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1.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(3): 130-136, jul.-set. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531862

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: colonization by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients is considered a risk factor for infections, and poses as a source of spreading these strains in hospital facilities. This study aimed to perform the genetic characterization of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from surveillance swabs in an ICU in northeastern Brazil. Methods: the isolates were recovered between 2018-2019 from the nasal, axillary, and rectal sites of 24 patients admitted to the ICU. Bacterial identification was performed by traditional biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disk diffusion, and ESBL phenotype was detected by double-disc synergy test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes, PFGE, and MLST were carried out in representative isolates. Results: a total of 27 isolates were recovered from 18 patients (75%). The ESBL production was detected in 85% of isolates. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and most of the ß-lactams tested was recurrent, except for carbapenems. The blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M genes were found in high frequency, and the CTX-M-(1, 2 and 9) groups were identified. Seven sequence types (ST11, ST14, ST17, ST395, ST709, ST855, and ST3827) were described, most of them considered high-risk. Conclusion: these findings emphasize the potential threat of well-established high-risk clones in an ICU, and highlight the importance of monitoring these clones to prevent infections.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: a colonização por Klebsiella pneumoniae produtora de ß-lactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL) em pacientes de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) é considerada um fator de risco para infecções, e representa uma fonte de disseminação dessas cepas em instalações hospitalares. Este estudo objetivou realizar a caracterização genética de isolados de K. pneumoniae produtores de ESBL recuperados de swabs de vigilância em uma UTI no Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: os isolados foram recuperados entre 2018-2019 dos sítios nasal, axilar e retal de 24 pacientes internados na UTI. A identificação bacteriana foi realizada por testes bioquímicos tradicionais. A suscetibilidade antimicrobiana foi avaliada por disco-difusão, e o fenótipo ESBL foi detectado pelo teste de sinergia de duplo-disco. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) para os genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV e blaTEM, PFGE e MLST foram realizados em isolados representativos. Resultados: foram recuperados 27 isolados de 18 pacientes (75%). A produção de ESBL foi detectada em 85% dos isolados. A resistência à ciprofloxacina, sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima e à maioria dos ß-lactâmicos testados foi recorrente, exceto para os carbapenêmicos. Os genes blaSHV, blaTEM e blaCTX-M foram encontrados em alta frequência, e os grupos CTX-M-(1, 2 e 9) foram identificados. Sete sequence types (ST11, ST14, ST17, ST395, ST709, ST855 e ST3827) foram descritos, a maioria deles considerados de alto risco. Conclusão: esses achados enfatizam a ameaça potencial de clones de alto risco bem estabelecidos em uma UTI, e destacam a importância do monitoramento desses clones para prevenir infecções.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: la colonización por Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en pacientes de Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) se considera un factor de riesgo para infecciones, y se presenta como una fuente de propagación de estas cepas en instalaciones hospitalarias. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la caracterización genética de aislamientos de K. pneumoniae productores de BLEE recuperados de hisopos de vigilancia en una UCI en el noreste de Brasil. Métodos: los aislamientos se recuperaron entre 2018-2019 de sitios nasales, axilares y rectales de 24 pacientes ingresados en la UCI. La identificación bacteriana se realizó mediante pruebas bioquímicas tradicionales. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante difusión en disco, y el fenotipo BLEE se detectó mediante la prueba de sinergia de doble-disco. La polymerase chain reaction (PCR) para los genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV y blaTEM, PFGE y MLST se llevaron a cabo en aislamientos representativos. Resultados: se recuperaron 27 aislamientos de 18 pacientes (75%). La producción de ESBL se detectó en 85% de los aislamientos. La resistencia a ciprofloxacino, sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima y a la mayoría de los ß-lactámicos evaluados fue recurrente, excepto a los carbapenémicos. Los genes blaSHV, blaTEM y blaCTX-M se encontraron en alta frecuencia, y se identificaron los grupos CTX-M-(1, 2 y 9). Se describieron siete sequence types (ST11, ST14, ST17, ST395, ST709, ST855 y ST3827), la mayoría consideradas de alto riesgo. Conclusión: estos hallazgos enfatizan la amenaza potencial de los clones de alto riesgo bien establecidos en una UCI, y resaltan la importancia de monitorear estos clones para prevenir infecciones.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases , Clone Cells , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Drug Resistance , Cross Infection/prevention & control
2.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(3): 143-149, jul.-set. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531883

ABSTRACT

Justification and Objectives: despite the importance of companions/visitors for hospitalized patients under specific precautions, it is noted that risks of exposure and dissemination of microorganisms in health services by this population are still incipient in the literature. Thus, the objective was to characterize the current recommendations on specific precautions for companions and visitors of hospitalized patients and to analyze the barriers to their implementation from infection preventionists' perspective. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory study with a quantitative approach, with 89 infection preventionists, between March and June 2020. Data collected by electronic questionnaire, "snowball" sampling and analyzed according to frequency of responses. Results: hand hygiene was the most recommended recommendation (>95.0%). As for non-conformities, staying in the room without attire (78.6%), going to other rooms (53.9%) and keeping doors open as aerosol precaution (51.7%) stood out. Regarding the strategies adopted to guide companions/visitors, there was a predominance of individual verbal guidance (92.4%). The main barrier cited was the lack of institutional policy (56.2%). Conclusion: there was no uniformity in the recommendations, and non-conformities and barriers were listed. The importance of specific prevention guidelines for this public and effective educational strategies for its implementation are highlighted.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: apesar da importância dos acompanhantes/visitantes para pacientes hospitalizados em precauções específicas, nota-se que os riscos de exposição e disseminação de microrganismos nos serviços de saúde por essa população ainda são incipientes na literatura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se caracterizar as recomendações vigentes sobre precauções específicas para acompanhantes e visitantes de pacientes hospitalizados e analisar as barreiras para a sua implementação sob a ótica de prevencionistas de infecção. Métodos: estudo descritivo e exploratório, de abordagem quantitativa, com 89 prevencionistas de infecção, entre março e junho de 2020. Dados coletados por questionário eletrônico, com amostragem tipo "bola de neve" e analisados segundo frequência das respostas. Resultados: a higienização das mãos foi a recomendação mais indicada (>95,0%). Quanto às não conformidades, destacou-se permanecer no quarto sem paramentação (78,6%), frequentar outros quartos (53,9%) e manter portas abertas em precaução para aerossóis (51,7%). Referente às estratégias adotadas para a orientar os acompanhantes/visitantes, houve predomínio da orientação verbal individual (92,4%). A principal barreira citada foi a falta de política institucional (56,2%). Conclusão: não houve uniformidade nas recomendações, e não conformidades e barreiras foram elencadas. Destaca-se a importância de diretrizes de prevenção específicas para esse público e estratégias educativas efetivas para sua implementação.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: a pesar de la importancia de los acompañantes/visitantes para pacientes hospitalizados bajo precauciones específicas, se advierte que los riesgos de exposición y diseminación de microorganismos en los servicios de salud por parte de esta población son aún incipientes en la literatura. Así, el objetivo fue caracterizar las recomendaciones vigentes sobre precauciones específicas para acompañantes y visitantes de pacientes hospitalizados y analizar las barreras para su implementación desde la perspectiva de los preventivos de infecciones. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y exploratorio con enfoque cuantitativo, con 89 prevencionistas de infecciones, entre marzo y junio de 2020. Datos recolectados por cuestionario electrónico, muestreo "bola de nieve" y analizados según frecuencia de respuestas. Resultados: la higiene de manos fue la recomendación más recomendada (>95,0%). En cuanto a las no conformidades, se destacó permanecer en la habitación sin atuendo (78,6%), ir a otras habitaciones (53,9%) y mantener las puertas abiertas como precaución contra los aerosoles (51,7%). En cuanto a las estrategias adoptadas para orientar a los acompañantes/visitantes, hubo predominio de la orientación verbal individual (92,4%). La principal barrera citada fue la falta de política institucional (56,2%). Conclusión: no hubo uniformidad en las recomendaciones, y se enumeraron las no conformidades y las barreras. Se destaca la importancia de pautas de prevención específicas para este público y estrategias educativas efectivas para su implementación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Visitors to Patients/education , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control , Patients , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Patient Safety
3.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 276-282, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439613

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Mobile phones in hospital settings have been identified as an important source of cross-contamination because of the low frequency with which mobile phones are cleaned by health workers and cyclical contamination of the hands and face. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the mobile phones of the anesthesia team at a teaching hospital are potential reservoirs of nosocomial bacteria. In addition, differences in device sanitization and hand hygiene habits between attending and resident anesthesiologists were correlated with mobile phone colonization. Methods: A prevalence study was conducted over a 6-month period from 2017 to 2018 that involved the collection of samples from the mobile phones of the anesthesiology team and culturing for surveillance. A questionnaire was administered to assess the mobile phone sanitization and hand washing routines of the anesthesia team in specific situations. Results: Bacterial contamination was detected for 86 of the 128 mobile phones examined (67.2%). A greater presence of Micrococcus spp. on devices was correlated with a higher frequency of mobile phone use (p = 0.003) and a lower frequency of sanitization (p = 0.003). The presence of bacteria was increased on the mobile phones of professionals who did not perform handwashing after tracheal intubation (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Hand hygiene and device sanitization habits were more important than the use behavior, as a higher presence of bacteria correlated with poorer hygiene habits. Furthermore, handwashing is the best approach to prevent serious colonization of mobile devices and the possible transmission of pathogens to patients under the care of anesthesiologists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cell Phone , Bacteria , Anesthesiologists , Hospitals, Teaching
4.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(5): 1-9, nov. 23, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435331

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chlorine, ethyl alcohol, and quaternary ammonium are disinfectants with antiviral activity against SARS-Cov2. However, there are no previous reports of their use and handling for cleaning and disinfection in dental offices. Objetive: To determine the use and management of disinfectants in critical and non-critical areas used by dentists in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: A validated cross-sectional survey was applied online to 100 dentists in San Luis Potosí between February and June 2021. Participants were informed about the handling of personal data according to the standard DOF regulations (DOF 07-05-2010). Results: A total of 100 dentists were included in the study, 63% female and 37% male, with a mean age of 26 years. The most widely used disinfectants during the pandemic in critical areas were Lysol® and 0.1% sodium hypochlorite in non-critical areas. Eighty-five percent of dentists know the adverse effects of inappropriate use of disinfectants, 72% did not have any sign or symptom associated with the use of disinfectants. The most used protection barrier was gloves (97%). Sixty-seven per cent of dentists disposed of disinfectant waste down the drain. Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds and/or ethanol are used to clean non-critical and critical areas in dental offices. However, appropriate measures for their management are not adopted. It is necessary to implement educational strategies to improve the use and management of disinfectants in dental practice.


Introducción: Cloro, alcohol etílico y amonio cuaternario son desinfectantes que muestran actividad antiviral contra el SARS-Cov2, sin embargo, no existen reportes previos de su uso y manejo para la limpieza y desinfección en clínicas dentales. Objetivo: Determinar el uso y manejo de los desinfectantes en áreas críticas y no críticas empleados por los odontólogos en San Luis Potosí durante la COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Encuesta transversal validada y aplicada on-line a 100 odontólogos de San Luis Potosí durante febrero-junio 2021. Se informó a los participantes sobre el manejo de datos personales de acuerdo a la norma (DOF 05-07-2010). Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 100 odontólogos, 63% del sexo femenino y 37% del sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 26 años. Los desinfectantes más utilizados durante la pandemia en las áreas críticas fueron el Lysol® y el hipoclorito de sodio al 0.1% en áreas no críticas. El 85% de los odontólogos conocen los efectos adversos del uso inadecuado de los desinfectantes, 72% no tuvieron algún signo o síntoma asociado al uso de desinfectantes. La barrera de protección más utilizada fueron los guantes (97%). El 67% de los odontólogos eliminó los desechos de desinfectantes por la coladera. Conclusión: Para la limpieza de las áreas no críticas y críticas en las clínicas dentales se utilizan el hipoclorito de Sodio y compuestos de amonio cuaternario y/o etanol, sin embargo, no se utilizan las medidas adecuadas para su manejo. Es necesario implementar estrategias educativas para mejorar el uso y manejo de desinfectantes en la práctica dental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Infection Control/methods , Dentists , Disinfectants , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 622-633, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388292

ABSTRACT

Resumen La aparición de la enfermedad por SARS-CoV-2 el año 2020 nos enfrentó a un aumento creciente y exponencial de pacientes con riesgo vital por falla respiratoria catastrófica y multisistémica que deben ser sometidos a ECMO para sobrevivir. Esto ha generado en nuestro país la aparición de Unidades de Tratamiento (ECMO) en hospitales en que antes no se disponía de este recurso o se realizaba como parte de las intervenciones en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), lo que constituye un nuevo desafío a los programas de control y prevención de infecciones de los centros de salud. Dado que al momento de la redacción de este documento no existe normativa nacional específica que se refiera a este tema, se propone un enfoque para prevención, control y vigilancia de infecciones asociadas a atención de salud en pacientes ECMO. Se presenta una revisión de los riesgos específicos a que están expuestos estos pacientes, definiendo qué medidas de prevención se requieren, proponiendo un conjunto de medidas específicas para instalación y mantención, así como orientación respecto de antibioprofilaxis y se sugiere qué eventos infecciosos vigilar.


Abstract The advent of SARS-CoV-2 disease in 2020 confronts us with a growing and exponential increase in patients at life risk due to catastrophic and multisystemic respiratory failure in need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to survive. This has generated in our country the establishment of ECMO treatment Units in hospitals where it was not carried out before or was carried out as part the interventions in Intensive Care Units (ICU), becoming a new challenge to the infection control and prevention programs. Given that at the time of writing this document there are no specific national regulations that refer to this issue, an approach is proposed for the prevention control and surveillance of nosocomial acquired infections in ECMO patients. A review of the specific risks to which these patients are exposed is presented, defining which prevention measures are required, proposing a specific bundle for installation and maintenance, as well as guidance regarding antibioprophylaxis and suggesting which infectious events to monitor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Intensive Care Units
7.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(3): 277-284, 20210930. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368681

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os perfis microbiológicos e de sensibilidade dos anos de 2017 e 2018 das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) neonatal, pediátrica e adulto de um hospital público de Aracaju, Sergipe. Métodos: Mediante a coleta secundária dos dados coletados com a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH). Resultados: Foram observados, neste estudo, alguns mecanismos de resistência, como: Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumonie produtora de b-lactamase de Espectro Estendido (ESBL), Enterobacter spp ESBL, P. aeruginosa ERC e Providencia stuartii ESBL, todas elas isoladas na UTI neonatal. Os antibióticos que demonstraram menores índices de sensibilidade na média geral para os microrganismos isolados foram: gentamicina, ampicilina e amoxicilina+ clavulanato. As drogas que apresentaram maiores índices de sensibilidade foram: colistina, polimixina B, amicacina, ciprofloxacino, imipenem, meropenem, linezolida, cefepima, piperacilina+tazobactam, vancomicina e teicoplanina. Conclusão: Diante disso, é imprescindível a conscientização dos profissionais de saúde juntamente com a comunidade, em relação à adequada prestação de serviços aos pacientes internados e quanto ao uso racional de antimicrobianos e, dessa maneira, contribuir para a redução das taxas de resistência bacteriana.


Objective: This study aimed to analyze the microbiological and sensitivity profiles of the years 2017 and 2018 of the neonatal, pediatric and adult Intensive Care Units (ICU) of a public hospital in Aracaju, Sergipe. Methods: Through the secondary collection of data collected with the Hospital Infection Control Commission (CCIH). Results: Some resistance mechanisms were observed in this study, such as: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumonie producer of Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL), Enterobacter spp ESBL, P. aeruginosa ERC and Providencia stuartii ESBL, all they were isolated in the neonatal ICU. The antibiotics that showed lower levels of sensitivity in the general average for the isolated microorganisms were: gentamicin, ampicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanate. The drugs that showed the highest levels of sensitivity were: colistin, polymyxin B, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, linezolid, cefepime, piperacillin + tazobactam, vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusion: Therefore, it is essential to raise the awareness of health professionals together with the community, regarding the adequate provision of services to hospitalized patients and regarding the rational use of antimicrobials and, in this way, contribute to the reduction of bacterial resistance rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Intensive Care Units , Cross Infection/prevention & control
8.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(106): 85-102, jul 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1348841

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es un grave problema para la salud mundial. Es aún más crítico en los hospitales debido a la aparición de bacterias Gram negativas resistentes a múltiples fármacos, asociadas a una alta mortalidad. Las opciones de tratamiento en estos casos son escasas, en general de alto costo. La alta densidad de consumo de antibióticos y la transmisión cruzada en este entorno amplifican este problema.Hay más evidencia del impacto de las medidas de control de infecciones que de las intervenciones de comités de antimicrobianos para mitigarlo. Además, pocos países cuentan con programas sólidos de control de infecciones para enfrentar este problema. En la presente revisión se propone una serie de 12 pasos a adoptar para mitigar la prevalencia de resistencia antimicrobiana y reducir la incidencia de carbapenemasas en las instituciones de salud. Estas recomendaciones deben interpretase como un ̈bundle ̈o paquete de medidas, en el cual todas son importantes. Aquellas que involucran la prevención de infecciones y/o colonizaciones y su diseminación son las de mayor impacto demostrado hasta ahora. Es esencial que los programas de optimización de uso de antimicrobianos cuenten con el empoderamiento de la conducción de las instituciones donde se lleven a cabo, así como también que estén constituidos por un equipo multidisciplinario eficiente, sólidamente entrenado, con metas y métricas objetivas y auditorias periódicas. También es recomendable que se incluyan recomendaciones para los tratamientos en pacientes en cuidados de fin de vida.


Antimicrobial resistance is a serious global health problem. It is even more critical in hospitals due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria, associated with high mortality. The treatment options in these cases are scarce, generally high cost. The high density of antibiotic consumption and cross-transmission in this environment amplifies this problem.There is more evidence of the impact of Infection Control measures than of Antimicrobial Committee interventions to mitigate it. Furthermore, few countries have solid Infection Control programs to deal with this problem.This review proposes a series of 12 steps to adopt to mitigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and reduce the incidence of carbapenemases in health institutions. These recommendations should be interpreted as a ̈Bundle ̈ or package of measures, in which all are important. Those that involve the prevention of infections and / or colonizations and their dissemination are the ones with the greatest impact demonstrated so far. It is essential that antimicrobial use optimization programs have the empowerment of the leadership of the institutions where they are carried out, as well as that they are constituted by an efficient multidisciplinary team, solidly trained, with objective goals and metrics and periodic audits. It is also recommended that recommendations be included for treatments in patients in end-of-life care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/therapy , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control
10.
Ribeirão Preto; s.n; 2021. 39 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1418764

ABSTRACT

Os cateteres venosos periféricos (CVP) são produtos para saúde (PPS) comumente utilizados em pacientes hospitalizados para administração de fluidos, medicamentos, e monitoramento hemodinâmico. No entanto, podem representar fonte potencial de contaminação microbiana, formação de biofilme e infecção. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar indicadores clínicos e microbiológicos associados ao uso do CVP. Trata-se de um estudo observacional realizado em duas etapas: Etapa I - Seguimento longitudinal prospectivo dos pacientes hospitalizados em uso contínuo de CVP flexível com a caracterização dos pacientes submetidos à cateterização venosa periférica, bem como frequência dos sinais e sintomas de agravos associados ao uso de CVP. Além disso, a Etapa II - Avaliação das condições microbiológicas, incluindo a presença de biofilme em CVP flexíveis dos pacientes hospitalizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), e a associação entre os aspectos clínicos dos pacientes com os microbiológicos em diferentes locais dos CVP flexíveis (superfícies internas e externas). O seguimento longitudinal prospectivo de 67 pacientes hospitalizados em uso contínuo de CVP flexível, bem como a coleta das amostras de CVP flexíveis foram realizados em unidades de internação do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. Antes da avaliação microbiológica, todas as amostras de CVP flexíveis foram examinadas em termos de integridade e aparência (sujidade). A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de qui-quadrado (x2) de Pearson com α=5%. Os 67 pacientes hospitalizados eram de ambos os sexos, média de idade de 55,8 anos, com tempo médio de permanência do CVP flexível de 43,0h. Ainda, em relação aos locais de inserção dos CVP flexíveis, 98,5% estavam em membros superiores: braços (44,7%), mãos (35,8%) e antebraços (17,0%), e destes, 75,0% apresentavam cobertura (curativo adesivo) transparente. Aproximadamente, um em cada quadro pacientes apresentou sinais e sintomas de agravos associados ao uso do CVP flexível. Staphylococcus spp foram os micro-organismos mais prevalente nas amostras. Além disso, não houve associação entre a avaliação clínica e a presença nas superfícies internas e externas de micro-organismo no CVP flexível, respectivamente (x² =1,522; gl=1; p=0,217) e (x²=2,405; gl=1; p=0,121). A MEV evidenciou diferenças morfológicas (textura e espessura) entre as camadas das superfícies internas e externas dos CVP flexíveis, bem como a presença de célula epitelial, matéria orgânica, extensa rede de fibrina com células sanguíneas e bactéria na forma de bastonete. Em conclusão, esta pesquisa permitiu o avanço do conhecimento acerca do uso do CVP flexível e a assistência segura ao paciente, bem como inferir que estes PPS são fonte potencial de contaminação microbiana nas superfícies internas e externas com a formação de biofilme. Entretanto, não houve associação entre os desfechos clínicos e microbiológicos quanto ao uso de CVP flexível


Peripheral venous catheters (PVC) are health products (HP) commonly used in hospitalized patients to administer fluids, medications, and hemodynamic monitoring. However, they can represent a potential source of microbial contamination, biofilm formation and infection. The objective of this research was to evaluate clinical and microbiological indicators associated with the use of PVC. This is an observational study carried out in two stages: Step I - Prospective longitudinal follow-up of hospitalized patients on continuous use of flexible PVC with the characterization of patients undergoing peripheral venous catheterization, as well as the frequency of signs and symptoms of injuries associated with the use of PVC. In addition, Step II - Assessment of microbiological conditions, including the presence of biofilms in flexible PVC from patients hospitalized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the association between the clinical aspects of patients and the microbiological aspects in different locations of flexible PVC (internal and external surfaces). The prospective longitudinal follow-up of 67 hospitalized patients in continuous use of flexible PVC, as well as the collection of flexible PVC samples were performed in inpatient units at Clinical Hospital, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Before the microbiological evaluation, all flexible PVC samples were examined for integrity and appearance (dirt). Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test (x2) with α=5%. The 67 hospitalized patients were of both sexes, with a mean age of 55.8 years, with a mean length of stay of the flexible PVC of 43.0h. Moreover, in relation to the flexible PVC insertion sites, 98.5% were in the upper limbs: arms (44.7%), hands (35.8%) and forearms (17.0%), and of these, 75.0% had a transparent dressing (adhesive bandage). Approximately one in every patient presented signs and symptoms of injuries associated with the use of flexible PVC. Staphylococcus spp. were the most prevalent microorganisms in the samples. In addition, there was no association between clinical evaluation and the presence on the internal and external surfaces of microorganisms in the flexible PVC, respectively (x²=1.522; gl=1; p=0.217) and (x²=2.405; gl=1; p=0.121). SEM showed morphological differences (texture and thickness) between the layers of the internal and external surfaces of flexible PVC, as well as the presence of an epithelial cell, organic matter, extensive fibrin network with blood cells and bacteria in the form of a rod. In conclusion, this research allowed the advancement of knowledge about the use of flexible PVC and safe patient care, as well as inferring that these HP are a potential source of microbial contamination on the internal and external surfaces with the biofilm formation. However, there was no association between clinical and microbiological outcomes regarding the use of flexible PVC


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Biofilms , Catheters/adverse effects , Vascular Access Devices/microbiology , Hand Hygiene
11.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 403-409, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1248115

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Realizar uma busca sistemática na literatura sobre a assistência de enfermagem no desenvolvimento das estratégias para prevenção e controle das infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde nas Unidades Neonatais. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura, que seguiu os procedimentos metodológicos descritos na literatura, a qual utiliza uma metodologia sistemática e explícita para identificar, selecionar e avaliar criticamente as pesquisas já publicadas acerca da temática, entre os anos de 2008 a 2018, nos idiomas português e inglês. Resultados: A amostra final da revisão foi composta por 07 artigos. Os principais resultados encontrados foram classificados em fatores extrínsecos que contribuem e dificultam a redução das infecções relacionadas a assistência à saúde. Conclusão: As infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde que acometem os recém-nascidos em Unidades Neonatais, podem ser prevenidas e controladas através de estratégias simples, relacionadas a medidas administrativas, assistenciais e educativas


Objective: To carry out a systematic search in the literature on nursing care in the development of strategies to prevent and control the Infections Related to Health Care at Neonatal Units. Methods: It is about a systematic literature review using original articles published between 2008 and 2018, in Portuguese and in English, available at BVC. This review covered the following data bases: LILACS, BDENF and MEDLINE. Results: the final sample of the review was composed of seven articles. The studies aimed to cover newborn babies who are in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, nurses and the nursing team. The main results found were classified in extrinsic factors which contribute and make it difficult to reduce IRAS. Conclusion: the infections related to health care, which affected the newborn babies in Neonatal Units, can be prevented and controlled through simple strategies related to administrative, caring and educational measures


Objetivo: Realizar una búsqueda sistemática en la literatura sobre cuidados de enfermería en el desarrollo de estrategias para la prevención y el control de infecciones relacionadas con la salud en unidades neonatales. Métodos: Esta es una revisión sistemática de la literatura, que siguió los procedimientos metodológicos descritos en la literatura, que utiliza una metodología sistemática y explícita para identificar, seleccionar y evaluar críticamente la investigación publicada sobre el tema, desde 2008 hasta 2018, en los idiomas portugués e inglés. Resultados: La muestra de revisión final consistió en 07 artículos. Los principales resultados encontrados se clasificaron en factores extrínsecos que contribuyen y dificultan la reducción de las infecciones relacionadas con la atención médica. Conclusión: Las infecciones relacionadas con la atención médica que afectan a los recién nacidos en las unidades neonatales se pueden prevenir y controlar mediante estrategias simples relacionadas con medidas administrativas, de atención y educativas


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/trends , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/trends , Neonatal Nursing , Disease Prevention , Nursing Care
12.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200312, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289608

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To build and validate a checklist for disinfecting ambulances transporting patients with Covid-19. Method Methodological study composed by the construction of a checklist and validation by 42 professionals, of which 35 professionals had expertise in patient transport/transfer and seven in hospital infection control. The item with a minimum agreement of 80% was considered valid, based on the Content Validation Index and binomial test. Results The checklist had the steps performed for terminal disinfection of ambulances. It had 54 items, which included the personal protective equipment and used materials, disinfection of the driver's cabin, equipment, and the patient care cabin. The minimum agreement obtained was 85% and the mean of the Content Validation Index was 0.96. Conclusion The checklist was considered valid in terms of content and can be used to disinfect ambulances transporting patients with Covid-19.


RESUMEN Objetivo Construir y validar checklist para desinfectar ambulancias que transportan pacientes con Covid-19. Método Un estudio metodológico compuesto por la construcción de un checklist y validación por 42 profesionales, de los cuales 35 profesionales tenían experiencia en transporte/transferencia de pacientes y siete en control de infecciones hospitalarias. El ítem con un acuerdo mínimo del 80% se consideró válido, según el índice de validación de contenido y la prueba binomial. Resultados El checklist tenía los pasos a seguir para la desinfección terminal de ambulancias. Tenía 54 artículos, que incluían el equipo de protección individual y los materiales utilizados, la desinfección de la cabina del conductor, el equipo y la cabina de atención al paciente. El acuerdo mínimo obtenido fue del 85% y el promedio del Índice de Validación de Contenido fue de 0,96. Conclusión El checklist se consideró válido en términos de contenido y puede usarse para desinfectar ambulancias que transportan pacientes con Covid-19.


RESUMO Objetivo Construir e validar checklist para desinfecção de ambulâncias que transportam pacientes com Covid-19. Método Estudo metodológico composto pela construção de checklist e validação por 42 profissionais, dos quais 35 profissionais possuíam expertise em transporte/transferência de pacientes e sete em controle de infecção hospitalar. Foi considerado válido o item com concordância mínima de 80%, a partir do Índice de Validação de Conteúdo e teste binomial. Resultados O checklist possuiu as etapas que devem ser realizadas para desinfecção terminal das ambulâncias. Possuiu 54 itens, que contemplaram os equipamentos de proteção individual e materiais utilizados, desinfecção da cabine do condutor, dos equipamentos e da cabine de atendimento ao paciente. A concordância mínima obtida foi de 85% e a média do Índice de Validação de Conteúdo foi de 0,96. Conclusão O checklist foi considerado válido quanto ao conteúdo e pode ser utilizado para desinfecção das ambulâncias que transportam pacientes com Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disinfection/standards , Ambulances/standards , Transportation of Patients/standards , Checklist/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment
13.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3407, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289783

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze, in the clinical practice of large hospitals, how the adoption of measures to prevent and control the spread of bacterial resistance has occurred, and to propose a score for the institutions' adherence. Method: a cross-sectional study carried out in 30 large hospitals of Minas Gerais, from February 2018 to April 2019, after approval by the Ethics and Research Committee. Interviews were conducted with hospital managers, with Hospital Infection Control Services coordinators, and with the care coordinators of the Inpatient Units and Intensive Care Center. In addition, observations were made of the adoption of preventive measures by the multidisciplinary team in the care units. Results: in the 30 participating hospitals, 93.3% (N=28) had protocols for prophylactic antibiotics, and 86.7% (N=26) performed their audit, 86.7% (N=26) for therapeutic antibiotics and 83.3% (N=25) their audit; 93.3% (N=56) used gloves and cloaks for patients in contact precautions, and 78.3% (N=47) of the professionals were unaware of or answered incompletely on the five moments for hand hygiene. In the score to identify the adoption of measures to control bacterial resistance, 83.3% (N=25) of the hospitals were classified as partially compliant, 13.3% (N=04) as deficient, and 3.4% (N=01) as non-adoption. Conclusion: it was found that the recommended measures to contain bacterial resistance are not consolidated in the clinical practice of the hospitals.


Objetivo: analisar, na prática clínica dos hospitais de grande porte como tem ocorrido a adoção das medidas de prevenção e controle da disseminação da resistência bacteriana e propor um escore de adesão das instituições. Método: estudo transversal realizado em 30 hospitais de grande porte de Minas Gerais, no período de fevereiro de 2018 a abril de 2019, após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Realizaram-se entrevistas com os gestores dos hospitais, com os coordenadores dos Serviços de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar e com os coordenadores assistenciais das Unidades de Internação e Centro de Terapia Intensiva. Além disso, conduziram-se observações da adoção das medidas de prevenção pela equipe multiprofissional nas unidades assistenciais. Resultados: nos 30 hospitais participantes, 93,3% (N=28) apresentaram protocolos para antibióticos profiláticos, e 86,7% (N=26) realizavam sua auditoria, 86,7% (N=26) para antibióticos terapêuticos e 83,3% (N=25) sua auditoria; 93,3% (N=56) utilizavam luvas e capotes para pacientes em precaução de contato, e 78,3% (N=47) dos profissionais desconheciam ou responderam de forma incompleta sobre os cinco momentos para higienização das mãos. No escore para identificar a adoção das medidas de controle da resistência bacteriana, 83,3% (N=25) dos hospitais foram classificados como com adesão parcial, 13,3% (N=04) com adesão deficiente e 3,4% (N=01) como não adoção. Conclusão: constatou-se que as medidas recomendadas para contenção da resistência bacteriana não estão consolidadas na prática clínica dos hospitais.


Objetivo: analizar, en la práctica clínica de los hospitales de gran porte, cómo se ha producido la adopción de medidas preventivas y de control de la propagación de resistencias bacterianas y proponer un puntaje de adhesión de las instituciones. Método: estudio transversal realizado en 30 hospitales de gran porte de Minas Gerais, de febrero de 2018 a abril de 2019, previa aprobación del Comité de Ética e Investigación. Se realizaron entrevistas con los administradores de los hospitales, con los coordinadores de los Servicios de Control de Infección Hospitalaria y con los coordinadores de atención de las Unidades de Internación y del Centro de Cuidados Intensivos. Además, se hicieron observaciones sobre la adopción de medidas preventivas por parte del equipo multidisciplinario en las unidades de atención. Resultados: en los 30 hospitales participantes, el 93,3% (N=28) presentaban protocolos de antibióticos profilácticos, y el 86,7% (N=26) realizaron su auditoría, el 86,7% (N=26) de antibióticos terapéuticos y el 83,3% (N=25) realizaron su auditoría; El 93,3% (N=56) utilizó guantes y batas para los pacientes en precaución de contacto, y el 78,3% (N=47) de los profesionales desconocía o respondía de forma incompleta sobre los cinco momentos de higiene de manos. En el puntaje para identificar la adopción de medidas para el control de la resistencia bacteriana, el 83,3% (N=25) de los hospitales se clasificaron como con adhesión parcial, el 13,3% (N=04) con adhesión deficiente y el 3,4% (N=01) como sin adopción. Conclusión: se descubrió que las medidas recomendadas para contener la resistencia bacteriana no están consolidadas en la práctica clínica de los hospitales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infection Control , Guideline Adherence , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Patient Safety , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals
14.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 481-488, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134524

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el Coronavirus 2 del Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave (SARS-CoV-2). La mayoría de los pacientes infectados con SARS-CoV-2 tiene una evolución asintomática o leve. Sin embargo, una parte de los infectados presentará un deterioro en su condición de salud, desarrollando una neumonía aguda grave, que puede producir la muerte. Las personas vinculadas a las clínicas odontológicas están en riesgo de infección por SARS-CoV-2, pues la saliva es un importante método de transmisión del virus. Por su naturaleza, la atención odontológica se realiza a corta distancia del paciente, con constante exposición a saliva, sangre y otros fluidos corporales, y es frecuente el manejo de instrumentos cortopunzantes. Por consiguiente, los elementos de protección personal cobran gran importancia y las reglamentaciones de la autoridad sanitaria en el contexto de la pandemia que actualmente se vive deben cumplirse a cabalidad, debido a obligaciones éticas y legales. En esta revisión narrativa se revisa y discute la reglamentación de la autoridad sanitaria que involucra las prestaciones odontológicas en el contexto del COVID-19, cómo se aplicará en las clínicas universitarias y cómo complementar la normativa con la evidencia científica disponible.


ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by Coronavirus 2 of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). The majority of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have an asymptomatic or mild evolution. However, a part of those infected will present a deterioration in their health condition, developing severe acute pneumonia, which can lead to death. People linked to dental clinics are at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, since saliva is an important method of transmission of the virus. Due to its nature, dental care is performed at a short distance from the patient, with constant exposure to saliva, blood and other body fluids, and the use of sharp instruments is frequent. Consequently, the elements of personal protection are very important and the regulations of the health authority in the context of the current pandemic must be fully complied with, due to ethical and legalobligations. This narrative review reviews and discusses the regulation of the health authority that involves dental services in the context of COVID-19, how it will be applied in university clinics and how to complement the regulations with the available scientific evidence.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Dental Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Dental Care/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dentistry/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Students, Dental , Universities/standards , Chile , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Dentists , Legislation as Topic
15.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 17(2): 8-16, jul.-dic. 2020. graf., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1291849

ABSTRACT

Las medidas de asepsia y antisepsia, son procedimientos efectivos de bajo costo en la prevención de infecciones intrahospitalarias; prácticas inadecuadas del personal constituyen un problema de salud pública. Objetivo: determinar el nivel de conocimiento y práctica en asepsia y antisepsia en personal de Sala de Operaciones, Bloque Materno Infantil, Hospital Escuela Universitario. Material y Métodos: estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal; universo 82 personas, muestra 38 sujetos; se aplicó instrumento de observación y entrevista estructurada. Resultados: 26(68%) femenino, 12(32%) masculino, edad promedio 38 años; 16(42%) personas obtuvieron débil conocimiento, 3(8%) muy buen conocimiento; conocimiento promedio (64%), puntaje mínimo (13%), máximo (93%). Práctica lavado de manos; calificación excelente 28(74%), 6(16%) no se lavaron las manos, 21(55%) al ingresar al área quirúrgica y 11(29%) entre procedimientos. 17(45%) realizaron buen uso de indumentaria quirúrgica, 23(92%) realizaron excelente lavado quirúrgico, 13(93%) instrumentistas excelente colocación de bata estéril. 19(76%) realizaron excelente manejo de asepsia y antisepsia durante transquirúrgico. 14(100%) circulantes realizaron excelente práctica postquirúrgica. Se comparó conocimiento contra práctica, excelente práctica de lavado de manos 10(26%), pero escaso conocimientos y buena práctica de indumentaria quirúrgica, 2(5%) muy buen conocimiento, pero práctica regular en uso de indumentaria quirúrgica (p ≤ 0.001). 3(12%) con conocimiento débil, realizó práctica excelente en transquirúrgico. 2(14%) obtuvieron 100% en práctica posquirúrgica (p ≤ 0.001). Se encontró factor protector 60% y 40% factor de riesgo durante la práctica transoperatoria, IC 95%, RR: 0.4 (-0.3, 0.5) y RR: 0.6 (- 05, 0.8). Conclusión: hubo diferencias entre categorías de profesionales afectando el nivel de conocimiento y práctica de la técnica aséptica, factor de riesgo 40%. Se encontró que los que no tienen conocimiento y no practican las técnicas de asepsia, tienen 2.9 veces más probabilidad de riesgo, en relación al grupo que tiene conocimiento y realiza medidas de asepsia en el transoperatorio...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Antisepsis , Asepsis , Operating Room Nursing/education , Cross Infection/prevention & control
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(5): 373-379, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142559

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Infection control interventions can be erroneously interpreted if outcomes are assessed in short periods. Also, statistical methods usually applied to compare outcomes before and after interventions are not appropriate for analyzing time series. Aims To analyze the impact of a bundle directed at reducing the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and other device-associated infections in two medical-surgical intensive care units (ICU) in Brazil. Methods Our study had a quasi-experimental design. Interrupted time series analyses (ITS) was performed assessing monthly rates of overall healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), VAP, laboratory-confirmed central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), from January 2007 through June 2019. Moreover, multivariate ITS was adjusted for seasonality in Poisson regression models. An intervention based on a bundle for VAP prevention was introduced in August 2010. Findings The intervention was followed by sustained reduction in overall HCAI, VAP and CLABSI in both ICU. Continuous post-intervention trends towards reduction were detected for overall HCAI and VAP. Conclusion Interventions aimed at preventing one specific site of infection may have sustained impact on other HCAI, which can be documented using time series analyses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Catheter-Related Infections , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control , Critical Care , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units
17.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(3): e612, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138925

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones asociadas a los cuidados sanitarios en los servicios de atención al paciente crítico se asocian a un alto riesgo de muerte y costos significativos. Objetivo: Identificar los gérmenes más frecuentes en los cultivos y su resistencia a los antimicrobianos en la terapia intensiva del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Provincial Dr. Joaquín Albarrán. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, en la terapia intensiva del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Provincial Dr. Joaquín Albarrán, de enero del 2015 a diciembre del 2018, el universo estuvo constituido por 1847 cultivos realizados seleccionándose 654 en los que se obtuvo crecimiento; para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el SPSS 22.0. Resultados: De los gérmenes aislados, la Klebsiella spp fue la más frecuente (31 por ciento), seguida del Staphylococcus spp (24,5 por ciento) y de la E. coli (9,8 por ciento). En los esputos se mantuvo la Klebsiella spp (45,1 por ciento), en los hemocultivos el Staphylococcus spp (53,6 por ciento) y en los urocultivos la Candida (41,1 por ciento), seguida de la E. coli (27 por ciento). De los antimicrobianos usados en terapia para tratar la Klebsiella spp, la E. coli, el Acinetobacter y la pseudomona spp, el más recomendado es la colistina (0-25 por ciento de resistencia) y para el Staphylococcus spp, la vancomicina (1,8 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los gérmenes Gram negativos siguen siendo los más frecuentemente aislados en los cultivos de los pacientes hospitalizados en terapia, con un alto nivel de resistencia para la mayoría de los antibióticos(AU)


Introduction: Infections related to critical care settings are associated to high death risk and significant costs. Objective: Identify the germs most commonly found in cultures and their resistance to antimicrobials in the intensive care service of Dr. Joaquín Albarrán Provincial Clinical Surgical Hospital. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the intensive care service of Dr. Joaquín Albarrán Provincial Clinical Surgical Hospital from January 2015 to December 2018. The study universe was 1 847 cultures, from which 654 were selected in which growth was obtained. Data were processed with the statistical software SPPS 22.0. Results: Of the germs isolated, Klebsiella spp. were the most common (31 percent, followed by Staphylococcus spp. (24.5 percent) and E. coli (9.8 percent). Klebsiella spp. were frequent in sputum cultures (45.1 percent), Staphylococcus spp. in blood cultures (53.6 percent) and Candida in urine cultures (41.1 percent), followed by E. coli (27 percent). Among the antimicrobials used to treat Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas spp., the most recommended is colistin (0-25 percent resistance) and vancomycin for Staphylococcus spp. (1.8 percent). Conclusions: Gram-negative germs continue to be the most commonly isolated in cultures from intensive care patients, with a high level of resistance to most antibiotics(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Klebsiella Infections/prevention & control , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Colistin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 415-419, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137852

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is estimated that around 28 million surgeries will be postponed or canceled worldwide as a result of this pandemic, causing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of more than 2 million cancer cases. In Brazil, both the National Health Agency (ANS) and National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) advised the postponement of elective and non-essential surgeries, causing a considerable impact on the number of surgical procedures that decreased by 33.4% in this period. However, some women need treatment for various gynecological diseases that cannot be postponed. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations on surgical treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Resumo Estima-se que cerca de 28 milhões de cirurgias sejam postergadas ou canceladas nomundo em decorrência desta pandemia, causando atraso no diagnóstico e tratamento de mais de 2 milhões de casos oncológicos. No Brasil, tanto a ANS (Agencia Nacional de Saúde) comoa ANVISA (Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária) orientaram o adiamento das cirurgias eletivas e não essenciais, tendo um impacto considerável no número de procedimentos cirúrgicos comdiminuição de 33,4% neste período no Brasil.No entanto, algumasmulheres necessitam de tratamento para várias doenças ginecológicas, algumas das quais não podem ser adiadas. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar recomendações sobre o tratamento cirúrgico durante a pandemia de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Patient Care Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(supl.1): 113-119, July 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134275

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A new outbreak of respiratory infection caused by the novel coronavirus in late December 2019 in China caused standards of medical care to change not only for related areas but for the entire healthcare system, and when the WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic new strategies of patient care had to be defined initially to optimize resources to confront the pandemic and then to protect healthcare personnel. As urologists, we must be involved in these new standards, since without an effective vaccine the risk of contagion is high; thus, the purpose of this review is to have orientation on the measures urologists should take in their everyday clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Urologists/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
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