecutively selected. The study population was the one affected by surgical pathology of any origin where sedation was based on any hypnotic and the opioid remifentanil was used as analgesic for at least 96 hours in continuous perfusion. Patients who died during admission to the unit and those with combined analgesia (peripheral or neuroaxial blocks) were excluded. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors for infection acquired in the unit. A comparative study between periods of 6 days before and after the cessation of remifentanil was performed. Paired samples test and McNemar test was used for quantitative and categorical variables, respectively. Results: There were 1,789 patients admitted to the PACU during the study and the population eligible was constituted for 102 patients. The incidence rate of PACU-acquired infection was 38 per 1,000 PACU days. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was the most frequently diagnosed PACU-acquired infection. Pseudomona aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated microorganism. Hospital mortality was 36.27%. No statistically significant differences were seen in the incidence of HAI in cancer patients in relation to discontinuation of remifentanil (p=0.068). Conclusion: The baseline state of immunosuppression of cancer patients does not imply a higher incidence of HAI in relation to the interruption of remifentanil. It would be of interest to carry out a multicenter PACU study that included immunological patterns.


Resumo Introdução: Recentes pesquisas utilizando animais demonstraram efeitos imunossupressores depois da suspensão de opiáceos, associados a um maior risco de infecção nosocomial. O objetivo desta investigação foi determinar o impacto da interrupção do opioide remifentanilo em uma Unidade de Reanimação Pós-cirúrgica (URP) nas infecções associadas aos cuidados da saúde depois de uma pauta de sedoanalgesia de ao menos 6 dias. Método: Foram relacionados de forma consecutiva todos os pacientes maiores de 18 anos com internação na unidade superior a 4 dias. A população investigada foi aquela afetada por patologia cirúrgica de qualquer origem, na qual a sedação esteve baseada em qualquer hipnótico e como analgésico, foi utilizado o opioide remifentanilo durante pelo menos 96 horas em perfusão contínua. Foram excluídos os pacientes que faleceram durante a internação na unidade e aqueles com analgesia combinada (bloqueios periféricos ou neuroaxiais). Foi realizada uma análise bivariante para determinar fatores de risco para a infecção adquirida na unidade. Foi realizada uma investigação comparativa entre períodos dos 6 dias anteriores e posteriores à interrupção de remifentanilo. Utilizamos o teste de amostras pareadas e a prova de McNemar para as variáveis quantitativas e categóricas, respectivamente. Resultados: O número de pacientes internados na URP durante o período de investigação foi de 1.789. Depois de aplicar os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, a população elegível ficou constituída por 102 pacientes. A densidade de incidência de infecção de forma global foi de 38 por cada 1.000 dias de internamento. A pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica foi a infecção adquirida mais frequente e Pseudomona aeruginosa, o micro-organismo mais frequentemente isolado. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 36,27%. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas na incidência de IACS em pacientes oncológicos em relação à descontinuação de remifentanilo (p=0,068). Conclusão: O estado basal de imunossupressão dos pacientes oncológicos não implica uma maior incidência de IACS em relação à interrupção do remifentanilo. Seria interessante a realização de uma investigação multicêntrica de URP que incluísse padrões imunológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Cross Infection/etiology , Withholding Treatment , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/surgery , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Remifentanil , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(6): 468-474, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897962

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become a standard technique over the past few decades in intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: A review of pediatric patients who received ECMO support in the pediatric cardiac ICU was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors and causal organisms related to acquired infections and assess the survival rates of ECMO patients with nosocomial infections. Methods: Sixty-six patients who received ECMO support in the pediatric cardiac ICU between January 2011 and June 2014 were included in the study. Demographic, echocardiographic, hemodynamic features and surgical procedures were reviewed. Results: Sixty-six patients received a total of 292.5 days of venoarterial ECMO support. Sixty were postoperative patients. Forty-five patients were weaned from ECMO support with an ECMO survival rate of 68.2%. The rate of infection was 116.2/1000 ECMO days. Prolonged ICU stay, duration of ventilation and ECMO were found associated with development of nosocomial infection and only the duration of ECMO was an independent risk factor for nosocomial infections in ECMO patients. Conclusion: The correction of the underlying process leading to ECMO support and shortening the length of ECMO duration together with stricter application of ECMO indications would improve the infection incidence and hospital surveillance of the patient group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Cross Infection/etiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification
6.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 38(2): e58793, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-901590

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a incidência de flebite durante o uso de cateter intravenoso periférico (CIP) e pós-infusional e analisar a associação com fatores de risco em pacientes hospitalizados. Método Estudo de coorte com 165 pacientes adultos internados em hospital universitário de Porto Alegre que totalizaram 447 acessos no período de dezembro 2014 a fevereiro 2015. A coleta dos dados foi diária, e a análise dos dados ocorreu pela estatística descritiva e analítica. Resultados A incidência de flebite durante o uso do CIP foi de 7,15% e de flebite pós-infusional, 22,9%. A flebite durante o uso do cateter associou-se com a Amoxicilina + Ácido Clavulânico. A flebite pós-infusional apresentou associação do grau de gravidade com a idade e com o uso de Amoxacilina + Ácido Clavulânico, Cloridrato de Tramadol e Anfotericina. Conclusão A incidência de flebite pós-infusional mostrou-se um indicador importante para a análise do cenário da qualidade da assistência em saúde.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la incidencia de flebitis en el uso de catéter periférico intravenoso (CIP) y posinfusional y analizar la asociación con los factores de riesgo en pacientes hospitalizados. Método Estudio de cohorte con 165 pacientes adultos ingresados en un hospital universitario de Porto Alegre, que ascendió a 447 accesos de diciembre 2014 a febrero de 2015. La recolección de datos fue diaria y el análisis de datos fue mediante estadística descriptiva y analítica. Resultados La incidencia de flebitis durante el uso de catéter periférico intravenoso fue del 7,15% y de la flebitis posinfusional fue del 22,9%. La flebitis durante el uso del catéter se asoció con el uso de Amoxicilina + Ácido clavulánico. La flebitis posinfusional presentó una asociación del grado de gravedad con la edad, y con el uso de Amoxicilina + Ácido clavulánico, Clorhidrato de tramadol y Anfotericina. Conclusión La incidencia de flebitis posinfuncional mostró ser un indicador importante para el análisis del escenario de la calidad de atención en salud.


ABSTRACT Objective to determine the incidence of phlebitis during and after the use of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIC), and analyse the association of this complication with risk factors. Methods cohort study with 165 adult patients admitted to a university hospital in Porto Alegre, totalling 447 accesses, from December 2014 to February 2015. Data were collected on a daily basis and analysed by means of descriptive and analytical statistics. Results The incidence of phlebitis during PIC was 7.15% and the incidence of post-infusion phlebitis was 22.9%. Phlebitis during catheter use was associated with the use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The grade of post-infusion phlebitis was associated with age and use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid, Tramadol Hydrochloride, and Amphotericin. Conclusion The incidence of post-infusion phlebitis proved to be an important indicator to analyse the quality of the healthcare setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Phlebitis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Phlebitis/etiology , Phlebitis/drug therapy , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Infusions, Intravenous , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Incidence , Age Factors , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 60(4): 337-341, out.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847780

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O acesso venoso é um procedimento elementar e essencial tanto no atendimento hospitalar quanto no ambulatorial. Tal relevância pode ser destacada na assistência médica de pacientes oncológicos, na qual cateteres venosos para acesso central são utilizados com alta frequência. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a utilização de cateteres venosos centrais de curta permanência em uma unidade oncológica, visando identificar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes, aspectos relacionados à punção e suas complicações. Método: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, transversal, observacional e analítico. Os dados foram coletados com informações de prontuários de pacientes admitidos em uma Unidade de Transplante de Medula Óssea, durante 1º de julho de 2013 a 30 de julho de 2014. Resultados: Foram analisados 174 acessos venosos centrais com cateter de curta permanência, em 119 pacientes. A idade média foi de 46,2 anos, com prevalência semelhante entre gêneros. Os principais diagnósticos foram mieloma múltiplo (36,97%) e linfoma não hodgkin (33,61%). A veia femoral direita foi o local de escolha em 56,90% dos casos e o cateter venoso central calibroso foi utilizado em 76,44% das punções. As complicações relacionadas à punção ocorreram em 13 casos (7,47%), sendo o hematoma (92,3%) a mais representativa; e as relacionados à presença do cateter em 25 (14,37%), sendo a suspeita clínica de infecção (76,0%) a principal. Conclusão: O cateter venoso central de curta permanência se mostrou um método seguro para utilização de rotina em pacientes com neoplasias hematológicas (AU)


Introduction: Venous access is an elementary and essential procedure in both hospital and outpatient care. Such relevance can be highlighted in the medical care of cancer patients, in which central access venous catheters are used with high frequency. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of short-term central venous catheters in an oncologic unit, aiming to identify the epidemiological profile of the patients, aspects related to the puncture and its complications. Method: A retrospective, transversal, observational and analytical study was carried out. Data were collected from records of patients admitted to a Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, from July 1, 2013 to June 30, 2014. Results: A total of 174 central venous accesses with a short-term catheter were analyzed in 119 patients. The mean age was 46.2 years, with a similar prevalence between genders. The main diagnoses were multiple myeloma (36.97%) and NonHodgkin lymphoma (33.61%). The right femoral vein was the site of choice in 56.90% of the cases and central venous catheter was used in 76.44% of the punctures. Puncture-related complications occurred in 13 cases (7.47%), with hematoma (92.3%) being the most representative one, and those related to the presence of the catheter in 25 (14.37%), with clinical suspicion of infection (76.0%) being the main one. Conclusion: Short-term central venous catheter has proven to be a safe method for routine use in patients with hematological malignancies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Central Venous Catheters/statistics & numerical data , Bone Marrow Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Cross Infection/etiology
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(6): 603-608, dic. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844413

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious complications associated to central venous catheter (CVC) increase morbidity, mortality and costs. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is one of the risk factors described for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). The aim of this study was explore if TPN and time of exposition, are risk factors for CR-BSI among patient exposed to this therapy. Patients and Methods: Cohort study of patients with CVC exposed and not exposed to TPN with calculation of the relative risk (RR) for CR-BSI and percentage of CR-BSI according to different times of exposition to TPN. Study encompassed years 2010-2015 and only adult patients were included. Results: During the study period 51 events of CR-BSI were identified, with 27 occurring among those exposed to TPN and 24 among those not exposed. CR-BSI incidence rate was 6.3 in the group with TPN and 1.2 in those without this therapy (RR 5.4; IC 95 3.6-8.2). The percentage of patients with CR-BSI increased in parallel to exposition time (Pearson coefficient +0.91) and the OR increased for expositions ≥ 7 days (OR 2.8; IC 95 1.047.4; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exposition to TPN increases the risk to CR-BSI in adult patients with CVC and this risk raise with exposition time.


Antecedentes: Las complicaciones infecciosas asociadas a dispositivos vasculares centrales tienen impacto en morbi-mortalidad y costos. Diferentes factores de riesgo han sido identificados en las ITS/CVC, incluyendo la nutrición parenteral total (NPT). Objetivo: Determinar si la NPT y el tiempo de exposición constituyen factores de riesgo para desarrollar ITS/CVC. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohortes de diseño prospectivo, de pacientes adultos con catéter venoso central (CVC) convencional, internados en el Hospital Militar entre los años 2010 y 2015 y que estuvieron expuestos o no expuestos a NPT, calculando el riesgo relativo (RR) y la distribución porcentual de las ITS/CVC a diferentes intervalos de exposición de NPT con análisis de coeficiente de correlación y cálculo de Odds Ratio (OR). Resultados: Durante el período de estudio se registraron 51 eventos de ITS/CVC en pacientes adultos con CVC, de los cuales 27 estuvieron expuestos a NPT y 24 no. Incidencia de 6,3 por 1.000 días en expuestos a NPT vs 1,2 en no expuestos (RR de 5,4; IC 95 3,6 a 8,2). La proporción de pacientes con ITS/CVC aumentó a medida que aumentaba la exposición a NPT (coeficiente correlación r = +0,91), siendo significativa para exposiciones ≥ 7 días (OR 2,8; IC 95 1,04-7,4; p < 0,05). Conclusiones: La exposición a NPT aumenta el riesgo de ITS/CVC en pacientes adultos hospitalizados respecto a aquellos pacientes que no reciben NPT, además este riesgo aumenta con el tiempo de exposición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Cross Infection/etiology , Parenteral Nutrition, Total/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Time Factors , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(2): 195-198, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-787738

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Ralstonia pickettii es un bacilo gram negativo de baja virulencia que puede asociarse a infecciones relacionadas a los cuidados de la salud y provocar bacteriemias. La bacteriemia por Ralstonia pickettii es poco frecuente pero se relaciona con la contaminación de productos de uso médico principalmente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Presentamos dos casos en pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica vinculados a contaminación del agua de diálisis. Se han publicado casos similares vinculados a la administración de fluídos intravenosos, ampollas de medicación, asociado a membranas de circulación extracorpórea, entre otros. La detección de una bacteriemia por Ralstonia pickettii, debe sospechar e iniciar la búsqueda de productos de uso médico contaminados, fluídos y/o medicación.


ABSTRACT Ralstonia pickettii is a low-virulence gram-negative bacillus that may be associated with infections related to health care and may cause bacteremia. Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia is uncommon but is related to the contamination of medical products, mainly in immunodepressed patients. We present two cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis with Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia linked to contamination of the dialysis water. Similar cases have been published with links to intravenous fluid administration, medication ampules, and the use of extracorporeal oxygenation membranes, among other factors. The detection of Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia should provoke suspicion and a search for contaminated medical products, fluids, and/or medications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Dialysis Solutions/standards , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacteremia/etiology , Ralstonia pickettii/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(1): 19-25, feb. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-776955

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are a problem worldwide. In our country, the estimated incidence of HCAI is 70,000 per year. This results in an increase in the average length of hospital stay by 10 days per patient, an estimated annual cost of US $ 70 million and an overstay of 700 thousand bed days a year. For over 30 years stethoscopes have been considered as potential HCAI vectors, since pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains adhere and colonize them. These organisms can be transmitted between patients if the instruments are not sanitized. Several studies conclude that disinfecting the stethoscope with isopropyl alcohol eliminates up to 99% of bacteria. Simple, economic measures such as implementation of guidelines for stethoscope disinfection are a clear opportunity for preventing infections.


Las infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud (IAAS) son un problema a mundial. Sólo en nuestro país se estima una incidencia de 70.000 al año, lo que se traduce en un aumento de la estadía hospitalaria en 10 días promedio por paciente, un costo anual estimado en 70 millones de dólares y una sobre-estadía de 700 mil días cama al año. La evidencia señala que diferentes instrumentos de uso hospitalario resultan contaminados por patógenos; entre ellos, el estetoscopio se ha identificado como potencial vector de IAAS hace más de 30 años y adquiere gran relevancia al ser de uso generalizado. Microorganismos patógenos, incluyendo cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina se adhieren y contaminan los estetoscopios, pudiendo transmitirse a otros pacientes si no son desinfectados. Diversos estudios concluyen que la desinfección del estetoscopio con alcohol isopropílico elimina hasta 99% de estas y otras bacterias, por lo que existe una clara oportunidad para aportar a la prevención de las IAAS, interviniendo a través de la implementación de medidas sencillas, económicas y operativas al corto plazo, normando por ejemplo la limpieza del estetoscopio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Stethoscopes/microbiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disinfection/methods , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 13(2)jun. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-749185

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou determinar a prevalência de infecção hospitalar pela bactéria Klebsiella pneumoniae na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva adulto de um hospital público de ensino, Hospital e Maternidade Therezinha de Jesus no período de 2012 a 2013. MÉTODOS: O estudo é descritivo transversal do tipo retrospectivo com análise de prontuários médicos e resultados das hemoculturas, uroculturas, lavado traqueal e swabs dos pacientes internados nesse setor incluindo exames realizados no período acima citado, com amostragem de 34 casos confirmados de infecção hospitalar (IH) por Klebsiella pneumoniae e processados pelo Software SPSS. RESULTADOS: A distribuição de frequência de pacientes em tratamento intensivo no período estudado compreendeu a população de 193 indivíduos, sendo que 17,09% desenvolveram infecção hospitalar pela bactéria acima citada. CONCLUSÃO: concordamos que os números obtidos neste estudo condizem com os demais hospitais de ensino, o que não significa que é um parâmetro que não pode ser mudado, pelo contrário, com esta análise pretendemos implantar medidas eficazes de controle de contaminação assim como ações educativas para os demais profissionais da saúde (acadêmicos e residentes principalmente) no nosso hospital, minimizando os desfechos ruins.


This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infection by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae in adult intensive care unit of a public teaching hospital, Hospital and Maternity Therezinha of Jesus in the period 2012-2013. METHODS: The study is a retrospective cross-sectional with analysis of medical records and results of blood cultures, urine, tracheal aspirates and swabs of hospitalized patients in this sector including examinations performed above mentioned period, with sampling of 34 confirmed cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae IH and processed by SPSS software. RESULTS: The frequency distribution of patients in intensive care during the study period comprised the population of 193 individuals, and 17.09% developed nosocomial infection by the bacteria mentioned above. CONCLUSION: We agree that the figures obtained in this study are consistent with other teaching hospitals, which means that it is not a parameter that can not be changed, however, with this analysis we intend to implement effective measures to control contamination as well as educational activities for other health professionals (mainly academics and residents) in our hospital, minimizing poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Intensive Care Units , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/mortality , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , Cross Infection/etiology , Klebsiella Infections/etiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae
12.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 30(1): 34-37, jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868799

ABSTRACT

Las demoliciones, construcciones y/o remodelaciones pueden provocar infecciones intrahospitalarias en pacientes con factores de riesgos, especialmente aspergilosis pulmonar. En la presente guia se describen algunas medidas que pueden ayudar a mitigar estas infecciones en los distintos recintos hospitalarios.


Demolitions, constructions and renovations can produce nosocomial infections in patients with risk factors, specially lung aspergillosis. The following guide describes some actions that could help in the mitigation of these infections in the different hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Hospital Services , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Construction Wastes , Fungi/pathogenicity , Opportunistic Infections , Sanitary Specifications
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(5): 401-407, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744380

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have revealed that an intrinsic apoptotic signaling cascade is involved in vascular hyperpermeability and endothelial barrier dysfunction. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has also been reported to inhibit apoptotic signaling by regulating mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and caspase-3 activation. Here, we investigated whether propofol could alleviate burn serum-induced endothelial hyperpermeability through the inhibition of the intrinsic apoptotic signaling cascade. Rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMVECs) were pretreated with propofol at various concentrations, followed by stimulation with burn serum, obtained from burn-injury rats. Monolayer permeability was determined by transendothelial electrical resistance. Mitochondrial release of cytochrome C was measured by ELISA. Bax and Bcl-2 expression and mitochondrial release of second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (smac) were detected by Western blotting. Caspase-3 activity was assessed by fluorometric assay; mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was determined with JC-1 (a potential-sensitive fluorescent dye). Intracellular ATP content was assayed using a commercial kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Burn serum significantly increased monolayer permeability (P<0.05), and this effect could be inhibited by propofol (P<0.05). Compared with a sham treatment group, intrinsic apoptotic signaling activation - indicated by Bax overexpression, Bcl-2 downregulation, Δψm reduction, decreased intracellular ATP level, increased cytosolic cytochrome C and smac, and caspase-3 activation - was observed in the vehicle group. Propofol not only attenuated these alterations (P<0.05 for all), but also significantly decreased burn-induced ROS production (P<0.05). Propofol attenuated burn-induced RLMVEC monolayer hyperpermeability by regulating the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Sentinel Surveillance
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 73-75, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744292

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To identify the causes and outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in patients undergoing phacoemulsification with intraoperative complication and to analyze whether the interval between phacoemulsification and PPV interferes with best-corrected final visual acuity. Methods: This descriptive and retrospective analytical study was conducted in Paraná Eye Hospital in 2013. Data were collected from medical records of 38 patients who underwent complicated phacoemulsification and also required PPV. Results: The most frequent complication as a result of phacoemulsification was posterior capsule rupture, observed in 35 patients (92.10%), followed by capsular bag detachment, in three patients (7.89%). Twenty-eight patients (73.68%) had cortical fragments that were removed during PPV. Twelve patients (31.57%) had their intraocular lens repositioned. PPV was performed on the same day of phacoemulsification in one patient (2.63%), within 1 week in 15 patients (39.47%), between 1 week and 1 month in 13 patients (34.21%), and 1 month after phacoemulsification in 9 patients (23.68%). Conclusion: This study is in agreement with worldwide literature, asserting that major complications of phacoemulsification are posterior capsule rupture and capsular bag detachment, and in addition, there is an improvement in the final visual acuity in almost half the cases, even when there are complications during modern cataract surgery, when complementary appropriate treatment is provided. .


Objetivos: Identificar as causas e os resultados da vitrectomia via pars plana (VPP) em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de facoemulsificação com complicação intraoperatória, analisando se o tempo cirúrgico entre a facoemulsificação e a VPP interfere na melhor acuidade visual corrigida final. Métodos: Estudo analítico descritivo e retrospectivo realizado no Hospital de Olhos do Paraná em 2013. Os dados foram coletados de prontuários de 38 pacientes que foram submetidos à cirurgia de facoemulsificação complicada e que também precisaram de VPP. Resultados: A complicação intraoperatória mais frequente na cirurgia de facoemulsificação, nos pacientes estudados, foi à ruptura de cápsula posterior, que ocorreu em 35 pacientes (92,10%), seguido de desinserção zonular em 3 pacientes (7,89%). Em 28 pacientes (73,68%) foram encontrados restos corticais, que foram removidos durante a VPP. Em 12 pacientes (31,57%) foi realizado o reposicionamento da lente intraocular. A cirurgia de VPP foi realizada no mesmo dia da facoemulsificação em 1 paciente (2,63%), dentro de 7 dias em 15 pacientes (39,47%), entre 1 semana e 1 mês em 13 pacientes (34,21%) e após 1 mês da facoemulsificação em 9 pacientes (23,68%). Conclusão: O presente estudo encontrou dados semelhantes aos descritos na literatura mundial, que afirmam que as principais complicações da facoemulsificação são a ruptura de cápsula posterior e desinserção zonular; e que a acuidade visual final melhora, em aproximadamente metade dos casos, mesmo após ocorrer complicações na cirurgia de catarata moderna, quando instituído tratamento complementar adequado. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Clostridium Infections/transmission , Equipment Contamination , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Stethoscopes/microbiology , Clostridioides difficile , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross Infection/etiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(5): 528-533, oct. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730268

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Physicians' adherence to pre-established criteria for the indication and/or maintenance of invasive devices is a weak point in infection control programs. Fulfillment of the recommendations for preventing infections associated with invasive devices is essential to reduce their risk. Objective: To assess the adherence of physicians to the standardized criteria for indication of central venous catheter (CVC) and permanent urinary catheter (PUC) and to the application of supervision guidelines. Methods: During a period of 7 months, residents of the Critical Patient Unit monitored the adherence to criteria for indication of CVC and PUC recorded in patients' medical records. This information was compared with current regulations to assess compliance. Results: Between April and September 2009, 2078 supervision guidelines were applied. Invasive devices were identified in 47.7%. 10.4% of CVCs and 19.2% of PUCs did not meet criteria for installation and / or maintenance at the time of monitoring. Conclusions: Adherence of our medical staff to criteria for installation and /or maintenance of CVC and CUP should be improved. Monitoring can be efficiently performed by residents and could reduce infections associated with invasive procedures.


Introducción: La adherencia médica a los criterios de indicación y/o mantención de procedimientos invasores es un punto débil en los programas de control de infecciones. Cumplir las recomendaciones relacionadas a prevención de infecciones asociadas a procedimientos invasores es fundamental para reducir el riesgo de infección. Objetivos: Evaluar la adherencia de médicos residentes a criterios estandarizados de indicaciones médicas de catéter venoso central (CVC) y catéter urinario permanente (CUP) y a aplicar pautas de supervisión para evaluar su cumplimiento. Método: Durante un período de siete meses, residentes de la Unidad de Paciente Crítico (UPC), monitorizaron la adherencia a los criterios de indicación de CVC y CUP registrados en las fichas clínicas de los pacientes. La información registrada se cotejó con la normativa vigente. Resultados: Entre abril y octubre de 2009 se aplicaron 2.078 pautas de supervisión, de las cuales 47,7% identificaron invasión al momento de aplicarlas. Un 10,4 y 19,2% de los CVC y CUP, respectivamente, no cumplían con criterios de instalación y/o mantención al momento de la supervisión. Conclusiones: La adherencia de nuestros médicos de UPC a los criterios de instalación y/o mantención de CVC y CUP debe mejorarse. La supervisión puede ser realizada eficientemente por los mismos residentes y podría reducir las infecciones asociadas a procedimientos invasores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheterization, Central Venous/standards , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Urinary Catheterization/standards , Cross Infection/etiology , Hospitals, University , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(4): 400-405, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare Associated Infections constitute an important problem in Neonatal Units and invasive devices are frequently involved. However, studies on risk factors of newborns who undergo surgical procedures are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection in neonates undergoing surgical procedures. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted from January 2008 to May 2011, in a referral center. Cases were of 21 newborns who underwent surgery and presented the first episode of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection. Control was 42 newborns who underwent surgical procedures without notification of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection in the study period. Information was obtained from the database of the Hospital Infection Control Committee Notification of infections and related clinical data of patients that routinely collected by trained professionals and follow the recommendations of Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS: During the study period, 1141 patients were admitted to Neonatal Unit and 582 Healthcare Associated Infections were reported (incidence-density of 25.75 Healthcare Associated Infections/patient-days). In the comparative analysis, a higher proportion of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection was observed in preterm infants undergoing surgery (p = 0.03) and use of non-invasive ventilation was a protective factor (p = 0.048). Statistically significant difference was also observed for mechanical ventilation duration (p = 0.004), duration of non-invasive ventilation (p = 0.04), and parenteral nutrition duration (p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis duration of parenteral nutrition remained significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Shortening time on parenteral nutrition whenever possible and preference ...


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bacteremia/etiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Risk Factors
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 737-744, 06/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-718062

ABSTRACT

A infecção do sítio cirúrgico (ISC) apresenta-se como um complicador que possui muitos fatores de risco associados, e a maior parte das informações utilizadas nessa área pela medicina veterinária provém da medicina humana. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a taxa de ISC no HVT-UFV, assim como correlacionar sua incidência com os seguintes fatores de risco: quantidade de pessoas presentes durante a cirurgia, classificação do potencial de contaminação da ferida cirúrgica e utilização de antimicrobiano profilático e ou terapêutico. Para isso, foram colhidas informações sobre a ocorrência de ISC, bem como os fatores de risco citados de 401 prontuários. Esses dados passaram por análise estatística, e foram obtidos os seguintes resultados: 21 pacientes diagnosticados com ISC, o que gerou uma taxa de infecção de 5,24 por cento e associação entre incidência de ISC e cirurgias com risco de contaminação maior que 5 por cento. Os demais fatores de risco avaliados não apresentaram associação, porém, em valores absolutos, foi detectada maior ocorrência de infecção nos procedimentos com maior quantidade de pessoas na sala de cirurgia. Portanto, foi possível observar a importância da obtenção fidedigna de dados e a necessidade do desenvolvimento de um sistema de vigilância epidemiológica voltado para a medicina veterinária...


The surgical site infection (SSI) is a complicating factor that has many risk factors, and most of the information used in this area for veterinary medicine comes from human medicine. The aim of this work was to determine the rate of SSI in the VTH-UFV, and to correlate the incidence of SSI with the following risk factors: surgical wound classification, use of antimicrobial prophylaxis, and therapy and the number of people in the operating room during surgery. For that, information about the occurrence of SSI and the risk factors referred to were collected from 401 medical records. These data underwent statistical analysis and obtained the following results: 21 patients diagnosed with SSI resulting in an infection rate of 5.24 percent and a significant association between the occurrence of SSI and the surgical procedures with contamination risk higher than 5 percent. Other risk factors evaluated showed no association. However, in absolute values, a higher incidence of infection was detected in procedures with a greater number of people in the operating room. Therefore, it was possible to observe the importance of obtaining reliable data and the requirement for developing a surveillance system specific for Veterinary Medicine...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Cross Infection/veterinary , Surgical Wound Infection/veterinary , Risk Factors , Surgery, Veterinary , Infection Control , Cross Infection/etiology
18.
Acta méd. costarric ; 56(1): 31-34, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-700707

ABSTRACT

Se presentan dos casos de miasis nocosomiales, ocurridos en hospitales costarricenses, cuyo agente etiológico identificado fue Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). El primero tuvo lugar como infestación de una herida quirúrgica secundaria a una cirugía de abdomen, en la cual se observaron larvas de mosca asociadas con una secreción purulenta. Dicho cuadro conllevó la ejecución de una laparotomía exploratoria para descartar la presencia de más larvas, y el lavado de la cavidad peritoneal. El segundo caso se asoció con una paciente que estuvo en una unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, sospechosa de una intoxicación con salicilatos, quien fue sometida a intubación para brindarle respiración mecánica asistida. La paciente expulsó varias larvas de mosca por su cavidad oral, lo que ameritó una aspiración orotraqueal, de la cual se obtuvo más larvas. En ambos casos se trató de larvas maduras de tercer estadio, que se evidenciaron en un periodo mayor o igual a cinco días a partir del internamiento en el nosocomio, lo que tipifica ambos casos como miasis nosocomiales...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Cross Infection/etiology , Myiasis
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(1): 16-20, feb. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-706541

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nosocomial infections generate high morbidity and mortality in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Objective: To determine risk factors for nosocomial infections in children after congenital heart surgery. Methods: A retrospective case-control study, in patients younger than 15 years undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease from January 2007 to December 2011 admitted to the Pediatric Critical Patient Unit (UPC-P) in a university hospital. For cases, the information was analyzed from the first episode of infection. Results: 39 patients who develop infections and 39 controls who did not develop infection were enrolled. The median age of cases was 2 months. We identified a number of factors associated with the occurrence of infections, highlighting in univariate analysis: age, weight, univentricular heart physiology, complexity of the surgical procedure according to RACHS-1 and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time ≥ 200 minutes. Multivariate analysis identified CPB time ≥ 200 minutes as the major risk factor, with an OR of 11.57 (CI: 1.04 to 128.5). Conclusion: CPB time ≥ 200 minutes was the mayor risk factor associated with the development of nosocomial infections.


Introducción: Las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS) generan elevada morbilidad y mortalidad en niños sometidos a cirugía cardíaca. Objetivo: Determinar factores de riesgo que inciden en la ocurrencia de IAAS en niños operados de cardiopatías congénitas. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles, en pacientes menores de 15 años sometidos a cirugía por cardiopatías congénitas desde enero 2007 a diciembre 2011 admitidos en la Unidad de Paciente Crítico Pediátrico (UPC-P) de un hospital universitario. Para los casos, se analizó la información del primer episodio de infección. Resultados: Se enrolaron 39 pacientes con IAAS y 39 controles operados que no desarrollaron infección. La mediana de edad de los casos fue 2 meses. Se identificó una serie de factores asociados a la ocurrencia de IAAS, destacando en el análisis univariado: edad, peso, fisiología cardíaca tipo univentricular, complejidad del procedimiento quirúrgico según RACHS-1 y tiempo de circulación extracorpórea (CEC) ≥ 200 min. El análisis multivariado identificó al tiempo de CEC ≥ 200 min como el principal factor de riesgo, con un OR de 11,57 (IC: 1,04-128,5). Conclusión: El tiempo de CEC ≥ 200 min fue el factor de riesgo más asociado al desarrollo de IAAS en niños operados de cardiopatías congénitas.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Multivariate Analysis , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Risk Factors
20.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2014; 35 (11): 1354-1360
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153961

ABSTRACT

To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service [EMS] ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning [before and after fumigation]. Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin AbdulAziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/etiology , Ambulances/standards , Fumigation/methods
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